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Sample records for brain operates independent

  1. Imaging Brain Dynamics Using Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; McKeown, Martin J.; Bell, Anthony J.; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings is important both for basic brain research and for medical diagnosis and treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) is an effective method for removing artifacts and separating sources of the brain signals from these recordings. A similar approach is proving useful for analyzing functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (fMRI) data. In this paper, we outline the assumptions underlying ICA and demonstrate its application to a variety of electrical and hemodynamic recordings from the human brain. PMID:20824156

  2. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  3. On the Independent Origins of Complex Brains and Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Leonid L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the origin and evolution of neurons is crucial for revealing principles of organization of neural circuits with unexpected implications for genomic sciences, biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. This article presents an overview of some controversial ideas about the origin and evolution of neurons and nervous systems, focusing on the independent origin of complex brains and possible independent origins of neurons. First, earlier hypotheses related to the origin of neurons are summarized. Second, the diversity of nervous systems and convergent evolution of complex brains in relation to current views about animal phylogeny is discussed. Third, the lineages of molluscs and basal metazoans are used as illustrated examples of multiple origins of complex brains and neurons. Finally, a hypothesis about the independent origin of complex brains, centralized nervous systems and neurons is outlined. Injury-associated mechanisms leading to secretion of signal peptides (and related molecules) can be considered as evolutionary predecessors of inter-neuronal signaling and the major factors in the appearance of neurons in the first place. PMID:20029182

  4. Independent component ensemble of EEG for brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Yuan-Pin; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-03-01

    Recently, successful applications of independent component analysis (ICA) to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals have yielded tremendous insights into brain processes that underlie human cognition. Many studies have further established the feasibility of using independent processes to elucidate human cognitive states. However, various technical problems arise in the building of an online brain-computer interface (BCI). These include the lack of an automatic procedure for selecting independent components of interest (ICi) and the potential risk of not obtaining a desired ICi. Therefore, this study proposes an ICi-ensemble method that uses multiple classifiers with ICA processing to improve upon existing algorithms. The mechanisms that are used in this ensemble system include: 1) automatic ICi selection; 2) extraction of features of the resultant ICi; 3) the construction of parallel pipelines for effectively training multiple classifiers; and a 4) simple process that combines the multiple decisions. The proposed ICi-ensemble is demonstrated in a typical BCI application, which is the monitoring of participants' cognitive states in a realistic sustained-attention driving task. The results reveal that the proposed ICi-ensemble outperformed the previous method using a single ICi with  ∼ 7% (91.6% versus 84.3%) in the cognitive state classification. Additionally, the proposed ICi-ensemble method that characterizes the EEG dynamics of multiple brain areas favors the application of BCI in natural environments. PMID:24608683

  5. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  6. Mind Operational Semantics and Brain Operational Architectonics: A Putative Correspondence

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Giulio; Marchetti, Giorgio; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Fingelkurts, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Despite allowing for the unprecedented visualization of brain functional activity, modern neurobiological techniques have not yet been able to provide satisfactory answers to important questions about the relationship between brain and mind. The aim of this paper is to show how two different but complementary approaches, Mind Operational Semantics (OS) and Brain Operational Architectonics (OA), can help bridge the gap between a specific kind of mental activity—the higher-order reflective thought or linguistic thought—and brain. The fundamental notion that allows the two different approaches to be jointly used under a common framework is that of operation. According to OS, which is based on introspection and linguistic data, the meanings of words can be analyzed in terms of elemental mental operations (EOMC), amongst which those of attention play a key role. Linguistic thought is made possible by special kinds of elements, which OS calls “correlators”, which have the function of tying together the other elements of thought, which OS calls “correlata” (a "correlational network” that is, a sentence, is so formed). Therefore, OS conceives of linguistic thought as a hierarchy of operations of increasing complexity. Likewise, according to OA, which is based on the joint analysis of cognitive and electromagnetic data (EEG and MEG), every conscious phenomenon is brought to existence by the joint operations of many functional and transient neuronal assemblies in the brain. According to OA, the functioning of the brain is always operational (made up of operations), and its structure is characterized by a hierarchy of operations of increasing complexity: single neurons, single assemblies of neurons, synchronized neuronal assemblies or Operational Modules (OM), integrated or complex OMs. The authors put forward the hypothesis that the whole level of OS’s description (EOMC, correlators, and correlational networks) corresponds to the level of OMs (or set of them

  7. 75 FR 3223 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Midwest Independent Transmission System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    .... 719, 73 FR 64,100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008); order onreh'g, 74 FR 37,772...; Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc; . Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; ISO New England, Inc... the responsiveness of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and independent system...

  8. Brain-state–independent neural representation of peripheral stimulation in rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ling; Xu, Fuqiang

    2011-01-01

    It is critical for normal brains to perceive the external world precisely and accurately under ever-changing operational conditions, yet the mechanisms underlying this fundamental brain function in the sensory systems are poorly understood. To address this issue in the olfactory system, we investigated the responses of olfactory bulbs to odor stimulations under different brain states manipulated by anesthesia levels. Our results revealed that in two brain states, where the spontaneous baseline activities differed about twofold based on the local field potential (LFP) signals, the levels of neural activities reached after the same odor stimulation had no significant difference. This phenomenon was independent of anesthetics (pentobarbital or chloral hydrate), stimulating odorants (ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl valerate, amyl acetate, n-heptanal, or 2-heptanone), odor concentrations, and recording sites (the mitral or granular cell layers) for LFPs in three frequency bands (12–32 Hz, 33–64 Hz, and 65–90 Hz) and for multiunit activities. Furthermore, the activity patterns of the same stimulation under these two brain states were highly similar at both LFP and multiunit levels. These converging results argue the existence of mechanisms in the olfactory bulbs that ensure the delivery of peripheral olfactory information to higher olfactory centers with high fidelity under different brain states. PMID:21321196

  9. Simvastatin Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Andrea; Bramlett, Helen M; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Wang, Kevin K W; Caudle, Krista; Empey, Philip E; Poloyac, Samuel M; Hayes, Ronald L; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M; Shear, Deborah A

    2016-03-15

    Simvastatin, the fourth drug selected for testing by Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT), is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor used clinically to reduce serum cholesterol. In addition, simvastatin has demonstrated potent antineuroinflammatory and brain edema reducing effects and has shown promise in promoting functional recovery in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to assess the potential neuroprotective effects of oral administration of simvastatin on neurobehavioral, biomarker, and histopathological outcome measures compared across three pre-clinical TBI animal models. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact injury (CCI), or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Simvastatin (1 or 5 mg/kg) was delivered via oral gavage at 3 h post-injury and continued once daily out to 14 days post-injury. Results indicated an intermediate beneficial effect of simvastatin on motor performance on the gridwalk (FPI), balance beam (CCI), and rotarod tasks (PBBI). No significant therapeutic benefit was detected, however, on cognitive outcome across the OBTT TBI models. In fact, Morris water maze (MWM) performance was actually worsened by treatment in the FPI model and scored full negative points for low dose in the MWM latency and swim distance to locate the hidden platform. A detrimental effect on cortical tissue loss was also seen in the FPI model, and there were no benefits on histology across the other models. Simvastatin also produced negative effects on circulating glial fibrillary acidic protein biomarker outcomes that were evident in the FPI and PBBI models. Overall, the current findings do not support the beneficial effects of simvastatin administration over 2 weeks post-TBI using the oral route of administration and, as such, it will not be further pursued by OBTT. PMID:26541177

  10. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  11. Nicotinamide Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shear, Deborah A; Dixon, C Edward; Bramlett, Helen M; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Schmid, Kara E; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L; Povlishock, John T; Kochanek, Patrick M; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-15

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) was the first drug selected for cross-model testing by the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) consortium based on a compelling record of positive results in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact injury (CCI), or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Nicotinamide (50 or 500 mg/kg) was delivered intravenously at 15 min and 24 h after injury with subsequent behavioral, biomarker, and histopathological outcome assessments. There was an intermediate effect on balance beam performance with the high (500 mg/kg) dose in the CCI model, but no significant therapeutic benefit was detected on any other motor task across the OBTT TBI models. There was an intermediate benefit on working memory with the high dose in the FPI model. A negative effect of the low (50 mg/kg) dose, however, was observed on cognitive outcome in the CCI model, and no cognitive improvement was observed in the PBBI model. Lesion volume analysis showed no treatment effects after either FPI or PBBI, but the high dose of nicotinamide resulted in significant tissue sparing in the CCI model. Biomarker assessments included measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-1 (UCH-L1) in blood at 4 or 24 h after injury. Negative effects (both doses) were detected on biomarker levels of GFAP after FPI and on biomarker levels of UCH-L1 after PBBI. The high dose of nicotinamide, however, reduced GFAP levels after both PBBI and CCI. Overall, our results showed a surprising lack of benefit from the low dose nicotinamide. In contrast, and partly in keeping with the literature, some benefit was achieved with the high dose. The marginal benefits achieved with nicotinamide, however, which appeared sporadically across the TBI models, has reduced enthusiasm for further investigation by the OBTT Consortium

  12. State-independent purity and fidelity of quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zong, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The purity and fidelity of quantum operations are of great importance in characterizing the quality of quantum operations. The currently available definitions of the purity and fidelity of quantum operations are based on the average over all possible input pure quantum states, i.e. they are state-dependent (SD). In this paper, without resorting to quantum states, we define the state-independent (SI) purity and fidelity of a general quantum operation (evolution) in virtue of a new density matrix formalism for quantum operations, which is extended from the quantum state level to quantum operation level. The SI purity and fidelity gain more intrinsic physical properties of quantum operations than state-dependent ones, such as the purity of a one-qubit amplitude damping channel (with damping rate 1) is 1/2, which is in line with the fact that the channel is still a nonunitary operation described by two Kraus operators rather than a unitary one. But the state-dependent Haar average purity is 1 in this case. So the SI purity and fidelity proposed here can help the experimentalists to exactly quantify the implementation quality of an operation. As a byproduct, a new measure of the operator entanglement is proposed for a quantum evolution (unitary or nonunitary) in terms of the linear entropy of its density matrix on the orthonormal operator bases (OOBs) in Hilbert-Schmidt space.

  13. Erythropoietin Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton; Dixon, C Edward; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E; Mondello, Stefania; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental studies targeting traumatic brain injury (TBI) have reported that erythropoietin (EPO) is an endogenous neuroprotectant in multiple models. In addition to its neuroprotective effects, it has also been shown to enhance reparative processes including angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Based on compelling pre-clinical data, EPO was tested by the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) consortium to evaluate therapeutic potential in multiple TBI models along with biomarker assessments. Based on the pre-clinical TBI literature, two doses of EPO (5000 and 10,000 IU/kg) were tested given at 15 min after moderate fluid percussion brain injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact (CCI), or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) with subsequent behavioral, histopathological, and biomarker outcome assessments. There was a significant benefit on beam walk with the 5000 IU dose in CCI, but no benefit on any other motor task across models in OBTT. Also, no benefit of EPO treatment across the three TBI models was noted using the Morris water maze to assess cognitive deficits. Lesion volume analysis showed no treatment effects after either FPI or CCI; however, with the 5000 IU/kg dose of EPO, a paradoxical increase in lesion volume and percent hemispheric tissue loss was seen after PBBI. Biomarker assessments included measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in blood at 4 or 24 h after injury. No treatment effects were seen on biomarker levels after FPI, whereas treatment at either dose exacerbated the increase in GFAP at 24 h in PBBI but attenuated 24-4 h delta UCH-L1 levels at high dose in CCI. Our data indicate a surprising lack of efficacy of EPO across three established TBI models in terms of behavioral, histopathological, and biomarker assessments. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that other doses or more prolonged treatment could show different effects, the lack of efficacy of EPO reduced

  14. Cyclosporine Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C Edward; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton; Shear, Deborah A; Yan, Hong Q; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Mondello, Stefania; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L; Empey, Philip E; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a consortium of investigators using multiple pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to bring acute therapies to clinical trials. To screen therapies, we used three rat models (parasagittal fluid percussion injury [FPI], controlled cortical impact [CCI], and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury [PBBI]). We report results of the third therapy (cyclosporin-A; cyclosporine; [CsA]) tested by OBTT. At each site, rats were randomized to treatment with an identical regimen (TBI + vehicle, TBI + CsA [10 mg/kg], or TBI + CsA [20 mg/kg] given intravenously at 15 min and 24 h after injury, and sham). We assessed motor and Morris water maze (MWM) tasks over 3 weeks after TBI and lesion volume and hemispheric tissue loss at 21 days. In FPI, CsA (10 mg/kg) produced histological protection, but 20 mg/kg worsened working memory. In CCI, CsA (20 mg/kg) impaired MWM performance; surprisingly, neither dose showed benefit on any outcome. After PBBI, neither dose produced benefit on any outcome, and mortality was increased (20 mg/kg) partly caused by the solvent vehicle. In OBTT, CsA produced complex effects with histological protection at the lowest dose in the least severe model (FPI), but only deleterious effects as model severity increased (CCI and PBBI). Biomarker assessments included measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in blood at 4 or 24 h after injury. No positive treatment effects were seen on biomarker levels in any of the models, whereas significant increases in 24 h UCH-L1 levels were seen with CsA (20 mg/kg) after CCI and 24 h GFAP levels in both CsA treated groups in the PBBI model. Lack of behavioral protection in any model, indicators of toxicity, and a narrow therapeutic index reduce enthusiasm for clinical translation. PMID:26671075

  15. Levetiracetam Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Browning, Megan; Shear, Deborah A; Bramlett, Helen M; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Schmid, Kara E; Poloyac, Samuel M; Dietrich, W Dalton; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Kevin K W; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-03-15

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic agent targeting novel pathways. Coupled with a favorable safety profile and increasing empirical clinical use, it was the fifth drug tested by Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT). We assessed the efficacy of a single 15 min post-injury intravenous (IV) dose (54 or 170 mg/kg) on behavioral, histopathological, and biomarker outcomes after parasagittal fluid percussion brain injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact (CCI), and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. In FPI, there was no benefit on motor function, but on Morris water maze (MWM), both doses improved latencies and path lengths versus vehicle (p < 0.05). On probe trial, the vehicle group was impaired versus sham, but both LEV treated groups did not differ versus sham, and the 54 mg/kg group was improved versus vehicle (p < 0.05). No histological benefit was seen. In CCI, there was a benefit on beam balance at 170 mg/kg (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle). On MWM, the 54 mg/kg dose was improved and not different from sham. Probe trial did not differ between groups for either dose. There was a reduction in hemispheric tissue loss (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle) with 170 mg/kg. In PBBI, there was no motor, cognitive, or histological benefit from either dose. Regarding biomarkers, in CCI, 24 h glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) blood levels were lower in the 170 mg/kg group versus vehicle (p < 0.05). In PBBI, GFAP blood levels were increased in vehicle and 170 mg/kg groups versus sham (p < 0.05) but not in the 54 mg/kg group. No treatment effects were seen for ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 across models. Early single IV LEV produced multiple benefits in CCI and FPI and reduced GFAP levels in PBBI. LEV achieved 10 points at each dose, is the most promising drug tested thus far by OBTT, and the only drug to improve cognitive outcome in any model. LEV has been advanced to testing in the micropig model in OBTT. PMID:26671550

  16. Brain-mind operational architectonics imaging: technical and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint activity in the form of unified and metastable operational modules, which constitute the whole hierarchy of brain operations, operations of cognition and phenomenal consciousness. PMID:19526071

  17. A Gaze Independent Brain-Computer Interface Based on Visual Stimulation through Closed Eyelids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Ferreria, Valeria Y.; Ulrich, Daniel; Kilic, Tayfun; Chatziliadis, Xenofon; Blankertz, Benjamin; Treder, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    A classical brain-computer interface (BCI) based on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) is of limited application value for paralyzed patients with severe oculomotor impairments. In this study, we introduce a novel gaze independent BCI paradigm that can be potentially used for such end-users because visual stimuli are administered on closed eyelids. The paradigm involved verbally presented questions with 3 possible answers. Online BCI experiments were conducted with twelve healthy subjects, where they selected one option by attending to one of three different visual stimuli. It was confirmed that typical cognitive ERPs can be evidently modulated by the attention of a target stimulus in eyes-closed and gaze independent condition, and further classified with high accuracy during online operation (74.58% ± 17.85 s.d.; chance level 33.33%), demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed novel visual ERP paradigm. Also, stimulus-specific eye movements observed during stimulation were verified as reflex responses to light stimuli, and they did not contribute to classification. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to show the possibility of using a gaze independent visual ERP paradigm in an eyes-closed condition, thereby providing another communication option for severely locked-in patients suffering from complex ocular dysfunctions.

  18. A Gaze Independent Brain-Computer Interface Based on Visual Stimulation through Closed Eyelids

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Ferreria, Valeria Y.; Ulrich, Daniel; Kilic, Tayfun; Chatziliadis, Xenofon; Blankertz, Benjamin; Treder, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A classical brain-computer interface (BCI) based on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) is of limited application value for paralyzed patients with severe oculomotor impairments. In this study, we introduce a novel gaze independent BCI paradigm that can be potentially used for such end-users because visual stimuli are administered on closed eyelids. The paradigm involved verbally presented questions with 3 possible answers. Online BCI experiments were conducted with twelve healthy subjects, where they selected one option by attending to one of three different visual stimuli. It was confirmed that typical cognitive ERPs can be evidently modulated by the attention of a target stimulus in eyes-closed and gaze independent condition, and further classified with high accuracy during online operation (74.58% ± 17.85 s.d.; chance level 33.33%), demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed novel visual ERP paradigm. Also, stimulus-specific eye movements observed during stimulation were verified as reflex responses to light stimuli, and they did not contribute to classification. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to show the possibility of using a gaze independent visual ERP paradigm in an eyes-closed condition, thereby providing another communication option for severely locked-in patients suffering from complex ocular dysfunctions. PMID:26510583

  19. 78 FR 29364 - Independent Power Producers of New York, Inc. v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Independent Power Producers of New York, Inc. v. New York Independent System... York, Inc. (IPPNY or Complainant) filed a complaint against New York Independent System Operator, Inc... York Control Area capacity markets by existing resources. IPPNY certifies that copies of the...

  20. Delivering multiple independent RIB simultaneously: Technical and operational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    ISAC is an ISOL-type facility at which RIB are produced by direct reactions of 480 MeV protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron on thick targets. Like other ISOL-type facilities, ISAC is limited to the production and delivery of a single RIB at any given time. ARIEL, the Advanced Rare-IsotopE Laboratory, will provide for the production and delivery of, ultimately, two additional RIB, the first produced by photofission on actinide targets using electrons from a new superconducting electron linac and the second by direct and indirect reactions with protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron. This will allow for the simultaneous delivery of three independent RIB to experimental areas at ARIEL and ISAC. The shift from single-user to multi-user operation will introduce significant technical and operational challenges that RIB facilities have not yet had to address. Almost all aspects of facility operation will become more complex as the first RIB from ARIEL targets become available.

  1. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  2. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N′-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  3. Brain computer interface for operating a robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisar, Humaira; Balasubramaniam, Hari Chand; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2013-10-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a hardware/software based system that translates the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals produced by the brain activity to control computers and other external devices. In this paper, we will present a non-invasive BCI system that reads the EEG signals from a trained brain activity using a neuro-signal acquisition headset and translates it into computer readable form; to control the motion of a robot. The robot performs the actions that are instructed to it in real time. We have used the cognitive states like Push, Pull to control the motion of the robot. The sensitivity and specificity of the system is above 90 percent. Subjective results show a mixed trend of the difficulty level of the training activities. The quantitative EEG data analysis complements the subjective results. This technology may become very useful for the rehabilitation of disabled and elderly people.

  4. 75 FR 20590 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., Complainant, v. Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... complaint against the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (Midwest ISO or Respondent) alleging that the Midwest ISO violated their, Midwest ISO and PJM, Joint Operating Agreement (JOA),...

  5. 75 FR 52527 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc. Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc. Notice of Filings August 19, 2010... New York Independent System Operator, Inc., the International Transmission Company, and the Midwest... Regulatory Commission's July 15, 2010 Order on Compliance Filing, New York Independent System Operator,...

  6. Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, M. S.; Schmidt, N. M.; Blankertz, B.

