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Sample records for bradley fighting vehicle

  1. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, G. J.; Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  2. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  3. Optimization of armored fighting vehicle crew performance in a net-centric battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, William P.; Espenant, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Traditional display, control and situational awareness technologies may not allow the fighting vehicle commander to take full advantage of the rich data environment made available in the net-centric battle field of the future. Indeed, the sheer complexity and volume of available data, if not properly managed, may actually reduce crew performance by overloading or confusing the commander with irrelevant information. New techniques must be explored to understand how to present battlefield information and provide the commander with continuous high quality situational awareness without significant cognitive overhead. Control of the vehicle's many complex systems must also be addressed the entire Soldier Machine Interface must be optimized if we are to realize the potential performance improvements. Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and General Dynamics Canada Ltd. have embarked on a joint program called Future Armoured Fighting Vehicle Systems Technology Demonstrator, to explore these issues. The project is based on man-in-the-loop experimentation using virtual reality technology on a six degree-of-freedom motion platform that simulates the motion, sights and sounds inside a future armoured vehicle. The vehicle commander is provided with a virtual reality vision system to view a simulated 360 degree multi-spectrum representation of the battlespace, thus providing enhanced situational awareness. Graphic overlays with decision aid information will be added to reduce cognitive loading. Experiments will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual control systems. The simulations are carried out in a virtual battlefield created by linking our simulation system with other simulation centers to provide a net-centric battlespace where enemy forces can be engaged in fire fights. Survivability and lethality will be measured in successive test sequences using real armoured fighting vehicle crews to optimize overall system effectiveness.

  4. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  5. Western Maps/Yanyuwa Meaning: An Interview with John Bradley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin-Glass, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003 an important one-volume text, "Forget about Flinders: A Yanyuwa atlas of the south west gulf of Carpentaria" (Yanyuwa Families, Bradley & Cameron, 2003) produced in a limited edition of 14 copies, returned to Yanyuwa country and to the families who collaborated with John Bradley and artist Nona Cameron on the project. Subsequently, a…

  6. Driving Miss Bradley: performance measurement to support thermal driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccione, Dino; Ferrett, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    The Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) program is providing a system to enlarge the driving envelope for the community of military wheeled and tracked vehicles. The DVE, an IR device, provides the driver with images of the forward scene under night and adverse day conditions. During the DVE development program, several questions emerged requiring performance-based data to resolve. A comprehensive program to provide the Project Manager, Night Vision/Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition with driver performance data that will aid in the decision-making process is described in this paper. The program involves several linked efforts including: the relative merits of the DVE and night vision goggles (NVG); drivers' ability to detect the presence of drop-offs when using the DVE and NVG; the effect on performance of various levels of nonuniformity and nonresponsiveness in the display/sensor system; the analysis of drivers' vision using an eye-tracker in a vehicle; and the evaluation of candidate symbology to enhance the DVE's utility in the M2 Bradley. The data collected will aid in making decisions on how to write a system specification to reduce cost without sacrificing driver performance, gain an understanding of how drivers use the DVE in operational settings, and determine where training is needed to enhance safety and reduce risk on the battlefield.

  7. Student Skills and the Bradley Agenda in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jennifer; Dearlove, Joanne; Marland, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the study strategies that first-year Australian university students bring with them to university. The research has currency due to the implementation of the Review of Australian higher education [Bradley, D., Noonan, P., Nugent, H., & Scales, B. (2008). "Review of Australian higher education: Final report".…

  8. The Bradley Review and Access to Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birrell, Bob; Edwards, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The "Review of Higher Education in Australia" (the Bradley Review) has recommended a massive expansion in the level of domestic training in Australian universities. This article examines the Report's rationale for rejecting the previous orthodoxy that there is no need for such expansion and, to the extent that there is, it would be better focussed…

  9. Fighting Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a fight at Guilford College engaging athletes and students and the continued argument about what to call the incident. In their appeals for patience, officials have cited the college's Quaker traditions, including the "testimony of integrity," which is associated with honesty, fairness, and the search for truth. This…

  10. Fighting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free Speech Zones on Campus"…

  11. Bradley and Lacaille: Praxis as Passionate Pursuit of Exact Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A.

    1997-12-01

    From 1700 to 1800, astronomical observation and prediction improved in accuracy by an order of magnitude or more: by century's end astronomers could trust catalogued and predicted positions to within a few arcseconds. Crucial to this improvement were the discoveries of Bradley, which grew out of an endeavor of "normal science," the attempt to confirm with precision Robert Hooke's earlier supposed discovery of annual parallax in Gamma Draconis. On the theoretical side, Bradley's discoveries led to the quiet demise of two earlier doctrines, the Tychonic System and the Aristotelian and Cartesian doctrine of the instantaneous transmission of light. On the side of praxis, Bradley's discoveries meant that observational astronomy must be re-done from the ground up. In 1742 Nicolas-Louis Lacaille (1713-62), who had been admitted to the Paris Academie des Sciences only the year before, proposed to his astronomer colleagues that they take up this task as a cooperative enterprise. His proposal met with silence, but he undertook the project on his own, making it his life's work. By 1757 he had completed his Fundamenta Astronomiae, including a catalogue of 400 bright stars in which for the first time star positions were corrected for aberration and nutation. In 1758 he published his solar tables, the first to incorporate lunar and planetary perturbations as well as aberration and nutation. Lacaille's pendulum clock was not temperature-compensated, and his sextant poorly calibrated, but he was to some extent able to compensate for these flaws by bringing a massive number of observations to bear. Till the 1790s his Fundamenta Astronomiae and Tabulae Solares were important for the increments in accuracy they brought about, and for the inspiration they gave to later astronomers such as Delambre.

  12. Diatom data from Bradley Lake, Oregon: downcore analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Lewis, Roger C.

    2003-01-01

    Displaced marine diatoms provide biostratigraphic evidence for tsunami inundation at Bradley Lake, a small freshwater lake on the south-central Oregon coast. During the past 7,200 years, fine-grained lacustrine deposits in the deep axis of the lake were disturbed 17 times by the erosion and emplacement of coarse-grained gyttja and, in some cases, sand. By identifying diatoms in closely spaced core samples, we determined that 13 of the 17 events (termed idisturbance eventsi) record prehistoric tsunamis in Bradley Lake. We consider the evidence strong for 11 events, based on numbers and diversity of marine taxa: De1, De2, De4, De5, De6, De7, De8, De11, De12, De13, and De17. The evidence is less compelling for an additional 2 events (De9 and De10), although tsunami inundation is likely. Finally, we identified 4 events (De3, De14, De15 and De16) in which there were no marine diatoms to support tsunami inundation, although stratigraphic data shows that the lake bottom was disturbed. Freshwater diatoms dominate throughout the Bradley Lake record, showing that the lake has remained a freshwater habitat throughout its existence. However, anomalous occurrences of three species of brackish diatoms (Thalassiosira bramaputrae, Cyclotella meneghiniana, and Mastogloia smithii) may be evidence for short-lived periods of slightly elevated salinities in the lake following De16, De13, De12, De11, De9, De8, and De5. With the exception of De12, increased abundances of one or more of the brackish species is coincident with decreased numbers of freshwater diatoms. A temporary rise in salinity, as evidenced by short-lived increases in abundances of brackish species and decreases in abundances of freshwater species, is consistent with tsunami inundation into the lake.

  13. Thermal signature characteristics of vehicle/terrain interaction disturbances: implications for battlefield vehicle classification.

    PubMed

    Eastes, John W; Mason, George L; Kusinger, Alan E

    2004-05-01

    Thermal emissivity spectra (8-14 microm) of track impressions/background were determined in conjunction with operation of six military vehicle types, T-72 and M1 Tanks, an M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, a 5-ton truck, a D7 tractor, and a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), over diverse soil surfaces to determine if vehicle type could be related to track thermal signatures. Results suggest soil compaction and fragmentation/pulverization are primary parameters affecting track signatures and that soil and vehicle/terrain-contact type determine which parameter dominates. Steel-tracked vehicles exert relatively low ground-contact pressure but tend to fragment/pulverize soil more so than do rubber-tired vehicles, which tend mainly to compact. In quartz-rich, lean clay soil tracked vehicles produced impressions with spectral contrast of the quartz reststrahlen features decreased from that of the background. At the same time, 5-ton truck tracks exhibited increased contrast on the same surface, suggesting that steel tracks fragmented soil while rubber tires mainly produced compaction. The structure of materials such as sand and moist clay-rich river sediment makes them less subject to further fragmentation/pulverization; thus, compaction was the main factor affecting signatures in these media, and both tracked and wheeled vehicles created impressions with increased spectral contrast on these surfaces. These results suggest that remotely sensed thermal signatures could differentiate tracked and wheeled vehicles on terrain in many areas of the world of strategic interest. Significant applications include distinguishing visually/spectrally identical lightweight decoys from actual threat vehicles. PMID:15165325

  14. Some Thoughts on Censorship and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn: An Interview with David Bradley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mark I.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an interview with David Bradley, professor of English at Temple University (PA), who defends the teaching of Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn" to black students despite recent moves to remove the book from some public school libraries because it is deemed offensive. Bradley provides recommendations for teaching "Huckleberry Finn" and…

  15. 78 FR 56745 - Bradley D. Bastow, D. O., South Haven, Michigan; Confirmatory Order Modifying License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION [Docket No. 030-35710; License No. 21-32316-01; EA-13-025; NRC-2013- 0208] Bradley D. Bastow, D. O., South Haven, Michigan; Confirmatory Order Modifying License I Bradley D. Bastow, D. O., (Dr. Bastow...

  16. Foxboro, Bradley gear combined at Maxwell House plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maggs, J.

    1986-02-03

    In what is described as an unusual installation, industrial process control equipment from the Foxboro Co., Foxboro, Mass., and Allen Bradley Co., Milwaukee, was combined at General Foods' Maxwell House plant in Houston, and is working together with a Hewlett-Packard 1000 computer to improve product quality and cut energy costs, according to Kevin McCormick, decaffeination business manager. As a result, the process controls are expected to reduce energy costs at the facility by 5 to 10%, he said. Four Foxboro model 300 systems were installed to provide monitoring and analog control of four processes - coffee bean decaffeination, instant coffee preparation, Minute Rice preparation, and separate Foxboro system to control the plant's two boilers, which are fired with natural gas and with waste coffee grounds.

  17. Fighting Fair for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Fran; Friedman, Alice

    This document offers families the tools for handling conflict. Conflict is a normal and unavoidable part of life. We cannot avoid conflict, but we can learn to "fight fair," attacking the problem and not the person. Weapons that attack people and not problems are listed as fouls, destructive habits that can be changed. Fighting fair involves: (1)…

  18. The Fighting Mynahs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story from Hawaii about how it is better to share and cooperate than to squabble and fight. The story is about two large mynah birds fighting for a ripe mango hanging from a tree. In the midst of their battle, a mother and father sparrow pecked small pieces from the mango to feed their large hungry family. Flying back and…

  19. Fighting Spam And Winning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBose, Cornelius B.

    2004-01-01

    E-mail has become a significant means of communication between teachers, students, parents and administrators in many school systems. The increasing amount of SPAM e-mail threatens to overload school email systems. The experience of Lake Forest, IL School District #67 in fighting e-mail spam is described. Spam basics, spam fighting tools, and…

  20. Accounting for Individual Differences in Bradley-Terry Models by Means of Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, Florian; Zeileis, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The preference scaling of a group of subjects may not be homogeneous, but different groups of subjects with certain characteristics may show different preference scalings, each of which can be derived from paired comparisons by means of the Bradley-Terry model. Usually, either different models are fit in predefined subsets of the sample or the…

  1. Measuring aerosols generated inside armoured vehicles perforated by depleted uranium ammunition.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, M A

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), the US Department of Defense initiated a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects on soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterised. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and monitor continuously the sampler flow rates. The aerosol samplers selected for these tests included filter cassettes, cascade impactors, a five-stage cyclone and a moving filter. Sampler redundancy was an integral part of the sampling system to offset losses from fragment damage. Wipe surveys and deposition trays collected removable deposited particulate matter. Interior aerosols were analysed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analysed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology and dissolution in vitro. These data, currently under independent peer review, will provide input for future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of inhaled or ingested DU aerosols. This paper briefly discusses the target vehicles, firing trajectories, aerosol samplers and instrumentation control systems, and the types of analyses conducted on the samples. PMID:14526950

  2. An estimation of generalized bradley-terry models based on the em algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yu; Hino, Hideitsu; Murata, Noboru

    2011-06-01

    The Bradley-Terry model is a statistical representation for one's preference or ranking data by using pairwise comparison results of items. For estimation of the model, several methods based on the sum of weighted Kullback-Leibler divergences have been proposed from various contexts. The purpose of this letter is to interpret an estimation mechanism of the Bradley-Terry model from the viewpoint of flatness, a fundamental notion used in information geometry. Based on this point of view, a new estimation method is proposed on a framework of the em algorithm. The proposed method is different in its objective function from that of conventional methods, especially in treating unobserved comparisons, and it is consistently interpreted in a probability simplex. An estimation method with weight adaptation is also proposed from a viewpoint of the sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method works appropriately, and weight adaptation improves accuracy of the estimate. PMID:21395441

  3. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boston VisionWalk Kick Off 8th Annual Central Ohio Golf For Sight Golf Classic San Antonio/Austin Chapter Speaker Series Presentations ... Foundation Fighting Blindness’ 2015 Annual Report. Read More Learn more about the latest retinal research news and ...

  4. Fast fight detection.

    PubMed

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  5. Fast Fight Detection

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  6. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weick, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  7. Effect of ice formation and streamflow on salmon incubation habitat in the lower Bradley River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A minimum flow of 40 cubic feet per second is required in the lower Bradley River, near Homer, Alaska, from November 2 to April 30 to ensure adequate salmon egg incubation habitat. The study that determined this minimum flow did not account for the effects of ice formation on habitat. An investigation was made during periods of ice formation. Hydraulic properties and field water-quality data were measured in winter only from March 1993 to April 1995 at six transects in the lower Bradley River. Discharge in the lower Bradley River ranged from 42.6 to 73.0 cubic feet per second (average 57 cubic feet per second) with ice conditions ranging from near ice free to 100 percent ice cover. Stream water velocity and depth were adequate for habitat protection for all ice conditions and discharges. No relation was found between percent ice cover and mean velocity and depth for any given discharge and no trends were found with changes in discharge for a given ice condition. Velocity distribution within each transect varied significantly from one sampling period to the next. Mean depth and velocity at flows of 40 cubic feet per second or less could not be predicted. No consistent relation was found between the amount of wetted perimeter and percent ice cover. Intragravel-water temperature was slightly warmer than surface-water temperature. Surface and intragravel-water dissolved-oxygen levels were adequate for all flows and ice conditions. No apparent relation was found between dissolved-oxygen levels and streamflow or ice conditions. Excellent oxygen exchange was indicated throughout the study reach. Stranding potential of salmon fry was found to be low throughout the study reach. The limiting factors for determining the minimal acceptable flow limit appear to be stream-water velocity and depth, although specific limits could not be estimated because of the high flows that occurred during this study.

  8. STS-40 MS Seddon pauses during fire fighting training at JSC's Fire Pit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) M. Rhea Seddon, smiling, pauses during fire fighting training exercises conducted at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  9. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar takes a break during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Bondar is representing Canada on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  10. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar prepares to use fire extinguisher during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Bondar is representing Canada on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  11. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold sprays a fire extinguisher at the base of a fire during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Merbold is representing the European Space Agency (ESA) on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  12. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, backup Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch (left) and Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar discuss procedures prior to fire fighting and fire training exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Bondar is representing Canada during the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  13. Reflections on "Brown" to Understand "Milliken v. Bradley": What if We Are Focusing on the Wrong Policy Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Delale-O'Connor, Lori A.; Murray, Ira E.; Farinde, Abiola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research on "Milliken v. Bradley" focuses on the failure of this case to implement interdistrict busing in the highly segregated Detroit schools. Much of this work focuses explicitly on desegregation, rather than on equity and addressing individual, systemic, institutional, and organizational challenges that may…

  14. The Shaping of Policy: Exploring the Context, Contradictions, and Contours of Privilege in "Milliken v. Bradley," over 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.; Gooden, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: "Milliken v. Bradley" (1974) ("Milliken I") is a pivotal Supreme Court case that halted a metropolitan school desegregation remedy between Detroit and 53 surrounding suburban school districts. In a 5-4 Supreme Court decision, the "Milliken" ruling was a significant retraction from the landmark…

  15. Teaching Family Communication Concepts through Family Stories: An Analysis of Stories and Rituals in David Bradley's "Harvest Home"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Marcia D.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, students will be able to apply the concepts of stories and rituals to an analysis of the ritual in the short story "Harvest Home" by David Bradley, gaining understanding of how stories and rituals affect and reflect family values, power structures and identities. "Harvest Home" talks about the rituals involved in a…

  16. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold (far left), fire fighting trainer (center), Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar (holding hose nozzle), and backup Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch position water hoses in the direction of a blazing fire in JSC's Fire Training Pit. The crewmembers and backup are learning fire extinguishing techniques during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Merbold is representing the European Space Agency (ESA) and Bondar is representing Canada during the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  17. Millennium hopes. Fighting taboos.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, I

    1999-01-01

    The author's first wish is for International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to be tenacious in its continuous, unstinting support of family planning in its original sense. Secondly, the author would like to see wider recognition of the urgency with which IPPF must move into the sexual and reproductive health arena, including fighting for the rights of women, men and young people in the many areas of the world still suffering from societal taboos. Thirdly, the author wants IPPF to be visionary in recognizing that young people, women and men need supportive social and economic environments to help them plan and space the children that they would like to have. Current educational and economic requirements and circumstances have become very child unfriendly, as the low birth-rate countries illustrate. Finally, the author hopes to see a much better understanding of intergenerational communication and support as IPPF steps up its efforts to support society in its sexual and reproductive needs. PMID:12295545

  18. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  19. Hotol fights for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, Alan

    1989-03-01

    It is projected that if aerospace industry interests outside of Britain fail to assume a financial and developmental role in the unmanned, airbreathing propulsion-incorporating, horizontal takeoff and landing of 'Hotol' transatmospheric vehicle for satellite launching into LEO, the entire enterprise may collapse. Hotol is an attempt to achieve launch costs only one-fifth those incurred by NASA Space Shuttle flights. Virtually all details of the Hotol powerplant and its operational cycle are secret, but it is readily understood that the use of an airbreathing, LOX-fueled phase in flight yields a weight-saving so great as to drastically reduce costs relative to nonair-breathing propulsion launch vehicles.

  20. [Fight against schizophrenia stigma].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2001-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and prejudice against mental diseases, those who suffer from them and their families are common everywhere. To reduce stigma in schizophrenia is essential for a better outcome of the disease in each patient. Stigma interferes with the detection of the illness, with adherence to treatment, with rehabilitation and with social reinsertion. Stigma is everywhere in schizophrenia, from within the family itself to the health care system and into society at large. The WPA has developed a Program to fight the stigma of schizophrenia consisting on several modules: 1) Instructions on how to implement a campaign. 2) A monograph in schizophrenia. 3) A summary of the experiences in the sites where the program has been tested. 4) Further modules which include information on similar campaigns and material such as leaflets, books and videos and concrete examples of discrimination. A pilot study of the WPA Program was carried out in Madrid in 1999. A survey was undertaken to identify target population and specific messages, showing little knowledge about the disease and a small stigma amount. It was decided not to carry out an awareness campaign in the population, which has the risk of increasing stigma in parallel to being increased in awareness but to explore the amount of stigma in the environment closer to the patient such as patients themselves, relatives, neighbours and health services staff. The stigma degree was much more significant. Activities related to this group of people were undertaken specially by training psychiatrists to identify stigma and discrimination and to fight it. The outcome showed a great satisfaction among patients, relatives and physicians. A pilot media campaign was also undertaken. In previous years there was no information about schizophrenia in mass media only news on incidental problems of patients with schizophrenia. After the campaign news on the disease itself appeared in mass media. The Madrid experience shows that the

  1. Flight and fight

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for ‘fight or flight’, possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABA-B-R1). PMID:17379239

  2. Lee C. Bradley III (Phillips Exeter Class of 1943): Physicist, Officer, and Gentleman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    2004-03-01

    Lee Carrington Bradley's career as a physicist began as an accomplished student at Phillips Exeter Academy, where he was influenced by Professor John C. Hogg, chairman of the Science Department. He graduated in 1943 and entered the V-12 program for naval officers and completed his undergraduate degree in physics at Princeton University. After a brief tour as a Navy Ensign he joined the first group of American Rhodes Scholars to attend Oxford University, in 1947, following the conclusion of World War II. Under the guidance of H.G. Kuhn of Clarendon Laboratory, Lee completed his Ph.D. in physics in 1950. He then accepted an instructorship in physics at Princeton until he was called to MIT as an assistant professor in 1954 and later as a research associate in the Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory. In 1966 he joined the technical staff of MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and became a senior staff member in 1978, a position he held until his retirement in 1992. From 1947 to 1966 Lee's interest was primarily in the field of optical spectroscopy, where his work brought him into contact with many of the outstanding physicists of his era. Upon joining Lincoln Laboratory, his physics interests shifted toward optics and laser propagation, the latter a field in which he made significant contributions. My illustrated tribute will discuss Lee's passage from Phillips Exeter to Lincoln Laboratory, describing his physics and some of the notable physicists with whom he worked.