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

  7. On the Distinctiveness, Independence, and Time Course of the Brain Responses to Syntactic and Semantic Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhout, Lee; Nicol, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the distinctiveness, independence, and relative time courses of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by syntactically and semantically anomalous words. ERPs were recorded while subjects read sentences, some of which contained a selectional restriction violation, a verb-tense violation, or a doubly anomalous word that…

  8. Modalities of Thinking: State and Trait Effects on Cross-Frequency Functional Independent Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L

    2016-05-01

    Functional states of the brain are constituted by the temporally attuned activity of spatially distributed neural networks. Such networks can be identified by independent component analysis (ICA) applied to frequency-dependent source-localized EEG data. This methodology allows the identification of networks at high temporal resolution in frequency bands of established location-specific physiological functions. EEG measurements are sensitive to neural activity changes in cortical areas of modality-specific processing. We tested effects of modality-specific processing on functional brain networks. Phasic modality-specific processing was induced via tasks (state effects) and tonic processing was assessed via modality-specific person parameters (trait effects). Modality-specific person parameters and 64-channel EEG were obtained from 70 male, right-handed students. Person parameters were obtained using cognitive style questionnaires, cognitive tests, and thinking modality self-reports. EEG was recorded during four conditions: spatial visualization, object visualization, verbalization, and resting. Twelve cross-frequency networks were extracted from source-localized EEG across six frequency bands using ICA. RMANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and path modelling examined effects of tasks and person parameters on networks. Results identified distinct state- and trait-dependent functional networks. State-dependent networks were characterized by decreased, trait-dependent networks by increased alpha activity in sub-regions of modality-specific pathways. Pathways of competing modalities showed opposing alpha changes. State- and trait-dependent alpha were associated with inhibitory and automated processing, respectively. Antagonistic alpha modulations in areas of competing modalities likely prevent intruding effects of modality-irrelevant processing. Considerable research suggested alpha modulations related to modality-specific states and traits. This study identified the

  9. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) Independent Microvascular Angiogenesis in the Aged Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ndubuizu, Obinna I.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Li, Ang; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical component of mammalian brain adaptation to prolonged hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis is mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) dependent transcriptional activation of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Microvascular angiogenesis occurs over a three week period in the rodent brain. We have recently reported that HIF-1α accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF target genes in the aged cortex of 24 month F344 rats is significantly attenuated during acute hypoxic exposure. In the present study, we show that cortical HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1 activation remains absent during chronic hypoxic exposure in the aged rat brain (24 month F344). Despite this lack of HIF-1 activation, there is no significant difference in baseline or post-hypoxic brain capillary density counts between the young (3 month F344) and old age groups. VEGF mRNA and protein levels are significantly elevated in the aged cortex despite the lack of HIF-1 activation. Other HIF-independent mediators of hypoxia inducible genes could be involved during chronic hypoxia in the aged brain. PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, a known regulator of VEGF gene transcription, is elevated in the young and aged cortex during the chronic hypoxic exposure. Overall, our results suggest a compensatory HIF-1 independent preservation of hypoxic-induced microvascular angiogenesis in the aged rat brain. PMID:20875806

  10. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Mehring, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects’ real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands. PMID:27303808

  11. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Luke; Mehring, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects' real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands. PMID:27303808

  12. EDITORIAL: Special section on gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces Special section on gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, Matthias S.

    2012-08-01

    Restoring the ability to communicate and interact with the environment in patients with severe motor disabilities is a vision that has been the main catalyst of early brain-computer interface (BCI) research. The past decade has brought a diversification of the field. BCIs have been examined as a tool for motor rehabilitation and their benefit in non-medical applications such as mental-state monitoring for improved human-computer interaction and gaming has been confirmed. At the same time, the weaknesses of some approaches have been pointed out. One of these weaknesses is gaze-dependence, that is, the requirement that the user of a BCI system voluntarily directs his or her eye gaze towards a visual target in order to efficiently operate a BCI. This not only contradicts the main doctrine of BCI research, namely that BCIs should be independent of muscle activity, but it can also limit its real-world applicability both in clinical and non-medical settings. It is only in a scenario devoid of any motor activity that a BCI solution is without alternative. Gaze-dependencies have surfaced at two different points in the BCI loop. Firstly, a BCI that relies on visual stimulation may require users to fixate on the target location. Secondly, feedback is often presented visually, which implies that the user may have to move his or her eyes in order to perceive the feedback. This special section was borne out of a BCI workshop on gaze-independent BCIs held at the 2011 Society for Applied Neurosciences (SAN) Conference and has then been extended with additional contributions from other research groups. It compiles experimental and methodological work that aims toward gaze-independent communication and mental-state monitoring. Riccio et al review the current state-of-the-art in research on gaze-independent BCIs [1]. Van der Waal et al present a tactile speller that builds on the stimulation of the fingers of the right and left hand [2]. H¨ohne et al analyze the ergonomic aspects

  13. Human Brain Expansion during Evolution Is Independent of Fire Control and Cooking.

    PubMed

    Cornélio, Alianda M; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E; de Bittencourt Brum, Ricardo; Queiroz, Claudio M; Costa, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidence of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion. PMID:27199631

  14. Human Brain Expansion during Evolution Is Independent of Fire Control and Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Cornélio, Alianda M.; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E.; de Bittencourt Brum, Ricardo; Queiroz, Claudio M.; Costa, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidence of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion. PMID:27199631

  15. Independent component analysis of EEG dipole source localization in resting and action state of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurshedi, Ahmed; Ismail, Abd Khamim

    2015-04-01

    EEG source localization was studied in order to determine the location of the brain sources that are responsible for the measured potentials at the scalp electrodes using EEGLAB with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm. Neuron source locations are responsible in generating current dipoles in different states of brain through the measured potentials. The current dipole sources localization are measured by fitting an equivalent current dipole model using a non-linear optimization technique with the implementation of standardized boundary element head model. To fit dipole models to ICA components in an EEGLAB dataset, ICA decomposition is performed and appropriate components to be fitted are selected. The topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum and cross coherence of EEG signals are observed. In close eyes condition it shows that during resting and action states of brain, alpha band was activated from occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4) area. Therefore, parieto-occipital area of brain are active in both resting and action state of brain. However cross coherence tells that there is more coherence between right and left hemisphere in action state of brain than that in the resting state. The preliminary result indicates that these potentials arise from the same generators in the brain.

  16. Deep Independence Network Analysis of Structural Brain Imaging: Application to Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eduardo; Hjelm, R Devon; Plis, Sergey M; Dinh, Laurent; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-07-01

    Linear independent component analysis (ICA) is a standard signal processing technique that has been extensively used on neuroimaging data to detect brain networks with coherent brain activity (functional MRI) or covarying structural patterns (structural MRI). However, its formulation assumes that the measured brain signals are generated by a linear mixture of the underlying brain networks and this assumption limits its ability to detect the inherent nonlinear nature of brain interactions. In this paper, we introduce nonlinear independent component estimation (NICE) to structural MRI data to detect abnormal patterns of gray matter concentration in schizophrenia patients. For this biomedical application, we further addressed the issue of model regularization of nonlinear ICA by performing dimensionality reduction prior to NICE, together with an appropriate control of the complexity of the model and the usage of a proper approximation of the probability distribution functions of the estimated components. We show that our results are consistent with previous findings in the literature, but we also demonstrate that the incorporation of nonlinear associations in the data enables the detection of spatial patterns that are not identified by linear ICA. Specifically, we show networks including basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus that show significant differences in patients versus controls, some of which show distinct nonlinear patterns. PMID:26891483

  17. Deep Independence Network Analysis of Structural Brain Imaging: Application to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eduardo; Hjelm, R. Devon; Plis, Sergey M.; Dinh, Laurent; Turner, Jessica A.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Linear independent component analysis (ICA) is a standard signal processing technique that has been extensively used on neuroimaging data to detect brain networks with coherent brain activity (functional MRI) or covarying structural patterns (structural MRI). However, its formulation assumes that the measured brain signals are generated by a linear mixture of the underlying brain networks and this assumption limits its ability to detect the inherent nonlinear nature of brain interactions. In this paper, we introduce nonlinear independent component estimation (NICE) to structural MRI data to detect abnormal patterns of gray matter concentration in schizophrenia patients. For this biomedical application, we further addressed the issue of model regularization of nonlinear ICA by performing dimensionality reduction prior to NICE, together with an appropriate control of the complexity of the model and the usage of a proper approximation of the probability distribution functions of the estimated components. We show that our results are consistent with previous findings in the literature, but we also demonstrate that the incorporation of nonlinear associations in the data enables the detection of spatial patterns that are not identified by linear ICA. Specifically, we show networks including basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus that show significant differences in patients versus controls, some of which show distinct nonlinear patterns. PMID:26891483

  18. Chronic systemic IL-1β exacerbates central neuroinflammation independently of the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Murta, Verónica; Farías, María Isabel; Pitossi, Fernando Juan; Ferrari, Carina Cintia

    2015-01-15

    Peripheral circulating cytokines are involved in immune to brain communication and systemic inflammation is considered a risk factor for flaring up the symptoms in most neurodegenerative diseases. We induced both central inflammatory demyelinating lesion, and systemic inflammation with an interleukin-1β expressing adenovector. The peripheral pro-inflammatory stimulus aggravated the ongoing central lesion independently of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. This model allows studying the role of specific molecules and cells (neutrophils) from the innate immune system, in the relationship between central and peripheral communication, and on relapsing episodes of demyelinating lesions, along with the role of BBB integrity. PMID:25595250

  19. Atrial fibrillation is associated with reduced brain volume and cognitive function independent of cerebral infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Stefansdottir, Hrafnhildur; Arnar, David O.; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Hjaltason, Haukur; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with cognitive decline independant of stroke, suggesting additional effects of AF on the brain. We aimed to assess the association between AF and brain function and structure in a general elderly population. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis on 4251 non-demented participants (mean age 76 ± 5 years) in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. Medical record data were collected on the presence, subtype and time from first diagnosis of AF; 330 participants had AF. Brain volume measurements, adjusted for intracranial volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts were determined with MRI. Memory, speed of processing and executive function composites were calculated from a cognitive test battery. In a multivariable linear regression model, adjustments were made for demographic, cardiovascular risk factors and cerebral infarcts. Results Participants with AF had lower total brain volume compared to those without AF (p<0.001). The association was stronger with persistent/permanent than paroxysmal AF and with increased time from the first diagnosis of the disease. Of the brain tissue volumes, AF was associated with lower volume of gray and white matter (p<0.001 and p=0.008 respectively) but not of white matter hyperintesities (p=0.49). Participants with AF scored lower on tests on memory. Conclusions AF is associated with smaller brain volume and the association is stronger with increasing burden of the arrhythmia. These findings suggest that AF has a cumulative negative effect on the brain independent of cerebral infarcts. PMID:23444303

  20. Model independent constraints on four-lepton operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Adam; Mimouni, Kin

    2016-02-01

    We obtain constraints on 4-lepton interactions in the effective field theory with dimension-6 operators. To this end, we combine the experimental input from Z boson measurements in LEP-1, W boson mass and decays, muon and tau decays, lepton pair production in LEP-2, neutrino scattering on electrons, and parity violating electron scattering. The analysis does not rely on any assumptions about the flavor structure of the dimension-6 operators. Our main results are the confidence intervals for Wilson coefficients of 16 lepton-flavor conserving four-lepton operators, together with the full correlation matrix. Consequences for leptophilic models beyond the Standard Model are discussed.

  1. Calcium-permeable ion channels involved in glutamate receptor-independent ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-hua; Inoue, Koichi; Si, Hong-fang; Xiong, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    Brain ischemia is a leading cause of death and long-term disabilities worldwide. Unfortunately, current treatment is limited to thrombolysis, which has limited success and a potential side effect of intracerebral hemorrhage. Searching for new cell injury mechanisms and therapeutic interventions has become a major challenge in the field. It has been recognized for many years that intracellular Ca2+ overload in neurons is essential for neuronal injury associated with brain ischemia. However, the exact pathway(s) underlying the toxic Ca2+ loading remained elusive. This review discusses the role of two Ca2+-permeable cation channels, TRPM7 and acid-sensing channels, in glutamate-independent Ca2+ toxicity associated with brain ischemia. PMID:21552295

  2. Neuroplasticity subserving the operation of brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oweiss, Karim G; Badreldin, Islam S

    2015-11-01

    Neuroplasticity is key to the operation of brain machine interfaces (BMIs)-a direct communication pathway between the brain and a man-made computing device. Whereas exogenous BMIs that associate volitional control of brain activity with neurofeedback have been shown to induce long lasting plasticity, endogenous BMIs that use prolonged activity-dependent stimulation--and thus may curtail the time scale that governs natural sensorimotor integration loops--have been shown to induce short lasting plasticity. Here we summarize recent findings from studies using both categories of BMIs, and discuss the fundamental principles that may underlie their operation and the longevity of the plasticity they induce. We draw comparison to plasticity mechanisms known to mediate natural sensorimotor skill learning and discuss principles of homeostatic regulation that may constrain endogenous BMI effects in the adult mammalian brain. We propose that BMIs could be designed to facilitate structural and functional plasticity for the purpose of re-organization of target brain regions and directed augmentation of sensorimotor maps, and suggest possible avenues for future work to maximize their efficacy and viability in clinical applications. PMID:25968934

  3. Eye-gaze independent EEG-based brain-computer interfaces for communication.

    PubMed

    Riccio, A; Mattia, D; Simione, L; Olivetti, M; Cincotti, F

    2012-08-01

    The present review systematically examines the literature reporting gaze independent interaction modalities in non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication. BCIs measure signals related to specific brain activity and translate them into device control signals. This technology can be used to provide users with severe motor disability (e.g. late stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); acquired brain injury) with an assistive device that does not rely on muscular contraction. Most of the studies on BCIs explored mental tasks and paradigms using visual modality. Considering that in ALS patients the oculomotor control can deteriorate and also other potential users could have impaired visual function, tactile and auditory modalities have been investigated over the past years to seek alternative BCI systems which are independent from vision. In addition, various attentional mechanisms, such as covert attention and feature-directed attention, have been investigated to develop gaze independent visual-based BCI paradigms. Three areas of research were considered in the present review: (i) auditory BCIs, (ii) tactile BCIs and (iii) independent visual BCIs. Out of a total of 130 search results, 34 articles were selected on the basis of pre-defined exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles dealt with independent visual BCIs, 15 reported on auditory BCIs and the last six on tactile BCIs, respectively. From the review of the available literature, it can be concluded that a crucial point is represented by the trade-off between BCI systems/paradigms with high accuracy and speed, but highly demanding in terms of attention and memory load, and systems requiring lower cognitive effort but with a limited amount of communicable information. These issues should be considered as priorities to be explored in future studies to meet users' requirements in a real-life scenario. PMID:22831893

  4. Eye-gaze independent EEG-based brain-computer interfaces for communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Mattia, D.; Simione, L.; Olivetti, M.; Cincotti, F.

    2012-08-01

    The present review systematically examines the literature reporting gaze independent interaction modalities in non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication. BCIs measure signals related to specific brain activity and translate them into device control signals. This technology can be used to provide users with severe motor disability (e.g. late stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); acquired brain injury) with an assistive device that does not rely on muscular contraction. Most of the studies on BCIs explored mental tasks and paradigms using visual modality. Considering that in ALS patients the oculomotor control can deteriorate and also other potential users could have impaired visual function, tactile and auditory modalities have been investigated over the past years to seek alternative BCI systems which are independent from vision. In addition, various attentional mechanisms, such as covert attention and feature-directed attention, have been investigated to develop gaze independent visual-based BCI paradigms. Three areas of research were considered in the present review: (i) auditory BCIs, (ii) tactile BCIs and (iii) independent visual BCIs. Out of a total of 130 search results, 34 articles were selected on the basis of pre-defined exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles dealt with independent visual BCIs, 15 reported on auditory BCIs and the last six on tactile BCIs, respectively. From the review of the available literature, it can be concluded that a crucial point is represented by the trade-off between BCI systems/paradigms with high accuracy and speed, but highly demanding in terms of attention and memory load, and systems requiring lower cognitive effort but with a limited amount of communicable information. These issues should be considered as priorities to be explored in future studies to meet users’ requirements in a real-life scenario.

  5. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andreas M; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Rana, Mohit; Pasqualotto, Emanuele; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Kai-Keng; Tejos, Cristián; Zamorano, Francisco; Aboitiz, Francisco; Birbaumer, Niels; Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs) from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e., happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to "match" their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26539089

  6. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andreas M.; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Rana, Mohit; Pasqualotto, Emanuele; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Kai-Keng; Tejos, Cristián; Zamorano, Francisco; Aboitiz, Francisco; Birbaumer, Niels; Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs) from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e., happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to “match” their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26539089

  7. Recovering fNIRS brain signals: physiological interference suppression with independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, M.; Sun, J.; Yang, C.; Zhang, Yajuan; Scopesi, F.; Makobore, P.; Chin, C.; Serra, G.; Wickramasinghe, Y. A. B. D.; Rolfe, P.

    2015-02-01

    Brain activity can be monitored non-invasively by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has several advantages in comparison with other methods, such as flexibility, portability, low cost and fewer physical restrictions. However, in practice fNIRS measurements are often contaminated by physiological interference arising from cardiac contraction, breathing and blood pressure fluctuations, thereby severely limiting the utility of the method. Hence, further improvement is necessary to reduce or eliminate such interference in order that the evoked brain activity information can be extracted reliably from fNIRS data. In the present paper, the multi-distance fNIRS probe configuration has been adopted. The short-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the virtual channel and the long-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the measurement channel. Independent component analysis (ICA) is employed for the fNIRS recordings to separate the brain signals and the interference. Least-absolute deviation (LAD) estimator is employed to recover the brain activity signals. We also utilized Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer model of the adult human head to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the ICA algorithm has the potential to separate physiological interference in fNIRS data and the LAD estimator could be a useful criterion to recover the brain activity signals.

  8. 78 FR 79690 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 20, 2013, the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) filed a refund report to be made by the...

  9. 75 FR 32458 - TC Ravenswood, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TC Ravenswood, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of... New York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO) (Respondent), requesting FERC order the NYISO to reimburse TC Ravenswood, LLC, as required by section 4.1.7a of the NYISO Services Tariff for the...

  10. Expectations for Function and Independence by Childhood Brain Tumors Survivors and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Matthew S.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Jones, Nora L.; Ulrich, Connie M.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood brain tumors face many obstacles to living independently as adults. Causes for lack of independence are multifactorial and generally are investigated in terms of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial treatment–related sequelae. Little is known, however, about the role of expectation for survivors’ function. From a mixed–methods study including qualitative interviews and quantitative measures from 40 caregiver–survivor dyads, we compared the data within and across dyads, identifying four distinct narrative profiles: (A) convergent expectations about an optimistic future, (B) convergent expectations about a less optimistic future, (C) non–convergent expectations about a less optimistic future, and (D) non–convergent expectations about an unclear future. Dyads both do well and/or struggle in systematically different manners in each profile. These profiles may inform the design of interventions to be tested in future research and help clinicians to assist families in defining, (re–)negotiating, and reaching their expectations of function and independence. PMID:25482002

  11. An independent SSVEP-based brain-computer interface in locked-in syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesenfants, D.; Habbal, D.; Lugo, Z.; Lebeau, M.; Horki, P.; Amico, E.; Pokorny, C.; Gómez, F.; Soddu, A.; Müller-Putz, G.; Laureys, S.; Noirhomme, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow healthy subjects to communicate. However, their dependence on gaze control prevents their use with severely disabled patients. Gaze-independent SSVEP-BCIs have been designed but have shown a drop in accuracy and have not been tested in brain-injured patients. In the present paper, we propose a novel independent SSVEP-BCI based on covert attention with an improved classification rate. We study the influence of feature extraction algorithms and the number of harmonics. Finally, we test online communication on healthy volunteers and patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS). Approach. Twenty-four healthy subjects and six LIS patients participated in this study. An independent covert two-class SSVEP paradigm was used with a newly developed portable light emitting diode-based ‘interlaced squares' stimulation pattern. Main results. Mean offline and online accuracies on healthy subjects were respectively 85 ± 2% and 74 ± 13%, with eight out of twelve subjects succeeding to communicate efficiently with 80 ± 9% accuracy. Two out of six LIS patients reached an offline accuracy above the chance level, illustrating a response to a command. One out of four LIS patients could communicate online. Significance. We have demonstrated the feasibility of online communication with a covert SSVEP paradigm that is truly independent of all neuromuscular functions. The potential clinical use of the presented BCI system as a diagnostic (i.e., detecting command-following) and communication tool for severely brain-injured patients will need to be further explored.

  12. Developmental Decrease of Neuronal Chloride Concentration Is Independent of Trauma in Thalamocortical Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Glykys, Joseph; Staley, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The intraneuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) is paramount for determining the polarity of signaling at GABAA synapses in the central nervous system. Sectioning hippocampal brain slices increases [Cl-]i in the superficial layers. It is not known whether cutting trauma also increases [Cl-]i in the neocortex and thalamus, and whether the effects of trauma change during development. We used Cl- imaging to study the [Cl-]i vs. the distance from the cut surface in acute thalamocortical slices from mice at developmental ages ranging from post-natal day 5 (P5) to P20. We demonstrate: 1) [Cl-]i is higher in the most superficial areas in both neocortical and thalamic brain slices at all ages tested and, 2) there is a developmental decrease in [Cl-]i that is independent of acute trauma caused by brain slicing. We conclude that [Cl-]i has a developmental progression during P5-20 in both the neocortex and thalamus. However, in both brain regions and during development the neurons closest to the slicing trauma have an elevated [Cl-]i. PMID:27337272

  13. The associations of depression and hypertension with brain volumes: Independent or interactive?

    PubMed Central

    Meurs, Maaike; Groenewold, Nynke A.; Roest, Annelieke M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-José; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, suggest overlapping abnormalities in brain regions associated with emotional and autonomic processing. However, the unique and interactive effects of MDD and hypertension have never been studied in a single sample. Brain volume in these areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between MDD and hypertension. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for main effects of MDD (N = 152) and hypertension (N = 82) and their interactions on gray and white matter volumes. Voxel-wise results are reported at p < .05 FWE corrected for the spatial extent of the whole brain and a-priori regions of interest (ROIs: hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)). In addition, analyses on the extracted total volumes of our ROIs were performed. Interactive effects in the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) (pFWE = .01), cerebellum (pFWE = .01) and in the ACC total ROI volume (p = .02) were found. MDD in the presence, but not in the absence of hypertension was associated with lower volumes in the ACC and MCC, and with a trend towards larger gray matter volume in the cerebellum. No associations with white matter volumes were observed. Results suggest that the combination of MDD and hypertension has a unique effect on brain volumes in areas implicated in the regulation of emotional and autonomic functions. Brain volume in these regulatory areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between hypertension and MDD. PMID:26106530

  14. An Auditory-Tactile Visual Saccade-Independent P300 Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Yin, Erwei; Zeyl, Timothy; Saab, Rami; Hu, Dewen; Zhou, Zongtan; Chau, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Most P300 event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) studies focus on gaze shift-dependent BCIs, which cannot be used by people who have lost voluntary eye movement. However, the performance of visual saccade-independent P300 BCIs is generally poor. To improve saccade-independent BCI performance, we propose a bimodal P300 BCI approach that simultaneously employs auditory and tactile stimuli. The proposed P300 BCI is a vision-independent system because no visual interaction is required of the user. Specifically, we designed a direction-congruent bimodal paradigm by randomly and simultaneously presenting auditory and tactile stimuli from the same direction. Furthermore, the channels and number of trials were tailored to each user to improve online performance. With 12 participants, the average online information transfer rate (ITR) of the bimodal approach improved by 45.43% and 51.05% over that attained, respectively, with the auditory and tactile approaches individually. Importantly, the average online ITR of the bimodal approach, including the break time between selections, reached 10.77 bits/min. These findings suggest that the proposed bimodal system holds promise as a practical visual saccade-independent P300 BCI. PMID:26678249

  15. 77 FR 61592 - American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel Energy Services Inc,. Northern States Power Company, a Wisconsin Corporation, Northern..., American Transmission Company LLC (ATC), by its corporate manager, ATC Management Inc....

  16. 76 FR 29235 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...] California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance The Federal Energy..., Market Update, Board of Governors Meeting, Settlement Process Timeline Change, CA Transmission Planning Group Call May 20, 2011, Congestion Revenue Rights Enhancements, Transmission Planning Standards May...

  17. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an exemption in response to a request submitted by Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (ENO) on June 20, 2012, for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

  18. 78 FR 65641 - Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical... Commission (Commission) directed staff to convene a technical conference regarding a proposal by Midcontinent..., subject to the outcome of the technical conference and further Commission order. \\1\\ Midcontinent...

  19. Potential predictors for the amount of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datteri, Ryan; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; D'Haese, Pierre-François; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2011-03-01

    A number of groups have reported on the occurrence of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. This has a number of implications for the procedure including an increased chance of intra-cranial bleeding and complications due to the need for more exploratory electrodes to account for the brain shift. It has been reported that the amount of pneumocephalus or air invasion into the cranial cavity due to the opening of the dura correlates with intraoperative brain shift. Therefore, pre-operatively predicting the amount of pneumocephalus expected during surgery is of interest toward accounting for brain shift. In this study, we used 64 DBS patients who received bilateral electrode implantations and had a post-operative CT scan acquired immediately after surgery (CT-PI). For each patient, the volumes of the pneumocephalus, left ventricle, right ventricle, third ventricle, white matter, grey matter, and cerebral spinal fluid were calculated. The pneumocephalus was calculated from the CT-PI utilizing a region growing technique that was initialized with an atlas-based image registration method. A multi-atlas-based image segmentation method was used to segment out the ventricles of each patient. The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package was utilized to calculate the volumes of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), white matter and grey matter. The volume of individual structures had a moderate correlation with pneumocephalus. Utilizing a multi-linear regression between the volume of the pneumocephalus and the statistically relevant individual structures a Pearson's coefficient of r = 0.4123 (p = 0.0103) was found. This study shows preliminary results that could be used to develop a method to predict the amount of pneumocephalus ahead of the surgery.

  20. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  1. A brain-computer interface for long-term independent home use.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Eric W; Vaughan, Theresa M; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2010-10-01

    Our objective was to develop and validate a new brain-computer interface (BCI) system suitable for long-term independent home use by people with severe motor disabilities. The BCI was used by a 51-year-old male with ALS who could no longer use conventional assistive devices. Caregivers learned to place the electrode cap, add electrode gel, and turn on the BCI. After calibration, the system allowed the user to communicate via EEG. Re-calibration was performed remotely (via the internet), and BCI accuracy assessed in periodic tests. Reports of BCI usefulness by the user and the family were also recorded. Results showed that BCI accuracy remained at 83% (r = -.07, n.s.) for over 2.5 years (1.4% expected by chance). The BCI user and his family state that the BCI had restored his independence in social interactions and at work. He uses the BCI to run his NIH-funded research laboratory and to communicate via e-mail with family, friends, and colleagues. In addition to this first user, several other similarly disabled people are now using the BCI in their daily lives. In conclusion, long-term independent home use of this BCI system is practical for severely disabled people, and can contribute significantly to quality of life and productivity. PMID:20583947

  2. Unsupervised classification of operator workload from brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Dähne, Sven; Gugler, Manfred; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this study we aimed for the classification of operator workload as it is expected in many real-life workplace environments. We explored brain-signal based workload predictors that differ with respect to the level of label information required for training, including entirely unsupervised approaches. Approach. Subjects executed a task on a touch screen that required continuous effort of visual and motor processing with alternating difficulty. We first employed classical approaches for workload state classification that operate on the sensor space of EEG and compared those to the performance of three state-of-the-art spatial filtering methods: common spatial patterns (CSPs) analysis, which requires binary label information; source power co-modulation (SPoC) analysis, which uses the subjects’ error rate as a target function; and canonical SPoC (cSPoC) analysis, which solely makes use of cross-frequency power correlations induced by different states of workload and thus represents an unsupervised approach. Finally, we investigated the effects of fusing brain signals and peripheral physiological measures (PPMs) and examined the added value for improving classification performance. Main results. Mean classification accuracies of 94%, 92% and 82% were achieved with CSP, SPoC, cSPoC, respectively. These methods outperformed the approaches that did not use spatial filtering and they extracted physiologically plausible components. The performance of the unsupervised cSPoC is significantly increased by augmenting it with PPM features. Significance. Our analyses ensured that the signal sources used for classification were of cortical origin and not contaminated with artifacts. Our findings show that workload states can be successfully differentiated from brain signals, even when less and less information from the experimental paradigm is used, thus paving the way for real-world applications in which label information may be noisy or entirely unavailable.

  3. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  4. Parkin-independent mitophagy requires Drp1 and maintains the integrity of mammalian heart and brain

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Yusuke; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Seo, Kinya; Bedja, Djahida; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Andrabi, Shaida A; Chen, Weiran; Höke, Ahmet; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Kass, David A; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy have been linked to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial division dynamin Drp1 and the Parkinson's disease-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin synergistically maintain the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function in mouse heart and brain. Mice lacking cardiac Drp1 exhibited lethal heart defects. In Drp1KO cardiomyocytes, mitochondria increased their connectivity, accumulated ubiquitinated proteins, and decreased their respiration. In contrast to the current views of the role of parkin in ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial ubiquitination was independent of parkin in Drp1KO hearts, and simultaneous loss of Drp1 and parkin worsened cardiac defects. Drp1 and parkin also play synergistic roles in neuronal mitochondrial homeostasis and survival. Mitochondrial degradation was further decreased by combination of Drp1 and parkin deficiency, compared with their single loss. Thus, the physiological importance of parkin in mitochondrial homeostasis is revealed in the absence of mitochondrial division in mammals. PMID:25349190

  5. 77 FR 47621 - Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Transmission Partners, LLC v. New York Independent System Operator... formal complaint against the New York Independent System Operator, Inc. (Respondent). As more fully... Test using methods and assumptions that are unjust, unreasonable, and unduly discriminatory;...

  6. An independent brain-computer interface using covert non-spatial visual selective attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Maye, Alexander; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo; Engel, Andreas K.; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a novel independent brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on covert non-spatial visual selective attention of two superimposed illusory surfaces is described. Perception of two superimposed surfaces was induced by two sets of dots with different colors rotating in opposite directions. The surfaces flickered at different frequencies and elicited distinguishable steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) over parietal and occipital areas of the brain. By selectively attending to one of the two surfaces, the SSVEP amplitude at the corresponding frequency was enhanced. An online BCI system utilizing the attentional modulation of SSVEP was implemented and a 3-day online training program with healthy subjects was carried out. The study was conducted with Chinese subjects at Tsinghua University, and German subjects at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) using identical stimulation software and equivalent technical setup. A general improvement of control accuracy with training was observed in 8 out of 18 subjects. An averaged online classification accuracy of 72.6 ± 16.1% was achieved on the last training day. The system renders SSVEP-based BCI paradigms possible for paralyzed patients with substantial head or ocular motor impairments by employing covert attention shifts instead of changing gaze direction.

  7. The relationship between cognition and functional independence in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C P; Corrigan, J D

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cognitive impairment, as measured by Orientation Group Monitoring System (OGMS) scores, and disability as measured by Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores in a sample of 122 persons with traumatic brain injury admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation unit. The relationships between Aggregate OGMS and FIM Total, FIM Motor, and FIM Cognitive scores were significant (rho = .49, p < .001; .40, p < .001; and .64 p < .001 respectively). Lower cognition was related to greater disability; with this relationship stronger for FIM Cognitive versus FIM Motor scores. Consistent with prior research, time to rehabilitation was significantly related to FIM Total (rho = -.42 p < .001) at admission to rehabilitation, with shorter time to rehabilitation related to greater functional independence. Stepwise regression indicated that the Aggregate OGMS score contributed 24%, and time to rehabilitation 5% unique variance to FIM Total score. These results support previous findings of distinct cognitive and motor subscales of the FIM, and suggest the importance of cognitive impairment to both. PMID:8002762

  8. Assessing brain structural associations with working-memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christine Lycke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Tønnesen, Siren; Agartz, Ingrid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC). Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA), a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure-function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96) and HC (n = 142). We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal) and task-negative (default-mode) brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons) was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure-function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation. PMID:26509112

  9. Independent movement, dimerization and stability of tandem repeats of chicken brain alpha-spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, H.; Minasov, G.; Macdonald, R.I.; Mondragon, A.

    2010-03-08

    Previous X-ray crystal structures have shown that linkers of five amino acid residues connecting pairs of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin and human erythroid {beta}-spectrin repeats can undergo bending without losing their {alpha}-helical structure. To test whether bending at one linker can influence bending at an adjacent linker, the structures of two and three repeat fragments of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the three-repeat fragment clearly shows that bending at one linker can occur independently of bending at an adjacent linker. This observation increases the possible trajectories of modeled chains of spectrin repeats. Furthermore, the three-repeat molecule crystallized as an antiparallel dimer with a significantly smaller buried interfacial area than that of {alpha}-actinin, a spectrin-related molecule, but large enough and of a type indicating biological specificity. Comparison of the structures of the spectrin and {alpha}-actinin dimers supports weak association of the former, which could not be detected by analytical ultracentrifugation, versus strong association of the latter, which has been observed by others. To correlate features of the structure with solution properties and to test a previous model of stable spectrin and dystrophin repeats, the number of inter-helical interactions in each repeat of several spectrin structures were counted and compared to their thermal stabilities. Inter-helical interactions, but not all interactions, increased in parallel with measured thermal stabilities of each repeat and in agreement with the thermal stabilities of two and three repeats and also partial repeats of spectrin.

  10. 77 FR 21766 - Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical Conference By order dated March 30, 2012, in Docket Nos. ER12-678-000 and ER12-679-000, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  11. 77 FR 37032 - Capacity Deliverability Across the Midwest; Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; PJM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Capacity Deliverability Across the Midwest; Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Seam; Notice Establishing Comment Period On June 11, 2012, the Commission issued a notice...

  12. 78 FR 41392 - Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and PJM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 2, 2013, the Indicated Load-Serving Entities,...

  13. 76 FR 76157 - California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...; ER11-4580-000; ER12-50-000] California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff... Quarterly Performance Review. December 1, 2011 Transmission Planning and Generator Interconnection. Working... Compliance. December 7, 2011 Market Performance and Planning Forum. Settlements and Market Clearing...

  14. 78 FR 34093 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that on the following date members of its staff...

  15. 78 FR 43876 - AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 5, 2013, AmerenEnergy Resources...

  16. 78 FR 38023 - Demand Response Supporters v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Demand Response Supporters v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Demand Response Supporters (Complainant) filed a formal complaint... NYISO to amend its tariffs to allow demand ] response facilitated by behind-the-meter generation to...

  17. 77 FR 56839 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... notice that on July 9, 2012, California Independent System Operator Corporation submitted their compliance filing in response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) June 8, 2012 Order... Filing, 139 FERC ] 61,198 (2012). Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing must file...

  18. A Longitudinal Investigation of Field Dependence-Independence and the Development of Formal Operational Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexer, B.K.; Roberge, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    A longitudinal study among American adolescents revealed (1) an insignificant impact of field dependence-independence on the development of formal operational thought; (2) continuous development of combinatorial reasoning and propositional logic abilities, but little increase in comprehension of proportionality; and (3) sex differences in formal…

  19. 77 FR 24192 - SIG Energy, LLLP v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SIG Energy, LLLP v. California Independent System Operator Corporation... 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), SIG Energy, LLLP (Complainant) filed...

  20. 75 FR 39243 - California Independent System; Operator Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov . Persons unable to file electronically should submit... Energy Regulatory Commission California Independent System; Operator Corporation; Notice of Filing June... protest this filing must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of...

  1. 77 FR 2056 - Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www... 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and is... Energy Regulatory Commission Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 30522 - Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; ALLETE, Inc.; Ameren Illinois Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; ALLETE, Inc.; Ameren Illinois Company; Ameren Transmission Company of Illinois; American Transmission Company, LLC; Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Board of...

  3. 77 FR 24950 - Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference As announced in the Notice of Technical Conference issued on April 4, 2012, and as required in the Commission's...

  4. 78 FR 5794 - Occidental Chemical Corporation v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Occidental Chemical Corporation v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint and Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 17, 2013, pursuant to section 206 and 306...

  5. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson’s disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26792101

  6. Hyperpolarization-independent maturation and refinement of GABA/glycinergic connections in the auditory brain stem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanmi; Bach, Eva; Noh, Jihyun; Delpire, Eric; Kandler, Karl

    2016-03-01

    During development GABA and glycine synapses are initially excitatory before they gradually become inhibitory. This transition is due to a developmental increase in the activity of neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which shifts the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl) to values more negative than the resting membrane potential. While the role of early GABA and glycine depolarizations in neuronal development has become increasingly clear, the role of the transition to hyperpolarization in synapse maturation and circuit refinement has remained an open question. Here we investigated this question by examining the maturation and developmental refinement of GABA/glycinergic and glutamatergic synapses in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a binaural auditory brain stem nucleus, in KCC2-knockdown mice, in which GABA and glycine remain depolarizing. We found that many key events in the development of synaptic inputs to the LSO, such as changes in neurotransmitter phenotype, strengthening and elimination of GABA/glycinergic connection, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses, occur undisturbed in KCC2-knockdown mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that maturation of inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the LSO is independent of the GABA and glycine depolarization-to-hyperpolarization transition. PMID:26655825

  7. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26792101

  8. Influence of study design in receiver operating characteristics studies: sequential versus independent reading

    PubMed Central

    Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Observer studies to assess new image processing devices or computer-aided diagnosis techniques are often performed, but little is known about the effect of the study design on observer performance results. We investigated the effect of the sequential and independent reading design on observer study results with respect to reader performance and their statistical power. For this we performed an observer study for the detection of lung nodules with bone-suppressed images (BSIs) compared with original chest radiographs. In a fully crossed observer study, eight observers assessed a series of 300 radiographs four times, including one assessment of the original radiograph with sequential BSI and two independent reading sessions with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multireader multicase receiver operating characteristics. No significant difference between the effect of BSI in the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found (p=0.09; p=0.46). Compared with the original radiographs, increased performance with BSI was significant in the sequential and one of the independent reading sessions (p<0.0001; p=0.0007), and nonsignificant in the other independent reading session (p=0.10). A strong increase of uncorrelated variance components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. Therefore, the sequential reading design is the preferred design because it is less burdensome and has more statistical power. PMID:26158028

  9. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.

    2012-08-01

    To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.

  10. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  11. A Multidimensional Rasch Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Based on the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database.

    PubMed

    Pretz, Christopher R; Kean, Jacob; Heinemann, Allen W; Kozlowski, Allan J; Bode, Rita K; Gebhardt, Eveline

    2016-07-15

    A number of studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) using Rasch analysis, although none has done so using the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database, a longitudinal database that captures demographic and outcome information on persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury across the United States. In the current study, we examine the psychometric properties of the FIM as represented by persons within this database and demonstrate that the FIM comprises three subscales representing cognitive, self-care, and mobility domains. These subscales were analyzed simultaneously using a multivariate Rasch model in combination with a time dependent concurrent calibration scheme with the goal of creating a raw score-to-logit transformation that can be used to improve the accuracy of parametric statistical analyses. The bowel and bladder function items were removed because of misfit with the motor and cognitive items. Some motor items exhibited step disorder, which was addressed by collapsing Categories 1-3 for Toileting, Stairs, Locomotion, Tub/Shower Transfers; Categories 1 and 2 for Toilet and Bed Transfers; and Categories 2 and 3 for Grooming. The strong correlations (r = 0.82-0.96) among the three subscales suggest they should be modeled together. Coefficient alpha of 0.98 indicates high internal consistency. Keyform maps are provided to enhance clinical interpretation and application of study results. PMID:26559881

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist prevents l-arginine induced immune dysfunction independent of gonadal steroids: Relates with a decline in elevated thymus and brain nitric oxide levels.

    PubMed

    Ullewar, Meenal P; Umathe, Sudhir N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the effect of leuprolide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, on l-arginine induced immunosuppression, and relates with brain and thymus levels of nitric oxide (NO). Further, the effect of leuprolide was studied in sham operated, ovariectomized and castrated mice to understand the role of sex steroids in l-arginine induced immunosuppression. Treatment with l-arginine (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg/i.p. for 7 days) increased brain and thymus levels of NO; measured by using 'NO Measuring Instrument' (Innovative Instruments Inc., USA) in dose dependent manner. It also decreased cellularity, relative weight of thymus, DNA fragmentation, humoral, and cell mediated immunity response to sheep RBC. Prior treatment of leuprolide (100μg/mouse, s.c. for 7 days) prevented l-arginine induced rise in brain and thymus tissue levels of NO as well as the changes in immunological parameters. The protective effect of leuprolide against l-arginine induced immunosuppression and rise in brain and tissue nitric oxide levels was even evident in ovariectomized and castrated mice, suggesting that the observed effect of leuprolide is independent of sex steroids, and correlated with its ability to prevent l-arginine induced rise in CNS and peripheral immune tissue levels of NO. PMID:27130798

  13. Insight into Pre-Clinical Models of Traumatic Brain Injury Using Circulating Brain Damage Biomarkers: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Stefania; Shear, Deborah A; Bramlett, Helen M; Dixon, C Edward; Schmid, Kara E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L; Glushakova, Olena; Catania, Michael; Richieri, Steven P; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a multicenter pre-clinical drug screening consortium testing promising therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in three well-established models of TBI in rats--namely, parasagittal fluid percussion injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact (CCI), and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). This article presents unique characterization of these models using histological and behavioral outcomes and novel candidate biomarkers from the first three treatment trials of OBTT. Adult rats underwent CCI, FPI, or PBBI and were treated with vehicle (VEH). Shams underwent all manipulations except trauma. The glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the neuronal marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood at 4 and 24 h, and their delta 24-4 h was calculated for each marker. Comparing sham groups across experiments, no differences were found in the same model. Similarly, comparing TBI + VEH groups across experiments, no differences were found in the same model. GFAP was acutely increased in injured rats in each model, with significant differences in levels and temporal patterns mirrored by significant differences in delta 24-4 h GFAP levels and neuropathological and behavioral outcomes. Circulating GFAP levels at 4 and 24 h were powerful predictors of 21 day contusion volume and tissue loss. UCH-L1 showed similar tendencies, albeit with less robust differences between sham and injury groups. Significant differences were also found comparing shams across the models. Our findings (1) demonstrate that TBI models display specific biomarker profiles, functional deficits, and pathological consequence; (2) support the concept that there are different cellular, molecular, and pathophysiological responses to TBI in each model; and (3) advance our understanding of TBI, providing opportunities for a successful translation and holding promise for theranostic

  14. Brain Microbial Populations in HIV/AIDS: α-Proteobacteria Predominate Independent of Host Immune Status

    PubMed Central

    Branton, William G.; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Maingat, Ferdinand; Wheatley, B. Matt; Rud, Erling; Warren, René L.; Holt, Robert A.; Surette, Michael G.; Power, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV] (n = 12), other disease controls [ODC] (n = 14) and in cerebral surgical resections for epilepsy [SURG] (n = 6). Deep sequencing of cerebral white matter-derived RNA from the HIV (n = 4) and ODC (n = 4) patients and SURG (n = 2) groups revealed bacterially-encoded 16 s RNA sequences in all brain specimens with α-proteobacteria representing over 70% of bacterial sequences while the other 30% of bacterial classes varied widely. Bacterial rRNA was detected in white matter glial cells by in situ hybridization and peptidoglycan immunoreactivity was also localized principally in glia in human brains. Analyses of amplified bacterial 16 s rRNA sequences disclosed that Proteobacteria was the principal bacterial phylum in all human brain samples with similar bacterial rRNA quantities in HIV and ODC groups despite increased host neuroimmune responses in the HIV group. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. Brains from SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques displayed a profile of bacterial phyla also dominated by Proteobacteria but bacterial sequences were not detected in experimentally FIV-infected cat or RAG1−/− mouse brains. Intracerebral implantation of human brain homogenates into RAG1−/− mice revealed a preponderance of α-proteobacteria 16 s RNA sequences in the brains of recipient mice at 7 weeks post-implantation, which was abrogated by prior heat-treatment of the brain homogenate. Thus, α-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain

  15. Capsule independent uptake of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans into brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sabiiti, Wilber; May, Robin C

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease with a high rate of mortality among HIV/AIDS patients across the world. The ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is central to the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis, but the way in which this occurs remains unclear. Here we use both mouse and human brain derived endothelial cells (bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3) to accurately quantify fungal uptake and survival within brain endothelial cells. Our data indicate that the adherence and internalisation of cryptococci by brain microvascular endothelial cells is an infrequent event involving small numbers of cryptococcal yeast cells. Interestingly, this process requires neither active signalling from the fungus nor the presence of the fungal capsule. Thus entry into brain microvascular endothelial cells is most likely a passive event that occurs following 'trapping' within capillary beds of the BBB. PMID:22530025

  16. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  17. Development of a Dynamic Operational Scheduling Algorithm for an Independent Micro-Grid with Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    A micro-grid with the capacity for sustainable energy is expected to be a distributed energy system that exhibits quite a small environmental impact. In an independent micro-grid, “green energy,” which is typically thought of as unstable, can be utilized effectively by introducing a battery. In the past study, the production-of-electricity prediction algorithm (PAS) of the solar cell was developed. In PAS, a layered neural network is made to learn based on past weather data and the operation plan of the compound system of a solar cell and other energy systems was examined using this prediction algorithm. In this paper, a dynamic operational scheduling algorithm is developed using a neural network (PAS) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to provide predictions for solar cell power output. We also do a case study analysis in which we use this algorithm to plan the operation of a system that connects nine houses in Sapporo to a micro-grid composed of power equipment and a polycrystalline silicon solar cell. In this work, the relationship between the accuracy of output prediction of the solar cell and the operation plan of the micro-grid was clarified. Moreover, we found that operating the micro-grid according to the plan derived with PAS was far superior, in terms of equipment hours of operation, to that using past average weather data.