  3. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  4. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  5. NATO Engine Test AT RRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Harry M. Meyer III

    2003-03-26

    This report details the reasons for and the outcome of a diesel engine test performed at the Red River Army Depot (RRAD) as part of a program called the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Component Reclamation through Thermal spray coating Technology Program.

  6. Why Adolescents Fight: A Qualitative Study of Youth Perspectives on Fighting and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C.; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Methods Focus groups were conducted with middle and high-school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/non-fighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by three coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13–17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or due to anger; having goals for the future is protective. Non-fighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked, and teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Non-fighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Conclusions Non-fighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using non-violent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. PMID:25528128

  7. Effects of ice formation on hydrology and water quality in the lower Bradley River, Alaska; implications for salmon incubation habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    A minimum flow of 40 cubic feet per second is required in the lower Bradley River, near Homer, Alaska, from November 2 to April 30 to ensure adequate habitat for salmon incubation. The study that determined this minimum flow did not account for the effects of ice formation on habitat. The limiting factor for determining the minimal acceptable flow limit appears to be stream-water velocity. The minimum short-term flow needed to ensure adequate salmon incubation habitat when ice is present is about 30 cubic feet per second. For long-term flows, 40 cubic feet per second is adequate when ice is present. Long-term minimum discharge needed to ensure adequate incubation habitat--which is based on mean velocity alone--is as follows: 40 cubic feet per second when ice is forming; 35 cubic feet per second for stable and eroding ice conditions; and 30 cubic feet per second for ice-free conditions. The effects of long-term streamflow less than 40 cubic feet per second on fine-sediment deposition and dissolved-oxygen interchange could not be extrapolated from the data. Hydrologic properties and water-quality data were measured in winter only from March 1993 to April 1998 at six transects in the lower Bradley River under three phases of icing: forming, stable, and eroding. Discharge in the lower Bradley River ranged from 33.3 to 73.0 cubic feet per second during all phases of ice formation and ice conditions, which ranged from ice free to 100 percent ice cover. Hydrostatic head was adequate for habitat protection for all ice phases and discharges. Mean stream velocity was adequate for all but one ice-forming episode. Velocity distribution within each transect varied significantly from one sampling period to the next. No relation was found between ice phase, discharge, and wetted perimeter. Intragravel-water temperature was slightly warmer than surface-water temperature. Surface- and intragravel-water dissolved-oxygen levels were adequate for all ice phases and discharges. No

  8. Stress, fighting and neuroendocrine function.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. L.; Levine, S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adrenocortical steroids in rats after testing in the shock-induced fighting paradigm were examined. The investigations provide data consistent with the view that psychological aspects of the stressful situation are important in determining the effects of shock on physiological function. The data indicate that the pituitary-adrenal response can be attenuated by the expression of an organized pattern of behavior.

  9. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

  10. STS-47 Pilot Brown and Payload Specialist Mohri during JSC fire fighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr (right) and Japanese Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, squinting, listen to instructions during fire fighting exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri will represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) during the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission.

  11. STS-48 MS Gemar listens to fire fighting instructions during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar listens to instructions on how to control a blaze during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit, located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  12. STS-47 crew participates in fire fighting exercises at JSC Fire Training Pit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (foreground) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, squinting and holding water hose, listen to instructions prior to participating in fire fighting exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  13. STS-48 MS Brown listens to fire fighting instructions during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown listens to instructions on how to control a blaze during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit, located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  14. STS-48 MS Brown photographs JSC fire fighting exercises with HASSELBLAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown focuses HASSELBLAD camera while photographing JSC fire fighting and fire training exercises. Brown is recording the activities of some of his fellow crewmembers during the training session held at JSC's Fire Training Pit, located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  15. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled: William Bradley Coley, third Surgeon-in-Chief 1925-1933.

    PubMed

    Levine, David B

    2008-02-01

    In January 1925, the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed William Bradley Coley, M.D., age 63, Surgeon-in-Chief of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C) to succeed Virgil P. Gibney who submitted his resignation the month before. It would be the first time a general surgeon held that position at the oldest orthopedic hospital in the nation, now known as Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Coley had been on staff for 36 years and was world famous for introducing use of toxins to treat malignant tumors, particularly sarcomas. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical College, Coley interned at New York Hospital and was appointed, soon after, to the staff of the New York Cancer Hospital (now Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) located at that time at 106th Street on the West Side of New York. With his mentor Dr. William Bull, Coley perfected the surgical treatment of hernias at R & C. He was instrumental in raising funds for his alma maters, Yale, Harvard and Memorial Hospital. His crusade in immunology as a method of treatment for malignant tumors later fell out of acceptance in the medical establishment. After his death in 1936, an attempt to revive interest in use of immunotherapy for inoperable malignancies was carried out by his daughter, Helen Coley Nauts, who pursued this objective until her death at age 93 in 2000. Coley's health deteriorated in his later years, and in 1933, he resigned as chief of Bone Tumors at Memorial Hospital and Surgeon-in-Chief at R & C, being succeeded at Ruptured and Crippled as Surgeon-in-Chief by Dr. Eugene H. Pool. William Bradley Coley died of intestinal infarction in 1936 and was buried in Sharon, Connecticut. PMID:18751855

  16. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled: William Bradley Coley, Third Surgeon-in-Chief 1925–1933

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In January 1925, the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed William Bradley Coley, M.D., age 63, Surgeon-in-Chief of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C) to succeed Virgil P. Gibney who submitted his resignation the month before. It would be the first time a general surgeon held that position at the oldest orthopedic hospital in the nation, now known as Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Coley had been on staff for 36 years and was world famous for introducing use of toxins to treat malignant tumors, particularly sarcomas. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical College, Coley interned at New York Hospital and was appointed, soon after, to the staff of the New York Cancer Hospital (now Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) located at that time at 106th Street on the West Side of New York. With his mentor Dr. William Bull, Coley perfected the surgical treatment of hernias at R & C. He was instrumental in raising funds for his alma maters, Yale, Harvard and Memorial Hospital. His crusade in immunology as a method of treatment for malignant tumors later fell out of acceptance in the medical establishment. After his death in 1936, an attempt to revive interest in use of immunotherapy for inoperable malignancies was carried out by his daughter, Helen Coley Nauts, who pursued this objective until her death at age 93 in 2000. Coley’s health deteriorated in his later years, and in 1933, he resigned as chief of Bone Tumors at Memorial Hospital and Surgeon-in-Chief at R & C, being succeeded at Ruptured and Crippled as Surgeon-in-Chief by Dr. Eugene H. Pool. William Bradley Coley died of intestinal infarction in 1936 and was buried in Sharon, Connecticut. PMID:18751855

  17. A Sad Journey down History: A Conversation with Judge Nathaniel Jones about Litigating "Milliken v. Bradley I" (1974), 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Green, Terrance L.

    2016-01-01

    The Honorable Judge Nathaniel Jones litigated the "Milliken v. Bradley I" case before the U.S. District Court and Supreme Court in 1971 and 1974. Nathaniel Jones was born May 12, 1926 in Youngstown, Ohio, and served as the general counsel for the NAACP from 1969-1979. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Nathaniel Jones to the U.S.…

  18. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  19. Fighting pollution in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Roodman, D M

    1999-01-01

    This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution. PMID:12295336

  20. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  1. The Fight against the Cigarette Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzel, K. H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes progress in the fight against the "cigarette epidemic," presents evidence relating smoking to cancer, and provides suggestions for citizen action to curb cigarette-smoking and to prevent children from developing the habit. (LS)

  2. Biocatalytic nerve agent detoxification in fire fighting foams.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, K E; Russell, A J

    1999-03-20

    Current events across the globe necessitate rapid technological advances to combat the epidemic of nerve agent chemical weapons. Biocatalysis has emerged as a viable tool in the detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxins, such as the chemical weapons VX and sarin. Efficient detoxification of contaminated equipment, machinery, and soils are of principal concern. This study describes the incorporation of a biocatalyst (organophosphorus hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.8.1) into conventional formulations of fire fighting foam. The capacity of fire fighting foams to decrease volatilization of contained contaminants, increase surface wettability, and control the rate of enzyme delivery to large areas makes them useful vehicles for enzyme application at surfaces. The performance of enzyme containing foams has been shown to be not only reproducible but also predictable. An empirical model provides reasonable estimations for the amounts of achievable surface decontamination as a function of the important parameters of the system. Theoretical modeling illustrates that the enzyme-containing foam is capable of extracting agent from the surface and is catalytically active at the foam-surface interface and throughout the foam itself. Biocatalytic foam has proven to be an effective, "environmentally friendly" means of surface and soil decontamination. PMID:10068213

  3. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  4. The Fighting Phenomenon: What It Means to Be a Girl Who Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Maureen Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate why girls in an urban high school setting engage in physical fights in order to better understand the female student's mindset about fighting. A search of ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and dissertations was conducted to review research in the following…

  5. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Norman E. Thagard, holding hose nozzle, is followed by Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold and backup Payload Specialist Kenneth Money as the team positions the water hose in the direction of a blazing fire at JSC's Fire Training Pit. A second team of crewmembers, manning another hose, forms a line parallel to the first. The crewmembers and backups are learning fire extinguishing techniques during fire fighting and fire training exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Merbold is representing the European Space Agency (ESA) during the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  6. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. PMID:26346388

  7. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Spread of Superbugs Help Fight Drug-Resistant Bacteria For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make us sick. But in recent ...

  8. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past ... you eat and exercise. Listen to your doctor. As a native nation, we need to fight diabetes, ...

  9. "Chiefs for Change" Elbows into Policy Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Amid the cacophony of special interests fighting to be heard in statehouses and on Capitol Hill, a cadre of current and former chief state school officers is elbowing its way into the nation's education debate at a time when states are taking more control of K-12 education. A little more than a year old, Chiefs for Change is an invitation-only…

  10. Chinese American Students Fight for Their Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…

  11. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  12. Sibling Fights. From a Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn

    2002-01-01

    Provides guidance for parents in dealing with sibling conflicts. Discusses the importance of defusing sibling fights calmly and with humor and love, and the need to stay out of sibling squabbles when possible. Suggestions for guiding children through a problem-solving process include listening, summarizing, examining, and generalizing. (KB)

  13. NASA helicopter helps fight fire at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA helicopter takes off to bring water to fight a small fire on Kennedy Space Center grounds. The site is between Kennedy Parkway North and the Indian River. The fire is one of many throughout Central Florida, which is suffering from drought.

  14. [Nurses engaged in the fight against leprosy].

    PubMed

    Guyon, Patrick; Hourlier, Juliette; Manco, Noémi

    2015-01-01

    Even now in the 21st century, leprosy is still rife, notably among poor populations. In the regions of the world concerned, nurses specialised in the disease play an essential role in supporting the screening, treatment and reintegration of patients. In more than twenty countries, the Order of Malta France is acting to fight against leprosy. PMID:26365644

  15. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  16. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior. PMID:27108453

  17. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. PMID:24462710

  18. How to pick a good fight.

    PubMed

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties. PMID:19968056

  19. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  20. The influence of sex, line, and fight experience on aggressiveness of the Siamese fighting fish in intrasexual competition.

    PubMed

    Karino, K; Someya, C

    2007-07-01

    We examined the influence of sex, line, i.e., broods from different parents, and previous fight experience on the aggressiveness of the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens in intrasexual competition. The innate aggressiveness of the fish against their mirror images was measured on the day prior to the direct fight with other individuals, and it was found to be influenced by the line type but not by the sex. In the direct fight with other individuals, the males invested more effort in the fight than the females. In addition, the individuals of a particular line that exhibited a lower innate aggressiveness spent less time in the direct fight and were often losers when compared with those of other lines. After the direct fight with other individuals, the aggressiveness of the fish against their mirror images was remarkably influenced by the outcome of the direct fight, i.e., the winners exhibited more aggressive behavior, whereas the losers exhibited a lesser degree of aggressive behavior. This influence of the previous fight experience on subsequent aggressiveness was the greatest in the individuals of the line that have exhibited the lowest innate aggressiveness. However, the positive effect of the winning experience or the negative effect of the losing experience on subsequent aggressiveness decreased following several days after the previous fight increased. PMID:17434689

  1. Application of the Modified Urey-Bradley-Shimanouchi Force field of α-D-Glucopyranose and β-D-Fructopyranose to Predict the Vibrational Spectra of Disaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafour, H. M.; Sekkal-Rahal, M.; Sail, K.

    2014-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the disaccharide isomaltulose in the solid state have been reproduced in the 50-4000 cm-1 range. The modified Urey-Bradley-Shimanouchi force field was used, combined with an inter molecular potential energy function that includes van der Waals interactions, electrostatic terms, and an explicit hydrogen bond function. The force constants previously established for α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-fructo pyranose, as well as the crystallographic data of isomaltulose monohydrate, were the starting parameters for the present work. The vibrational frequencies of isomaltulose were calculated and assigned to the experimentally observed vibrational frequencies. Overall, there was good agreement between the observed and calculated frequencies with an average error of 4 cm-1. Furthermore, good agreement was found between our calculated results and the vibration spectra of other disaccharides and monosaccharides.

  2. STS-42 crewmembers participate in JSC fire fighting and fire training exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers lined up along two water hoses and guided by a fire fighting trainer (between hoses) approach blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit. Along the first hose (left) are Payload Specialist Ulf D. Merbold, holding nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Kenneth Money (middle), and Mission Specialist (MS) Norman E. Thagard (end). In the foreground along a second hose are backup Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch, holding nozzle, MS David C. Hilmers (middle), and Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar (end). Merbold is representing the European Space Agency and Bondar is representing Canada during the upcoming International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  3. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  4. Inflatable partition for fighting mine fires

    DOEpatents

    Conti, Ronald S.; Lazzara, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    The seal is a lightweight, inflatable, bag which may be inflated by a portable air generator and is used to seal a burning mine passage. A collapsible tube-like aperture extends through the seal and allows passage of high expansion foam through the seal in a feed tube. The foam fills the passageway and extinguishes the fire. In other embodiments, the feed tubes incorporate means to prevent collapse of the aperture. In these embodiments a shroud connects the feed tube to a foam generator. This seal allows creation of a high expansion foam fire fighting barrier even in upward sloping passages.

  5. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in charge shall insure that each hand portable fire extinguisher, semi-portable fire extinguisher, and fixed...

  6. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in charge shall insure that each hand portable fire extinguisher, semi-portable fire extinguisher, and fixed...

  7. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in charge shall insure that each hand portable fire extinguisher, semi-portable fire extinguisher, and fixed...

  8. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in charge shall insure that each hand portable fire extinguisher, semi-portable fire extinguisher, and fixed...

  9. 46 CFR 109.223 - Fire fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting equipment. 109.223 Section 109.223... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.223 Fire fighting equipment. The master or person in charge shall insure that each hand portable fire extinguisher, semi-portable fire extinguisher, and fixed...

  10. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185.524 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient...

  11. School Violence: Social Bond Theory and Physical Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemmetz, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical fighting in school is a concern for school administrators, juvenile justice professionals, and students. This quantitative study examined the involvement of physical fights at school among 5,674 adolescents across the United States via a casual comparative design with a correlational subcomponent. Differences were discovered between…

  12. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  13. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  14. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  15. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  16. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  17. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  18. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is familiar with his or her duties in case of...

  19. 46 CFR 185.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 185.524 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.524 Fire fighting drills and training. (a) The master shall conduct sufficient fire drills to make sure that each crew member is...

  20. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

  1. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  2. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  3. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  4. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. PMID:27234172

  5. Crew station for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Daniele

    1996-06-01

    Force XXI is the vision to synthesize the technology, doctrine, and organization of the U.S. Army so that it can fight and win the wars of the 21st Century. Digitization--taking advantage of the microprocessor revolution--is a key enabler of the Force XXI plan. In the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration, crew stations for ground combat vehicles are being developed that allow the soldier to use digitization to maximum weapon system performance.

  6. Mixed Progress in Worldwide Fight Against HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Mixed Progress in Worldwide Fight Against HIV/AIDS Deaths continue 10-year decline, but new infections ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide each year has fallen since peaking ...

  7. Fighting Gum Disease: Risk Factors, Treatment and Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Fighting Gum Disease Risk Factors, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Risk ... out whether it offers this service. Latest NIH Research Researchers supported by the National Institute of Dental ...

  8. Pathways to Freedom: Winning the Fight against Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... pancreas also decreases Within 15 years: • Risk of coronary heart disease is now similar to that of people who ... Not Easy It is hard to fight an industry that gives us money and jobs—because the ...

  9. Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160452.html Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women Abaloparatide appears to reduce fractures better ... risk of bone fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis better than a placebo and the currently available ...

  10. Why Do I Fight with My Parents So Much?

    MedlinePlus

    ... no matter how old you are. continue The Upside The good news about fighting with your parents ... Parents Argue Coping With an Alcoholic Parent Stepparents Stress & Coping Center Talking to Your Parents - or Other ...

  11. Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159243.html Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer ... better chance of survival if they receive two stem cell transplants, a new study reports. The double ...

  12. 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160680.html 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus But only one is already approved in ... developing fetuses protection against the damaging effects of Zika virus, a new multicenter study reports. Researchers identified ...

  13. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  14. Microcredit -- an emerging tool for fighting poverty.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    A summit focusing on microcredit (small business, microenterprise, loans) as a means of fighting poverty was held February 3-4 in Washington; it was co-chaired by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and by Queen Sofia of Spain. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has long supported microenterprise and microfinance. The summit set a goal of reaching 100 million poor families over the next nine years. USAID Administrator Brian Atwood spoke concerning the need to involve the private sector in microfinance; previously loans had been financed outside of the mainstream financial system via nongovernmental organizations and credit unions funded mainly by governments and donors. USAID launched a Microenterprise Initiative in 1994 that has supported 150 programs in 45 countries, and that is expected to reach approximately 4 million families. Atwood said the microenterprise strategies were currently in use in nearly every country USAID supports in Latin America and Asia, and most countries in Africa; future efforts would concentrate on countries in Africa, in eastern Europe and in central Asia. Mrs. Clinton called microenterprise "an invaluable tool in alleviating poverty, promoting self-sufficiency, and stimulating the economy." Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin stated that the policy helped people help themselves by giving them the tools they needed to join the economic mainstream. Microcredit focuses on businesses with five or fewer workers; loans range from less than $100 to $10,000. More than half of the businesses are owned and operated by women. PMID:12292306

  15. Fighting proliferation new concerns for the nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolski, H.

    1996-09-01

    Iraq`s threatened chemical missile strikes against US forces, combined with its efforts to build nuclear weapons, have quite literally put issues about the proliferation of strategic weapons on the map. Indeed, after Operation Desert Shield, both the Bush and Clinton administrations focused considerable attention on the need to dismantle Iraq`s strategic weapons capabilities and to assure that the strategic weapons complex in the former Soviet Union doesn`t end up helping future Iraqs. Since Operation Desert Storm, though, additional proliferation concern devising an effective strategy against proliferation, coping with the spread of space technology, and curbing Iran`s and North Korea`s strategic programs have emerged. Fighting Proliferation examines these challenges and their implications for US policy. The first of these concern how best to reform existing non- proliferation efforts-is examined in part 1. With the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) indefinitely extended, just exactly how the treaty will be implemented remains unclear. The Clinton administration is on record arguing that the NPT is a model for how the US will curb the proliferation of not only nuclear but all other kinds of strategic weapons. But what does the NPT and its obligations actually mean. Its key proscriptions in Articles 1, 2, and 3 are ambiguous. The treaty also lacks any clear enforcement measures and is nearly impossible to amend.

  16. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  17. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. PMID:22542604

  18. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295521

  19. Impact of Fighting on Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Li, Xin; Wan, Min; Hua, Li; Xiao, Yue; Dong, Boqi; Liu, Jialin; Diao, Wenzhen; Yu, Yongli; Wang, Liying

    2015-11-01

    Antibody responses to vaccines can be influenced by various behavioral and psychosocial factors. Few reports exist on the impact of fighting on antibody response to vaccines. This study unexpectedly found that fighting could significantly enhance antibody production in male mice immunized with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. To confirm the finding, a mouse-fighting model was established in which it was observed that only intense fighting, not mild fighting, enhanced the antibody response to HBV surface antigen in male mice, and that the frequency of fighting and active attacks during fighting showed no obvious relationship with the antibody levels in the male mice that experienced fighting. In addition, fighting can cause significant upregulation of CD80 in CD11c(+) cells in the spleen of male mice. These data suggest that fighting could influence the humoral immune response in individuals immunized with vaccines or infected with microbes. PMID:26417964

  20. Fight tactics in wood ants: individuals in smaller groups fight harder but die faster

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Tim P.; Briffa, Mark

    2011-01-01

    When social animals engage in inter-group contests, the outcome is determined by group sizes and individual masses, which together determine group resource-holding potential (‘group RHP’). Individuals that perceive themselves as being in a group with high RHP may receive a motivational increase and increase their aggression levels. Alternatively, individuals in lower RHP groups may increase their aggression levels in an attempt to overcome the RHP deficit. We investigate how ‘group RHP’ influences agonistic tactics in red wood ants Formica rufa. Larger groups had higher total agonistic indices, but per capita agonistic indices were highest in the smallest groups, indicating that individuals in smaller groups fought harder. Agonistic indices were influenced by relative mean mass, focal group size, opponent group size and opponent group agonistic index. Focal group attrition rates decreased as focal group relative agonistic indices increased and there was a strong negative influence of relative mean mass. The highest focal attrition rates were received when opponent groups were numerically large and composed of large individuals. Thus, fight tactics in F. rufa seem to vary with both aspects of group RHP, group size and the individual attributes of group members, indicating that information on these are available to fighting ants. PMID:21389029

  1. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  2. Occupational exposures in California wildland fire fighting.

    PubMed

    Materna, B L; Jones, J R; Sutton, P M; Rothman, N; Harrison, R J

    1992-01-01

    Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted in northern California during three consecutive fire seasons (1986-1989) in conjunction with three separate health effects studies. Chemicals that were monitored included carbon monoxide, total and respirable particulates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crystalline silica, aldehydes, and benzene. Measurements were taken at both wildland fires and prescribed (planned) burns. A variety of collection methods were employed--colorimetric detector tubes and a CO monitor were used for direct-reading area measurements; colorimetric diffusion tubes, filter cassettes, sorbent tubes, and passive vapor monitors were used for determining personal time-weighted average exposures. A new screening method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 2539) was used to identify the presence of specific aldehydes. Results show that wildland fire fighters may at times be exposed to concentrations of carbon monoxide, total or respirable particulates, or silica at levels near or higher than recommended occupational exposure limits, although group means were generally well below the limits. Time-weighted average formaldehyde levels, measured in a few instances above 0.37 mg/m3 (0.3 ppm), indicate a potential for formaldehyde-induced eye or respiratory irritation under these conditions. Certain characteristics of the work such as high altitude, temperature, and breathing rate; extended work shifts; and additional off-shift exposures suggest that adjustment of 8-hr exposure limits may be necessary to provide adequate protection. In part, because of the rigors of performing industrial hygiene measurements under fire fighting conditions, data are limited and could not be considered representative of the full range of exposures fire fighters may encounter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1317093

  3. STS-47 crew during JSC fire fighting exercises in the Fire Training Pit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses during JSC fire fighting exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit. In the foreground are (left to right) Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, partially visible at the end of the line. In the background, manning a second hose are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, MS Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson. A veteran fire fighter (behind Brown) stands between the two hoses giving instructions. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Doi represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  4. STS-47 crew during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit during fire fighting exercises. Manning the hose in the foreground are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson, at rear. Lined up on the second hose are Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran firefighter monitors the effort from a position between the two hoses. In the background, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, donning gloves, and MS Mae C. Jemison look on. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai all represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  5. Drug Treatment as a Crime Fighting Tool.

    PubMed

    Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2001-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary approach to reducing crime in the US has been through the criminal justice system. However, drug treatment may be an effective tool in reducing crime. In order to make better use of treatment as an alternative approach, one needs to know if reducing drug use through treatment results in decreased crime. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The objective of this paper is to model and empirically investigate the extent to which a change in drug use that results from treatment reduces crime and whether a change in drug use is causally related to change in crime. We focus on crime-for-profit. METHODS: We use a multi-site dataset of 3,502 inner-city drug users entering treatment. We analyze the change in drug use and crime pre and post treatment. We take first differences to address the omitted variable problem. RESULTS: We find that treatment reduces drug use and that, in turn, reduced drug use has a significant impact on crime. For our study population, reduced drug use seems to be causally related to reduced crime. This finding is robust to specification and subsamples. We estimate that reduced drug use due to treatment is associated with 54% fewer days of crime for profit, ceteris paribus. DISCUSSION: We use a longitudinal data set and a novel approach to analyze the relationship between crime and drugs. We analyze a low-income, inner-city, drug-addicted sample. We use self-reported crime. For our purposes, the use of individual data is an improvement over the use of aggregate level data that has been used in much of the related literature. Limitations of our paper include that we do not have a random sample and that our measure is self-reported in the previous 30 days. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Our findings suggest that drug treatment may be an effective crime-fighting tool. Treatment reduces not only the crime of drug possession, but also crime-for-profit. Current public policy emphasizes use of the criminal justice system, incarceration in

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents. PMID:25038192

  7. Milliken v. Bradley in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Martin E.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that the Milliken decision focused the Court's attention on the interrelationship between school segregation and residential segregation and may have laid the basis for successful legal action in the future. (Author/DW)

  8. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  9. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  10. A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers.

    PubMed

    González-Santoyo, Isaac; González-Tokman, Daniel M; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto E; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal) but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink) in territory owners, we investigated: a) the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b) survival cost and c) three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed), experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers. PMID:24409304

  11. A Mismatch between the Perceived Fighting Signal and Fighting Ability Reveals Survival and Physiological Costs for Bearers

    PubMed Central

    González-Santoyo, Isaac; González-Tokman, Daniel M.; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto E.; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal) but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink) in territory owners, we investigated: a) the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b) survival cost and c) three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed), experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers. PMID:24409304

  12. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  13. The Mind-Body Connection - How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues The Mind-Body Connection How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... system's ability to fight disease." Dangers of Chronic Stress Unhealthy levels of stress come in many guises. ...

  14. Fighting With Siblings and With Peers Among Urban High School Students.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Renee M; Duncan, Dustin T; Rothman, Emily F; Gilreath, Tamika D; Hemenway, David; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the determinants of fighting is important for prevention efforts. Unfortunately, there is little research on how sibling fighting is related to peer fighting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sibling fighting and peer fighting. Data are from the Boston Youth Survey 2008, a school-based sample of youth in Boston, MA. To estimate the association between sibling fighting and peer fighting, we ran four multivariate regression models and estimated adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We fit generalized estimating equation models to account for the fact that students were clustered within schools. Controlling for school clustering, race/ethnicity, sex, school failure, substance use, and caregiver aggression, youth who fought with siblings were 2.49 times more likely to have reported fighting with peers. To the extent that we can confirm that sibling violence is associated with aggressive behavior, we should incorporate it into violence prevention programming. PMID:25287411

  15. NASA helicopter helps fight brush fire at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA helicopter dips its fire-fighting bucket into the river to pick up and deliver a cargo of water to a wildfire at KSC. Before being extinguished, the fire burned about 20 acres at a site near gate 2C on Kennedy Parkway North (route 3).

  16. Transforming Teacher Unions: Fighting for Better Schools and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Bob, Ed.; Charney, Michael, Ed.

    This anthology examines exemplary practices of teachers' unions at the local and national level, presenting visions for the 21st century that involve teachers' unions in the fight to improve public schools and conditions of social justice throughout U.S. communities. Six sections feature 25 articles: (1) "Overview," including "Survival and…

  17. 46 CFR 122.524 - Fire fighting drills and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire fighting drills and training. 122.524 Section 122.524 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 122.524...

  18. Relating Personal Heritage to America's Fight for Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Daniel

    This unit of study is geared toward a heterogeneous eighth grade language arts class. The unit's goal is to show students that the American story chronicled in "My Brother Sam Is Dead" is not simply a story about a series of events that occurred in the past but about taking pride in your heritage and not being afraid to fight back when your…

  19. How Captain Amerika uses neural networks to fight crime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Steven K.; Kabrisky, Matthew; Ruck, Dennis W.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial neural network models can make amazing computations. These models are explained along with their application in problems associated with fighting crime. Specific problems addressed are identification of people using face recognition, speaker identification, and fingerprint and handwriting analysis (biometric authentication).

  20. NASA helicopter helps fight brush fire at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA helicopter flies over fire-fighting equipment and personnel in order to drop its load of water on a wildfire at KSC. Before being extinguished, the fire burned about 20 acres at a site near gate 2C on Kennedy Parkway North (route 3).

  1. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and functioning. Gambling perceptions and correlates of problem-gambling severity were examined in fighting and non-fighting adolescents. Results: Gambling perceptions were more permissive and at-risk/problem gambling was more frequent amongst adolescents reporting serious fights versus those denying serious fights. A stronger relationship between problem-gambling severity and regular smoking was observed for adolescents involved in fights. Discussion and conclusions: The more permissive gambling attitudes and heavier gambling associated with serious fights in high school students suggest that youth who engage in physical fights warrant enhanced prevention efforts related to gambling. The stronger relationship between tobacco smoking and problem-gambling severity amongst youth engaging in serious fights suggest that fighting youth who smoke might warrant particular screening for gambling problems and subsequent interventions. PMID:24294502

  2. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last one (Post). Blood lactate (LA) was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post), but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post) were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05) at Post, both in the 1st min (10.4 ± 2.7 mmol L-1) and the 15th min (6.4 ± 2.5 mmol L-1) of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power) was observed. PMID:25713685

  3. Neuromuscular responses to simulated brazilian jiu-jitsu fights.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last one (Post). Blood lactate (LA) was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post), but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post) were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05) at Post, both in the 1st min (10.4 ± 2.7 mmol L-1) and the 15th min (6.4 ± 2.5 mmol L-1) of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power) was observed. PMID:25713685

  4. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests. PMID:25813673

  5. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  6. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  7. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  8. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  13. [The fight against venereal diseases in different political systems].

    PubMed

    Scholz, A

    2003-07-01

    The fight against venereal diseases (VD) has often been influenced by the prevailing political and social conditions. At the end of 19th century the increase of VD demanded new strategies. In 1902 the German Society for the Control of VD was founded in Berlin. It was then followed by the foundation of the International Society against VD in Brussels in 1899. In the German empire and during the Nazi regime, authoritarian structures dominated the strategies against VD. The individual had to submit the interests of the society. Sociopolitical aspects influenced the discussions in the fight against VD during the Weimar republic. In 1927 the new laws to control VD met liberal demands. PMID:12835867

  14. Leveraging Primary Care in the Fight Against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jason L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the decline in youth smoking rates has stopped as the tobacco industry strives to successfully reclaim market areas where it has lost favor. The plateau in lung cancer incidence and stagnation in progress toward smoking abstinence illustrates the necessity for renewed efforts to fight tobacco use. Barriers to fighting tobacco use exist in both the clinical arena and within the general population, but can be overcome. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are uniquely poised to successfully treat nicotine dependence with strategic targeting of these barriers, improved training in smoking cessation techniques, and focused political efforts in tobacco control. Herein, this article describes the landscape of tobacco use in America and provides background, methodology, and resources for PCPs to help achieve the goals of Healthy People 2010 in reducing the illness, disability, and death that occur as a result of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:18172737

  15. Drugs offshore: companies stepping up fight against hidden adversary

    SciTech Connect

    Redden, J.

    1986-01-01

    Oil companies worldwide are effectively fighting a growing nemesis, drug and alcohol abuse on offshore installations. It is estimated that companies are losing millions of dollars in lost productivity, accidents, and thefts caused by on-the-job use of illegal drugs. Some of the measures being employed to combat the use of such drugs, e.g., tight control, better communications, diversions for employees, and the use of sniffer dogs, are discussed.

  16. Discussion of GPS/RTK in fighting drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinglin; Fang, Liwei; Li, Kezhao; Zang, Pengzhan

    2009-07-01

    In this spring, the worst drought to hit China's northern wheat-growing belt in half a century. How to make proper decision to fight drought is a vital problem to Chinese government. Of course, this is a complicated problem for many factors involved. But for surveyor, we must provide the drought area, different drought levels and position information quickly. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) satellite navigation is a technique used in land survey and in hydrographic survey based on the use of carrier phase measurements of the GPS, GLONASS and/or Galileo signals where a single reference station provides the real-time corrections of even to a centimetre level of accuracy. In this paper, we discuss the application of GPS technology in fighting drought. Firstly, we introduce the RTK technology and its applications in other field. Secondly, according to the requirement of fighting drought, we give the scheme of how to get the information of drought area, different drought levels rapidly. Thirdly, we discuss the technology of real-time positioning to artificial rainfall using aeroplane.

  17. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  2. Airborne Law Enforcement Fighting Crime From The Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, James A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper reviews the use of the air for the police in their operations to fight crime throughout the UK. There is a description of the job of the aircrew, the role and navigation systems and the aircraft used in daily operations. There is an examination of the use of both the helicopter and fixed wing aircraft concentrating on their suitability for police operations in which the weather and cost constraints are seen to be major factors to be considered in striking the balance to obtain the best effectiveness.

  3. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  4. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic. PMID:19606747

  5. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that a record of each test...

  6. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that a record of each test...

  7. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that a record of each test...

  8. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that a record of each test...

  9. 46 CFR 109.435 - Record of fire fighting equipment inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. 109.435... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.435 Record of fire fighting equipment inspection. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that a record of each test...

  10. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Background and Interim Voluntary Guidance The Report of Investigation... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore...-fighting equipment, training, and drills onboard manned offshore facilities and MODUs operating on the...

  11. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  12. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  13. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  14. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  15. Rumble: Prevalence and Correlates of Group Fighting among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Group fighting is portrayed as a piece of Americana among delinquent youth, but the behavior produces significant multifaceted negative consequences. The current study examines the heterogeneity and correlates of group fighting using national-level data. Method. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013 (n = 216,852), we examine links between group fighting and temperamental, parental, and academic factors as well as other externalizing behaviors (i.e., violence, crime, substance use). Results. The prevalence of group fighting in the United States is 14.8% with 11.33% reporting 1–2 group fights and 3.46% reporting 3+ group fights. A clear severity gradient in school functioning and academic performance, sensation seeking, parental disengagement, violence and delinquency, and substance use disorders is seen in the normative, episodic, and repeat offender groups. Conclusions. Youths who participate in 3+ group fights display the exceptionality and severity of other serious/chronic/habitual antisocial youth which suggests that group fighting should be considered a significant indicator of developing criminality. PMID:25945950

  16. Private Satisfactions and Public Disorders: "Fight Club," Patriarchy, and the Politics of Masculine Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…

  17. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  18. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  19. Stickleback fights: why do winners win? Influence of metabolic and morphometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Couture, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Pairs of reproductively mature male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were introduced into unfamiliar aquaria and observed until one male became dominant. Skin carotenoid content, morphometric indexes, and metabolic capacities of the axial and pectoral muscles were examined to establish whether morphological or physiological parameters differentiated winners and losers. Stickleback that initiated fights typically won. Quick initiation led to quick victory. Overall, winners and losers differed in few morphological or metabolic characteristics, but these properties and the differences between these attributes for losers and winners of specific fights were linked with initiation time and fight duration. Morphometric indexes of losers were the primary determinants of initiation time and fight duration, whereas for winners muscle metabolic capacities were linked to these fight characteristics. The greater the hepatosomatic index (HSI) of losers, the longer the fight initiation times. Similarly, losers with high HSI and carotenoid levels resisted defeat longer. In winners, initiation time decreased as axial muscle phosphofructokinase levels increased and citrate synthase levels decreased, whereas the metabolic capacities of the pectoral muscle were linked with time to achieve victory. When losers had greater HSI values than the winners of a specific fight, fight initiation was delayed and fights lasted longer. When losers had higher carotenoid levels than winners, fights also lasted longer. On the other hand, when losers had more visceral fat (fat body mass over somatic mass) than winners, both initiation time and combat duration were reduced. These results suggest that male stickleback assess their physiological status and that of their opponents, in particular the HSI, and adjust their combat strategies accordingly. PMID:15778937

  20. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  1. Cosmeceutical vehicles.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Consumers will pay a premium for high-performance skin and hair care products. The demand exists, and in return for the high cost, consumers expect the product to perform as claimed and to meet aesthetic standards beyond many products found in the mass market. To be successful in this highly competitive market, products must function as claimed or consumers will not repurchase. Effective contemporary high-end products must be properly formulated in nonirritating vehicles that consumers will perceive as elegant. PMID:19695476

  2. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

  3. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P.; Koval, Olha M.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Hall, Duane D.; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Song, Longsheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) MCU. Here we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment prior to each heartbeat. Our findings show the MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate. PMID:25603276

  4. Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer. Can We Fight It?

    PubMed Central

    Merika, E. E.; Syrigos, K. N.; Saif, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    The hallmark of pancreatic tumours, the desmoplastic reaction, provides a unique microenvironment that affects pancreatic tumour behaviour, its ability to grow and metastasize as well as resist the effects of chemotherapy. Complex molecular interactions and pathways give rise to the desmoplastic reaction. Breakdown or penetration of the desmoplastic reaction may hold the key to overcoming the limits of delivery of efficacious chemotherapy or the development of new targeted treatments. Herein we discuss such new developments to fight the desmoplastic reaction, including inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, the hedgehog pathway, as well as new molecular targets like CD40 agonist and its effects on T cells, extracellular matrix modifying enzymes such as LOXL2 inhibitor and novel tumour penetrating peptides for delivery of drugs. PMID:23125850

  5. Is emotional intelligence relevant to a fighting force?

    PubMed

    Daffey-Moore, Emma K

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, the expectations of what the fighting force are tasked to deal with has changed significantly. The high-risk, high-tempo operational environments in which personnel have deployed in recent years have been complex and diverse, creating a spectrum of conflict where having EI would be an essential attribute. EI could be beneficial for the organisation and the individuals involved, and historically, there has been a distinct lack of EI. For it to be better used within the military, the entire concept needs to be explored, accepted and integrated into training throughout the rank structure; from the recruitment process to throughout the career development with support from senior commanders. This article discusses the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) to the British Armed Forces. PMID:26442808

  6. Feed or fight: A behavioral shift in blind cavefish.

    PubMed

    Rétaux, Sylvie; Elipot, Yannick

    2013-03-01

    Within the species Astyanax mexicanus, there are several inter-fertile populations of river-dwelling sighted fish and cave-dwelling blind fish which have evolved morphological and behavioral adaptations. We have recently reported a developmental and neurophysiological basis for the loss of aggressive behavior in the blind cavefish morph of Astyanax. Using an appropriate behavioral assay, we have shown that surface Astyanax show intense dominance-related aggressiveness. The expression of this behavior is inversely correlated with the serotonin (5HT) levels in their hindbrain raphe nucleus. Moreover this behavior is not solely visually-evoked and has a genetic component. Conversely in cavefish, there is no raphe-driven dominance aggressiveness. Instead, the embryonic Sonic Hedgehog-dependent modification of the size of a serotonergic neuronal group localized in their hypothalamus causes a shift in their behavioral pattern: instead of fighting, they search for food. Here we further discuss the origin and nature of this behavioral shift. PMID:23749249

  7. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  8. Determining brain fitness to fight: Has the time come?