  18. 78 FR 65306 - City of Pella, Iowa v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc., Mid-American Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...-American Energy Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 23, 2013, pursuant to section 206... Independent System Operator, Inc. and MidAmerican Energy Company, 140 FERC ] 61,029 (2012). Any person... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and...

  19. Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

  20. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  1. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students' individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  2. The modern brain tumor operating room: from standard essentials to current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gene H; Nathoo, Narendra

    2004-01-01

    It is just over a century since successful brain tumor resection. Since then the diagnosis, imaging, and management of brain tumors have improved, in large part due to technological advances. Similarly, the operating room (OR) for brain tumor surgery has increased in complexity and specificity with multiple forms of equipment now considered necessary as technical adjuncts. It is evident that the theme of minimalism in combination with advanced image-guidance techniques and a cohort of sophisticated technologies (e.g., robotics and nanotechnology) will drive changes in the current OR environment for the foreseeable future. In this report we describe what may be regarded today as standard essentials in an operating room for the surgical management of brain tumors and what we believe to be the current 'state-of-the-art' brain tumor OR. Also, we speculate on the additional capabilities of the brain tumor OR of the near future. PMID:15527078

  3. A torque-measuring micromotor provides operator independent measurements marking four different density areas in maxillae

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Bone density at implant placement site is a key factor to obtain the primary stability of the fixture, which, in turn, is a prognostic factor for osseointegration and long-term success of an implant supported rehabilitation. Recently, an implant motor with a bone density measurement probe has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to test the objectiveness of the bone densities registered by the implant motor regardless of the operator performing them. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 3704 bone density measurements, performed by means of the implant motor, were registered by 39 operators at different implant sites during routine activity. Bone density measurements were grouped according to their distribution across the jaws. Specifically, four different areas were distinguished: a pre-antral (between teeth from first right maxillary premolar to first left maxillary premolar) and a sub-antral (more distally) zone in the maxilla, and an interforaminal (between and including teeth from first left mandibular premolar to first right mandibular premolar) and a retroforaminal (more distally) zone in the lower one. A statistical comparison was performed to check the inter-operators variability of the collected data. RESULTS The device produced consistent and operator-independent bone density values at each tooth position, showing a reliable bone-density measurement. CONCLUSION The implant motor demonstrated to be a helpful tool to properly plan implant placement and loading irrespective of the operator using it. PMID:25722838

  4. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F. H.

    2010-06-01

    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system - the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain's activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time in the brain. This space-time is limited to the execution of brain operations of differing complexity. During each such brain operation a particular short-term spatio-temporal pattern of integrated activity of different brain areas emerges within related operational space-time. At the same time, to have a fully functional human brain one needs to have a subjective mental experience. Current research on the subjective mental experience offers detailed analysis of space-time organization of the mind. According to this research, subjective mental experience (subjective virtual world) has definitive spatial and temporal properties similar to many physical phenomena. Based on systematic review of the propositions and tenets of brain and mind space-time descriptions, our aim in this review essay is to explore the relations between the two. To be precise, we would like to discuss the hypothesis that via the brain operational space-time the mind subjective space-time is connected to otherwise distant physical space-time reality.

  5. A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles; Bartholomew, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.

  6. [Antegrade unilateral perfusion of the brain through the brachiocephalic trunk in operations on the aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, B N; Panfilov, D S; Kuznetsov, M S; Ponomarenko, I V; Nasrashvili, G G; Shipulin, V M

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a technique of unilateral antegrade perfusion of the brain in operations on the aortic arch. The method makes it possible to perform both systemic artificial circulation and adequate physiological perfusion of the brain, promoting minimization of the number of neurological complications. PMID:27100557

  7. CD4-independent, CCR5-dependent infection of brain capillary endothelial cells by a neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus strain

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Aimee L.; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Margulies, Barry J.; Lee, Benhur; Rucker, Joseph; Sharron, Matthew; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Berson, Joanne F.; Zink, M. Christine; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Clements, Janice E.; Doms, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are targets of CD4-independent infection by HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains in vitro and in vivo. Infection of BCECs may provide a portal of entry for the virus into the central nervous system and could disrupt blood–brain barrier function, contributing to the development of AIDS dementia. We found that rhesus macaque BCECs express chemokine receptors involved in HIV and SIV entry including CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4, and STRL33, but not CCR2b, GPR1, or GPR15. Infection of BCECs by the neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr was completely inhibited by aminooxypentane regulation upon activation, normal T cell expression and secretion in the presence or absence of ligands, but not by eotaxin or antibodies to CD4. We found that the envelope (env) proteins from SIV/17E-Fr and several additional SIV strains mediated cell–cell fusion and virus infection with CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cells. In contrast, fusion with cells expressing the coreceptors STRL33, GPR1, and GPR15 was CD4-dependent. These results show that CCR5 can serve as a primary receptor for SIV in BCECs and suggest a possible CD4-independent mechanism for blood–brain barrier disruption and viral entry into the central nervous system. PMID:9405683

  8. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level. PMID:27132545

  9. Comparing 3D Gyrification Index and area-independent curvature-based measures in quantifying neonatal brain folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Carranza, Claudia E.; Mukherjee, P.; Vigneron, Daniel; Barkovich, James; Studholme, Colin

    2007-03-01

    In this work we compare 3D Gyrification Index and our recently proposed area-independent curvature-based surface measures [26] for the in-vivo quantification of brain surface folding in clinically acquired neonatal MR image data. A meaningful comparison of gyrification across brains of different sizes and their subregions will only be possible through the quantification of folding with measures that are independent of the area of the region of analysis. This work uses a 3D implementation of the classical Gyrification Index, a 2D measure that quantifies folding based on the ratio of the inner and outer contours of the brain and which has been used to study gyral patterns in adults with schizophrenia, among other conditions. The new surface curvature-based measures and the 3D Gyrification Index were calculated on twelve premature infants (age 28-37 weeks) from which surfaces of cerebrospinal fluid/gray matter (CSF/GM) interface and gray matter/white matter (GM/WM) interface were extracted. Experimental results show that our measures better quantify folding on the CSF/GM interface than Gyrification Index, and perform similarly on the GM/WM interface.

  10. Cerebroprotection of Flavanol (−)-Epicatechin after Traumatic Brain Injury via Nrf2-dependent and –independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tian; Wang, Wenzhu; Li, Qian; Han, Xiaoning; Xing, Jing; Qi, Cunfang; Lan, Xi; Wan, Jieru; Potts, Alexa; Guan, Fangxia; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which leads to disability, dysfunction, and even death, is a prominent health problem worldwide with no effective treatment. A brain-permeable flavonoid named (−)-epicatechin (EC) modulates redox/oxidative stress and has been shown to be beneficial for vascular and cognitive function in humans and for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in rodents. Here we examined whether EC is able to protect the brain against TBI-induced brain injury in mice and if so, whether it exerts neuroprotection by modulating the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) pathway. We used the controlled cortical impact model to mimic TBI. EC was administered orally at 3 h after TBI and then every 24 h for either 3 or 7 days. We evaluated lesion volume, brain edema, white matter injury, neurologic deficits, cognitive performance and emotion-like behaviors, neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a variety of injury-related protein markers. Nrf2 knockout mice were used to determine the role of the Nrf2 signaling pathway after EC treatment. In wild-type mice, EC significantly reduced lesion volume, edema, and cell death and improved neurologic function on days 3 and 28; cognitive performance and depression-like behaviors were also improved with EC administration. In addition, EC reduced white matter injury, heme oxygenase-1 expression, and ferric iron deposition after TBI. These changes were accompanied by attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and oxidative insults, reduced activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9, decreased Keap 1 expression, increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, and increased expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and quinone 1. However, EC did not significantly reduce lesion volume or improve neurologic deficits in Nrf2 knockout mice after TBI. Our results show that EC protects the TBI brain by activating the Nrf2 pathway, inhibiting heme oxygenase-1 protein expression, and reducing iron deposition. The latter two effects could represent an

  11. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage: Independent Component and Seed-Based Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Armin; Benson, Randall R.; Welch, Robert D.; O'Neil, Brian J.; Woodard, John L.; Imran Ayaz, Syed; Kulek, Andrew; Mika, Valerie; Medado, Patrick; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Liu, Tianming; Haacke, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 1 million emergency visits each year. Most of the injured stay in the emergency department for a few hours and are discharged home without a specific follow-up plan because of their negative clinical structural imaging. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly functional MRI (fMRI), has been reported as being sensitive to functional disturbances after brain injury. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients with mTBI were prospectively recruited from the emergency department of our local Level-1 trauma center for an advanced MRI scan at the acute stage. Sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were also recruited for comparison. Both group-based and individual-based independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in both posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus regions in comparison with controls, which is part of the default mode network (DMN). Further seed-based analysis confirmed reduced functional connectivity in these two regions and also demonstrated increased connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain in mTBI. Seed-based analysis using the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala regions further demonstrated increased functional connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain, particularly in the frontal lobe, in mTBI. Our data demonstrate alterations of multiple brain networks at the resting state, particularly increased functional connectivity in the frontal lobe, in response to brain concussion at the acute stage. Resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN could serve as a potential biomarker for improved detection of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:25285363

  12. The Formation of Microthrombi in Parenchymal Microvessels after Traumatic Brain Injury Is Independent of Coagulation Factor XI.

    PubMed

    Schwarzmaier, Susanne M; de Chaumont, Ciaran; Balbi, Matilde; Terpolilli, Nicole A; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Gruber, Andras; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2016-09-01

    Microthrombus formation and bleeding worsen the outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the current study was to characterize these processes in the brain parenchyma after experimental TBI and to determine the involvement of coagulation factor XI (FXI). C57BL/6 mice (n = 101) and FXI-deficient mice (n = 15) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI). Wild-type mice received an inhibitory antibody against FXI (14E11) or control immunoglobulin G 24 h before or 30 or 120 min after CCI. Cerebral microcirculation was visualized in vivo by 2-photon microscopy 2-3 h post-trauma and histopathological outcome was assessed after 24 h. TBI induced hemorrhage and microthrombus formation in the brain parenchyma (p < 0.001). Inhibition of FXI activation or FXI deficiency did not reduce cerebral thrombogenesis, lesion volume, or hemispheric swelling. However, it also did not increase intracranial hemorrhage. Formation of microthrombosis in the brain parenchyma after TBI is independent of the intrinsic coagulation cascade since it was not reduced by inhibition of FXI. However, since targeting FXI has well-established antithrombotic effects in humans and experimental animals, inhibition of FXI could represent a reasonable strategy for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis in immobilized patients with TBI. PMID:26886854

  13. Extracting the inclination angle of nerve fibers within the human brain with 3D-PLI independent of system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Dohmen, Melanie; Grässel, David; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2013-09-01

    The neuroimaging technique 3D-polarized light imaging (3D-PLI) has opened up new avenues to study the complex nerve fiber architecture of the human brain at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. This polarimetry technique is applicable to histological sections of postmortem brains utilizing the birefringence of nerve fibers caused by the regular arrangement of lipids and proteins in the myelin sheaths surrounding axons. 3D-PLI provides a three-dimensional description of the anatomical wiring scheme defined by the in-section direction angle and the out-of-section inclination angle. To date, 3D-PLI is the only available method that allows bridging the microscopic and the macroscopic description of the fiber architecture of the human brain. Here we introduce a new approach to retrieve the inclination angle of the fibers independently of the properties of the used polarimeters. This is relevant because the image resolution and the signal transmission inuence the measured birefringent signal (retardation) significantly. The image resolution was determined using the USAF- 1951 testchart applying the Rayleigh criterion. The signal transmission was measured by elliptical polarizers applying the Michelson contrast and histological slices of the optic tract of a postmortem brain. Based on these results, a modified retardation-inclination transfer function was proposed to extract the fiber inclination. The comparison of the actual and the inclination angles calculated with the theoretically proposed and the modified transfer function revealed a significant improvement in the extraction of the fiber inclinations.

  14. Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Drnevich, Jenny; Replogle, Kirstin L; Lovell, Peter; Hahn, Thomas P; Johnson, Frank; Mast, Thomas G; Nordeen, Ernest; Nordeen, Kathy; Strand, Christy; London, Sarah E; Mukai, Motoko; Wingfield, John C; Arnold, Arthur P; Ball, Gregory F; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Wade, Juli; Mello, Claudio V; Clayton, David F

    2012-10-16

    Songbirds provide rich natural models for studying the relationships between brain anatomy, behavior, environmental signals, and gene expression. Under the Songbird Neurogenomics Initiative, investigators from 11 laboratories collected brain samples from six species of songbird under a range of experimental conditions, and 488 of these samples were analyzed systematically for gene expression by microarray. ANOVA was used to test 32 planned contrasts in the data, revealing the relative impact of different factors. The brain region from which tissue was taken had the greatest influence on gene expression profile, affecting the majority of signals measured by 18,848 cDNA spots on the microarray. Social and environmental manipulations had a highly variable impact, interpreted here as a manifestation of paradoxical "constitutive plasticity" (fewer inducible genes) during periods of enhanced behavioral responsiveness. Several specific genes were identified that may be important in the evolution of linkages between environmental signals and behavior. The data were also analyzed using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, followed by gene ontology analysis. This revealed modules of coexpressed genes that are also enriched for specific functional annotations, such as "ribosome" (expressed more highly in juvenile brain) and "dopamine metabolic process" (expressed more highly in striatal song control nucleus area X). These results underscore the complexity of influences on neural gene expression and provide a resource for studying how these influences are integrated during natural experience. PMID:23045667

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury and pain in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Romesser, Jennifer; Booth, Jane; Benge, Jared; Pastorek, Nicholas; Helmer, Drew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pain experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who present to polytrauma clinics for evaluation and management. We sought to evaluate the relationship between a veteran's history of mTBI and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on axial pain, head/headache pain, and pain interference. We performed retrospective chart reviews of 529 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans referred for evaluation at two Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Problems with head/headache, low back, and neck pain were frequently endorsed. Subjective pain interference was reported in 21% of patients without a history of mTBI, 31.9% of patients with a history of mTBI with disorientation only, and 36.1% of patients with a history of mTBI with loss of consciousness. Statistically significant differences existed between the mTBI groups on PTS symptom endorsement, and PTS was predictive of pain experience and interference. A history of mTBI with loss of consciousness predicted head/headache pain, but otherwise did not predict pain or pain interference. PTS was strongly related to the pain experience. Pain is common in polytrauma patients. PTS severity is strongly associated with both pain report and pain interference, with head/headache pain showing a unique association with a history of mTBI. Implications for evaluation and management of pain in this complex population are discussed. PMID:23341284

  16. Cognitive and emotional modulation of brain default operation.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful state. Previously, the nature of these processes was probed by varying cognitive task parameters, but the presence of emotional processes, while often assumed, was little investigated. With fMRI, we studied the effect of systematic variations of both cognitive load and emotional stimulus connotation on task-related decreases in the default network by employing an auditory working memory (WM) task with musical sounds. The performance of the WM task, compared to passive listening, lowered the activity in medial and lateral, prefrontal, parietal, temporal, and limbic regions. In a subset of these regions, the magnitude of decrease depended on the memory load; the greater the cognitive load, the larger the magnitude of the observed decrease. Furthermore, in the right amygdala and the left precuneus, areas previously associated with processing of unpleasant dissonant musical sounds, there was an interaction between the experimental condition and the stimulus type. The current results are consistent with the previously reported effect of task difficulty on task-related brain activation decreases. The results also indicate that task-related decreases may be further modulated by the emotional stimulus connotation. PMID:18752396

  17. [Validation of the use of the CO2 laser in operations on the brain].

    PubMed

    Babichenko, E I; Kolesov, V N; Zhikharev, A P; Grigor'ev, S N; Tsukanov, V A

    1989-01-01

    It is reported that the CO2-laser can be used in operations on the brain. Information is given on the response of the brain structures to irradiation with a wave length of 10.6 microns. The optimal regimens of the device operation were elaborated depending on the concrete object of the various stages of the surgical intervention. The medical laser device Skal'pel'-1 was used in the clinic in 109 operations. The low traumatization of such operations and the favourable course of the postoperative period are pointed out. PMID:2629442

  18. Optic flow odometry operates independently of stride integration in carried ants.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Sarah E; Wittlinger, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Cataglyphis desert ants are impressive navigators. When the foragers roam the desert, they employ path integration. For these ants, distance estimation is one key challenge. Distance information was thought to be provided by optic flow (OF)-that is, image motion experienced during travel-but this idea was abandoned when stride integration was discovered as an odometer mechanism in ants. We show that ants transported by nest mates are capable of measuring travel distance exclusively by the use of OF cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the information gained from the optic flowmeter cannot be transferred to the stride integrator. Our results suggest a dual information channel that allows the ants to measure distances by strides and OF cues, although both systems operate independently and in a redundant manner. PMID:27609893

  19. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  20. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  1. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  2. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) study of maximum likelihood estimator human brain image reconstructions in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Llacer, J.; Veklerov, E.; Nolan, D. ); Grafton, S.T.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Hawkins, R.A.; Hoh, C.K.; Hoffman, E.J. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper will report on the progress to date in carrying out Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) studies comparing Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Filtered Backprojection (FBP) reconstructions of normal and abnormal human brain PET data in a clinical setting. A previous statistical study of reconstructions of the Hoffman brain phantom with real data indicated that the pixel-to-pixel standard deviation in feasible MLE images is approximately proportional to the square root of the number of counts in a region, as opposed to a standard deviation which is high and largely independent of the number of counts in FBP. A preliminary ROC study carried out with 10 non-medical observers performing a relatively simple detectability task indicates that, for the majority of observers, lower standard deviation translates itself into a statistically significant detectability advantage in MLE reconstructions. The initial results of ongoing tests with four experienced neurologists/nuclear medicine physicians are presented. Normal cases of {sup 18}F -- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cerebral metabolism studies and abnormal cases in which a variety of lesions have been introduced into normal data sets have been evaluated. We report on the results of reading the reconstructions of 90 data sets, each corresponding to a single brain slice. It has become apparent that the design of the study based on reading single brain slices is too insensitive and we propose a variation based on reading three consecutive slices at a time, rating only the center slice. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. An automated astronomical scanning complex for parallel and independent operation in two spectral bands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovichenko, V. D.; Gajsin, S. M.; Lukichev, A. G.; Mosina, S. A.

    A new medium-resolution spectrometer for the 1.5-meter telescope is described. To improve efficiency and broaden the working band in the spectrum, the beam is split by a dichroic filter after reflection from the collimator and directed into two spectral channels, each with its own diffraction grating and camera. The first ("blue") channel works in the spectral range 300 - 780 nm, and the second ("red") channel at 760 - 1100 nm. The FEU-39, -79, -136, and -83 photomultiplier radiation detectors used in these channels are operated in the photon-counting mode. The information in each channel is registered independently and concurrently. In addition to the spectral channels there is a reference photometric channel for atmospheric-transparency monitoring. A diaphragm unit is placed in the plane of the spectrometer entrance slit so that the photometric profiles of extended objects can be obtained by image scanning. All mechanical operations are performed with the aid of computer-controlled stepping motors and electromagnets.

  4. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation

    PubMed Central

    Halko, Mark A.; Connors, Erin C.; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2014-01-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill, however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction (SBSoD) scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between SBSoD scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction (TPJ) during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community. PMID:24027192

  5. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community. PMID:24027192

  6. Sleep-waking states develop independently in the isolated forebrain and brain stem following early postnatal midbrain transection in cats.

    PubMed

    Villablanca, J R; de Andrés, I; Olmstead, C E

    2001-01-01

    We report the effects of permanently separating the immature forebrain from the brain stem upon sleeping and waking development. Kittens ranging from postnatal 9 to 27 days of age sustained a mesencephalic transection and were maintained for up to 135 days. Prior to postnatal day 40, the electroencephalogram of the isolated forebrain and behavioral sleep-wakefulness of the decerebrate animal showed the immature patterns of normal young kittens. Thereafter, the isolated forebrain showed alternating sleep-wakefulness electrocortical rhythms similar to the corresponding normal patterns of intact, mature cats. Olfactory stimuli generally changed forebrain sleeping into waking activity, and in cats with the section behind the third nerve nuclei, normal correlates of eye movements-pupillary activity with electrocortical rhythms were present. Behind the transection, decerebrate animals showed wakefulness, and after 20 days of age displayed typical behavioral episodes of rapid eye movements sleep and, during these periods, the pontine recordings showed ponto-geniculo-occipital waves, which are markers for this sleep stage, together with muscle atonia and rapid lateral eye movements. Typically, but with remarkable exceptions suggesting humoral interactions, the sleep-waking patterns of the isolated forebrain were dissociated from those of the decerebrate animal. These results were very similar to our previous findings in midbrain-transected adult cats. However, subtle differences suggested greater functional plasticity in the developing versus the adult isolated forebrain. We conclude that behavioral and electroencephalographic patterns of non-rapid eye movement sleep and of rapid eye movement sleep states mature independently in the forebrain and the brain stem, respectively, after these structures are separated early postnatally. In terms of waking, the findings strengthen our concept that in higher mammals the rostral brain can independently support wakefulness

  7. Integrating Functional Neuroimaging and Human Operant Research: Brain Activation Correlated with Presentation of Discriminative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund, Michael W.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Results of numerous human imaging studies and nonhuman neurophysiological studies on "reward" highlight a role for frontal, striatal, and thalamic regions in operant learning. By integrating operant and functional neuroimaging methodologies, the present investigation examined brain activation to two types of discriminative stimuli correlated with…

  8. Vibrotactile Feedback for Brain-Computer Interface Operation

    PubMed Central

    Cincotti, Febo; Kauhanen, Laura; Aloise, Fabio; Palomäki, Tapio; Caporusso, Nicholas; Jylänki, Pasi; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio; Vanacker, Gerolf; Nuttin, Marnix; Marciani, Maria Grazia; del R. Millán, José

    2007-01-01

    To be correctly mastered, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) need an uninterrupted flow of feedback to the user. This feedback is usually delivered through the visual channel. Our aim was to explore the benefits of vibrotactile feedback during users' training and control of EEG-based BCI applications. A protocol for delivering vibrotactile feedback, including specific hardware and software arrangements, was specified. In three studies with 33 subjects (including 3 with spinal cord injury), we compared vibrotactile and visual feedback, addressing: (I) the feasibility of subjects' training to master their EEG rhythms using tactile feedback; (II) the compatibility of this form of feedback in presence of a visual distracter; (III) the performance in presence of a complex visual task on the same (visual) or different (tactile) sensory channel. The stimulation protocol we developed supports a general usage of the tactors; preliminary experimentations. All studies indicated that the vibrotactile channel can function as a valuable feedback modality with reliability comparable to the classical visual feedback. Advantages of using a vibrotactile feedback emerged when the visual channel was highly loaded by a complex task. In all experiments, vibrotactile feedback felt, after some training, more natural for both controls and SCI users. PMID:18354734

  9. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel occurs independently of PKCε in turtle brain.

    PubMed

    Hawrysh, Peter John; Miles, Ashley Rebecca; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia. This is partly due to a reduction in the permeability of excitatory glutamatergic ion channels, initiated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(+)ATP) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine if: 1) PKCε, a kinase associated with hypoxic stress tolerance, is more highly expressed in turtle brain than the anoxia-intolerant rat brain; 2) PKCε translocates to the mitochondrial membrane during anoxia; 3) PKCε modulates mK(+)ATP channels at the Thr-224 phosphorylation site on the Kir6.2 subunit; and 4) Thr-224 phosphorylation sensitises mK(+)ATP channels to anoxia. Soluble and mitochondrial-rich particulate fractions of turtle and rat cerebral cortex were isolated and PKCε expression was determined by Western blot, which revealed that turtle cortical PKCε expression was half that of the rat. Following the transition to anoxia, no changes in PKCε expression in either the soluble or particulate fraction of the turtle cortex were observed. Furthermore, incubation of tissue with tat-conjugated activator or inhibitor peptides had no effect on the amount of PKCε in either fraction. However, we observed a 2-fold increase in Thr-224 phosphorylation following 1h of anoxia. The increased Thr-224 phosphorylation was blocked by the general kinase inhibitor staurosporine but this did not affect the latency or magnitude of mK(+)ATP channel-mediated mitochondrial depolarization following anoxia, as indicated by rhodamine-123. We conclude that PKCε does not play a role in the onset of mitochondrial depolarization and therefore glutamatergic channel arrest in turtle cerebral cortex. PMID:27280321

  10. Regulation of store-operated calcium entry by calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in rat cerebellar astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singaravelu, Karthika; Lohr, Christian; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2006-09-13

    We have studied store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in Bergmann glia and granule cell layer astrocytes in acute brain slices of the rat cerebellum, using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye Fluo-4 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Astrocytes were identified by their morphology, location, and their Ca2+ response in K+-free solution. Depletion of Ca2+ stores by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) (20 microM) induced SOCE in both types of astrocyte. A similar Ca2+ influx was elicited by the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium (CMZ) (1 microM). The SOCE channel blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) (100 microM) and the Ca2+ release-activated channel blocker 3,5-bistrifluoromethyl pyrazole derivative (BTP2) (20 microM) suppressed the CPA- and the CMZ-induced Ca2+ influx. Pretreatment of acute slices with the specific Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) (25 microM) blocked the CPA- and the CMZ-induced Ca2+ influx. The lysophospholipid products of iPLA2, lysophosphatidylcholine (250 nM) and lysophosphatidylinositol (250 nM), but not lysophosphatidic acid (250 nM), induced a BTP2- and 2-APB-sensitive, but BEL-insensitive, Ca2+ influx. CPA or CMZ enhanced the BEL-sensitive enzymatic activity of iPLA2 in cerebellar astrocyte culture. Inhibition of iPLA2 expression by specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of iPLA2 reduced the SOCE and the Ca2+ store refilling in cultured astrocytes. Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocytes in situ were reduced after inhibiting SOCE channels or iPLA2 activity. The results suggest that the depletion of Ca2+ stores activates iPLA2 to open Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane by the formation of lysophospholipids in astrocytes, presumably to refill the stores and allow normal Ca2+ signaling. PMID:16971542

  11. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  12. Integration Framework of Process Planning based on Resource Independent Operation Summary to Support Collaborative Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Wysk, Richard A.; Cho, Hyunbo; Jones, Albert

    2004-06-01

    In today's global manufacturing environment, manufacturing functions are distributed as never before. Design, engineering, fabrication, and assembly of new products are done routinely in many different enterprises scattered around the world. Successful business transactions require the sharing of design and engineering data on an unprecedented scale. This paper describes a framework that facilitates the collaboration of engineering tasks, particularly process planning and analysis, to support such globalized manufacturing activities. The information models of data and the software components that integrate those information models are described. The integration framework uses an Integrated Product and Process Data (IPPD) representation called a Resource Independent Operation Summary (RIOS) to facilitate the communication of business and manufacturing requirements. Hierarchical process modeling, process planning decomposition and an augmented AND/OR directed graph are used in this representation. The Resource Specific Process Planning (RSPP) module assigns required equipment and tools, selects process parameters, and determines manufacturing costs based on two-level hierarchical RIOS data. The shop floor knowledge (resource and process knowledge) and a hybrid approach (heuristic and linear programming) to linearize the AND/OR graph provide the basis for the planning. Finally, a prototype system is developed and demonstrated with an exemplary part. Java and XML (Extensible Markup Language) are used to ensure software and information portability.

  13. Simultaneous and independent control of a brain-computer interface and contralateral limb movement

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Ivana; Robinson, Robert; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2015-01-01

    Toward expanding the population of potential BCI users to the many individuals with lateralized cortical stroke, here we examined whether the cortical hemisphere controlling ongoing movements of the contralateral limb can simultaneously generate signals to control a BCI. A monkey was trained to perform a simultaneous BCI and manual control task designed to test whether one hemisphere could effectively differentiate its output and provide independent control of two tasks. Pairs of well-isolated single units were used to control a BCI cursor in one dimension, while isometric wrist torque of the contralateral forelimb controlled the cursor in a second dimension. The monkey could independently modulate cortical units and contralateral wrist torque regardless of the strength of directional tuning of the units controlling the BCI. When the presented targets required explicit decoupling of unit activity and wrist torque, directionally tuned units exhibited significantly less efficient cursor trajectories compared to when unit activity and wrist torque could remain correlated. The results indicate that neural activity from a single hemisphere can be effectively decoupled to simultaneously control a BCI and ongoing limb movement, suggesting that BCIs may be a viable future treatment for individuals with lateralized cortical stroke. PMID:27148554

  14. Radiation release at the nation's only operating deep geological repository--an independent monitoring perspective.

    PubMed

    Thakur, P; Ballard, S; Hardy, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent incidents at the nation's only operating deep geologic nuclear waste repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), resulted in the release of americium and plutonium from one or more defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste containers into the environment. WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy mined geologic repository that has been in operation since March, 1999. Over 85,000 m3 of waste in various vented payload containers have been emplaced in the repository. The primary radionuclides within the disposed waste are 239+240Pu and 241Am, which account for more than 99% of the total TRU radioactivity disposed and scheduled for disposal in the repository. For the first time in its 15 years of operation, there was an airborne radiation release from the WIPP at approximately 11:30 PM Mountain Standard Time (MST) on Friday, February 14, 2014. The radiation release was likely caused by a chemical reaction inside a TRU waste drum that contained nitrate salts and organic sorbent materials. In a recent news release, DOE announced that photos taken of the waste underground showed evidence of heat and gas pressure resulting in a deformed lid, in material expelled through that deformation, and in melted plastic and rubber and polyethylene in the vicinity of that drum. Recent entries into underground Panel 7 have confirmed that at least one waste drum containing a nitrate salt bearing waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory was breached underground and was the most likely source of the release. Further investigation is underway to determine if other containers contributed to the release. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to ascertain whether or not there were releases to the ground surface. Independent analytical results of air filters from sampling stations on and near the WIPP facility have been released by us at the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center and confirmed

  15. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  16. Effects on operant learning and brain acetylcholine esterase activity in rats following chronic inorganic arsenic intake.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, T N; Desiraju, T

    1994-05-01

    1. Very young and adult Wistar rats were given As5+, 5 mg arsenic kg-1 body weight day-1 (sodium arsenate). 2. Operant learning was tested in a Skinner box at the end of exposure and, in the case of developing animals, also after a recovery period. 3. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was estimated in discrete brain regions of these animals. 4. The animals exposed to arsenic took longer to acquire the learned behaviour and to extinguish the operant. AChE activity was inhibited in some regions of the brain. PMID:8043317

  17. Elevated Cell-Free Plasma DNA Level as an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Simon, Daniel; Ikuta, Nilo; Klovan, Caroline; Dannebrock, Fernando Augusto; Oliveira de Oliveira, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma is the leading cause of death in individuals less than 45 years old worldwide, and up to 50% of trauma fatalities are because of brain injury. Prediction of outcome is one of the major problems associated with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and research efforts have focused on the investigation of biomarkers with prognostic value after TBI. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether cell-free DNA concentrations correlated to short-term primary outcome (survival or death) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores after severe TBI. A total of 188 patients with severe TBI were enrolled in this prospective study; outcome variables comprised survival and neurological assessment using the GCS at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Control blood samples were obtained from 25 healthy volunteers. Peripheral venous blood was collected at admission to the ICU. Plasma DNA was measured using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the β-globin gene. There was correlation between higher DNA levels and both fatal outcome and lower hospital admission GCS scores. Plasma DNA concentrations at the chosen cutoff point (≥171,381 kilogenomes-equivalents/L) predicted mortality with a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma DNA levels were independently associated with death (p<0.001). In conclusion, high cell-free DNA concentration was a predictor of short-term mortality after severe TBI. PMID:24827371

  18. Elevated cell-free plasma DNA level as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Simon, Daniel; Ikuta, Nilo; Klovan, Caroline; Dannebrock, Fernando Augusto; Oliveira de Oliveira, Carla; Regner, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in individuals less than 45 years old worldwide, and up to 50% of trauma fatalities are because of brain injury. Prediction of outcome is one of the major problems associated with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and research efforts have focused on the investigation of biomarkers with prognostic value after TBI. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether cell-free DNA concentrations correlated to short-term primary outcome (survival or death) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores after severe TBI. A total of 188 patients with severe TBI were enrolled in this prospective study; outcome variables comprised survival and neurological assessment using the GCS at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Control blood samples were obtained from 25 healthy volunteers. Peripheral venous blood was collected at admission to the ICU. Plasma DNA was measured using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the β-globin gene. There was correlation between higher DNA levels and both fatal outcome and lower hospital admission GCS scores. Plasma DNA concentrations at the chosen cutoff point (≥171,381 kilogenomes-equivalents/L) predicted mortality with a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma DNA levels were independently associated with death (p<0.001). In conclusion, high cell-free DNA concentration was a predictor of short-term mortality after severe TBI. PMID:24827371

  19. Meaning first: A case for language-independent access to word meaning in the bilingual brain

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shukhan; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how deeply a word is processed in the bilingual brain before the word’s language membership plays a role in lexical selection. In two ERP experiments, balanced Spanish-English bilinguals read lists of words and pseudowords in Spanish and English, and performed in each language 1) a language-specific lexical decision task, e.g., respond to real words in Spanish, and 2) a language-specific category decision tasks, e.g., respond to Spanish words that refer to a person. In Experiment 1, infrequent words elicited larger negativity between 350–650 msec post-stimulus onset for both target and non-target languages. This indicates that language membership did not block lexical access of non-target words, contrary to previous findings. In Experiment 2, we measured the onset of the target-category P300 as a way of determining if words from the non-target language were temporarily treated as targets. When Spanish was the target language, the ERP waveforms diverged early based on semantic category (people versus non-people), indicating that non-target ‘English people’ words were briefly treated as potential targets. This finding indicates that meaning was accessed prior to using language membership for lexical selection. However, when English was the target language, the waveforms diverged first based on language (Spanish versus English) then semantic category. We argue that the order in which meaning or language membership are accessed may be based on the frequency of use of a bilingual’s languages: the more frequently a language is used (English was more frequently used herein), the faster the words are identified as members of the language, and the greater interference it causes when it is not the target language. In brief, these findings make the case for a moment in processing when language membership matters less than meaning. PMID:23376051

  20. Muscle mitochondrial stress adaptation operates independently of endogenous FGF21 action

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Mario; Coleman, Verena; Voigt, Anja; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Keipert, Susanne; van der Stelt, Inge; Ringel, Sebastian; Graja, Antonia; Ambrosi, Thomas; Kipp, Anna P.; Jastroch, Martin; Schulz, Tim J.; Keijer, Jaap; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was recently discovered as stress-induced myokine during mitochondrial disease and proposed as key metabolic mediator of the integrated stress response (ISR) presumably causing systemic metabolic improvements. Curiously, the precise cell-non-autonomous and cell-autonomous relevance of endogenous FGF21 action remained poorly understood. Methods We made use of the established UCP1 transgenic (TG) mouse, a model of metabolic perturbations made by a specific decrease in muscle mitochondrial efficiency through increased respiratory uncoupling and robust metabolic adaptation and muscle ISR-driven FGF21 induction. In a cross of TG with Fgf21-knockout (FGF21−/−) mice, we determined the functional role of FGF21 as a muscle stress-induced myokine under low and high fat feeding conditions. Results Here we uncovered that FGF21 signaling is dispensable for metabolic improvements evoked by compromised mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Strikingly, genetic ablation of FGF21 fully counteracted the cell-non-autonomous metabolic remodeling and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), together with the reduction of circulating triglycerides and cholesterol. Brown adipose tissue activity was similar in all groups. Remarkably, we found that FGF21 played a negligible role in muscle mitochondrial stress-related improved obesity resistance, glycemic control and hepatic lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, the protective cell-autonomous muscle mitohormesis and metabolic stress adaptation, including an increased muscle proteostasis via mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and amino acid biosynthetic pathways did not require the presence of FGF21. Conclusions Here we demonstrate that although FGF21 drives WAT remodeling, the adaptive pseudo-starvation response under elevated muscle mitochondrial stress conditions operates independently of both WAT browning and FGF21 action. Thus, our findings challenge FGF21 as key

  1. Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Cartagena, J; Candela, H; Robles, P; Ponce, M R; Pérez-Pérez, J M; Piqueras, P; Micol, J L

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to identify genes involved in the control of leaf morphogenesis, we have studied 13 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with curled, involute leaves, a phenotype herein referred to as Incurvata (Icu), which were isolated by G. Röbbelen and belong to the Arabidopsis Information Service Form Mutants collection. The Icu phenotype was inherited as a single recessive trait in 10 mutants, with semidominance in 2 mutants and with complete dominance in the remaining 1. Complementation analyses indicated that the studied mutations correspond to five genes, representative alleles of which were mapped relative to polymorphic microsatellites. Although most double-mutant combinations displayed additivity of the Icu phenotypes, those of icu1 icu2 and icu3 icu4 double mutants were interpreted as synergistic, which suggests that the five genes studied represent three independent genetic operations that are at work for the leaf to acquire its final form at full expansion. We have shown that icu1 mutations are alleles of the Polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF (CLF) and that the leaf phenotype of the icu2 mutant is suppressed in an agamous background, as is known for clf mutants. In addition, we have tested by means of multiplex RT-PCR the transcription of several floral genes in Icu leaves. Ectopic expression of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 was observed in clf and icu2, but not in icu3, icu4, and icu5 mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that CLF and ICU2 play related roles, the latter being a candidate to belong to the Polycomb group of regulatory genes. We propose that, as flowers evolved, a new major class of genes, including CLF and ICU2, may have been recruited to prevent the expression of floral homeotic genes in the leaves. PMID:11063708

  2. Neuron-independent Ca(2+) signaling in glial cells of snail's brain.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Ogawa, H; Kouuchi, T; Nidaira, T; Hosono, T; Ito, E

    2000-01-01

    To directly monitor the glial activity in the CNS of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, we optically measured the electrical responses in the cerebral ganglion and median lip nerve to electrical stimulation of the distal end of the median lip nerve. Using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155, we detected a composite depolarizing response in the cerebral ganglion, which consisted of a fast transient depolarizing response corresponding to a compound action potential and a slow depolarizing response. The slow depolarizing response was observed more clearly in an isolated median lip nerve and also detected by extracellular recording. In the median lip nerve preparation, the slow depolarizing response was suppressed by an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, nifedipine, and was resistant to tetrodotoxin and Na(+)-free conditions. Together with the fact that a delay from the compound action potential to the slow depolarizing response was not constant, these results suggested that the slow depolarizing response was not a postsynaptic response. Because the signals of the action potentials appeared on the saturated slow depolarizing responses during repetitive stimulation, the slow depolarizing response was suggested to originate from glial cells. The contribution of the L-type Ca(2+) current to the slow depolarizing response was confirmed by optical recording in the presence of Ba(2+) and also supported by intracellular Ca(2+) measurement. Our results suggested that electrical stimulation directly triggers glial Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels, providing evidence for the generation of glial depolarization independent of neuronal activity in invertebrates. PMID:11036223

  3. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Operable Unit-1 Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.

    2008-03-17

    The objectives of the independent verification survey were to confirm that remedial actions have been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the current radiological and chemical conditions of the MCP site.

  4. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent... (2006), Critical Path Transmission, LLC and Clear Power LLC (Complainants) filed a complaint...

  5. Aggressive operative treatment of isolated blunt traumatic brain injury in the elderly is associated with favourable outcome.

    PubMed

    Wutzler, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Wafaisade, Arasch; Maegele, Marc; Lustenberger, Thomas; Walcher, Felix; Marzi, Ingo; Laurer, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    Outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the elderly has not been fully elucidated. The present retrospective observational study investigates the age-dependent outcome of patients suffering from severe isolated TBI with regard to operative and non-operative treatment. Data were prospectively collected in the TraumaRegister DGU. Anonymous datasets of 8629 patients with isolated severe blunt TBI (AISHead≥3, AISBody≤1) documented from 2002 to 2011 were analysed. Patients were grouped according to age: 1-17, 18-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years. Cranial fractures (44.8%) and subdural haematomas (42.6%) were the most common TBIs. Independent from the type of TBI the group of patients with operative treatment declined with rising age. Subgroup analysis of patients with critical TBI (AISHead=5) revealed standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.87) in case of operative treatment (n=1201) and 1.13 (95% CI 1.09-1.18) in case of non-operative treatment (n=1096). All age groups ≥60 years showed significantly reduced SMRs in case of operative treatment. Across all age groups the group of patients with low/moderate disability according to the GOS (4 or 5 points) was higher in case of operative treatment. Results of this retrospective observational study have to be interpreted cautiously. However, good outcome after TBI with severe space-occupying haemorrhage is more frequent in patients with operative treatment across all age groups. Age alone should not be the reason for limited care or denial of operative intervention. PMID:25799473

  6. 77 FR 52137 - Proposed Order and Request for Comment on a Petition From Certain Independent System Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'' or ``Commission'') is requesting comment on a proposed exemption (the ``Proposed Exemption'') issued in response to a consolidated petition (``Petition'') \\1\\ from certain regional transmission organizations (``RTOs'') and independent system operators (``ISOs'') (collectively, ``Petitioners'') to exempt specified transactions from the......