    PubMed

    Seifert, Tad; Bernick, Charles; Jordan, Barry; Alessi, Anthony; Davidson, Jeff; Cantu, Robert; Giza, Christopher; Goodman, Margaret; Benjamin, Johnny

    2015-11-01

    Professional boxing is associated with a risk of chronic neurological injury, with up to 20-50% of former boxers exhibiting symptoms of chronic brain injury. Chronic traumatic brain injury encompasses a spectrum of disorders that are associated with long-term consequences of brain injury and remains the most difficult safety challenge in modern-day boxing. Despite these concerns, traditional guidelines used for return to sport participation after concussion are inconsistently applied in boxing. Furthermore, few athletic commissions require either formal consultation with a neurological specialist (i.e. neurologist, neurosurgeon, or neuropsychologist) or formal neuropsychological testing prior to return to fight. In order to protect the health of boxers and maintain the long-term viability of a sport associated with exposure to repetitive head trauma, we propose a set of specific requirements for brain safety that all state athletic commissions would implement. PMID:26295482

  9. Repeated positive fighting experience in male inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia N; Smagin, Dmitry A; Kovalenko, Irina L; Vishnivetskaya, Galina B

    2014-11-01

    Repeated aggression is a frequent symptom of many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including obsessive-compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, bipolar and post-traumatic stress disorders, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia and drug abuse. However, repeated aggression is insufficiently studied because there is a lack of adequate models in animals. The sensory contact model (SCM), widely used to study the effects of chronic social defeat stress, can also be used to investigate the effects of repeated aggression. Mice with repeated positive fighting experience in daily agonistic interactions in this model develop pronounced aggressiveness, anxiety and impulsivity, disturbances in motivated and cognitive behaviors, and impairments of sociability; they also demonstrate hyperactivity, attention-deficit behavior, motor dysfunctions and repetitive stereotyped behaviors, such as jerks, rotations and head twitches. In this protocol, we describe how to apply the SCM to study repeated aggression in mice. Severe neuropathology develops in male mice after 20-21 d of agonistic interactions. PMID:25340443

  10. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures for Composite Multi-Gas and Particulate Protection and Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting... with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of Testing and...

  11. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  12. “I Went to a Fight the Other Night and a Hockey Game Broke Out”

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmied, Nadav; Espindola, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The current study explored the relationship between fighting behavior and passage of time, across games and seasons, in an attempt to assess if violent behavior in hockey is impulsive or intentional. Hypothesis: Before engaging in fighting behavior, players assess the utility of their actions and thus will fight less when the game is on the line (third period) and when champions are crowned (postseason). Methods: An archival exploration utilizing open access databases from multiple Internet sources. Results: During the 2010-2011 National Hockey League (NHL) season, players were significantly less likely to be involved in a fight as the game was coming to a close than in its early stages. In addition, data from the past 10 NHL seasons showed that players were significantly more violent in preseason games than during the regular season. They were also least likely to be involved in a fight during the postseason. Conclusion: The converging evidence suggests that players take into account the penalties associated with fighting and are less likely to engage in violence when the stakes are high, such as at the end of a game or a season. This implies, in turn, that major acts of aggression in the league are more likely to be calculated rather than impulsive. The findings suggest that a more punitive system should diminish fighting behavior markedly. PMID:24427418

  13. Left-handedness and male-male competition: insights from fighting and hormonal data.

    PubMed

    Faurie, Charlotte; Llaurens, Violaine; Alvergne, Alexandra; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Raymond, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Male-male competition can shape some behavioral or morphological traits of males. Here we investigate if this competition could play a role in the persistence of the polymorphism of handedness in human populations. A negative frequency-dependent selection mechanism has been hypothesized, based on the fact that left-handed men may benefit from a "surprise" advantage during fighting interactions because they are rare in human populations. This advantage may thereby enhance the probability of survival of left- handed men and/or their reproductive success through an increase in social status. In this study, we first explored the association between hand preference and lifetime fighting behavior in a population of 1,161 French men. No effect of hand preference on the probability of fighting was detected, suggesting that the innate propensity to fight does not differ between left- and right-handers. However, among men who had been involved in at least one fight during their lifetime, left-handers reported significantly more fights than right-handers. To explore the biological basis of this behavior, we also investigated the testosterone concentration in saliva samples from 64 French university students. Consistent with frequencies of fights, we found a significantly higher average testosterone concentration in left-handers than in right-handers. We suggest that these behavioral and hormonal differences may be acquired throughout life due to previous experiences in a social context and may favor the persistence of left-handers in humans. PMID:22947980

  14. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    PubMed

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation. PMID:23818656

  15. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  16. Biochemical cost of a fight in fed and fasted Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1991-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical effects of threat displays and fights were determined in both fed and fasted animals. A week-long fast resulted in subtle behavioral modifications and a significant reduction in muscle glycogen. Threat displays had no effect on carcass composition. In the course of fighting, fed animals degraded large amounts of lipids, glycogen and amino acids, while fasted animals degraded only glycogen. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed to explain the difference between the biochemical effects of a fight in fed and starved animals. PMID:2017485

  17. Combination vehicle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, M.J. Sr.

    1987-03-17

    A combination recreational vehicle assembly is described comprising: two vehicles of a different type, the vehicles comprising a first, leading vehicle having a steering mechanism for maneuvering the assembly and a drivable axle mechanism for propelling the assembly; an independently drivable second vehicle trailing the first vehicle comprising a standard road vehicle having a motor, and an axle mechanism for connecting the motor to the wheels of the second vehicle for providing power to the wheels of the vehicle. A gear means for selectively disconnecting the motor from the axle mechanism to place the vehicle in neutral, and a steering means for maneuvering the second vehicle when driven independently of the first vehicle are included; and a releasable mechanical drive connection between the second vehicle motor and the first vehicle axle mechanism to provide power for driving the assembly. The drive connection comprises a drive pinion projecting from the second vehicle motor to the front of the second vehicle, and a drive shaft projecting from the first vehicle axle mechanism to the rear of the first vehicle.

  18. Florence Nightingale would have taken on the political fight, and so should we.

    PubMed

    Owen, Michael

    2016-05-11

    I agree with Mike Travis' comments (letters April 20) about the role and responsibilities of the trade union movement, and those of the RCN in caring for and fighting politically on behalf of nurses at all levels. PMID:27206198

  19. Reasons for Fighting among Violent Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Investigation from an Urban, Midwestern Community.

    PubMed

    Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828

  20. If You Want to Fight Air Pollution, Go Plant a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakauer, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Describes the efforts of individuals, organizations, and cities to fight pollution by planting trees. Highlights the development and activities of the TreePeople organization, Global ReLeaf Project, National Arboretum, and other tree planting and research efforts. (MCO)

  1. CDC Zika Summit Details Plans to Fight Mosquito-Borne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158094.html CDC Zika Summit Details Plans to Fight Mosquito-Borne Illness ... the continental United States braces itself for the Zika virus, federal, state and local health officials gathered ...

  2. Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight Central simulator tower L-R: Dr Geoffrey Briggs; Jen Jasper (seated); Dr Jan Akins and Mr. Tony Gross, Ames

  3. The Mind-Body Connection - How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection How to Fight Stress and Ward Off ... the question, Dr. Sternberg suggests meditation to rest body and mind. "Evidence shows that meditation bolsters immune function by ...

  4. Vehicle/engine integration. [orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  5. Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts. PMID:23612845

  6. Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Monia; Fimognari, Carmela; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease characterized by multiple genetic and molecular alterations involving transformation, deregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. To grow, invade, and metastasize, tumors need host components and primary dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment, in addition to cell dysfunction, can be crucial for carcinogenesis. A great variety of phytochemicals have been shown to be potentially capable of inhibiting and modulating several relevant targets simultaneously and is therefore non-specific. Because of the enormous biological diversity of cancer, this pleiotropism might constitute an advantage. Phytochemicals, in particular diet-derived compounds, have therefore been proposed and applied in clinical trials as cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables. SFN has proved to be an effective chemoprotective agent in cell culture, in carcinogen-induced and genetic animal cancer models, as well as in xenograft models of cancer. It promoted potent cytostatic and cytotoxic effects orchestrated by the modulation of different molecular targets. Cell vulnerability to SFN-mediated apoptosis was subject to regulation by cell-cycle-dependent mechanisms but was independent of a mutated p53 status. Moreover, combination of SFN with cytotoxic therapy potentiated the cytotoxic effect mediated by chemotherapy in vitro, thus suggesting its potential therapeutic benefit in clinical settings. Overall, SFN appears to be an effective and safe chemopreventive molecule and a promising tool to fight cancer. PMID:24114482

  7. Optimization of the resources management in fighting wildfires.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fernández, Susana; Martínez-Falero, Eugenio; Pérez-González, J Manuel

    2002-09-01

    Wildfires lead to important economic, social, and environmental losses, especially in areas of Mediterranean climate where they are of a high intensity and frequency. Over the past 30 years there has been a dramatic surge in the development and use of fire spread models. However, given the chaotic nature of environmental systems, it is very difficult to develop real-time fire-extinguishing models. This article proposes a method of optimizing the performance of wildfire fighting resources such that losses are kept to a minimum. The optimization procedure includes discrete simulation algorithms and Bayesian optimization methods for discrete and continuous problems (simulated annealing and Bayesian global optimization). Fast calculus algorithms are applied to provide optimization outcomes in short periods of time such that the predictions of the model and the real behavior of the fire, combat resources, and meteorological conditions are similar. In addition, adaptive algorithms take into account the chaotic behavior of wildfire so that the system can be updated with data corresponding to the real situation to obtain a new optimum solution. The application of this method to the Northwest Forest of Madrid (Spain) is also described. This application allowed us to check that it is a helpful tool in the decision-making process. PMID:12148070

  8. Fighting Global Disparities in Cancer Care: A Surgical Oncology View.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Harald J; Wobbes, Theo; Heineman, Erik; Haryono, Samuel; Aryandono, Teguh; Balch, Charles M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally after cardiovascular disease. Long-term cancer survival has improved in the Western world due to early detection and the use of effective combined treatment modalities, as well as the development of effective immunotherapy and drug-targeted therapy. Surgery is still the mainstay for most solid tumors; however, low- and middle-income countries are facing an increasing lack of primary surgical care for easily treatable conditions, including breast, colon, and head and neck cancers. In this paper, a surgical oncology view is presented to elaborate how the Western surgical oncologist can take part in the 'surgical fight' against global disparities in cancer care, and a plea is made to strive for structural solutions, such as a partnership in surgical oncology training. The pros and cons of the use of eHealth and mHealth technologies and education programs for schools and the community are discussed as these create an opportunity to reach a large portion of the population in these countries, at low cost and with high impact. PMID:27038459

  9. Plea to African heads-of-state: join the fight.

    PubMed

    Tyson, R

    1997-10-01

    Uganda's president, Yoweri Museveni, is the only African head-of-state who has led an all-out, extended campaign against AIDS, and Uganda is the only African country to realize a decline in HIV rates since the epidemic began spreading across central and southern Africa in the 1980s. While South Africa's President Nelson Mandela has spoken about AIDS in international forums, his country's programs against AIDS are in disarray. Rather than adopt a position of leadership against HIV/AIDS, African leaders have most often tried to cover up or ignore the AIDS threat. Zimbabwe and Nigeria are briefly discussed as examples. More than 100 delegates attended the HIV/AIDS workshop at the fourth African-African American Summit held in Harare, July 1997. After listening for 2 days to medical experts describe how the epidemic is destroying African economies and social structures, task force members called upon leaders of the 40 sub-Saharan African countries to acknowledge the threat of AIDS in their countries and to fight against the epidemic. PMID:12293006

  10. FIJI: Fighting Implicit Jamming in 802.11 WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broustis, Ioannis; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Syrivelis, Dimitris; Krishnamurthy, Srikanth V.; Tassiulas, Leandros

    The IEEE 802.11 protocol inherently provides the same long-term throughput to all the clients associated with a given access point (AP). In this paper, we first identify a clever, low-power jamming attack that can take advantage of this behavioral trait: the placement of a low-power jammer in a way that it affects a single legitimate client can cause starvation to all the other clients. In other words, the total throughput provided by the corresponding AP is drastically degraded. To fight against this attack, we design FIJI, a cross-layer anti-jamming system that detects such intelligent jammers and mitigates their impact on network performance. FIJI looks for anomalies in the AP load distribution to efficiently perform jammer detection. It then makes decisions with regards to optimally shaping the traffic such that: (a) the clients that are not explicitly jammed are shielded from experiencing starvation and, (b) the jammed clients receive the maximum possible throughput under the given conditions. We implement FIJI in real hardware; we evaluate its efficacy through experiments on a large-scale indoor testbed, under different traffic scenarios, network densities and jammer locations. Our measurements suggest that FIJI detects such jammers in real-time and alleviates their impact by allocating the available bandwidth in a fair and efficient way.

  11. Optimization of the Resources Management in Fighting Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Fernández, Susana; Martínez-Falero, Eugenio; Pérez-González, J. Manuel

    2002-09-01

    Wildfires lead to important economic, social, and environmental losses, especially in areas of Mediterranean climate where they are of a high intensity and frequency. Over the past 30 years there has been a dramatic surge in the development and use of fire spread models. However, given the chaotic nature of environmental systems, it is very difficult to develop real-time fire-extinguishing models. This article proposes a method of optimizing the performance of wildfire fighting resources such that losses are kept to a minimum. The optimization procedure includes discrete simulation algorithms and Bayesian optimization methods for discrete and continuous problems (simulated annealing and Bayesian global optimization). Fast calculus algorithms are applied to provide optimization outcomes in short periods of time such that the predictions of the model and the real behavior of the fire, combat resources, and meteorological conditions are similar. In addition, adaptive algorithms take into account the chaotic behavior of wildfire so that the system can be updated with data corresponding to the real situation to obtain a new optimum solution. The application of this method to the Northwest Forest of Madrid (Spain) is also described. This application allowed us to check that it is a helpful tool in the decision-making process.

  12. Physical and Emotional Health Problems Experienced by Youth Engaged in Physical Fighting and Weapon Carrying

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126

  13. Effect of morphine and morphine-like drugs on carbachol-induced fighting in cats.

    PubMed

    Krstić, S K; Stefanović-Denić, K; Beleslin, D B

    1982-08-01

    In the present experiments, morphine, methadone or pethidine was injected into the cerebral ventricle of the unanesthetized cat after fighting was induced with carbachol injected previously. The fighting evoked by carbachol was sensitive to the depressant action of morphine or pethidine but not to the depressant effect of methadone. The most likely explanation of the depressant effects of the former compounds is that they act on the postsynaptic receptors of central cholinergic neurons. PMID:6890210

  14. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression in rats.

    PubMed

    Royalty, J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggressive behavior in rats were longitudinally assessed in the context of more conventionally applied physical and behavioral measures. Pregnant animals were treated with either 2 gm/kg/day ethanol or isocaloric sucrose over gestation Days 6-19. Reproduction and somatic variables included maternal weight over gestation, offspring weight over Days 1-90, and age at eye opening and incisor eruption. Behavioral variables consisted of negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination, activity, juvenile play-fighting, and postpubertal aggression. Ethanol offspring had lower birth weights, but there was no significant prenatal treatment effect on subsequent offspring weights or on any other reproductive or somatic variable. Both male and female ethanol-exposed offspring exhibited more play-fighting responses when paired with same-sex controls. Postpubertal aggression levels were assessed in males only. Ethanol-exposed offspring were more aggressive than controls and there was a significant positive correlation between play-fighting and postpubertal aggression ranks. No other behavioral measures discriminated between prenatal treatment groups and none were significantly correlated with either play-fighting or postpubertal aggression rank. The results are consistent with the position that juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression are subserved by common substrates. They also are consistent with predictions derived from the hypothesis concerning a response-inhibition deficit as an effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on behavior. PMID:2349347

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  16. Remote vehicle controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, John J.

    1992-06-01

    A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehicle radio which receives commands from the first radio to effect the desired motion and action of the second vehicle. The receiver and controller have circuitry which allows them to be reprogrammed to function on various military vehicles and also be attached to the different radio systems in use by the U.S. Military.

  17. Saturday night's alright for fighting: antisocial traits, fighting, and weapons carrying in a large sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Cricket Meehan, D

    2010-12-01

    The current study examines risk and protective factors for youth antisocial personality and behavior from a multivariate format. It is hoped that this research will elucidate those risk and protective factors most important for focus of future prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examines multiple factors associated with youth antisocial traits and behavior in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the strongest and most consistent risk or protective factors. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System's (YRBSS) school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency, drug use and negative community influences as predictive of antisocial traits. Schools and families functioned as protective factors. Youth who fought frequently tended to be male, antisocial, dug using, depressed, and associated with delinquent peers. Weapons carrying was most common among drug using, antisocial males. Television and video game use were not predictive of antisocial, fighting or weapons carrying outcomes. Developmental patterns across age ranges regarding the relative importance of specific risk factors were also examined. Strategies for intervention and prevention of youth violence that focus on peers, neighborhoods, depression, and families may be particularly likely to bear fruit. PMID:20405321

  18. Absolute Navigation Performance of the Orion Exploration Fight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Holt, Greg; Gay, Robert; D'Souza, Christopher; Sud, Jastesh

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to stress the system by placing the un-crewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs UDU factorization. The performance of the navigation system during flight is presented to substantiate the design.

  19. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin - isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis - and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  20. Fighting for water in the West. United States.

    PubMed

    Hinchman, S

    1993-01-01

    The US West has more and better engineered dams, reservoirs, canals, pipelines, and water treatment plants than have ever existed in history. People in this region, however, continually worry about a water shortage, because of the West is desert. The giant public works program brings water where it is needed, resulting in the West being the fastest growing region this century. The people are overdrafting aquifers. The rivers and streams are drying up. For example, the Colorado river draining 20% of the West, but it not longer reaches the sea because its water is diverted to urban and agricultural water projects. The West is also experiencing erosion and desertification, loss of wetlands and riparian habitat and wildlife, water pollution, crop failures, and drought and water shortages. Irrigation of marginal lands brings million of tons of salt into the river systems. Bureau of Reclamation water projects are contaminating surrounding areas. Not enough water exists in the West to sustain the current pace of development. Farmers remove enough water from the Ogallala aquifer each year that its level falls 4-6 feet each year, but nature restores only a level of 0.5 inches. A 6-year drought in California has resulted in forced strict water rationing in Los Angeles and San Diego. A wave of new immigrants forces the West to learn either to use less water, to redistribute existing supplies, or to block further population growth. Denver, Colorado, has installed water meters and forces residents to install efficient toilets and shower heads, to replace lawns with artificial grass, and to implement billing systems that discourage excessive water use. Other areas are also starting conservation efforts. Cities, farmers, Indian tribes, the US Forest Service, and environmental groups are fighting over water rights, increasing the price of water. Endangered fish, loss of wetlands and riparian habitat, erosion of river banks, and water pollution are factors limiting economic growth

  1. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  2. B-Cell-Mediated Strategies to Fight Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of “tolerant” vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft

  3. [Contribution of nutritional support to fight cancer cachexia].

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Puiggrós, C; Redecillas, S

    2006-05-01

    To increase dietary intake and to fight anorexia several measures to treat symptoms and administer the most adequate diet according to composition, texture and flavour are proposed. However, in the anorexia-caquexia present in cancer patients not always these measures are effective. Now a day it seems more reasonable to approach this problem with different strategies directed to modulate the pathologic alterations associated. The analysis of specific nutritional support as part as the treatment of these patients from a systematic review conclude that no high methodological quality studies to analyze the impact of oral supplementation on a specific group of patients, neither the study of functional effects are done. However, an increase in the total energy intake, not maintained over the time, was observed. The effects on weight and corporal composition are variable, with small differences between groups with o without supplementation and confuse due to, mainly, the heterogeneity of the patients included in the different studies analyzed. The analysis of the effects of nutritional supplements administered by enteral feeding shown an increase in the energy intake with an increase in body weight or a lack of decrease it, and with some functional and clinical beneficial effects. Despite the results and conclusions obtained, a strong recommendation to conduct clinical trials in specific group of cancer patients with different antineoplasic treatment seems necessary. N-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid may have anticachectic properties. Although further trials are necessary the limited results available suggests that nutritional supplements enriched with EPA may reverse cachexia in cancer patients. PMID:16768028

  4. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  5. Fighting against cigarette smoking among medical students: a success story.

    PubMed

    İçli, Fikri; Calışkan, Deniz; Gönüllü, Uğur; Sunguroğlu, Kadirhan; Akdur, Recep; Akbulut, Hakan; Özkan, Asiye; Ölmez, Senay; Gönüllü, İpek; İbiş, Erkan

    2014-09-01

    A survey in the year 2007 among medical students of Ankara University Medical School to assess the smoking rates showed that 25.1 % of them were smoking. Moreover, the smoking rate was 35 % at sixth grade students and 60 % of the smokers specified that they started smoking at medical school. This report provides a successful approach to decrease smoking among medical students by measures against starting smoking. An "Antismoking Group" composed of voluntary academic staff, nurses, students, psychologists, and a social worker of the medical school was established to engage in lowering the smoking rate and eliminating it eventually among our students. Several methods including regular monthly meetings, annual "Smoking or Health" symposiums, and lectures to first, second, and third grade students to increase their awareness related to harms of smoking and their role in the fight against smoking were carried out. Our surveys in the years 2009 (641 students) and 2012 (975 students) showed that total smoking rates dropped to 15.0 and 11.0 %, respectively (p < 0.0002). Moreover, the smoking rate for the sixth grade students dropped from 35.0 % in 2007 to 21.8 and 8.8 % in the years 2009 and 2012, respectively (p < 0.0002). In 2012, the smoking rates of first year and sixth year students were 7.8 and 9.0 %, respectively. These close rates of smoking at the first and last years of medical school training and the significant drop in smoking rates in 5 years confirm that our group pursued a realistic and successful strategy against smoking. PMID:24189831

  6. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  7. Fighting Crime by Fighting Misconceptions and Blind Spots in Policy Theories: An Evidence-Based Evaluation of Interventions and Assumed Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Noije, Lonneke; Wittebrood, Karin

    2010-01-01

    How effective are policy interventions to fight crime and how valid is the policy theory that underlies them? This is the twofold research question addressed in this article, which presents an evidence-based evaluation of Dutch social safety policy. By bridging the gap between actual effects and assumed effects, this study seeks to make fuller use…

  8. A non-social and isolate rearing condition induces an irreversible shift toward continued fights in the male fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tamako; Ichikawa, Yoko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2004-07-01

    Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources. PMID:15277715

  9. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. Objectives We aimed to: 1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and 2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. Methods We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13–20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Results Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N=232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1–9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.0 and 1.1–3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. Conclusions/Importance Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes. PMID:25612075

  10. Metabolic consequences of agonistic behaviour: crab fights in declining oxygen tensions.

    PubMed

    Sneddon; Taylor; Huntingford

    1999-02-01

    The energetic consequences of fighting, which may depend on environmental conditions, can be an important factor shaping contest strategy and duration. Energy expenditure may be costly to fitness because it depletes reserves that could otherwise have been allocated to reproduction, and metabolites are produced that may constrain subsequent activities. We examined the variation in the metabolic consequences of fighting in relation to hypoxia. Contests were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas L., under a range of water oxygen tensions (between 10 and 100% oxygen saturation) which crabs experience in their natural habitat. Fighting under normoxic and hypoxic conditions resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of haemolymph metabolites (L-lactate and glucose) compared with crabs at rest. However, these concentrations were much lower than in crabs that had been walking on a treadmill. Glycogen concentrations differed only under hypoxic conditions: glycogen stores were reduced in crabs after fighting and this reduction was similar to that after exercise on a treadmill. Contests were shorter when they were staged below a water P o2of 6.7 kPa ( approximately 30% normoxia). As water oxygen tensions were reduced, fighting crabs had greater concentrations of L-lactate and glucose in their blood and tissues whilst glycogen stores were reduced. Fights became shorter when crabs were exposed to severe hypoxia (P o2=2 kPa) for increasing lengths of time, and blood L-lactate concentrations increased. The results suggest that as fights progressed, crabs experienced an increasing metabolic debt, in the form of accumulation of L-lactate and a reduction in energy stores, which was amplified by hypoxic conditions. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10049475

  11. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  12. Simple and efficient synthesis of a Nd:LaAlO3 NIR nanophosphor from rare earth alkoxo-monoaluminates Ln2Al2(O(i)Pr)12((i)PrOH)2 single source precursors by Bradley reaction.

    PubMed

    Pazik, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Gohil, Suresh; Wiglusz, Rafal; Kepiński, Leszek; Strek, Wieslaw; Kessler, Vadim G

    2010-03-15

    Nanoparticles of a Nd-doped LaAlO(3) perovskite can be obtained rapidly and with quantitative yield using the Bradley (ether elimination) treatment of a mixture of individual Ln(2)Al(2)(O(i)Pr)(12)((i)PrOH)(2), Ln = La, Nd, in acetophenone. The initially produced particles are poorly crystalline, but their crystallinity improves strongly on heating to 800 degrees C, which leads also to a controllable aggregation. The prepared nanoparticles are rather solution stable and can easily be surface-modified, which opens prospects for their use as phosphors in bioimaging applications. The precursors, bimetallic isopropoxides of rare earth elements and aluminum with a 1:1 composition, Ln(2)Al(2)(O(i)Pr)(12)((i)PrOH)(2), can be prepared with high yields via direct dissolution of metallic lanthanoids in a solution of aluminum isopropoxide in a toluene-isopropanol medium or through a short time reflux of "Ln(O(i)Pr)(3)" with 1 equiv of Al(O(i)Pr)(3) in toluene. In spite of good volatility and their proper composition, the Ln(2)Al(2)(O(i)Pr)(12)((i)PrOH)(2), Ln = La, Nd, do not act as single-source precursors in MOCVD, because of their quantitative transformation into LnAl(3)(O(i)Pr)(12) together with Ln(5)O(O(i)Pr)(13) on evaporation. These molecules are, however, present intact in solution according to variable temperature NMR studies, which permits application of them successfully as single source precursors in the synthesis of Ln:LaAlO(3) perovskite nanopowders with compositions thoroughly controlled through the conditions of the synthesis. Luminescent properties of the Nd:LaAlO(3) were examined and discussed in detail. The thermal population of the (4)F(5/2) and (2)H(9/2) states was found as a consequence of the grain size effect causing difficulties in heat dissipation. Moreover, luminescence behavior of the powder annealed at a lowest temperature shows well-defined short-range order. PMID:20141181

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Background Interpersonal physical violence is an important global public health concern that has received limited attention in the developing world. There is in particular a paucity of data regarding physical violence and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Namibia. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05)). Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45); OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81); OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81); and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72), respectively). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98)). Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use) were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81) for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73) for females). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99)). Conclusion Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past 12 months

  14. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  15. Pushing through evolution? Incidence and fight records of left-oriented fighters in professional boxing history.

    PubMed

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ratings of professional boxing from 1924 to 2012. Unexpectedly, left-oriented boxers were overrepresented in no more than 7 of the 89 years considered, their percentages varied up to 30% and increased over the entire period, and frequencies varied substantially between weight divisions. In support of the fighting hypothesis, lose-win ratios indicated larger fighting strength in left- compared to right-oriented boxers, which, however, was not reflected in different proportions of wins and losses by knockout. Our findings are partly consistent with an assumed left-oriented fighters' advantage in combat sports. Such advantage could be explained by negative frequency-dependent selection mechanisms; however, our study also revealed potential limits of the fighting hypothesis such that alternative explanations cannot be fully excluded. We propose that interference by factors not related to performance could also limit the suitability of data from elite sporting competition for testing evolutionary models of human handedness. PMID:25256071

  16. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from motor vehicle crashes. Trying to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  18. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  19. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  20. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  1. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  2. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  3. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  4. The developmental onset of a rudimentary form of play fighting in C57 mice.

    PubMed

    Pellis, S M; Pasztor, T J

    1999-04-01

    Play fighting in its most elaborate form involves nonagonistic wrestling between pairmates, where one partner grabs, holds, bites, or otherwise contacts the other. Such play occurs in the absence of the functional consequences associated with serious fighting (e.g., resource acquisition or protection). Typically, the biting, nosing, or grooming contact during play fighting is directed at specific body targets. House mice have been classified as a species that lacks such play, even though play fighting is present in closely related species such as the rat. In this study, six litters of C57 mice were observed daily from the week before weaning until the week after weaning (15-30 days postnatally). Thirty-min videotaped records were collected daily for each litter. Consistent with other studies, over 85% of all play involved locomotor play, and most of the social play involved noncontact locomotion (86%). However, a rudimentary pattern of the "attack and defense" typical of play fighting was found to occur, albeit at a low frequency (2% of all play). Most playful attacks involved snout contact with the partner's rump, but evidence is provided that suggests that this rump contact may be transitory, with the nape area being the primary target for play. Most of the playful attacks elicited playful defense (97%), which in all cases involved the defender evading such contact by leaping or running away, or by dodging laterally away from the attacker. Therefore, there appears to be directed playful attacks in this species, with defense limited to evasion. Defensive tactics leading to wrestling were never observed. That is, play fighting in mice involves only a small subset of what other species, such as rats, exhibit. Nonetheless, the basic components of attack and defense are present in mice. PMID:10204093

  5. You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault.

    PubMed

    Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case. PMID:23145232

  6. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  7. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  8. We can fight smog without breaking the bank

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.

    1994-10-03

    Despite increased regulation and public interest, effective air pollution control remains ellusive. One of the primary air pollution problems is ozone-based smog, which afflicts an increasing number of metropolitan areas. At present, ozone levels in 93 cities violate existing federal regulations for safe air. These problems come at a time when there is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that these federal standards need to be revised downward. In the northeastern US, advocates of smog reduction are calling for the forced introduction of cleaner vehicles, including electric cars. However, these measures aimed at reducing VOC emissions may prove too costly to implement effectively. Emphasis should, instead, be placed on reducing the emission of nitrogen oxides.

  9. STS-47 crewmembers and backups during JSC fire fighting exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers led by Commander Robert L. Gibson (center) prepare to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit. Lined up along the water hoses are: (on left) Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr; and (on right) backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, MS N. Jan Davis, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran fire fighter and the instructor, positioned between the two hoses, looks on. Mohri and Mukai represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  10. High-Volume Airborne Fluids Handling Technologies to Fight Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Mark; Cox, Timothy; Hale, Cliff; Hatton, Rick

    2010-01-01

    specific wildfire situation. The system was manufactured by Jordan Air of Central Point, OR, and was installed by Victorville Aerospace in Victorville, CA. It can deliver 12,000 gallons (45.4 kL) of retardant in as little as eight seconds. The aircraft can deliver a partial load of retardant and make multiple drops on the same flight, or the entire load can be rapidly delivered in one pass if required for maximum coverage. The Evergreen 747 uses internal tankage and a pressurized delivery system to enable volume and coverage levels that also meet USFS requirements, but enables computer control of flow for desired precision. This system was designed and built by Adaptive Aerospace of Tehachapi, CA and can deliver about 20,000 gallons (75.7 kL) of retardant in approximately ten seconds. The 747 can also make multiple independent drops, or deliver the entire load at once. NASA found that both of these VLAT aircraft are compatible with the wildfire suppression mission when used to supplement other aerial retardant delivery platforms. The major recommendations for deployment that resulted from this study relate to terrain clearance, the type of terrain in the drop area, availability of qualified lead planes to guide the VLAT approach to the drop area, and low-altitude maneuvering limitations. NASA s analysis suggests that with the appropriate flight procedures, these aircraft will provide a powerful set of tools to fight wildfires.

  11. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  12. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  13. The "Industrial Worker" and Its Rhetoric: Working Class Identification in the San Diego Free Speech Fight of 1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jerilyn

    A study examined the news coverage given by the "Industrial Worker" to the San Diego free speech fight of 1912, the last of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union's free speech fights on the West Coast. The "Worker," a publication of the IWW, devoted columns of coverage to that conflict in the form of reports, letters, editorials,…

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  16. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  17. Exploring the Social-Ecological Determinants of Physical Fighting in U.S. Schools: What about Youth in Immigrant Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J.; Peguero, Anthony A.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio; Lee, Na Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing presence of immigrant families in the US, little is known about physical fighting in school among youth from those families. Objective: The present study examines the social-ecological determinants of school physical fighting among youth in immigrant families. Implications for practice are also discussed. Method:…

  18. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  19. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  20. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  1. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  2. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  3. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  4. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane indicate that the airplane has not been shown to comply with the noise limits under part 36 of this...

  5. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

  6. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  7. Conflict, Provocation and Fights among Boys in a South African High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlall, Vijay; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Boys are commonly associated with disruptive behaviour and physical fighting at school. Explanations for this behaviour range from naturalistic "boys will be boys" approaches to analyses which focus on the social construction of masculinity and emphasise the gendered nature of boys' behaviour. Whichever view holds sway, it is often assumed that…

  8. Giving Women the Vote: Using Primary Source Documents to Teach about the Fight for Women's Suffrage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students use primary sources to learn about the organizing strategies used in the fight for women's suffrage. These sources will provide insights into the past and help students develop appreciation for the hardships suffragists endured. Includes objectives, procedures, and suggestions for activities. (LS)

  9. It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes Beta-lactamase enzymes are well studied because of their tremendous impact on medicine. Their prominent role is in resistance to beta-lactam (four membered lactam ring) antibiotics including the first and most famous fungally d...

  10. Fighting for Life in the Academy: Solutions to Gender Relationships from a Historical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Dennis L.

    Misunderstandings across communication situations frequently occur due to gender differences in communication styles, differences in either meanings or values attached to the linguistic symbols used to convey a message. An analysis of communication in the classroom based on Walter J. Ong's educational history, "Fighting for Life Contest,…

  11. Date Fighting Experiences among College Students: Are They Associated with Other Health-Risk Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Robert; Champion, Heather; Wolfson, Mark; Omli, Morrow; McCoy, Thomas; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Wagoner, Kim; Mitra, Ananda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the clustering of health-risk behaviors among college students who reported date fight involvement. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey to a stratified random sample of 3,920 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. Results: Among men, 5.6% reported date fight…

  12. Hey! Bankers! Leave Those Kids Alone: The Fight to Save Islington Green School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The author traces the history of the campaign to stop Islington Green School being closed and turned into an academy specialising in business and financial services. Although the campaign, after a number of successes now looks as if it might fail in its immediate objective, the author argues that the battle was still worth fighting because of the…

  13. The Use Value of "Fight Club" in Teaching Theories of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching theories and methods for the academic study of religion poses certain challenges, especially when first-year students are the primary targeted audience. In the following note from the classroom, the author describes a model for successfully employing the film "Fight Club" as a case study for exploring some of the theoretical concepts of…

  14. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  15. Peering into the dynamics of social interactions: measuring play fighting in rats.

    PubMed

    Himmler, Brett T; Pellis, Vivien C; Pellis, Sergio M

    2013-01-01

    Play fighting in the rat involves attack and defense of the nape of the neck, which if contacted, is gently nuzzled with the snout. Because the movements of one animal are countered by the actions of its partner, play fighting is a complex, dynamic interaction. This dynamic complexity raises methodological problems about what to score for experimental studies. We present a scoring schema that is sensitive to the correlated nature of the actions performed. The frequency of play fighting can be measured by counting the number of playful nape attacks occurring per unit time. However, playful defense, as it can only occur in response to attack, is necessarily a contingent measure that is best measured as a percentage (#attacks defended/total # attacks X 100%). How a particular attack is defended against can involve one of several tactics, and these are contingent on defense having taken place; consequently, the type of defense is also best expressed contingently as a percentage. Two experiments illustrate how these measurements can be used to detect the effect of brain damage on play fighting even when there is no effect on overall playfulness. That is, the schema presented here is designed to detect and evaluate changes in the content of play following an experimental treatment. PMID:23353923

  16. Cage-Fighting Bees: Can Aggressive Competition Increase Pollination Efficacy for an Oligolectic Native Bee?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollination efficacy of the oligolectic bee Ptilothrix bombiformis was measured as the number of pollen grains delivered to virgin Hibiscus stigmas. Such specialized bee foragers are often assumed to be highly efficient pollinators. Intriguingly, however, we discovered females fight over host blooms...

  17. Educational Targeting in the Fight against Poverty: Limits, Omissions and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina

    2008-01-01

    Educational targeting has become one of the hegemonic mechanisms in the fight against poverty. Both international organisms and developing countries support targeting as one of the best strategies in order to simultaneously guarantee poverty reduction and economic growth, and consequently to tackle the challenges generated by globalisation. The…

  18. Action at the Grassroots: Fighting Poverty and Environmental Decline. Worldwatch Paper 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Alan B.

    There are many forces of environmental and economic decline that endanger our communities and planet. These have caused a global threat which is very complex. The pressure to feed increasing numbers of people helps cause high rates of topsoil loss which results in decreased agricultural productivity. As poorer nations attempt to fight these…

  19. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  20. CDC Awards $2.4M to 5 Locales to Fight Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards $2.4M to 5 Locales to Fight Zika The goal: To assist in monitoring and dealing with Zika-related birth defects To use the sharing features ... Prevention to assist in monitoring and dealing with Zika virus-related birth defects, the agency said Friday. ...

  1. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs. PMID:22307443

  2. The Wobblie's Free Speech Fights: A Case Study in 20th Century Revolutionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Terry W.

    This paper examines the free speech fights, one of the more revolutionary tactics of the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.), founded in 1905 by a small group of socialists, anarchists, industrial unionists, and dissident trade unionists. Two considerations guide this examination. The first is the rhetorical nature of the free speech fight…

  3. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  5. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  7. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  8. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  9. Blue Bay: A Tribal Approach to Fighting Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Our Way of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    The best means for fighting alcohol abuse in a Native American community is one that has been developed by the community itself. The Blue Bay Healing Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana) is an example of two tribes taking responsibility for alcoholism and its control. In designing and…

  10. Fighting Domestic and International Fraud in the Admissions and Registrar's Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Ann M.; Devlin, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The education sector is no stranger to fraud, unfortunately. This article provides best practice guidance in recognizing and dealing with fraud, with emphasis on domestic and international academic credential fraud. It includes practical approaches to academic document review and verification. Success in fighting fraud requires becoming informed,…

  11. The "Fighting Sioux" Conflict: Lessons on Social Justice for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amy; Rice, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Conflict over the University of North Dakota's (UND) "Fighting Sioux" logo and nickname has been protracted and bitter, lasting over 40 years. This article presents four explanations for UND's status as one of the last universities to maintain a Native American nickname and logo: the dynamics of racism, the power of booster culture, North Dakota…

  12. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  13. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35% versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24% versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16% versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact. PMID:25352527

  14. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Noise operating limitations. 91.815 Section 91.815 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating... indicate that the airplane has not been shown to comply with the noise limits under part 36 of this...