  7. 75 FR 70220 - City of Pella, Iowa v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. and MidAmerican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pella, Iowa v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. and MidAmerican Energy Company, Inc.; Notice of Amended Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint November 8, 2010. Take notice that...

  8. 75 FR 40817 - City of Pella, Iowa, v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., MidAmerican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Pella, Iowa, v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., MidAmerican Energy Company, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint July 8, 2010, Take notice that on July 2,...

  9. 77 FR 25162 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Astoria...

  10. 77 FR 4292 - Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Response to Data Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Response to Data Request Take notice that on January 19, 2012, Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO), in response to a request for additional information relevant to the unexecuted... questions from Commission staff. MISO states that copies of the response were served on all parties in...

  11. 78 FR 62614 - CalWind Resources, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CalWind Resources, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), CalWind Resources, Inc. (Complainant) filed...

  12. A Review of the Operations of the State Board of Independent Postsecondary Vocational, Technical, Trade, and Business Schools. Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    A review was conducted of the operations of the State Board of Independent Postsecondary Vocational, Technical, Trade, and Business Schools in Florida. The review had the following aims: to determine the history of board action upon school closure and recommend changes to protect students adequately when their schools close; to examine the…

  13. 77 FR 70159 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice Establishing Comment Date To Respond to Motion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... To Respond to Motion Requesting Extension of Time On November 9, 2012, New York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO) filed a motion requesting a 2-month extension of time (motion), until February 15... December 20, 2012. NYISO ] indicates that it needs more time for data gathering and analyses for...

  14. 78 FR 18334 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff Waiver and Expedited Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff... motion for limited tariff waivers of section 5.16.4 and, to the extent necessary, section 5.16.3 of...

  15. Intercontinental aeromedical evacuation of patients with traumatic brain injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Fang, Raymond; Dorlac, Gina R; Allan, Patrick F; Dorlac, Warren C

    2010-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury contributes significantly to military combat morbidity and mortality. No longer maintaining comprehensive medical care facilities throughout the world, the US military developed a worldwide trauma care system making the patient the moving part of the system. Life-saving interventions are performed early, and essential care is delivered at forward locations. Patients then proceed successively through increasingly capable levels of care culminating with arrival in the US. Proper patient selection and thorough mission preparation are crucial to the safe and successful intercontinental aeromedical evacuation of critical brain-injured patients during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. PMID:20568927

  16. Post-operative imaging in deep brain stimulation: A controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Christian; Dooms, Georges; Berthold, Christophe; Hertel, Frank

    2016-08-01

    In deep brain stimulation (DBS), post-operative imaging has been used on the one hand to assess complications, such as haemorrhage; and on the other hand, to detect misplaced contacts. The post-operative determination of the accurate location of the final electrode plays a critical role in evaluating the precise area of effective stimulation and for predicting the potential clinical outcome; however, safety remains a priority in postoperative DBS imaging. A plethora of diverse post-operative imaging methods have been applied at different centres. There is neither a consensus on the most efficient post-operative imaging methodology, nor is there any standardisation for the automatic or manual analysis of the images within the different imaging modalities. In this article, we give an overview of currently applied post-operative imaging modalities and discuss the current challenges in post-operative imaging in DBS. PMID:27029393

  17. Serotonin transporter genotype and mild traumatic brain injury independently influence resilience and perception of limitations in veterans.

    PubMed

    Graham, David P; Helmer, Drew A; Harding, Mark J; Kosten, Thomas R; Petersen, Nancy J; Nielsen, David A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence indicates that individuals with the 5-HTTLPR variant short/short genotype have increased sensitivity to both positive and negative perceptions of perceived social support. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association among Veterans in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). As part of a larger TBI center, we performed a cross-sectional study of 67 OEF/OIF/OND Veterans (41 with TBI and 26 controls without TBI) who completed the questionnaires and consented to genetic testing. The primary measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRISC) and the Perceived Limitations in community participation subscale of the Community Reintegration of Service Members Instrument (CRIS-PL). Both 5-HTTLPR genotype and TBI status were independently associated with the CRIS-PL (p = .009 for genotype, p = .001 for TBI) and the CDRISC (p = .015 for genotype, p = .003 for TBI) scores. This study suggests that both the 5-HTTLPR genotype and TBI status independently, in an almost equal but opposite direction, influence resilience and perceived limitations to social participation. Further, resilience appears more sensitive to perceived limitations in Veterans carrying an S'S' genotype than in L' carriers, but only in the context of having sustained a TBI. While having a TBI appeared to increase a Veteran's sensitivity to social stress, the Veteran's who were L' allele carriers with a TBI fared the worst, with lower resilience and more perceived limitations for community participation compared to L' carrier Veterans without a TBI or Veterans with the S'S' genotype regardless of TBI status. PMID:23478049

  18. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift based on constrained Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Shakarami, M; Suratgar, A A; Talebi, H A

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the problem of estimation of brain shift is addressed by which the accuracy of neuronavigation systems can be improved. To this end, the actual brain shift is considered as a Gaussian random vector with a known mean and an unknown covariance. Then, brain surface imaging is employed together with solutions of linear elastic model and the best estimation is found using constrained Kalman filter (CKF). Moreover, a recursive method (RCKF) is presented, the computational cost of which in the operating room is significantly lower than CKF, because it is not required to compute inverse of any large matrix. Finally, the theory is verified by the simulation results, which show the superiority of the proposed method as compared to one existing method. PMID:25451818

  19. 77 FR 70431 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice Establishing Answer Period to Limited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Answer Period to Limited Emergency Protest On November 16, 2012, JP Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. (JPMVEC) filed a Limited Emergency Protest (Protest) regarding the comment period for the California Independent... consideration, notice is hereby given that the date for filing answers to JPMVEC's Protest is shortened to...

  20. 76 FR 19766 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... System Operator Corporation's (CAISO) Capacity Procurement Mechanism (CPM) and exceptional dispatch... discuss the issues raised by CAISO's proposed CPM compensation methodology and continuation of...

  1. The Utility of Independent Component Analysis and Machine Learning in the Identification of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Diseased Brain

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Robert C.; Jelsone-Swain, Laura M.; Foerster, Bradley R.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease with a lifetime risk of ∼1 in 2000. Presently, diagnosis of ALS relies on clinical assessments for upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron deficits in multiple body segments together with a history of progression of symptoms. In addition, it is common to evaluate lower motor neuron pathology in ALS by electromyography. However, upper motor neuron pathology is solely assessed on clinical grounds, thus hindering diagnosis. In the past decade magnetic resonance methods have been shown to be sensitive to the ALS disease process, namely: resting-state connectivity measured with functional MRI, cortical thickness measured by high-resolution imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics such as fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity, and more recently magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration. In this present work we utilize independent component analysis to derive brain networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and use those derived networks to build a disease state classifier using machine learning (support-vector machine). We show that it is possible to achieve over 71% accuracy for disease state classification. These results are promising for the development of a clinically relevant disease state classifier. Future inclusion of other MR modalities such as high-resolution structural imaging, DTI and MRS should improve this overall accuracy. PMID:23772210

  2. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  3. 78 FR 69079 - Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... times given below are approximate and may change, as needed. Session 1: Schedule 46 (9:00 a.m.-10:15 a.m... before the 9:00 a.m. (Eastern Time) start time of the conference. \\1\\ Midcontinent Independent System... proposed revisions to section 40.3.3.a.v. Break: (10:15 a.m.-10:30 a.m.) Session 2: Constraint...

  4. Structure of the isotropic transport operators in three independent space variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Shumays, I. K.; Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Based on the idea of separation of variables, a spectral theory for the three-dimensional, stationary, isotropic transport operator in a vector space of complex-valued Borel functions results in continuous sets of regular and generalized eigenfunctions.

  5. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies ERK activity in the brain reward circuit.

    PubMed

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-03-01

    Food palatability produces behavioral modifications that resemble those induced by drugs of abuse. Palatability-induced behavioral changes require both, the activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system, and changes in structural plasticity in neurons of the brain reward pathway. The ERK intracellular pathway is activated by CB1 receptors (CB1-R) and plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity. We investigated the activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the mesocorticolimbic system induced by operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food and the involvement of the CB1-R in these responses. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we analyzed changes in ERK intracellular pathway activation in the mesocorticolimbic system of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice (CB1-/-) trained on an operant paradigm to obtain standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food. Operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food, but not for standard or highly caloric food, produced a robust activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the same brain areas where this training modified structural plasticity. These changes induced by the operant training were absent in CB1-/-. We can conclude that the activation of the ERK pathway is associated to the neuroplasticity induced by operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food and might be involved in CB1-R mediated alterations in behavior and structural plasticity. PMID:22580057

  6. Stimulus-Related Independent Component and Voxel-Wise Analysis of Human Brain Activity during Free Viewing of a Feature Film

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Lampinen, Jouko; Glerean, Enrico; Tikka, Pia; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA). Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC) disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments. PMID:22496909

  7. Three independent one-dimensional margins for single-fraction frameless stereotactic radiosurgery brain cases using CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qinghui; Chan, Maria F.; Burman, Chandra; Song, Yulin; Zhang, Mutian

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Setting a proper margin is crucial for not only delivering the required radiation dose to a target volume, but also reducing the unnecessary radiation to the adjacent organs at risk. This study investigated the independent one-dimensional symmetric and asymmetric margins between the clinical target volume (CTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) for linac-based single-fraction frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).Methods: The authors assumed a Dirac delta function for the systematic error of a specific machine and a Gaussian function for the residual setup errors. Margin formulas were then derived in details to arrive at a suitable CTV-to-PTV margin for single-fraction frameless SRS. Such a margin ensured that the CTV would receive the prescribed dose in 95% of the patients. To validate our margin formalism, the authors retrospectively analyzed nine patients who were previously treated with noncoplanar conformal beams. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used in the patient setup. The isocenter shifts between the CBCT and linac were measured for a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator for three months. For each plan, the authors shifted the isocenter of the plan in each direction by ±3 mm simultaneously to simulate the worst setup scenario. Subsequently, the asymptotic behavior of the CTV V{sub 80%} for each patient was studied as the setup error approached the CTV-PTV margin.Results: The authors found that the proper margin for single-fraction frameless SRS cases with brain cancer was about 3 mm for the machine investigated in this study. The isocenter shifts between the CBCT and the linac remained almost constant over a period of three months for this specific machine. This confirmed our assumption that the machine systematic error distribution could be approximated as a delta function. This definition is especially relevant to a single-fraction treatment. The prescribed dose coverage for all the patients investigated was 96.1%± 5.5% with an

  8. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators.

    PubMed

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations. PMID:23928891

  9. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  10. State-independent error-disturbance trade-off for measurement operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. S.; Wu, Shengjun; Chau, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    In general, classical measurement statistics of a quantum measurement is disturbed by performing an additional incompatible quantum measurement beforehand. Using this observation, we introduce a state-independent definition of disturbance by relating it to the distinguishability problem between two classical statistical distributions - one resulting from a single quantum measurement and the other from a succession of two quantum measurements. Interestingly, we find an error-disturbance trade-off relation for any measurements in two-dimensional Hilbert space and for measurements with mutually unbiased bases in any finite-dimensional Hilbert space. This relation shows that error should be reduced to zero in order to minimize the sum of error and disturbance. We conjecture that a similar trade-off relation with a slightly relaxed definition of error can be generalized to any measurements in an arbitrary finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  11. Synthesis of Findings, Current Investigations, and Future Directions: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Bramlett, Helen M; Shear, Deborah A; Dixon, C Edward; Mondello, Stefania; Dietrich, W Dalton; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Kevin K W; Poloyac, Samuel M; Empey, Philip E; Povlishock, John T; Mountney, Andrea; Browning, Megan; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Yan, Hong Q; Jackson, Travis C; Catania, Michael; Glushakova, Olena; Richieri, Steven P; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-15

    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) is a fully operational, rigorous, and productive multicenter, pre-clinical drug and circulating biomarker screening consortium for the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this article, we synthesize the findings from the first five therapies tested by OBTT and discuss both the current work that is ongoing and potential future directions. Based on the results generated from the first five therapies tested within the exacting approach used by OBTT, four (nicotinamide, erythropoietin, cyclosporine A, and simvastatin) performed below or well below what was expected based on the published literature. OBTT has identified, however, the early post-TBI administration of levetiracetam as a promising agent and has advanced it to a gyrencephalic large animal model--fluid percussion injury in micropigs. The sixth and seventh therapies have just completed testing (glibenclamide and Kollidon VA 64), and an eighth drug (AER 271) is in testing. Incorporation of circulating brain injury biomarker assessments into these pre-clinical studies suggests considerable potential for diagnostic and theranostic utility of glial fibrillary acidic protein in pre-clinical studies. Given the failures in clinical translation of therapies in TBI, rigorous multicenter, pre-clinical approaches to therapeutic screening such as OBTT may be important for the ultimate translation of therapies to the human condition. PMID:26671284

  12. Method of independently operating a group of stages within a diffusion cascade

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Manson; Fruit, Allen J.; Levey, Horace B.

    1976-06-08

    1. A method of operating a group of the diffusion stages of a productive diffusion cascade with countercurrent flow, said group comprising a top and a bottom stage, which comprises isolating said group from said cascade, circulating the diffused gas produced in said top stage to the feed of said bottom stage while at the same time circulating the undiffused gas from said bottom stage to the feed of said top stage whereby major changes in

  13. Pose-independent surface matching for intra-operative soft-tissue marker-less registration.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Thiago Ramos; Seitel, Alexander; Kilgus, Thomas; Suwelack, Stefan; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Kenngott, Hannes; Speidel, Stefanie; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2014-10-01

    One of the main challenges in computer-assisted soft tissue surgery is the registration of multi-modal patient-specific data for enhancing the surgeon's navigation capabilities by observing beyond exposed tissue surfaces. A new approach to marker-less guidance involves capturing the intra-operative patient anatomy with a range image device and doing a shape-based registration. However, as the target organ is only partially visible, typically does not provide salient features and underlies severe non-rigid deformations, surface matching in this context is extremely challenging. Furthermore, the intra-operatively acquired surface data may be subject to severe systematic errors and noise. To address these issues, we propose a new approach to establishing surface correspondences, which can be used to initialize fine surface matching algorithms in the context of intra-operative shape-based registration. Our method does not require any prior knowledge on the relative poses of the input surfaces to each other, does not rely on the detection of prominent surface features, is robust to noise and can be used for overlapping surfaces. It takes into account (1) similarity of feature descriptors, (2) compatibility of multiple correspondence pairs, as well as (3) the spatial configuration of the entire correspondence set. We evaluate the algorithm on time-of-flight (ToF) data from porcine livers in a respiratory liver motion simulator. In all our experiments the alignment computed from the established surface correspondences yields a registration error below 1cm and is thus well suited for initializing fine surface matching algorithms for intra-operative soft-tissue registration. PMID:25038492

  14. Post-operative assessment in Deep Brain Stimulation based on multimodal images: registration workflow and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalys, Florent; Haegelen, Claire; Abadie, Alexandre; Jannin, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Object Movement disorders in Parkinson disease patients may require functional surgery, when medical therapy isn't effective. In Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes are implanted within the brain to stimulate deep structures such as SubThalamic Nucleus (STN). This paper describes successive steps for constructing a digital Atlas gathering patient's location of electrodes and contacts for post operative assessment. Materials and Method 12 patients who had undergone bilateral STN DBS have participated to the study. Contacts on post-operative CT scans were automatically localized, based on black artefacts. For each patient, post operative CT images were rigidly registered to pre operative MR images. Then, pre operative MR images were registered to a MR template (super-resolution Collin27 average MRI template). This last registration was the combination of global affine, local affine and local non linear registrations, respectively. Four different studies were performed in order to validate the MR patient to template registration process, based on anatomical landmarks and clinical scores (i.e., Unified Parkinson's disease rating Scale). Visualisation software was developed for displaying into the template images the stimulated contacts represented as cylinders with a colour code related to the improvement of the UPDRS. Results The automatic contact localization algorithm was successful for all the patients. Validation studies for the registration process gave a placement error of 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm and coherence with UPDRS scores. Conclusion The developed visualization tool allows post-operative assessment for previous interventions. Correlation with additional clinical scores will certainly permit to learn more about DBS and to better understand clinical side-effects.

  15. CtIP-mediated resection is essential for viability and can operate independently of BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Polato, Federica; Callen, Elsa; Wong, Nancy; Faryabi, Robert; Bunting, Samuel; Chen, Hua-Tang; Kozak, Marina; Kruhlak, Michael J; Reczek, Colleen R; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Ludwig, Thomas; Baer, Richard; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Jackson, Stephen; Nussenzweig, André

    2014-06-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by DNA end resection, a process in which stretches of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) are generated and used for homology search. Factors implicated in resection include nucleases MRE11, EXO1, and DNA2, which process DNA ends into 3' ssDNA overhangs; helicases such as BLM, which unwind DNA; and other proteins such as BRCA1 and CtIP whose functions remain unclear. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of CtIP on T847 is required to promote resection, whereas CDK-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP-S327 is required for interaction with BRCA1. Here, we provide evidence that CtIP functions independently of BRCA1 in promoting DSB end resection. First, using mouse models expressing S327A or T847A mutant CtIP as a sole species, and B cells deficient in CtIP, we show that loss of the CtIP-BRCA1 interaction does not detectably affect resection, maintenance of genomic stability or viability, whereas T847 is essential for these functions. Second, although loss of 53BP1 rescues the embryonic lethality and HR defects in BRCA1-deficient mice, it does not restore viability or genome integrity in CtIP(-/-) mice. Third, the increased resection afforded by loss of 53BP1 and the rescue of BRCA1-deficiency depend on CtIP but not EXO1. Finally, the sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient cells to poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition is partially rescued by the phospho-mimicking mutant CtIP (CtIP-T847E). Thus, in contrast to BRCA1, CtIP has indispensable roles in promoting resection and embryonic development. PMID:24842372

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and Fas receptor contribute to cognitive deficits independent of cell death after concussive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Khuman, Jugta; Meehan, William P; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Jianhua; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Zhang, Jimmy; Giovannone, Eric; Lo, Eng H; Whalen, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and Fas receptor contribute to cell death and cognitive dysfunction after focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the role of TNFα/Fas in postinjury functional outcome independent of cell death in a novel closed head injury (CHI) model produced with weight drop and free rotational head movement in the anterior-posterior plane. The CHI produced no cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier damage at 24 to 48 hours, no detectable cell death, occasional axonal injury (24 hours), and no brain atrophy or hippocampal cell loss (day 60). Microglia and astrocytes were activated (48 to 72 hours). Tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA, Fas mRNA, and TNFα protein were increased in the brain at 3 to 6 hours after injury (P<0.001 versus sham injured). In wild-type (WT) mice, CHI produced hidden platform (P=0.009) and probe deficits (P=0.001) in the Morris water maze versus sham. Surprisingly, injured TNFα/Fas knockout (KO) mice performed worse in hidden platform trials (P=0.036) but better in probe trials than did WT mice (P=0.0001). Administration of recombinant TNFα to injured TNFα/Fas KO mice reduced probe trial performance to that of WT. Thus, TNFα/Fas influence cognitive deficits independent of cell death after CHI. Therapies targeting TNFα/Fas together may be inappropriate for patients with concussive TBI. PMID:20940727

  17. On the Efficiency of the New York Independent System OperatorMarket for Transmission Congestion Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris; Oren,Shmuel S.

    2003-04-01

    The physical nature of electricity generation and deliverycreates special problems for the design of efficient markets, notably theneed to manage delivery in real time and the volatile congestion andassociated costs that result. Proposals for the operation of thederegulated electricity industry tend towards one of two paradigms:centralized and decentralized. Transmission congestion management can beimplemented in the more centralized point-to-point approach, a in NewYork state, where derivative transmission congestion contracts (TCCs) aretraded, or in the more decentralized flowgate-based approach. While it iswidely accepted that theoretically TCCs have attractive properties ashedging instruments against congestion cost uncertainty, whetherefficient markets for them can be established in practice has beenquestioned. Based on an empirical analysis of publicly available datafrom years 2000 and 2001, it appears that New York TCCs providedmarketparticipants with a potentially effective hedge against volatilecongestion rents. However, the prices paid for TCCs systematicallydiverged from the resulting congestion rents for distant locations and athigh prices. The price paid for the hedge not being in line with thecongestion rents, i.e. unreasonably high risk premiums are being paid,suggests an inefficient market. The low liquidity of TCC markets and thedeviation of TCC feasibility requirements from actual energy flows arepossible explanations.

  18. Evolutionary operation (EVOP) to optimize whey independent serratiopeptidase production from Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112.