  15. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact. PMID:25352527

  16. Making Socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the Fight for Knowledge and Power, 1855-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book, "Women and…

  17. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

  18. Impaired sperm quality, delayed mating but no costs for offspring fitness in crickets winning a fight.

    PubMed

    Tuni, C; Perdigón Ferreira, J; Fritz, Y; Munoz Meneses, A; Gasparini, C

    2016-08-01

    The outcome of male-male contest competition is known to affect male mating success and is believed to confer fitness benefits to females through preference for dominant males. However, by mating with contest winners, females can incur significant costs spanning from decreased fecundity to negative effects on offspring. Hence, identifying costs and benefits of male dominance on female fitness is crucial to unravel the potential for a conflict of interests between the sexes. Here, we investigated males' pre- and post-copulatory reproductive investment and its effect on female fitness after a single contest a using the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We allowed males to fight and immediately measured their mating behaviour, sperm quality and offspring viability. We found that males experiencing a fight, independently of the outcome, delayed matings, but their courtship effort was not affected. However, winners produced sperm of lower quality (viability) compared to losers and to males that did not experience fighting. Results suggest a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and post-mating episodes of sexual selection. Despite lower ejaculate quality, we found no fitness costs (fecundity and viability of offspring) for females mated to winners. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of considering fighting ability when assessing male reproductive success, as winners may be impaired in their competitiveness at a post-mating level. PMID:27116908

  19. Patriarchy and the "Fighting Sioux": A Gendered Look at Racial College Sports Nicknames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article explores…

  20. Reconsiderations: Anonymity and Violence--Jane Tompkins's "Fighting Words" Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In her influential 1988 essay, "Fighting Words," Jane Tompkins argued that the arguments typically made by literary critics are characterized by an aggressive competitiveness that amounts to violence. But, as Tompkins's own rhetorical strategies demonstrate, at least as deplorable are the practices whereby critics render certain people anonymous.…

  1. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  2. Vehicle speed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, D.; Tanno, T.; Fukunaga, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a vehicle speed control system for performing vehicle speed control by controlling the displacement of at least one of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor of a hydraulic transmission through an electric servo device, comprising: vehicle speed setting means for generating a voltage signal corresponding to a vehicle speed to be set; compensating means interposed between the vehicle speed setting means and the electric servo device, the compensating means comprising a first delay element; and second delay element having a response characteristic slower than that of the first delay element. A selecting means for judging as to whether a voltage signal changed by the operation of the vehicle speed setting means represents an acceleration command or a deceleration command and for selecting the first delay element when the voltage signal represents an acceleration command and for selecting the second delay element when the voltage signal represents a deceleration command.

  3. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  4. Assessment of fight outcome is needed to activate socially driven transcriptional changes in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rui F.; Simões, José M.; Teles, Magda C.; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Lopes, João S.

    2016-01-01

    Group living animals must be able to express different behavior profiles depending on their social status. Therefore, the same genotype may translate into different behavioral phenotypes through socially driven differential gene expression. However, how social information is translated into a neurogenomic response and what are the specific cues in a social interaction that signal a change in social status are questions that have remained unanswered. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that the switch between status-specific neurogenomic states relies on the assessment of fight outcome rather than just on self- or opponent-only assessment of fighting ability. For this purpose, we manipulated the perception of fight outcome in male zebrafish and measured its impact on the brain transcriptome using a zebrafish whole genome gene chip. Males fought either a real opponent, and a winner and a loser were identified, or their own image on a mirror, in which case, despite expressing aggressive behavior, males did not experience either a victory or a defeat. Massive changes in the brain transcriptome were observed in real opponent fighters, with losers displaying both a higher number of differentially expressed genes and of coexpressed gene modules than winners. In contrast, mirror fighters expressed a neurogenomic state similar to that of noninteracting fish. The genes that responded to fight outcome included immediate early genes and genes involved in neuroplasticity and epigenetic modifications. These results indicate that, even in cognitively simple organisms such as zebrafish, neurogenomic responses underlying changes in social status rely on mutual assessment of fighting ability. PMID:26787876

  5. Assessment of fight outcome is needed to activate socially driven transcriptional changes in the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui F; Simões, José M; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Catarina R; Becker, Jorg D; Lopes, João S

    2016-02-01

    Group living animals must be able to express different behavior profiles depending on their social status. Therefore, the same genotype may translate into different behavioral phenotypes through socially driven differential gene expression. However, how social information is translated into a neurogenomic response and what are the specific cues in a social interaction that signal a change in social status are questions that have remained unanswered. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that the switch between status-specific neurogenomic states relies on the assessment of fight outcome rather than just on self- or opponent-only assessment of fighting ability. For this purpose, we manipulated the perception of fight outcome in male zebrafish and measured its impact on the brain transcriptome using a zebrafish whole genome gene chip. Males fought either a real opponent, and a winner and a loser were identified, or their own image on a mirror, in which case, despite expressing aggressive behavior, males did not experience either a victory or a defeat. Massive changes in the brain transcriptome were observed in real opponent fighters, with losers displaying both a higher number of differentially expressed genes and of coexpressed gene modules than winners. In contrast, mirror fighters expressed a neurogenomic state similar to that of noninteracting fish. The genes that responded to fight outcome included immediate early genes and genes involved in neuroplasticity and epigenetic modifications. These results indicate that, even in cognitively simple organisms such as zebrafish, neurogenomic responses underlying changes in social status rely on mutual assessment of fighting ability. PMID:26787876

  6. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  7. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    PubMed

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  8. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  9. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  10. Affordable thermal imaging systems for the UK light-armored vehicle fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the planned upgrade of the UK Light Armoured Vehicle fleet, focussing specifically on the introduction of Thermal Imaging and Tactical Navigation systems which meet the requirement to conduct 24 hour operations and enhance the situational awareness of the crew. The main bulk of the paper will concentrate on the Battle Group Thermal Imaging (BGTI) system(s) selected by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to be installed on the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and Scimitar Close Recce vehicle. In particular the paper will describe the Gunners Sight, the integrated Commanders Crew Station, the Tactical Navigation sub-system and the interfacing of the Thales Optronics BGTI system to the General Dynamics Bowman Radio and Battlefield Management System (BMS). Throughout the paper, the Author will make reference to the need to offer affordable solutions that ensure the total cost to the UK MoD is kept within their budget.

  11. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender) were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females) reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females) reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001). Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use), and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence". PMID:19939261

  12. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  13. Metabolic and hormonal responses to a single session of kumite (free non-contact fight) and kata (highly ritualized fight) in karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Benedini, S; Longo, S; Caumo, A; Luzi, L; Invernizzi, P L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies report martial arts as a good model for investigating neuroendocrine responses to competitive fighting. However, little is known on the metabolic responses elicited by elite athletes during fighting. In particular, the metabolic picture in elite athletes of martial arts is little known. AIM: In the present study, our aim was to investigate the acute effects of a session of karate practice on the glucose-insulin system. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten healthy individuals (6M/4F; BMI: 22.1 ± 0.7 kg/m(2); 21.9 ± 1.1 years, mean ± SE) who practice karate in national or international competitions were enrolled. All participants completed two experimental trials in a randomised-crossover fashion. A basal blood sample was collected from each athlete to assess plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, testosterone and catecholamines, before karate training session. In two separate days, another blood sample was collected from each participants after 3 min of real fighting (kumite) and 3 min of ritualized simulation of combat (kata). RESULTS: In both trials, plasma glucose resulted to be higher at the end the of performance compared to the basal (p < 0.001 after kumite and p < 0.02 after kata). In contrast, insulin was similar in the basal and after physical activity in the two trials. Catecholamines were higher after kata and kumite sessions with respect to the basal values (p < 0.04) and, in particular, epinephrine post-kumite values were much greater than those measured after kata. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that unlike performances of karate (kumite and kata) elicit different plasma glucose increases. In particular, we found that glucose and epinephrine concentrations increased more after kumite than after kata. PMID:23440907

  14. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  15. Electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains proceedings on electric vehicle technology. Topics covered include: flow-by lead-acid---improving the performance standard for EV battery systems; Townobile purpose-built electric commuter cars, vans and mini-buses; An electric van with extended range; and The future of electric vehicles in meeting the air quality challenges in Southern California.

  16. Launch Vehicle Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, E. E.; Geye, R. P.

    1970-01-01

    The Thorad-Agena is a two-stage launch vehicle consisting of a Thorad first-stage and an Agena second-stage, connected by a booster adapter. The composite vehicle, including the shroud and the booster adapter, is about 33 meters (109 ft) long. The total weight at lift-off is approximately 91 625 kilograms (202 000 lbm).

  17. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  18. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  19. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  20. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  1. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  2. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  3. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  4. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  5. Vehicle track loading simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupa, Milan; Severa, Libor; Vlach, Radek

    2011-12-01

    The paper describes possible design of the vehicle track computational model and basic testing procedure of the track dynamic loading simulation. The proposed approach leads to an improvement of track vehicle course stability. The computational model is built for MSC. ADAMS, AVT computational simulating system. Model, which is intended for MSC computational system, is built from two basic parts. The first one is represented by geometrical part, while the second one by contact computational part of the model. The aim of the simulating calculation consist in determination of change influence of specific vehicle track constructive parameters on changes of examined qualities of the vehicle track link and changes of track vehicle course stability. The work quantifies the influence of changes of track preloading values on the demanded torque changes of driving sprocket. Further research possibilities and potential are also presented.

  6. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  7. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  8. EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

  9. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  10. Investigating Actuation Force Fight with Asynchronous and Synchronous Redundancy Management Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin; Schweiker, Kevin; Dutertre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Within distributed fault-tolerant systems the term force-fight is colloquially used to describe the level of command disagreement present at redundant actuation interfaces. This report details an investigation of force-fight using three distributed system case-study architectures. Each case study architecture is abstracted and formally modeled using the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) tool chain from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). We use the formal SAL models to produce k-induction based proofs of a bounded actuation agreement property. We also present a mathematically derived bound of redundant actuation agreement for sine-wave stimulus. The report documents our experiences and lessons learned developing the formal models and the associated proofs.

  11. Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization. PMID:25782677

  12. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  13. Electric vehicle activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonaco, J. L.; Pandya, D. A.

    1995-02-01

    The data and information collected for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE&G) electric vehicle demonstration program were intended to support and enhance DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Site Operator Program. The DOE Site Operator Program is focused on the life cycle and reliability of Electric Vehicles (EV's). Of particular interest are vehicles currently available with features that are likely to be put into production or demonstrate new technology. PSE&G acquired eight GMC Electric G-Vans in 1991, and three TEVans in 1993, and conducted a program plan to test and assess the overall performance of these electric vehicles. To accomplish the objectives of DOE's Site Operator's test program, a manual data collection system was implemented. The manual data collection system has provided energy use and mileage data. From September 1991 to October 1994 PSE&G logged 69,368 miles on eleven test vehicles. PSE&G also demonstrated the EVs to diverse groups and associations at fifty seven various events. Included in the report are lessons learned concerning maintenance, operation, public reactions, and driver's acceptance of the electric vehicles.

  14. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  15. An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and ‘spiteful acts’ and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing

  16. An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange.

    PubMed

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and 'spiteful acts' and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing data

  17. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    PubMed

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics. PMID:25773467

  18. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, P<0.05); (2) ΔCR-10 and Δ[La] (T1-T2: r = .71, P< 0.05; T2-T3: r =0.92, P<0.01; T3-T4: r =0.73, P<0.05). Moreover, significant differences were noted in the behavior of the HR between the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) judo fight simulations (P<0.05). Conclusion The use of CR-10 in the evaluation process, as well as in deciding the load of training in judo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  19. Functional response and population dynamics for fighting predator, based on activity distribution.

    PubMed

    Garay, József; Varga, Zoltán; Gámez, Manuel; Cabello, Tomás

    2015-03-01

    The classical Holling type II functional response, describing the per capita predation as a function of prey density, was modified by Beddington and de Angelis to include interference of predators that increases with predator density and decreases the number of killed prey. In the present paper we further generalize the Beddington-de Angelis functional response, considering that all predator activities (searching and handling prey, fight and recovery) have time duration, the probabilities of predator activities depend on the encounter probabilities, and hence on the prey and predator abundance, too. Under these conditions, the aim of the study is to introduce a functional response for fighting the predator and to analyse the corresponding dynamics, when predator-predator-prey encounters also occur. From this general approach, the Holling type functional responses can also be obtained as particular cases. In terms of the activity distribution, we give biologically interpretable sufficient conditions for stable coexistence. We consider two-individual (predator-prey) and three-individual (predator-predator-prey) encounters. In the three-individual encounter model there is a relatively higher fighting rate and a lower killing rate. Using numerical simulation, we surprisingly found that when the intrinsic prey growth rate and the conversion rate are small enough, the equilibrium predator abundance is higher in the three-individual encounter case. The above means that, when the equilibrium abundance of the predator is small, coexistence appears first in the three-individual encounter model. PMID:25556688

  20. Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2006-06-22

    Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld. PMID:16777752

  1. Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2006-01-01

    Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld. PMID:16777752

  2. Strategies to Fight Stigma toward People with Mental Disorders: Perspectives from Different Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Corbière, Marc; Samson, Esther; Villotti, Patrizia; Pelletier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide a more complete and exhaustive perspective on the whole range of potential strategies to fight stigma by considering the perspectives of different stakeholders. Delegates to a Canadian conference were invited to participate in a survey that focused on stigma, from which the responses to the following question were analyzed: tell us briefly what you do to reduce prejudice and stigma toward people with a diagnosis of mental disorder? From 253 participants, 15 categories of strategies to fight stigma were identified from the verbatim (e.g., sharing/encouraging disclosure). These categories fell under six main themes: education, contact, protestation, person centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. The occurrence of these themes was different among stakeholders (clinical, organizational, and experiential knowledge). For example, people with mental disorders (experiential knowledge) often mentioned contact and person centered strategies, while mental health professionals (clinical knowledge) preferred education and working on recovery and social inclusion strategies. The results from this study highlight the need to pay more attention to the concept of disclosure of mental disorders in the process for de-stigmatization. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the emerging strategies to fight stigma in the community. PMID:23093913

  3. Data Association and Bullet Tracking Algorithms for the Fight Sight Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Breitfeller, E; Roberts, R

    2005-10-07

    Previous LLNL investigators developed a bullet and projectile tracking system over a decade ago. Renewed interest in the technology has spawned research that culminated in a live-fire experiment, called Fight Sight, in September 2005. The experiment was more complex than previous LLNL bullet tracking experiments in that it included multiple shooters with simultaneous fire, new sensor-shooter geometries, large amounts of optical clutter, and greatly increased sensor-shooter distances. This presentation describes the data association and tracking algorithms for the Fight Sight experiment. Image processing applied to the imagery yields a sequence of bullet features which are input to a data association routine. The data association routine matches features with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. The Kalman filter is also used to back-track bullets to their point of origin, thereby revealing the location of the shooter. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. In addition to describing the data association and tracking algorithms, several examples from the Fight Sight experiment are also presented.

  4. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Selection in species with aggressive social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidability (fighting ability or resource-holding potential). The ability to accurately assess formidability in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we report tests supporting the hypothesis that the human cognitive architecture includes mechanisms that assess fighting ability—mechanisms that focus on correlates of upper-body strength. Across diverse samples of targets that included US college students, Bolivian horticulturalists and Andean pastoralists, subjects in the US were able to accurately estimate the physical strength of male targets from photos of their bodies and faces. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that subjects were extracting cues of strength that were largely independent of height, weight and age, and that corresponded most strongly to objective measures of upper-body strength—even when the face was all that was available for inspection. Estimates of women's strength were less accurate, but still significant. These studies are the first empirical demonstration that, for humans, judgements of strength and judgements of fighting ability not only track each other, but accurately track actual upper-body strength. PMID:18945661

  5. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  6. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  7. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  8. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  9. Compact Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1993-01-01

    Radio-controlled microrover features light weight and agility. Miniature robotic vehicle, called Go-For, implements new fork-wheeled mobility concept to traverse extremely rough terrain. Weighs 4 kg and is 0.4 m long, climbs over obstacles as large as 60 percent of its length. Mobility concept applied to much larger vehicles. Demonstrates such applications as exploration of planetary surfaces, military surveillance, and assessing hazardous situations. Video camera on vehicle sends images to control station, where human supervisor chooses sequence of paths to traverse to reach locations of interest. For planetary exploration, spectrometer and seisometer on vehicle sends scientific data to control station, and onboard tools collect soil and rock samples. Terrestrial version equipped similarly to take samples in chemically and/or biologically contaminated areas.

  10. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  11. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  12. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  13. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  15. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  16. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  17. Hybrid vehicle control

    SciTech Connect

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Program Planning

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program’s strategic goal is to develop sustainable, cost-competitive technologies to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, increase fuel efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the Nation's energy security.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  20. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  2. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  3. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  4. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  5. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  6. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  7. Vehicle performance computer

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, R.D.

    1987-07-14

    A vehicle performance computer is described in the form of a circular slide rule for determining the relationship between the vehicle performance parameters of time, distance, braking, coasting, and acceleration as a function of vehicle weight, horsepower, speed, and roadway percent grade, the computer comprising: substantially planar base having a center and also including: a first logarithmic scale arcuately disposed about the base center and having indicia associated representing the speed of the vehicle; a second logarithmic scale arcuately disposed in a predetermined position with respect to the first logarithmic scale and having indicia associated representing the weight-to-horsepower of the vehicle; a third logarithmic scale arcuately disposed about the base center in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second logarithmic scales and having indicia representing the required time for the vehicle to alter its speed from one particular speed to another; a substantially planar intermediate slide having a center and rotatably mounted atop the base both the centers are aligned, the intermediate slide including: a fourth logarithmic scale arcuately disposed and having indicia associated representing the percent grade upon which the vehicle is traveling; a window arcuately disposed about the intermediate slide center in a predetermined position with respect to the fourth logarithmic scale for viewing the second logarithmic scale in cooperative viewable alignment with the fourth logarithmic scale; a fifth logarithmic scale arcuately disposed about the intermediate slide center in a predetermined position a sixth logarithmic scale arcuately disposed about the intermediate slide center in a predetermined position with respect to the fourth and fifth logarithmic scale.

  8. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop... Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Transactions on April 19-20... presented in August 2012 during the annual Connected Vehicle Safety public meeting and via other...

  9. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  10. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  11. UV-filter benzophenone-3 inhibits agonistic behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Wu, Yea-Ting; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a widely used organic UV-filter compound. Despite the frequent occurrence of BP-3 in aquatic environments, little is known about its effect on fish behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of BP-3 in male fighting fish (Betta splendens) with a focus on agonistic behavior. Male fighting fish were exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BP-3, as well as a solvent control (0.1% ethanol) and a positive control (100 ng/L 17α-ethynylestradiol, EE2), for 28 days. At the beginning and the end of exposure, standard length and body mass of the fish were measured for calculating the condition factor (CF). In addition, spontaneous swimming activity (total distance moved) and agonistic behavior (maximum velocity and duration of opercular display in front of a mirror) were also quantified. At the end of exposure, the fish gonads were sampled for gonadosomatic index (GSI) measurement and histology. After the exposure, CF was significantly decreased in the 1000 μg/L BP-3 groups. Spontaneous swimming activity was not affected. However, maximum velocity was significantly reduced in the EE2 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments; duration of opercular display was significantly decreased in the EE2 and 10 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments. GSI was not significantly different between groups. There was a slight but statistically significant decrease of relative proportion of mature spermatozoa in testicular tissue in the 100 μg/L BP-3 treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrate that BP-3 can disrupt agonistic behavior of male fighting fish, indicating the endocrine disrupting activity of this compound. PMID:26589946

  12. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  13. Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

    2010-11-15

    Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (β-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

  14. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  15. Smart Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

    2010-11-01

    An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

  16. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  17. Vehicle stabilizing means

    SciTech Connect

    Dornier, C.M.

    1986-12-16

    An air foil assembly is described for use with a racing vehicle positioned and attached to the rear of the racing vehicle by a support structure, comprising: (a) a flap pivotable from a horizontal plane by a positioning assembly, the flap extending between parallel vertical panels and a stop means protruding from at least one of the panels at a pre-determined position above the flap; and (b) a hydraulic cylinder assembly having a hydraulic cylinder fixedly attached to the support structure and operatively connected to the vehicle braking system to provide hydraulic pressure to the hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic cylinder has its piston rod pivotally attached to a linking assembly connected to the support structure and operatively contacting the flap to cause the flap to pivot upward or downward upon movement of the piston rod.

  18. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics of distribution that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and for some time to come. The authors model for liquid transfer to a 120 L vehicle tank shows that tank filling times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The authorsmodel for compressed gas transfer shows that vehicle tank underfilling of nearly 30 percent can occur during rapid refueling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates the underfilling problem.

  19. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  20. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  1. Aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Roberts, Barney B. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Kroll, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Gamble, Joe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle which includes an aerobraking device which also serves as a heat shield in the shape of a raked-off elliptic or circular cone with a circular or elliptical base, and with an ellipsoid or other blunt shape nose. The aerobraking device is fitted with a toroid-like skirt and is integral with the support structure of the propulsion system and other systems of the space vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be transported in components to a space station in lower earth orbit where it is assembled for use as a transportation system from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit and return. Conventional guidance means are included for autonomous flight.

  2. [Chagas's disease and deep ecology: the anti-vectorial fight in question].

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rôças, Giselle; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Rubião, Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2011-02-01

    The inter-relations between man and the environment are among the main themes currently debated by the Brazilian public health. On such horizon, the questions concerning Chagas's disease are found to remain specially in the scope of the directed actions of control to the triatomine, the anti-vectorial fight , though already a century since its first description by Carlos Chagas, a major epidemiological problem in Latin America. Based on these considerations the present article will seek to discuss the main ecological aspects related to the American trypanosomiasis, emphasizing the control of the vectorial transmission in the context of the deep ecology. PMID:21340344

  3. Dispelling the 'bitter fog': fighting chemical defoliation in the American West.

    PubMed

    Hay, Amy M

    2012-12-01

    Little doubt remains about the influence of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in changing the consciousness of not just Americans, but citizens around the world, regarding the relationship between human beings and the natural world. Less has been done about the specific ways Carson's book inspired individual activists to continue challenging pesticide policy within the United States in the decades after the book's publication. The stories of three western women fighting the use of Agent Orange herbicides - the phenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T - illustrate the influence and mixed success of environmental activism after Silent Spring. PMID:23178090

  4. Preventing and fighting spontaneous combustion by foam pulp in Bobov dol coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Michaylov, M.

    1995-12-31

    The coal seams at Bobov dol basin are highly prone to spontaneous combustion in Bulgaria. The risks of endogenous fires (SPONCOM) exist mainly in gob area. During the last 15 years three different technologies for preventing and fighting SPONCOM have been applied in underground mines of this basin: pulp from hard material and water, foam and inerting with nitrogen. On the basis of experimental application of these technologies as well as theoretical and experimental research a new technology - Foam Pulp Technology (FPT) was worked out. It is very effective in difficult to reach places in a gob.

  5. STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting training at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low with nozzle open directs water into the fire as fire/ security personnel coaches and instructs him on his attempt to extinguish the blaze. MS Bonnie J. Dunbar maneuvers the hose behind Low. A second group of crewmembers alongside Low and Dunbar, MS Marsha S. Ivins, holding hose nozzle, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, and Pilot James D. Wetherbee position themselves before opening hose nozzle.

  6. "Pur sarripu pursa trutin": monster-fighting and medicine in early medieval Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alaric

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks evidence among our extensive Scandinavian mythological texts for an area which they seldom discuss explicitly: the conceptualisation and handling of illness and healing. Its core evidence is two runic texts (the Canterbury Rune-Charm and the Sigtuna Amulet) which conceptualise illness as a "purs" ("ogre, monster"). The article discusses the semantics of "purs," arguing that illness and supernatural beings could be conceptualised as identical in medieval Scandinavia. This provides a basis for arguing that myths in which gods and heroes fight monsters provided a paradigm for the struggle with illness. PMID:19753693

  7. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic. Two subordinate groups are recognized within present Cladomorphinae, which differ considerably in numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs. The first group and here regarded as Cladomorphinae sensu stricto is formed by the mostly South American Cladomorphini + Cranidiini + Cladoxerini, while the second group is formed by the predominantly Caribbean Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini.        Members of the first group (= Cladomorphini sensu stricto) share the dorsally carinate basitarsus in which the two dorsal carinae are melted with another, increasingly elongated gonapophyses VIII of females which are noticeably longer than gonapophyses IX and lamellate as well as strongly displaced medioventral carina of the profemora. Cranidiini + Cladomorphini share the strongly elongated and filiform gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in the females, specialized poculum of males and presence of a median line in the eggs. Cranidiini differs from all other tribes of Cladomorphinae by the entirely unarmed legs of both sexes, distinctly broadened and leaf-like body and prominent longitudinal keel of the mesosternum of females, prominently enlarged poculum and spinulose phallus of males as well as the conspicuous narrowing of the posteromedian gap of the internal micropylar plate of the eggs and noticeably separated median line. Cladomorphini is characteristic

  8. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  9. Performance capacity, fighting tactics and the evolution of life-stage male morphs in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed Central

    Lailvaux, Simon P.; Herrel, Anthony; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Meyers, Jay J.; Irschick, Duncan J.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of alternative male phenotypes is probably driven by male-male competition for access to reproductive females, but few studies have examined whether whole-organism performance capacities differ between male morphs, and if so whether any such differences affect fighting ability. We show how ontogenetic changes in performance and morphology have given rise to two distinct life-stage male morphs exhibiting different fighting tactics within the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Field studies show a bimodal distribution of adult males within a single population: larger 'heavyweight' males have relatively large heads and high bite forces for their size, whereas smaller 'lightweight' males have smaller heads and lower bite forces. In staged fights between size-matched heavyweight males, males with greater biting ability won more frequently, whereas in lightweight fights, males with greater jumping velocity and acceleration won more often. Because growth in reptiles is indeterminate, and the anole males examined are sexually mature, we propose that the heavyweight morph arose through selection against males with small heads and poor bite forces at the lightweight-heavyweight size transition. Our findings imply that one may not be able to predict male fighting success (and hence potential mating success) by examining aspects of male 'quality' at only one life stage. PMID:15590602

  10. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  11. Fighting Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures such as bridges, parking decks, and balconies are designed to have a service life of over 50 years. All too often, however, many structures fall short of this goal, requiring expensive repairs and protection work earlier than anticipated. The corrosion of reinforced steel within the concrete infrastructure is a major cause for this premature deterioration. Such corrosion is a particularly dangerous problem for the facilities at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. Located near the Atlantic Ocean in Florida, Kennedy is based in one of the most corrosive-prone areas in the world. In order to protect its launch support structures, highways, pipelines, and other steel-reinforced concrete structures, Kennedy engineers developed the Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System. The system utilizes an inorganic coating material that slows or stops the corrosion of reinforced steel members inside concrete structures. Early tests determined that the coating meets the criteria of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers for complete protection of steel rebar embedded in concrete. Testing is being continued at the Kennedy's Materials Science Beach Corrosion Test Site.

  12. Fighting misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-07-01

    As an astronomer, educator and science advocate at Columbia University in the US, David Helfand has spent his career knocking down faulty arguments and misleading “facts” that cling on despite the huge amount of information available to modern audiences. In his book A Survival Guide to the Misinformation Age, Helfand explains how the same “habits of mind” that make someone a good scientist can also give non-scientists “an antidote to the misinformation glut”.

  13. Fighting Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Franklin L.

    1994-01-01

    Metal detectors and increased security alone cannot curb violence in today's schools. To reduce school violence in the nation's capital and elsewhere, the home, community, and schools must unite to support young people and teach them responsibility for their actions. One program, the Student Efficacy Initiative, helps students resolve conflicts…

  14. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  15. EPRI electric vehicle conference

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleeger, D.

    1999-10-01

    Lower operating and maintenance costs, quiet and clean operation appear the main factors in choosing electric over the typical internal combustion powered equipment. The Conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI is a cooperative effort by major electric companies across the USA, founded in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, CA. Featured at the Conference were presentations on regulatory issues, lift truck technologies, automotive advances and other industrial applications to include automated guided vehicles, personnel carriers and electric bicycles. Approximately 25 exhibitors displayed components, subassemblies and complete vehicles.

  16. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  17. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  18. Vehicle brake testing system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  19. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  20. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    SciTech Connect

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  1. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  2. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  3. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  4. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  5. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  6. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  7. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  8. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  9. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  10. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  11. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  12. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  13. Vehicle fuel system

    DOEpatents

    Risse, John T.; Taggart, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A vehicle fuel system comprising a plurality of tanks, each tank having a feed and a return conduit extending into a lower portion thereof, the several feed conduits joined to form one supply conduit feeding fuel to a supply pump and using means, unused fuel being returned via a return conduit which branches off to the several return conduits.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Results

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program's progress is closely monitored by both internal and external organizations. The Program's results are detailed in a wide range of documents and tools that can be accessed through the PIR website. Descriptions of these materials are provided on this program results page.

  15. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  16. Environmental Influences on Fighting Versus Nonviolent Behavior in Peer Situations: A Qualitative Study with Urban African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Sally; Bettencourt, Amie; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Allison, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored environmental factors that influence adolescents’ responses to problem situations involving peers. Interviews were conducted with 106 middle school students (97% African American) from an urban school system. Participants were asked to describe factors that would make it easier and those that would make it more difficult for adolescents to make specific responses to problem situations. Two types of responses were presented: nonviolent responses identified as effective in a previous study, and fighting responses. Qualitative analysis identified 24 themes representing family, peer, school, and neighborhood and broader social factors that were related to both nonviolent behavior and fighting. The identification of environmental influences on fighting and nonviolent responses has important implications for efforts to reduce aggression and promote effective nonviolent responses to problem situations encountered by adolescents. PMID:20526663

  17. Do right-biased boxers do it better? Population-level asymmetry of aggressive displays enhances fighting success in blowflies.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. left-right asymmetries in brain and behaviour) of aggressive traits has been deeply studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. We investigated lateralisation of boxing behaviour in the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), where males fight for non-resource based spaces. We found a population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays: three repeated testing phases confirmed the preferential use of right legs over left ones. Duration of contests and number of boxing acts per fighting event were not different between males using left and right legs. The use of right legs for boxing acts lead to higher fighting success over males using left legs. Lateralised aggressive displays at population-level may be connected to the prolonged social interactions occurring among males searching for food and mates. PMID:25659526

  18. Sizing of scramjet vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingenito, A.; Gulli, S.; Bruno, C.

    2011-10-01

    The current European project LAPCAT II has the ambitious goal to define a conceptual vehicle capable of achieving the antipodal range Brussels-Sydney (~18,000 km) in about 2 h at Mach number Ma = 8. At this high speed, the requirement of high lift to drag (L/D) ratio is critical to high performance, because of high skin friction and wave drag: in fact, as the Mach number increases, the L/D ratio decreases. The design of the vehicle architecture (shape and propulsion system) is, as a consequence, crucial to achieve a reasonably high L/D. In this work, critical parameters for the preliminary sizing of a hypersonic airbreathing airliner have been identified. In particular, for a given Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and mission requirements, a solution space of possible vehicle architectures at cruise have been obtained. In this work, the Gross Weight at Take-Off (TOGW) was deliberately discarded as a constraint, based on previous studies by Czysz and Vanderkerkhove [1]. Typically, limiting from the beginning, the TOGW leads to a vicious spiral where weight and propulsion system requirements keep growing, eventually denying convergence. In designing passenger airliners, in fact, it is the payload that is assumed fixed from the start, not the total weight. In order to screen the solutions found, requirements for taking-off (TO) and landing as well as the trajectory have been accounted for. A consistent solution has finally been obtained by imposing typical airliner constraints: emergency take-off and landing. These constraints enable singling out a realistic design from the broad family of vehicles capable of performing the given mission. This vehicle has been obtained by integrating not only aerodynamics, trajectory, and airliner constraints, but also by integrating the propulsion system, the trimming devices and by doing some adjustments to the conceptual vehicle shape (i. e., spatular nose). Thus, the final vehicle is the result of many iterations in the design

  19. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer-is this realistic?

    PubMed

    Klement, Rainer J

    2014-09-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself. PMID:25364576

  20. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. PMID:23225381

  1. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

  2. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

  3. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself. PMID:25364576

  4. Variable stress-responsiveness in wild type and domesticated fighting fish.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Peter; Iwamoto, Toshitaka; Murakami, Noboru

    2008-01-28

    We combined behavioral and physiological measures to compare coping style in wild-type Betta splendens and a domesticated strain selectively bred for sports fighting. We showed previously that the fighter strain is more aggressive than the wild type during experimental conditions that most closely resemble an actual fight. We predicted that compared to the wild type, the fighter strain would show a more proactive coping style, characterized by lesser cortisol and greater sympathetic responses to non-social challenges. We introduced males to an unfamiliar environment and spatial confinement as challenges that may resemble some of those that B. splendens may encounter in its natural habitat. We developed a non-invasive stress assay that enables repeated individual measures of water-borne cortisol. We estimated sympathetic activation through opercular beat rate and recorded the duration of behavioral immobility. We found that exposure to an unfamiliar environment raised cortisol levels in the wild type but not in the fighter strain and that confinement raised cortisol levels in both. In both strains opercular beat rates were significantly reduced during the latter stages of confinement compared to during the early stages. The fighter strain, but not the wild type, adopted a behavioral strategy of immobility from the very beginning of confinement. PMID:17884114

  5. Fighting behavior in Bald Eagles: a test of game theory. [Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.

    1986-06-01

    Seven predictions of evolutionary game theory were examined in field studies of foraging behavior of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in the Chilkat Valley, Alaska. A cost/benefit analysis revealed that the frequencies of two foraging strategies (hunting and stealing from conspecifics) were balanced such that the payoffs of the two were nearly equal. Asymmetries in probable correlates of fighting ability (size and, possibly, spatial position (being in the air vs. on the ground), but not age) and expected gain in victory (hunger level) influenced the outcome of contests over food. Individuals used conditions strategies: small or young birds appeared to hung (rather than steal) relatively more often than others. Pirating eagles often assessed the size and hunger level of food defenders and attacked those most likely to retreat. Contrary to prediction, ritualized displays served to advertise expected gain in victory and were good indicators of subsequent behavior. The level of escalated fighting was inversely related to resource availability. Finally, a graphical model shows that pirating frequency may or may not be influenced by changes in food abundance. The results generally support the predictions of game theory and explain several aspects of Bald Eagle foraging behavior.

  6. African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Continuous efforts from scientists of diverse fields are necessary not only to better understand the mechanism by which multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells occur, but also to boost the discovery of new cytotoxic compounds to fight MDR phenotypes. Objectives. The present review reports on the contribution of African flora in the discovery of potential cytotoxic phytochemicals against MDR cancer cells. Methodology. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications related to African plants, isolated compounds, and drug resistant cancer cells. The data were analyzed to highlight cytotoxicity and the modes of actions of extracts and compounds of the most prominent African plants. Also, thresholds and cutoff points for the cytotoxicity and modes of action of phytochemicals have been provided. Results. Most published data related to the antiproliferative potential of African medicinal plants were from Cameroon, Egypt, Nigeria, or Madagascar. The cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated in African plants was generally much better documented than that of terpenoids and alkaloids. Conclusion. African flora represents an enormous resource for novel cytotoxic compounds. To unravel the full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent, to meet the challenge of a successful fight against MDR cancers. PMID:25961047

  7. [How to fight anti-vaccinists prejudices: the viewpoint of public health].

    PubMed

    Germinario, Cinzia; Gallone, Maria Serena; Tafuri, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, growing numbers of parents in the industrialized world are choosing not to have their children vaccinated. The re-emergence of the anti-vaccination movements has been theorized as an important determinant of this phenomenon. The crisis of the «vaccination system» and the resurgence of the anti-vaccination movements is related both, to the increased accessibility to the information from the general population and to the decreased credibility and authority of health professionals. Another critical element in the fight against anti-vaccination movements, in Italy, is the system of assessing the damage from the vaccine, both in pharmacovigilance activities and in the procedures for the compensation of biological damage provided by law. The contrast in these bugs, along with the strengthening of communication skills of the health care workers and to an investment on communication in the mass media, is not to postpone for fighting the anti-vaccination movements. PMID:25759357

  8. Exergaming as a Strategic Tool in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lamboglia, Carminda Maria Goersch Fontenele; da Silva, Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes; de Vasconcelos Filho, José Eurico; Pinheiro, Mônica Helena Neves Pereira; Munguba, Marilene Calderaro da Silva; Silva Júnior, Francisco Valmar Isaias; de Paula, Fernando Alberto Ramirez; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Improper use of electronic media is considered a major contributing factor to childhood obesity. However, exergames, a new generation of active games, have made it possible to combine electronic entertainment with physical exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the use of exergaming as a strategic tool in the fight against childhood obesity. Information was retrieved from the databases SciELO, LILACS, Pubmed, Ebsco, and Science Direct, using the search words “egames,” “exergames,” “exergaming,” “new generation of video games,” “active video games,” “energy expenditure,” “body composition,” and “physical activity” in English and Portuguese, covering the period January 2008 to April 2012. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Exergaming was found to increase physical activity levels, energy expenditure, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and percentage of physical activity engaged in and to reduce waist circumference and sedentary screen time. Thus, exergaming may be considered a highly relevant strategic tool for the adoption of an active and healthy lifestyle and may be useful in the fight against childhood obesity. PMID:24319594

  9. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently. PMID:25947564

  10. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  11. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  12. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  13. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  14. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  15. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  16. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  17. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  18. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  19. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  20. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  1. Methane-Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid methane is beginning to become an energy alternative to expensive oil as a power source for automotive vehicles. Methane is the principal component of natural gas, costs less than half as much as gasoline, and its emissions are a lot cleaner than from gasoline or diesel engines. Beech Aircraft Corporation's Boulder Division has designed and is producing a system for converting cars and trucks to liquid methane operation. Liquid methane (LM) is a cryogenic fuel which must be stored at a temperature of 260 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The LM system includes an 18 gallon fuel tank in the trunk and simple "under the hood" carburetor conversion equipment. Optional twin-fuel system allows operator to use either LM or gasoline fuel. Boulder Division has started deliveries for 25 vehicle conversions and is furnishing a liquid methane refueling station. Beech is providing instruction for Northwest Natural Gas, for conversion of methane to liquid state.

  2. Three orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace engineering students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University undertook three design projects under the sponsorship of the NASA/USRA Advanced Space Design Program. All three projects addressed cargo and/or crew transportation between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit. Project SPARC presents a preliminary design of a fully reusable, chemically powered aeroassisted vehicle for a transfer of a crew of five and a 6000 to 20000 pound payload. The ASTV project outlines a chemically powered aeroassisted configuration that uses disposable tanks and a relatively small aerobrake to realize propellant savings. The third project, LOCOST, involves a reusable, hybrid laser/chemical vehicle designed for large cargo (up to 88,200 pounds) transportation.

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  5. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

  6. Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-29

    SIMPLEV2.0 is an electric vehicle simulation code which can be used with any IBM compatible personal computer. This general purpose simulation program is useful for performing parametric studies of electric and series hybrid electric vehicle performance on user input driving cycles.. The program is run interactively and guides the user through all of the necessary inputs. Driveline components and the traction battery are described and defined by ASCII files which may be customized by themore » user. Scaling of these components is also possible. Detailed simulation results are plotted on the PC monitor and may also be printed on a printer attached to the PC.« less

  7. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L.; El Gammal, Hanan A.; Hagras, Abeer M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11–17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11–1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12–2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21–1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62–0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56–0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their

  8. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Celedonia, Karen L; Wilson, Michael L; El Gammal, Hanan A; Hagras, Abeer M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries. Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11-17 (N = 5, 249). Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111) resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting. Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11-1.50) and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12-2.83) were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21-1.69). Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62-0.90) and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56-0.81) were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.92). Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with their positive

  9. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  10. Vehicle propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, S.L.