    PubMed

    Pansuriya, Ruchir C; Singhal, Rekha S

    2010-05-01

    Serratiopeptidase (SRP), a 50 kDa metalloprotease produced from Serratia marcescens species is a drug with potent anti-inflammatory property. In this study, a powerful statistical design, Evolutionary operation (EVOP) was applied to optimize the media composition for SRP production in shake-flask culture of Serratia. marcescens NRRL B-23112. Initially, factors such as inoculum size, initial pH, carbon source and organic nitrogen source were optimized using one factor at a time. Most significant medium components affecting the production of SRP were identified as maltose, soybean meal and KHPO. The SRP so produced was not found to be dependent on whey protein, rather notably induced by most of the organic nitrogen sources used in the study and free from other concomitant protease contaminant revealed by protease inhibition study. Further, experiments were performed using different sets of EVOP design with each factor varied at three levels. The experimental data were analyzed with standard set of statistical formula. The EVOP optimized medium, maltose 4.5%, soybean meal 6.5%, KHPO 0.8% and NaCl 0.5% w/v gave SRP production of 7,333 EU/ml, which was 17-fold higher than the unoptimized media. The application of EVOP resulted in significant enhancement of SRP production. PMID:20519921

  19. The Vertebrate Brain, Evidence of Its Modular Organization and Operating System: Insights into the Brain's Basic Units of Structure, Function, and Operation and How They Influence Neuronal Signaling and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is a complex organ made up of neurons and several other cell types, and whose role is processing information for use in eliciting behaviors. However, the composition of its repeating cellular units for both structure and function are unresolved. Based on recent descriptions of the brain's physiological "operating system", a function of the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) for supply of energy, and on the nature of "neuronal words and languages" for intercellular communication, insights into the brain's modular structural and functional units have been gained. In this article, it is proposed that the basic structural unit in brain is defined by its physiological operating system, and that it consists of a single neuron, and one or more astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular system endothelial cells. It is also proposed that the basic functional unit in the brain is defined by how neurons communicate, and consists of two neurons and their interconnecting dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field. Since a functional unit is composed of two neurons, it requires two structural units to form a functional unit. Thus, the brain can be envisioned as being made up of the three-dimensional stacking and intertwining of myriad structural units which results not only in its gross structure, but also in producing a uniform distribution of binary functional units. Since the physiological NAA-NAAG operating system for supply of energy is repeated in every structural unit, it is positioned to control global brain function. PMID:21720525

  20. Linking EEG signals, brain functions and mental operations: Advantages of the Laplacian transformation.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Franck; Burle, Boris; Spieser, Laure; Carbonnell, Laurence; Meckler, Cédric; Casini, Laurence; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a very popular technique for investigating brain functions and/or mental processes. To this aim, EEG activities must be interpreted in terms of brain and/or mental processes. EEG signals being a direct manifestation of neuronal activity it is often assumed that such interpretations are quite obvious or, at least, straightforward. However, they often rely on (explicit or even implicit) assumptions regarding the structures supposed to generate the EEG activities of interest. For these assumptions to be used appropriately, reliable links between EEG activities and the underlying brain structures must be established. Because of volume conduction effects and the mixture of activities they induce, these links are difficult to establish with scalp potential recordings. We present different examples showing how the Laplacian transformation, acting as an efficient source separation method, allowed to establish more reliable links between EEG activities and brain generators and, ultimately, with mental operations. The nature of those links depends on the depth of inferences that can vary from weak to strong. Along this continuum, we show that 1) while the effects of experimental manipulation can appear widely distributed with scalp potentials, Laplacian transformation allows to reveal several generators contributing (in different manners) to these modulations, 2) amplitude variations within the same set of generators can generate spurious differences in scalp potential topographies, often interpreted as reflecting different source configurations. In such a case, Laplacian transformation provides much more similar topographies, evidencing the same generator(s) set, and 3) using the LRP as an index of response activation most often produces ambiguous results, Laplacian-transformed response-locked ERPs obtained over motor areas allow resolving these ambiguities. PMID:25958789

  1. Photo-acoustic imaging of blue nanoparticle targeted brain tumor for intra-operative glioma delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Wang, Xueding; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Hah, HoeJin; Kim, Gwangseong; Chen, Thomas; Orrienger, Daniel; Sagher, Oren; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing the tumor from the background neo-plastic tissue is challenging for cancer surgery such as surgical resection of glioma. Attempts have been made to use visible or fluorescent markers to delineate the tumors during surgery. However, the systemic injection of the dyes requires high dose, resulting in negative side effects. A novel method to delineate rat brain tumors intra-operatively, as well as post-operatively, using a highly sensitive photoacoustic imaging technique enhanced by tumor targeting blue nanoparticle as contrast agent is demonstrated. The nanoparticles are made of polyacrylamide (PAA) matrix with covalently linked Coomassie-Blue dye. They contain 7.0% dye and the average size is 80nm. Their surface was conjugated with F3 peptide for active tumor targeting. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, chemically inert and have long plasma circulation lifetime, making them suitable as nanodevices for imaging using photoacoustics. Experiments on phantoms and rat brains tumors ex-vivo demonstrate the high sensitivity of photoacoustic imaging in delineating the tumor, containing contrast agent at concentrations too low to be visualized by eye. The control tumors without nanoparticles did not show any enhanced signal. This study shows that photoacoustic imaging facilitated with the nanoparticle contrast agent could contribute to future surgical procedures for glioma.

  2. Early planarian brain regeneration is independent of blastema polarity mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Marta; Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Saló, Emili

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of anteroposterior (AP) axis specification in regenerating planarian flatworms has shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for posterior specification and that the FGF-like receptor molecule nou-darake (ndk) may be involved in restricting brain regeneration to anterior regions. The relationship between re-establishment of AP identity and correct morphogenesis of the brain is, however, still poorly understood. Here we report the characterization of two axin paralogs in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Although Axins are well known negative regulators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, no role in AP specification has previously been reported for axin genes in planarians. We show that silencing of Smed-axin genes by RNA interference (RNAi) results in two-tailed planarians, a phenotype previously reported after silencing of Smed-APC-1, another β-catenin inhibitor. More strikingly, we show for the first time that while early brain formation at anterior wounds remains unaffected, subsequent development of the brain is blocked in the two-tailed planarians generated after silencing of Smed-axin genes and Smed-APC-1. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying early brain formation can be uncoupled from the specification of AP identity by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, the posterior expansion of the brain observed following Smed-ndk RNAi is enhanced by silencing Smed-APC-1, revealing an indirect relationship between the FGFR/Ndk and Wnt/β-catenin signaling systems in establishing the posterior limits of brain differentiation. PMID:21806978

  3. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  4. DNA polymerase beta-catalyzed-PCNA independent long patch base excision repair synthesis: a mechanism for repair of oxidatively damaged DNA ends in post-mitotic brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Englander, Ella W

    2008-11-01

    Oxidative DNA damage incidental to normal respiratory metabolism poses a particular threat to genomes of highly metabolic-long lived cells. We show that post-mitotic brain has capacity to repair oxidatively damaged DNA ends, which are targets of the long patch (LP) base excision repair (BER) subpathway. LP-BER relies, in part, on proteins associated with DNA replication, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen and is inherent to proliferating cells. Nonetheless, repair products are generated with brain extracts, albeit at slow rates, in the case of 5'-DNA ends modeled with tetrahydrofuran (THF). THF at this position is refractory to DNA polymerase beta 5'-deoxyribose 5-phosphate lyase activity and drives repair into the LP-BER subpathway. Comparison of repair of 5'-THF-blocked termini in the post-mitotic rat brain and proliferative intestinal mucosa, revealed that in mucosa, resolution of damaged 5'-termini is accompanied by formation of larger repair products. In contrast, adducts targeted by the single nucleotide BER are proficiently repaired with both extracts. Our findings reveal mechanistic differences in BER processes selective for the brain versus proliferative tissues. The differences highlight the physiological relevance of the recently proposed 'Hit and Run' mechanism of alternating cleavage/synthesis steps, in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-independent LP-BER process. PMID:18752643

  5. AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes contribute with ASC to acute brain injury independently of NLRP3.

    PubMed

    Denes, Adam; Coutts, Graham; Lénárt, Nikolett; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Pelegrin, Pablo; Skinner, Joanne; Rothwell, Nancy; Allan, Stuart M; Brough, David

    2015-03-31

    Inflammation that contributes to acute cerebrovascular disease is driven by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 and is known to exacerbate resulting injury. The activity of interleukin-1 is regulated by multimolecular protein complexes called inflammasomes. There are multiple potential inflammasomes activated in diverse diseases, yet the nature of the inflammasomes involved in brain injury is currently unknown. Here, using a rodent model of stroke, we show that the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing 4) and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) inflammasomes contribute to brain injury. We also show that acute ischemic brain injury is regulated by mechanisms that require ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), a common adaptor protein for several inflammasomes, and that the NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome is not involved in this process. These discoveries identify the NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes as potential therapeutic targets for stroke and provide new insights into how the inflammatory response is regulated after an acute injury to the brain. PMID:25775556

  6. AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes contribute with ASC to acute brain injury independently of NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Adam; Coutts, Graham; Lénárt, Nikolett; Cruickshank, Sheena M.; Pelegrin, Pablo; Skinner, Joanne; Rothwell, Nancy; Allan, Stuart M.; Brough, David

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation that contributes to acute cerebrovascular disease is driven by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 and is known to exacerbate resulting injury. The activity of interleukin-1 is regulated by multimolecular protein complexes called inflammasomes. There are multiple potential inflammasomes activated in diverse diseases, yet the nature of the inflammasomes involved in brain injury is currently unknown. Here, using a rodent model of stroke, we show that the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing 4) and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) inflammasomes contribute to brain injury. We also show that acute ischemic brain injury is regulated by mechanisms that require ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), a common adaptor protein for several inflammasomes, and that the NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome is not involved in this process. These discoveries identify the NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes as potential therapeutic targets for stroke and provide new insights into how the inflammatory response is regulated after an acute injury to the brain. PMID:25775556

  7. AGE-INDEPENDENT, GREY-MATTER-LOCALIZED, BRAIN ENHANCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE FISCHER 344 RATS,1,2

    EPA Science Inventory

    While studies showed that aging is accompanied by increased exposure of the brain to oxidative stress, others have not detected any age-correlated differences in levels of markers of oxidative stress. Use of conventional markers of oxidative damage in vivo, which may be formed ex...

  8. Pressure-independent point in current-voltage characteristics of coplanar electrode microplasma devices operated in neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingguo; Xing, Jianping; Liang, Zhihu; Liu, Chunliang; Lin, Zhaojun

    2010-05-01

    We introduce the idea of a pressure-independent point (PIP) in a group of current-voltage curves for the coplanar electrode microplasma device (CEMPD) at neon pressures ranging from 15 to 95 kPa. We studied four samples of CEMPDs with different sizes of the microcavity and observed the PIP phenomenon for each sample. The PIP voltage depends on the area of the microcavity and is independent of the height of the microcavity. The PIP discharge current, IPIP, is proportional to the volume (Vol) of the microcavity and can be expressed by the formula IPIP=IPIP0+D×Vol. For our samples, IPIP0 (the discharge current when Vol is zero) is about zero and D (discharge current density) is about 3.95 mA mm-3. The error in D is 0.411 mA mm-3 (less than 11% of D). When the CEMPD operates at VPIP, the discharge current is quite stable under different neon pressures.

  9. Pressure-independent point in current-voltage characteristics of coplanar electrode microplasma devices operated in neon

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Lingguo; Lin Zhaojun; Xing Jianping; Liang Zhihu; Liu Chunliang

    2010-05-10

    We introduce the idea of a pressure-independent point (PIP) in a group of current-voltage curves for the coplanar electrode microplasma device (CEMPD) at neon pressures ranging from 15 to 95 kPa. We studied four samples of CEMPDs with different sizes of the microcavity and observed the PIP phenomenon for each sample. The PIP voltage depends on the area of the microcavity and is independent of the height of the microcavity. The PIP discharge current, I{sub PIP}, is proportional to the volume (Vol) of the microcavity and can be expressed by the formula I{sub PIP}=I{sub PIP0}+DxVol. For our samples, I{sub PIP0} (the discharge current when Vol is zero) is about zero and D (discharge current density) is about 3.95 mA mm{sup -3}. The error in D is 0.411 mA mm{sup -3} (less than 11% of D). When the CEMPD operates at V{sub PIP}, the discharge current is quite stable under different neon pressures.

  10. PORTR: Pre-Operative and Post-Recurrence Brain Tumor Registration

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Akbari, Hamed; Bilello, Michel; Davatzikos, Christos; Pohl, Kilian M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for deformable registration of pre-operative and post-recurrence brain MR scans of glioma patients. Performing this type of intra-subject registration is challenging as tumor, resection, recurrence, and edema cause large deformations, missing correspondences, and inconsistent intensity profiles between the scans. To address this challenging task, our method, called PORTR, explicitly accounts for pathological information. It segments tumor, resection cavity, and recurrence based on models specific to each scan. PORTR then uses the resulting maps to exclude pathological regions from the image-based correspondence term while simultaneously measuring the overlap between the aligned tumor and resection cavity. Embedded into a symmetric registration framework, we determine the optimal solution by taking advantage of both discrete and continuous search methods. We apply our method to scans of 24 glioma patients. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results clearly show that our method is superior to other state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:24595340

  11. Multi-mission Observation Operator (M2O2) service for mission-independent data assimilation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, R. J.; Lee, M.; Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-mission observation operator (M2O2) system facilitates simultaneous assimilation of the retrieved atmospheric components from multiple missions by streamlining the interface between model systems and observation data services. The M2O2 system is composed of two types of transformation services, a data transformation service that composes assimilation information from the level 2 mission data products, and a model transformation service that provides multi-mission observation force function integrating the assimilation information from the data transformation service. The prototype M2O2 system was employed for simultaneous assimilation of Ozone observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Tropospheric emission sounder (TES) with the GEOSChem-adjoint model system. Under NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) program, we are developing an operational M2O2 service as an integral part of the Goddard Earth System Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) utilizing the "on-demand" quality filtering and file format conversion capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the M2O2 web-service-protocol that allows customization of mission-unique quality control, data field extraction, and data product integration, and the M2O2 assimilation software layer that interacts with the M2O2 web-service and delivers mission-independent assimilation information to the model community.

  12. Carvacrol attenuates traumatic neuronal injury through store-operated Ca(2+) entry-independent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Su-Yuan; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Liang, Zhen-Qiang; Liu, Yong-Hong; Wei, Yan; Li, Chuan-Kun; Meng, Xi-Jun; Xia, Ming; Dan, Yong; Song, Jin-Ning

    2015-11-01

    Searching for effective pharmacological agents for traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment has largely been unsuccessful. The transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a TRP channel that is essential for embryonic development, has been shown to mediate ischemic neuronal injury in vivo and in vitro, but global deletion of TRPM7 in mice is lethal. Here, carvacrol was used to investigate the protective effect of TRPM7 inhibition in an in vitro traumatic neuronal injury model. Carvacrol (0.5 and 1 mM) reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, apoptosis and caspase-3 activation after traumatic injury in cortical neurons. These neuroprotective effects were accompanied by alleviated cytoplasmic calcium levels as measured by calcium imaging. In contrast, the thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and the expression of SOCE related proteins in neurons were not altered by carvacrol treatment. The involvement of TRPM7 sensitive calcium influx in our in vitro model was confirmed by the results that bradykinin induced calcium influx was prevented by carvacrol in neurons. Furthermore, carvacrol significantly inhibited the induction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) after traumatic injury, and treatment with carvacrol and the nNOS inhibitor NLPA together had no extra effect on calcium concentration and neuronal injury. Thus, inhibition of TRPM7 function by carvacrol protects against traumatic neuronal injury, and might be a potential drug development strategy for the treatment of TBI. PMID:26220904

  13. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Dehnadi Moghadam, Anoush; Khodadadi, Naeima; Rahmatpour, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    Background: The functional independence measure (FIM) is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables) and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht) using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results: The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI) = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions: Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence) has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI. PMID:26848469

  14. Independent Epileptiform Discharge Patterns in the Olfactory and Limbic Areas of the In Vitro Isolated Guinea Pig Brain During 4-Aminopyridine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Giovanni; Uva, Laura; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Avoli, Massimo; de Curtis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies performed on brain slices demonstrate that the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 50 μM) discloses electrographic seizure activity and interictal discharges. These epileptiform patterns have been further analyzed here in a isolated whole guinea pig brain in vitro by using field potential recordings in olfactory and limbic structures. In 8 of 13 experiments runs of fast oscillatory activity (fast runs, FRs) in the piriform cortex (PC) propagated to the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus and occasionally to the medial EC. Early and late FRs were asynchronous in the hemispheres showed different duration [1.78 ± 0.51 and 27.95 ± 4.55 (SD) s, respectively], frequency of occurrence (1.82 ± 0.49 and 34.16 ± 6.03 s) and frequency content (20–40 vs. 40–60 Hz). Preictal spikes independent from the FRs appeared in the hippocampus/EC and developed into ictal-like discharges that did not propagate to the PC. Ictal-like activity consisted of fast activity with onset either in the hippocampus (n = 6) or in the mEC (n = 2), followed by irregular spiking and sequences of diffusely synchronous bursts. Perfusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (100 μM) did not prevent FRs, increased the duration of limbic ictal-like discharges and favored their propagation to olfactory structures. The AMPA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 μM) blocked ictal-like events and reduced FRs. In conclusion, 4AP-induced epileptiform activities are asynchronous and independent in olfactory and hippocampal-entorhinal regions. Epileptiform discharges in the isolated guinea pig brain show different pharmacological properties compared with rodent in vitro slices. PMID:20220076

  15. A comparative study of feature extraction and blind source separation of independent component analysis (ICA) on childhood brain tumour 1H magnetic resonance spectra.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Zou, Xin; Wilson, Martin P; Davies, Nigel P; Sun, Yu; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2009-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has the potential of determining automatically the metabolite signals which make up MR spectra. However, the reliability with which this is accomplished and the optimal approach for investigating in vivo MRS have not been determined. Furthermore, the properties of ICA in brain tumour MRS with respect to dataset size and data quality have not been systematically explored. The two common techniques for applying ICA, blind source separation (BSS) and feature extraction (FE) were examined in this study using simulated data and the findings confirmed on patient data. Short echo time (TE 30 ms), low and high field (1.5 and 3 T) in vivo brain tumour MR spectra of childhood astrocytoma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma were generated by using a quantum mechanical simulator with ten metabolite and lipid components. Patient data (TE 30 ms, 1.5 T) were acquired from children with brain tumours. ICA of simulated data shows that individual metabolite components can be extracted from a set of MRS data. The BSS method generates independent components with a closer correlation to the original metabolite and lipid components than the FE method when the number of spectra in the dataset is small. The experiments also show that stable results are achieved with 300 MRS at an SNR equal to 10. The FE method is relatively insensitive to different ranges of full width at half maximum (FWHM) (from 0 to 3 Hz), whereas the BSS method degrades on increasing the range of FWHM. The peak frequency variations do not affect the results within the range of +/-0.08 ppm for the FE method, and +/-0.05 ppm for the BSS method. When the methods were applied to the patient dataset, results consistent with the synthesized experiments were obtained. PMID:19431141

  16. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces. PMID:23583970

  17. Mutually temporally independent connectivity patterns: a new framework to study the dynamics of brain connectivity at rest with application to explain group difference based on gender.