    1981-11-17

    A hybrid vehicle propulsion system is disclosed which utilizes an internal combustion engine, an afterburner, and a steam engine in combination for improved efficiency and reduced emission of pollutants. The afterburner is provided to reduce the level of pollutants emitted and to increase the temperature of the exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine. The heat from the exhaust gases, together with the heat removed from the internal combustion cylinders, is then utilized in the steam engine to provide additional propulsion.

  11. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  12. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  13. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  14. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  15. Vehicle storage battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, B.I.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a vehicle storage battery system. Included in this system is a storage battery which has three separate storage battery portions. The main battery portion has a capacity for starting the vehicle under normal circumstances. The first and second standby portions of the battery when connected in a series have a rated capacity sufficient to transfer enough charge to the main battery portion when in a discharged state to start the engine of the vehicle. Another integral component of the system is a battery control having a circuit for connecting the two standby portions in series for charging the main battery portion when it is in a discharged state. This circuit also includes a means for restricting a charging current flow from the standby portions to the main portion to a predetermined safe level. An analogous circuit connects the standby portions in parallel for recharging from the main battery portion with a means for restricting a recharge current flow to a predetermined safe level. The last component is a switch means to switch between the above circuits.

  16. Japan's launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

    The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

  17. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  18. High mobility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H. (Inventor); Nasif, Annette K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle, for driving over a ground surface, has a body with a left side, a right side, a front and a back. The vehicle includes left and right drive mechanisms. Each mechanism includes first and second traction elements for engaging the ground surface and transmitting a driving force between the vehicle and ground surface. Each mechanism includes first and second arms coupled to the first and second traction elements for relative rotation about first and second axis respectively. Each mechanism includes a rotor having a third axis, the rotor coupled to the body for rotation about the third axis and coupled to the first and second arms for relative rotation about the third axis. The mechanism includes first and second drive motors for driving the first and second traction elements and first and second transmissions, driven by the first and second motors and engaging the rotor. Driving the first and second traction elements simultaneously rotates the rotor relative to the first and second arms, respectively.

  19. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  20. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  1. An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation: A Policy Statement by The National Council on Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon; And Others

    This publication contains An Employment Policy to Fight Recession and Inflation--the policy statement of the National Council on Employment Policy--and three background papers by individual members. The statement addresses these topics: Will the Recession End Inflation?, Which Anti-Recession Measures?, But What About Inflation?, and A Policy of…

  2. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  4. Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool. Educational Leadership for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Brian D., Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool takes a penetrating look at the needs and challenges of society's disenfranchised jail populations. It is incumbent to encourage public awareness of the causes that underlie the destructive cycles plaguing these populations, including the abuse and…

  5. Children's Hostile Attribution Bias Is Reduced after Watching Realistic Playful Fighting, and the Effect Is Mediated by Prosocial Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Hostile attribution bias (HAB) has been found to characterize aggressive children. Watching prosocial media has been shown to have positive effects on children, and the general learning model has been used to account for these observations. This study tested the hypotheses derived from this theory that exposure to playful fighting would lead to a…

  6. Does Leadership Matter?: The Relationship of School Leadership to a Safe School Climate, Bullying, and Fighting in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a relationship between transformational principal leadership style, a safe school climate, and school safety (specifically, the number of reported fights and reported bullying incidents) in Broward County, Florida's middle schools. This study also investigated if a relationship…

  7. Discussing Sexual Orientation and Gender in Classrooms: A Testimonial-Based Approach to Fighting Homophobia in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gabrielle; Vallerand, Olivier; Petit, Marie-Pier; Charbonneau, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    To fight homophobia in schools in Québec, many teachers rely on community organizations such as the Groupe de Recherche et d'Intervention Sociale (Research and Social Intervention Group) to address sexual diversity in class. This article documents major outcomes of these workshops as seen by students. Students identified topics related to…

  8. The Impact of Creativity Management in Fighting the Educational Crisis in Secondary Schools in Palestine from the Viewpoint of Headmasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawawdeh, Sabreen

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to identify the impact of creativity management in fighting the educational crisis in secondary schools in Palestine from the viewpoint of headmasters, researcher worked to follow the descriptive analytical method and also resorted to statistical methods, has developed a questionnaire included several paragraphs about the school…

  9. United States Marine Corps light armored vehicle ride and shock mobility test

    SciTech Connect

    Casterlow, D.; Salami, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Mobility on the battlefield has been a major concern since the beginning of modern warfare. How do you transport troops more efficiently, in the least amount of time, from place to place on the battlefield? In the early days of World War I, came the invention of the tank and different types of armored vehicles. These vehicles were very slow and moved over a limited variety of terrain. Today, with faster, more powerful armored vehicles, extended testing is being done to determine their ability to move over various types of terrain encountered on the modern battlefield. Along with this testing, studies are performed which take into account the effect of the ride on soldiers. It has been proven that a sustained rough ride, of over 6 watts of vertical absorbed power, will affect a soldier`s ability to fight, once he reaches the battle. As a result, different vehicles go through testing in various off-road terrain to determine which one can handle the roughest terrain, at the fastest speed, while transporting troops, without imposing large amounts of human vibration on the soldiers. This is done through ride and shock mobility tests.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Najiah, M; Lee, K L; Noorasikin, H; Nadirah, M; Lee, S W

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacteriosis due to mycobacteria is one of the most common bacterial diseases in ornamental fish. We describe here the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. using ATCC Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae as references. A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains. PMID:20971487

  11. Lateralization of displays during aggressive and courtship behaviour in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, C; Bisazza, A; Vallortigara, G

    1996-07-01

    Evidence for right-left asymmetries in eye use at the individual level in the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, is reported. When faced with their mirror image (in two daily trials of 10 min each), adult male Betta splendens showed consistency in their right or left eye use during threat lateral displays. Moreover, if one side was preferred by an individual to exhibit the lateral displays, then the duration of the displays on that side was longer than the duration of the displays on the other side. Similar findings were obtained when a sample of animals was tested for eye use during courtship displays in the presence of a female. Furthermore, consistency in eye use was observed in fish tested first with the mirror and then, 2 months later, with the female. Results are discussed with respect to the issue of the evolution of brain lateralization. PMID:8804671

  12. Using visual reinforcement to establish stimulus control of responding of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Lattal, Kennon A; Hopko, Sandra

    2003-03-01

    Stimulus control of ring swimming was studied with male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) using 2-component multiple schedules in which the components were correlated with the presence or absence of air bubbles in the water. In Experiment 1, either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction was juxtaposed with immediate response-dependent mirror presentations. Rates of ring swimming generally were higher with immediate reinforcement than with either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction. In Experiment 2, different durations of response-dependent mirror presentations were juxtaposed. Generally, higher rates of ring swimming occurred with 15-s than with 0-, 1-, or 3-s durations. Results demonstrate that stimulus control of responding can be established with these fish under several conditions of differential reinforcement. PMID:12735371

  13. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2012-12-01

    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes. PMID:22753365

  14. Response acquisition by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) with delayed visual reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lattal, K A; Metzger, B

    1994-01-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, swam through a ring in an aquarium, breaking a photocell beam and initiating an unsignaled, resetting delay interval. Following delays of 0 s, 10 s, or 25 s, a 15-s mirror presentation released an aggressive display by the fish. Swimming through the ring increased in the absence of either a period of acclimatization to the reinforcer (analogous to magazine training when appetitive reinforcers are used) or explicit training of the response by the experimenters. Response rates were a decreasing function of delay duration. Other fish exposed to a schedule of response-independent mirror presentations failed to acquire and maintain the response. The results demonstrate the robustness and generality of the phenomenon of response acquisition with delayed reinforcement. They further qualify earlier observations about behavioral mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. PMID:16812724

  15. Behavioral effects of fluoxetine on aggression and associative learning in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2015-12-01

    Past research has implicated serotonin as an important neurotransmitter in the facilitation of aggressive behavior. In Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), the SSRI fluoxetine has been demonstrated to reduce both frequency and duration of aggressive displays across a variety of concentration exposure procedures. While this multi-method approach has provided strong evidence for fluoxetine's impact on aggression, no study has sought to examine the behavioral mechanism by which fluoxetine exerts its anti-aggressive effect. To address this question, a Go-No Go discrimination task utilizing mirror presentations as a reinforcer was designed. Consistent with previous reports, the results indicated that fluoxetine may exert a sedative effect upon aggressive behavior via decreased arousal to external stimuli. PMID:26478253

  16. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    PubMed

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  17. Laurentide: The Crime Fighting Geologist, A Comic-Book Curriculum Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillis, A.; Gilbert, L. A.; Enright, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    When the police are just too ill informed on matters of earth science to solve the case it is up to Laurentide and her crew of geologists to bring justice to evildoers. Using every tool available, from a rock hammer to LiDAR, Laurentide fights crime while teaching her apprentice Esker about how geologists uncover mysteries everyday. This is the first of what will be a series of free teaching materials targeted at grades 5-8 based around the National Science Education Standards. Students will get the chance to practice problem solving and data analysis in order to solve mysteries with a combination of comic book style story telling and hands-on worksheets. The pilot story, "The Caper of the Ridiculously Cheap Condominiums" will cover 4 of the 9 Earth Science Literacy Principles 'Big Ideas'. Material will explore earthquakes, the hazards and risks they present, and the tools geologists use to map faults and estimate reoccurrence intervals.

  18. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    PubMed Central

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, José Ramiro Martínez-de; Baturone, Aníbal Ollero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  19. Applying Open Source Game Engine for Building Visual Simulation Training System of Fire Fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Diping; Jin, Xuesheng; Zhang, Jin; Han, Dong

    There's a growing need for fire departments to adopt a safe and fair method of training to ensure that the firefighting commander is in a position to manage a fire incident. Visual simulation training systems, with their ability to replicate and interact with virtual fire scenarios through the use of computer graphics or VR, become an effective and efficient method for fire ground education. This paper describes the system architecture and functions of a visual simulated training system of fire fighting on oil storage, which adopting Delat3D, a open source game and simulation engine, to provide realistic 3D views. It presents that using open source technology provides not only the commercial-level 3D effects but also a great reduction of cost.

  20. Economic dimensions of sustainable development, the fight against poverty and educational responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-06-01

    The arguments in the article are based on the ongoing discourse in the academic community and among stakeholders, which has contributed to the articulation of the concepts and premises of sustainable development and the role of learning modalities, technologies and networks. The article draws on this discourse to explore the economic aspects of sustainable development, focusing on pervasive poverty, and the implications for educational actions. The concepts and underlying premises of education for sustainable development (ESD) are discussed. The article presents the key elements of an integrated approach to fighting poverty in the context of sustainable development. The role of learning and education in this integrated approach is outlined, framing the educational elements within the perspective of lifelong learning.

  1. Music and the brain: the impact of music on an oboist's fight for recovery.

    PubMed

    Seibert, P S; Fee, L; Basom, J; Zimmerman, C

    2000-03-01

    A 20-year-old female, alias Sara, was an aspiring professional oboist who studied music performance at college level. While wading across a river she lost her balance, was swept down river, and suffered profound injuries including severe hypothermia, cardiac arrest, and hypoxic brain injury. While recovering, her family and friends surrounded Sara with music. Her oboe teacher placed Sara's oboe in her hand and played tapes of Sara's past performances. Her mother played recordings of her favourite music in hopes that the music would remind her of her life's passion and, thus, stimulate her mind and soul while she recovered. Two years post-injury, Sara continues to strive to improve her quality of life. In this case study, Sara's musical and medical recovery is detailed using quantitative and qualitative data. This data gathered allows one to provide an analysis of the powerful role of music in Sara's fight to recover. PMID:10759046

  2. A social cost perspective in the wake of the Portuguese strategy for the fight against drugs.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lourenço, Ana; Silva, Sofia Nogueira da

    2015-02-01

    The Portuguese National Strategy for the Fight Against Drugs (NSFAD), approved in 1999, was explicitly grounded on the values of humanism and pragmatism and paved the way for the decriminalization of illicit drug use in Portugal in 2000. This paper presents an analysis of the social costs of illicit drug use in the wake of the strategy's approval. Taking into consideration health and non-health related costs, we find that that the social cost of drugs decreased by 12% in the five years following the NSFAD's approval and by a rather significant 18% in the eleven-year period following its approval. Whilst the reduction of legal system costs (possibly associated with the decriminalization of drug consumption) is clearly one of the main explanatory factors, it is not the only one. In particular, the rather significant reduction of health-related costs has also played an important role. PMID:25265899

  3. What coalition factors foster community capacity? Lessons learned from the Fighting Back Initiative.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Guckenburg, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    Coalitions build community capacity by encouraging local organizations to expand services, programs, or policies (i.e., organizational capacity). The aim of the study was to identify coalition factors--resources, lead agency, governance, and leadership--that foster organizational capacity. Thirteen coalitions funded by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Fighting Back (FB) Initiative were examined in a multiple-site case study where coalition served as the unit of analysis. Organizational capacity was measured by creating a scale for each community based on changes in programs, services, or policies among eight types of organizations. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to identify relationships among organizational capacity and coalition factors. FB sites with greater organizational capacity shared seven characteristics: received more funds for coalition building; delayed establishing new lead agencies; were housed in agencies supportive of FB; maintained stable, participatory decision-making bodies; cultivated active involvement of local government; practiced collaborative leadership; and had effective, long-serving project directors. PMID:16861592

  4. [The influence of the economy in the fight to save TCM in Republic of China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Tang, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2011-09-01

    Influenced by national nihilism in modern times, many people do not recognize Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Its economic value and social economic support played an important role in the victory of the fight for TCM in the period of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the education, clinical practice and administration of TCM during the period of Republic of China were all under the constraint of economy. Analysis of the economy's impact on the development of TCM is of practical value. Related to the national economy and the people's livelihood, TCM could be considered both as an important component of national economy and as a state investment. Only when the relationship between TCM and social economy is emphasized and handled well, could the national health industry be rapidly developed. PMID:22340005

  5. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described. PMID:23665849

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi parasites fight for control of the JAK-STAT pathway by disarming their host

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Philipp; Schwarz, Ralph T; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic Chagas’ disease is caused by infections with the hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) which is endemic in Latin America. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the underlying molecular processes involved in host-parasite interactions are only poorly understood. In particular, the mechanisms for parasite persistence in host cells remain largely unknown. Cytokine-driven transcription factors from the family of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins appear to play a central role in the fight against T. cruzi infection. However, amastigotes proliferating in the cytoplasm of infected host cells develop effective strategies to circumvent the attack executed by STAT proteins. This review highlights the interactions between T. cruzi parasites and human host cells in terms of cytokine signaling and, in particular, discusses the impact of STATs on the balance between parasite invasion and clearance. PMID:26413423

  7. A Close Call: The Role of Screening Mammography in the Fight Against Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghpour, Mona

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary panel debated the role of screening mammography in fighting breast cancer during the Health and Medicine for Women continuing medical education (CME) conference at Yale Medical School in September 2010. Different guidelines from professional societies have presented conflicting recommendations for patients regarding both the benefits of mammography and the appropriate age and frequency of screening. In addition, a recent longitudinal study argues that screening mammography may only offer a modest benefit in terms of reducing cancer mortality. In light of these considerations, the panel debated whether mammography should be an informed decision that must be discussed and individualized for each patient based on the context of risk factors such as family history, age, and genetic dispositions. PMID:21451784

  8. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  9. 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone and the first encounter fight in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Ying-Ru; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2006-06-01

    Although agonistic behavior in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea, has been known for more than 40 years, this is the first study to directly collect and quantify the emitted pheromones. In the present study, emitted volatile pheromones were collected from each male pair for 60 min during the first encounter fight and identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The major compound collected was 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B). The strength of the attack by the dominant male was classified into three categories from weakest (C) to strongest (A). Of the 92 pairs, eight (8.7%) showed no agonistic interactions, and the amount of 3H-2B collected was 121.8±37.7 ng/male pair. In the five pairs (5.4%) displaying attack strength C, the amount of 3H-2B collected was 689.6±273.7 ng/male pair, and the attack duration was 9.6±2.4 min. In the 53 pairs (57.6%) showing attack strength B, the corresponding values were 5396.2±449.0 ng/male pair and 22.7±1.6 min, while those for the 26 pairs (28.3%) showing attack strength A were 7910.4±1120.6 ng/male pair and 24.9±2.9 min. For both attack strengths A and B, a linear relationship was found between the amount of 3H-2B collected and attack duration, suggesting that the longer the duration of the attack, the more 3H-2B was emitted. In addition, the rate of 3H-2B emission for attack strength A was significantly higher than that for attack strength B. Using Vaseline-coating, we demonstrated that, in the first encounter fight, the 3H-2B was emitted by the dominant male.

  10. Uses of vision by rats in play fighting and other close-quarter social interactions.

    PubMed

    Pellis, S M; McKenna, M M; Field, E F; Pellis, V C; Prusky, G T; Whishaw, I Q

    1996-01-01

    Enucleated juvenile rats were compared to sighted juveniles, and tested over six trials. In some of these trials, the vibrissae were clipped and the test chamber was flooded with white noise. Even though the enucleated rats played, they did so in an atypical manner. They tended to initiate more playful and other social contacts, and were more likely to defend themselves if contacted. When they did defend themselves, they adopted behavior patterns that were more likely to evade the partner's attack. In addition, the enucleated rats were hypersensitive to the partner, being more likely to respond defensively when contacted further from the nape (the main play target). All these changes in play fighting by nonsighted rats suggest that the loss of vision leads to motivational changes in activity and reactivity, and so has an indirect effect on play behavior. In addition, direct evidence is also provided to show that vision is used to orient attacks to the nape. When the vibrissae were closely clipped, the sighted rats continued to make direct attacks on the partner's napes, whereas the nonsighted rats did not. Rather, they first contacted some other part of the partner's body and then oriented to the nape. Another test paradigm was used to determine whether vision is used to trigger defensive responses. The rats were partially food deprived as adults and were filmed in a food wrenching and dodging situation where one rat was given a food pellet and the other allowed to steal it. Measurement of the distance at initiation of the lateral swerve away from the approaching partner (i.e., dodge) showed that when the vibrissae are clipped, the sighted rats continued to initiate dodges at the same distance, whereas the nonsighted rats could not. Therefore, vision appears to have an active role in organizing movement sequences of attack and defense in play fighting and other close-quarter interactions. PMID:8778885

  11. The Advantage of Standing Up to Fight and the Evolution of Habitual Bipedalism in Hominins

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many quadrupedal species stand bipedally on their hindlimbs to fight. This posture may provide a performance advantage by allowing the forelimbs to strike an opponent with the range of motion that is intrinsic to high-speed running, jumping, rapid braking and turning; the range of motion over which peak force and power can be produced. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that bipedal (i.e., orthograde) posture provides a performance advantage when striking with the forelimbs, I measured the force and energy produced when human subjects struck from “quadrupedal” (i.e., pronograde) and bipedal postures. Downward and upward directed striking energy was measured with a custom designed pendulum transducer. Side and forward strikes were measured with a punching bag instrumented with an accelerometer. When subjects struck downward from a bipedal posture the work was 43.70±12.59% (mean ± S.E.) greater than when they struck from a quadrupedal posture. Similarly, 47.49±17.95% more work was produced when subjects struck upward from a bipedal stance compared to a quadrupedal stance. Importantly, subjects did 229.69±44.19% more work in downward than upward directed strikes. During side and forward strikes the force impulses were 30.12±3.68 and 43.04±9.00% greater from a bipedal posture than a quadrupedal posture, respectively. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that bipedal posture does provide a performance advantage for striking with the forelimbs. The mating systems of great apes are characterized by intense male-male competition in which conflict is resolved through force or the threat of force. Great apes often fight from bipedal posture, striking with both the fore- and hindlimbs. These observations, plus the findings of this study, suggest that sexual selection contributed to the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins. PMID:21611167

  12. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2010-04-01

    A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

  13. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  14. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

  15. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  16. Laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  17. Mack LNG vehicle development

    SciTech Connect

    Southwest Research Institute

    2000-01-05

    The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

  18. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  19. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  20. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.