    PubMed

    Yaesoubi, Maziar; Miller, Robyn L; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-02-15

    Functional connectivity analysis of the human brain is an active area in fMRI research. It focuses on identifying meaningful brain networks that have coherent activity either during a task or in the resting state. These networks are generally identified either as collections of voxels whose time series correlate strongly with a pre-selected region or voxel, or using data-driven methodologies such as independent component analysis (ICA) that compute sets of maximally spatially independent voxel weightings (component spatial maps (SMs)), each associated with a single time course (TC). Studies have shown that regardless of the way these networks are defined, the activity coherence among them has a dynamic nature which is hard to estimate with global coherence analysis such as correlation or mutual information. Sliding window analyses in which functional network connectivity (FNC) is estimated separately at each time window is one of the more widely employed approaches to studying the dynamic nature of functional network connectivity (dFNC). Observed FNC patterns are summarized and replaced with a smaller set of prototype connectivity patterns ("states" or "components"), and then a dynamical analysis is applied to the resulting sequences of prototype states. In this work we are looking for a small set of connectivity patterns whose weighted contributions to the dynamically changing dFNCs are independent of each other in time. We discuss our motivation for this work and how it differs from existing approaches. Also, in a group analysis based on gender we show that males significantly differ from females by occupying significantly more combinations of these connectivity patterns over the course of the scan. PMID:25485713

  18. Semi-automated nanoprecipitation-system--an option for operator independent, scalable and size adjustable nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rietscher, René; Thum, Carolin; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schneider, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of nano-sized carrier systems increasingly moved into focus of pharmaceutical research and industry in the past decades. Besides the drug load and properties of the selected polymer/lipid, the size of such particles is one of the most important parameters regarding their use as efficient drug delivery systems. However, the preparation of nanoparticles with different sizes in a controlled manner is challenging, especially in terms of reproducibility and scale-up possibility. To overcome these hurdles we developed a system relying on nanoprecipitation, which meets all these requirements of an operator independent, scalable and size-adjustable nanoparticle synthesis-the Semi-Automated Nanoprecipitation-System. This system enables the adaption of the particle size to specific needs based on the process parameters-injection rate, flow rate and polymer concentration-identified within this study. The basic set-up is composed of a syringe pump and a gear pump for a precise control of the flow and injection speed of the system. Furthermore, a home-made tube-straightener guarantees a curvature-free injection point. Thus it could be shown that the production of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles from 150 to 600 nm with a narrow size distribution in a controlled semi-automatic manner is possible. PMID:25547536

  19. Traumatic brain injury causes platelet adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid receptor inhibition independent of hemorrhagic shock in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Castellino, Francis J.; Chapman, Michael P.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Thomas, Scott; Moore, Ernest E.; Wohlauer, Max V.; Fritz, Braxton; Yount, Robert; Ploplis, Victoria; Davis, Patrick; Evans, Edward; Walsh, Mark

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coagulopathy in traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is a well-established phenomenon, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Various studies implicate protein C activation related to the global insult of hemorrhagic shock or brain tissue factor release with resultant platelet dysfunction and depletion of coagulation factors. We hypothesized that the platelet dysfunction of CTBI is a distinct phenomenon from the coagulopathy following hemorrhagic shock. METHODS We used thrombelastography with platelet mapping as a measure of platelet function, assessing the degree of inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) receptor pathways. First, we studied the early effect of TBI on platelet inhibition by performing thrombelastography with platelet mapping on rats. We then conducted an analysis of admission blood samples from trauma patients with isolated head injury (n = 70). Patients in shock or on clopidogrel or aspirin were excluded. RESULTS In rats, ADP receptor inhibition at 15 minutes after injury was 77.6% ± 6.7% versus 39.0% ± 5.3% for controls (p < 0.0001). Humans with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤ 8) showed an increase in ADP receptor inhibition at 93.1% (interquartile range [IQR], 44.8–98.3%; n = 29) compared with 56.5% (IQR, 35–79.1%; n = 41) in milder TBI and 15.5% (IQR, 13.2–29.1%) in controls (p = 0.0014 and p < 0.0001, respectively). No patient had significant hypotension or acidosis. Parallel trends were noted in AA receptor inhibition. CONCLUSION Platelet ADP and AA receptor inhibition is a prominent early feature of CTBI in humans and rats and is linked to the severity of brain injury in patients with isolated head trauma. This phenomenon is observed in the absence of hemorrhagic shock or multisystem injury. Thus, TBI alone is shown to be sufficient to induce a profound platelet dysfunction. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;76: 1169–1176. PMID:24747445

  20. Regulation of store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry activity by cell cycle dependent up-regulation of Orai2 in brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Hisao; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Hideto; Ohya, Susumu; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2015-04-10

    Store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) via Orai1 and STIM1 complex is supposed to have obligatory roles in the regulation of cellular functions of vascular endothelial cells, while little is known about the contribution of Orai2. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses indicated the expression of Orai2 and STIM2, in addition to Orai1 and STIM1 in bovine brain capillary endothelial cell line, t-BBEC117. During the exponential growth of t-BBEC117, the knockdown of Orai1 and STIM1 significantly reduced the SOCE activity, whereas Orai2 and STIM2 siRNAs had no effect. To examine whether endogenous SOCE activity contributes to the regulation of cell cycle progression, t-BBEC117 were synchronized using double thymidine blockage. At the G2/M phase, Ca{sup 2+} influx via SOCE was decreased and Orai2 expression was increased compared to the G0/G1 phase. When Orai2 was knocked down at the G2/M phase, the decrease in SOCE was removed, and cell proliferation was partly attenuated. Taken together, Orai1 significantly contributes to cell proliferation via the functional expression, which is presumably independent of the cell cycle phases. In construct, Orai2 is specifically up-regulated during the G2/M phase, negatively modulates the SOCE activity, and may contribute to the regulation of cell cycle progression in brain capillary endothelial cells. - Highlights: • Orai1 is essential for SOCE activity in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). • Cell cycle independent expression of Orai1 regulated SOCE and cell proliferation. • Orai2 was up-regulated only at G2/M phase and this consequently reduced SOCE. • Orai2 as well as Orai1 is a key player controlling SOCE and proliferation in BCECs.

  1. Identification of store-independent and store-operated Ca2+ conductances in Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Ana Y; Roberts, Randolph K; Strange, Kevin

    2003-08-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers significant experimental advantages for defining the genetic basis of diverse biological processes. Genetic and physiological analyses have demonstrated that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ oscillations in intestinal epithelial cells play a central role in regulating the nematode defecation cycle, an ultradian rhythm with a periodicity of 45-50 s. Patch clamp studies combined with behavioral assays and forward and reverse genetic screening would provide a powerful approach for defining the molecular details of oscillatory Ca2+ signaling. However, electrophysiological characterization of the intestinal epithelium has not been possible because of its relative inaccessibility. We developed primary intestinal epithelial cell cultures that circumvent this problem. Intestinal cells express two highly Ca2+-selective, voltage-independent conductances. One conductance, IORCa, is constitutively active, exhibits strong outward rectification, is 60-70-fold more selective for Ca2+ than Na+, is inhibited by intracellular Mg2+ with a K1/2 of 692 microM, and is insensitive to Ca2+ store depletion. Inhibition of IORCa with high intracellular Mg2+ concentrations revealed the presence of a small amplitude conductance that was activated by passive depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Active depletion of Ca2+ stores with IP3 or ionomycin increased the rate of current activation approximately 8- and approximately 22-fold compared with passive store depletion. The store-operated conductance, ISOC, exhibits strong inward rectification, and the channel is highly selective for Ca2+ over monovalent cations with a divalent cation selectivity sequence of Ca2+ > Ba2+ approximately Sr2+. Reversal potentials for ISOC could not be detected accurately between 0 and +80 mV, suggesting that PCa/PNa of the channel may exceed 1,000:1. Lanthanum, SKF 96365, and 2-APB inhibit both IORCa and ISOC reversibly. Our studies provide the first

  2. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-04-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

  3. 77 FR 45596 - Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System... Energy North America (US), L.P. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent... Commission's list of Corporate Officials. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing...

  4. An Approach to Life Skills Group Work with Youth in Transition to Independent Living: Theoretical, Practice, and Operational Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terrence T.; Williams, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Group work is fundamental to working with youth learning about independent living and in making the tough and challenging transition to independence. The authors, seasoned and experienced group workers and researchers with youth leaving the child welfare system, will present a conceptual framework and set of practices for helping youth gain those…

  5. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them. PMID:24567704

  6. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Dyall, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit neuroprotective properties and represent a potential treatment for a variety of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. However, traditionally there has been a lack of discrimination between the different omega-3 PUFAs and effects have been broadly accredited to the series as a whole. Evidence for unique effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and more recently docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is growing. For example, beneficial effects in mood disorders have more consistently been reported in clinical trials using EPA; whereas, with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, the focus has been on DHA. DHA is quantitatively the most important omega-3 PUFA in the brain, and consequently the most studied, whereas the availability of high purity DPA preparations has been extremely limited until recently, limiting research into its effects. However, there is now a growing body of evidence indicating both independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. The purpose of this review is to highlight how a detailed understanding of these effects is essential to improving understanding of their therapeutic potential. The review begins with an overview of omega-3 PUFA biochemistry and metabolism, with particular focus on the central nervous system (CNS), where DHA has unique and indispensable roles in neuronal membranes with levels preserved by multiple mechanisms. This is followed by a review of the different enzyme-derived anti-inflammatory mediators produced from EPA, DPA and DHA. Lastly, the relative protective effects of EPA, DPA and DHA in normal brain aging and the most common neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. With a greater understanding of the individual roles of EPA, DPA and DHA in brain health and repair it is hoped that appropriate dietary recommendations can be established and therapeutic interventions can be more targeted and refined. PMID:25954194

  7. Differential functional brain network connectivity during visceral interoception as revealed by independent component analysis of fMRI TIME-series.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Behnaz; Mantini, Dante; Balsters, Joshua Henk; Michels, Lars; Kessler, Thomas M; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kollias, Spyros S

    2015-11-01

    Influential theories of brain-viscera interactions propose a central role for interoception in basic motivational and affective feeling states. Recent neuroimaging studies have underlined the insula, anterior cingulate, and ventral prefrontal cortices as the neural correlates of interoception. However, the relationships between these distributed brain regions remain unclear. In this study, we used spatial independent component analysis (ICA) and functional network connectivity (FNC) approaches to investigate time course correlations across the brain regions during visceral interoception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in thirteen healthy females who underwent viscerosensory stimulation of bladder as a representative internal organ at different prefill levels, i.e., no prefill, low prefill (100 ml saline), and high prefill (individually adapted to the sensations of persistent strong desire to void), and with different infusion temperatures, i.e., body warm (∼37°C) or ice cold (4-8°C) saline solution. During Increased distention pressure on the viscera, the insula, striatum, anterior cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdalo-hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem, and cerebellar components showed increased activation. A second group of components encompassing the insula and anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices and temporal-parietal junction showed increased activity with innocuous temperature stimulation of bladder mucosa. Significant differences in the FNC were found between the insula and amygdalo-hippocampus, the insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and temporal-parietal junction as the distention pressure on the viscera increased. These results provide new insight into the supraspinal processing of visceral interoception originating from an internal organ. PMID:26249369

  8. Detection of P450c17-independent pathways for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) biosynthesis in brain glial tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Cascio, C.; Prasad, V. V. K.; Lin, Y. Y.; Lieberman, S.; Papadopoulos, V.

    1998-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (D) is biosynthesized in the brain by a pathway different from that existing in the adrenal cortex. C6 rat glioma tumor cells in culture biosynthesize both pregnenolone (P) and D. They possess the mRNA, protein, and side-chain cleavage activity of P450scc. On the other hand, P450c17 was not detected. Adding FeSO4 to C6 cells increased the synthesis of both P and D. Even in the presence of aminoglutethimide, an inhibitor of P450scc, FeSO4 increased the synthesis of both steroids, indicating that the Fe2+-sensitive process does not involve P450scc. Likewise, the FeSO4-induced formation of D was not blocked by the P450c17 inhibitor, SU-10603. These results suggest that the FeSO4-induced synthesis of D as well as of P in C6 cells may be due to the fragmentation of in situ-formed tertiary hydroperoxides. It is likely, however, that the effect of the Fe2+ is not limited to this one reaction. When exogenous P was added to C6 microsomes, along with FeSO4, the amount of D formed was greater than control values, indicating that Fe2+ facilitated the conversion of P to D. Unlike the constituents that are converted by Fe2+ to P, the precursor of D in C6 cells is not soluble in a 1:1 mixture of ether and ethylacetate. Treatment of C6 cells with KI, NaBH4, or HIO4 resulted in an increase in D synthesis. From this it seems clear that a precursor of the D produced in C6 cells is a steroid where both C-17 and C-20 are oxygenated. PMID:9501181

  9. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P.; D’Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A.; Alleva, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual’s early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups -- the Old, the Middle and the Young – all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and BDNF levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction. PMID:22910688

  10. 77 FR 24192 - Energy Spectrum, Inc. and Riverbay Corporation v. New York Independent System Operator; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Spectrum, Inc. and Riverbay Corporation v. New York Independent... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Energy Spectrum, Inc. and Riverbay Corporation...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Vanessa D.; Rozelle, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  12. Intra-operative brain tumor detection using elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canpolat, Murat; Akyüz, Mahmut; Gökhan, Güzide Ayşe; Gürer, Elif Inanç; Tuncer, Recai

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the potential application of elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy (ELSSS) as an adjunctive tool for intraoperative rapid detection of brain tumors and demarcation of the tumor from the surrounding normal tissue. Measurements were performed on 29 excised tumor specimens from 29 patients. There were 21 instances of low-grade tumors and eight instances of high-grade tumors. Normal gray matter and white matter brain tissue specimens of four epilepsy patients were used as a control group. One low-grade and one high-grade tumor were misclassified as normal brain tissue. Of the low- and high-grade tumors, 20 out of 21 and 7 out of 8 were correctly classified by the ELSSS system, respectively. One normal white matter tissue margin was detected in a high-grade tumor, and three normal tissue margins were detected in three low-grade tumors using spectroscopic data analysis and confirmed by histopathology. The spectral slopes were shown to be positive for normal white matter brain tissue and negative for normal gray matter and tumor tissues. Our results indicate that signs of spectral slopes may enable the discrimination of brain tumors from surrounding normal white matter brain tissue with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 100%.

  13. Towards intelligent environments: an augmented reality-brain-machine interface operated with a see-through head-mount display.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain-machine interface (BMI) or brain-computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR-BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR-BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  14. Computation by symmetry operations in a structured model of the brain: Recognition of rotational invariance and time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrann, John V.; Shaw, Gordon L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Leng, Xiaodan; Mathews, Robert B.

    1994-06-01

    Symmetries have long been recognized as a vital component of physical and biological systems. What we propose here is that symmetry operations are an important feature of higher brain function and result from the spatial and temporal modularity of the cortex. These symmetry operations arise naturally in the trion model of the cortex. The trion model is a highly structured mathematical realization of the Mountcastle organizational principle [Mountcastle, in The Mindful Brain (MIT, Cambridge, 1978)] in which the cortical column is the basic neural network of the cortex and is comprised of subunit minicolumns, which are idealized as trions with three levels of firing. A columnar network of a small number of trions has a large repertoire of quasistable, periodic spatial-temporal firing magic patterns (MP's), which can be excited. The MP's are related by specific symmetries: Spatial rotation, parity, ``spin'' reversal, and time reversal as well as other ``global'' symmetry operations in this abstract internal language of the brain. These MP's can be readily enhanced (as well as inherent categories of MP's) by only a small change in connection strengths via a Hebb learning rule. Learning introduces small breaking of the symmetries in the connectivities which enables a symmetry in the patterns to be recognized in the Monte Carlo evolution of the MP's. Examples of the recognition of rotational invariance and of a time-reversed pattern are presented. We propose the possibility of building a logic device from the hardware implementation of a higher level architecture of trion cortical columns.

  15. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, n-Terminal Fragment of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Calcidiol Are Independently Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Reyes, Roberto; Franco-Peláez, Juan Antonio; Lorenzo, Óscar; González-Casaus, María Luisa; Pello, Ana María; Aceña, Álvaro; Carda, Rocío; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Martín-Mariscal, María Luisa; Martínez-Milla, Juan; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Piñero, Antonio; Navarro, Felipe; Egido, Jesús; Tuñón, José

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the relationship of the Syntax Score (SS) and coronary artery calcification (CAC), with plasma levels of biomarkers related to cardiovascular damage and mineral metabolism, as there is sparse information in this field. Methods We studied 270 patients with coronary disease that had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) six months before. Calcidiol, fibroblast growth factor-23, parathormone, phosphate and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, galectin-3, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] levels, among other biomarkers, were determined. CAC was assessed by coronary angiogram as low-grade (0–1) and high-grade (2–3) calcification, measured with a semiquantitative scale ranging from 0 (none) to 3 (severe). For the SS study patients were divided in SS<14 and SS≥14. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results MCP-1 predicted independently the SS (RC = 1.73 [95%CI = 0.08–3.39]; p = 0.040), along with NT-proBNP (RC = 0.17 [95%CI = 0.05–0.28]; p = 0.004), male sex (RC = 4.15 [95%CI = 1.47–6.83]; p = 0.003), age (RC = 0.13 [95%CI = 0.02–0.24]; p = 0.020), hypertension (RC = 3.64, [95%CI = 0.77–6.50]; p = 0.013), hyperlipidemia (RC = 2.78, [95%CI = 0.28–5.29]; p = 0.030), and statins (RC = 6.12 [95%CI = 1.28–10.96]; p = 0.013). Low calcidiol predicted high-grade calcification independently (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.36–0.90]; p = 0.013) along with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (OR = 0.38 [95%CI = 0.19–0.78]; p = 0.006), diabetes (OR = 2.35 [95%CI = 1.11–4.98]; p = 0.028) and age (OR = 1.37 [95%CI = 1.18–1.59]; p<0.001). During follow-up (1.79 [0.94–2.86] years), 27 patients developed ACS, stroke, or transient ischemic attack. A combined score using SS and CAC predicted independently the development of the outcome. Conclusions MCP-1 and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of SS, while low calcidiol plasma levels

  16. The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Mizuseki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization. This insight not only has implications for how we should collect and analyse data, it may also help us to understand how the different levels of skewed distributions — from synapses to cognition — are related to each other. PMID:24569488

  17. Acute and chronically increased immunoreactivity to phosphorylation-independent but not pathological TDP-43 after a single traumatic brain injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Douglas H

    2011-12-01

    The pathologic phosphorylation and sub-cellular translocation of neuronal transactive response-DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major disease protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions, now termed FTLD-TDP, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). More recently, TDP-43 proteinopathy has been reported in dementia pugilistica or chronic traumatic encephalopathy caused by repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). While a single TBI has been linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease and an increased frequency of neurofibrillary tangles, TDP-43 proteinopathy has not been examined with survival following a single TBI. Using immunohistochemistry specific for both pathological phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) and phosphorylation-independent TDP-43 (pi-TDP-43), we examined acute (n = 23: Survival < 2 weeks) and long-term (n = 39; 1-47 years survival) survivors of a single TBI versus age-matched controls (n = 47). Multiple regions were examined including the hippocampus, medial temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and brainstem. No association was found between a history of single TBI and abnormally phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) inclusions. Specifically, just 3 of 62 TBI cases displayed p-TDP-43 pathology versus 2 of 47 control cases. However, while aggregates of p-TDP-43 were not increased acutely or long-term following TBI, immunoreactivity to phosphorylation-independent TDP-43 was commonly increased in the cytoplasm following TBI with both acute and long-term survival. Moreover, while single TBI can induce multiple long-term neurodegenerative changes, the absence of TDP-43 proteinopathy may indicate a fundamental difference in the processes induced following single TBI from those of repetitive TBI. PMID:22101322

  18. Optical Topography of Evoked Brain Activity during Mental Tasks Involving Whole Number Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Students start to memorize arithmetic facts from early elementary school mathematics activities. Their fluency or lack of fluency with these facts could affect their efforts as they carry out mental calculations as adults. This study investigated participants' levels of brain activation and possible reasons for these levels as they solved…

  19. A Gene Co-Expression Network in Whole Blood of Schizophrenia Patients Is Independent of Antipsychotic-Use and Enriched for Brain-Expressed Genes

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Simone; Boks, Marco P. M.; Fuller, Tova F.; Strengman, Eric; Janson, Esther; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; Ori, Anil P. S.; Vi, Nancy; Mulder, Flip; Blom, Jan Dirk; Glenthøj, Birte; Schubart, Chris D.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Horvath, Steve; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the underlying genes for schizophrenia are largely unknown. Additional approaches are therefore required to identify the genetic background of this disorder. Here we report findings from a large gene expression study in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We applied a systems biology approach to genome-wide expression data from whole blood of 92 medicated and 29 antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients and 118 healthy controls. We show that gene expression profiling in whole blood can identify twelve large gene co-expression modules associated with schizophrenia. Several of these disease related modules are likely to reflect expression changes due to antipsychotic medication. However, two of the disease modules could be replicated in an independent second data set involving antipsychotic-free patients and controls. One of these robustly defined disease modules is significantly enriched with brain-expressed genes and with genetic variants that were implicated in a GWAS study, which could imply a causal role in schizophrenia etiology. The most highly connected intramodular hub gene in this module (ABCF1), is located in, and regulated by the major histocompatibility (MHC) complex, which is intriguing in light of the fact that common allelic variants from the MHC region have been implicated in schizophrenia. This suggests that the MHC increases schizophrenia susceptibility via altered gene expression of regulatory genes in this network. PMID:22761806

  20. Polarization-independent operation of an acousto-optical device at the transmit end of a single-laser transmission system using self-heterodyning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, L.; Rocks, M.

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the way in which a new integrated acousto-optical LiNbO 3 device combining the three functions of an electro-optical phase modulator, an acousto-optical TE/TM or TM/TE mode converter and an acousto-optical frequency shifter can be operated in a polarization-independent manner as a transmitter unit in a single-laser transmission system using self-heterodyning.

  1. A Link between the Increase in Electroencephalographic Coherence and Performance Improvement in Operating a Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Sherman, Irma Nayeli; Gutiérrez, David

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence and accuracy in operating a brain-computer interface (BCI). In our case, the BCI is controlled through motor imagery. Hence, a number of volunteers were trained using different training paradigms: classical visual feedback, auditory stimulation, and functional electrical stimulation (FES). After each training session, the volunteers' accuracy in operating the BCI was assessed, and the event-related coherence (ErCoh) was calculated for all possible combinations of pairs of EEG sensors. After at least four training sessions, we searched for significant differences in accuracy and ErCoh using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison tests. Our results show that there exists a high correlation between an increase in ErCoh and performance improvement, and this effect is mainly localized in the centrofrontal and centroparietal brain regions for the case of our motor imagery task. This result has a direct implication with the development of new techniques to evaluate BCI performance and the process of selecting a feedback modality that better enhances the volunteer's capacity to operate a BCI system. PMID:26290661

  2. Use of a culture-independent approach to characterize aerosolized bacteria near an open-freestall dairy operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manures are known to harbor a variety of zoonotic pathogens, which are suspected of being transported off-site as aerosols from confined feeding operations. In this study, aerosols were collected using a high-volume sampler downwind from a 10,000 cow open-freestall dairy and nearby fields be...

  3. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  4. Configuring compute nodes of a parallel computer in an operational group into a plurality of independent non-overlapping collective networks

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-03-02

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for configuring compute nodes of a parallel computer in an operational group into a plurality of independent non-overlapping collective networks, the compute nodes in the operational group connected together for data communications through a global combining network, that include: partitioning the compute nodes in the operational group into a plurality of non-overlapping subgroups; designating one compute node from each of the non-overlapping subgroups as a master node; and assigning, to the compute nodes in each of the non-overlapping subgroups, class routing instructions that organize the compute nodes in that non-overlapping subgroup as a collective network such that the master node is a physical root.

  5. A self-cleaving DNA enzyme modified with amines, guanidines and imidazoles operates independently of divalent metal cations (M2+)

    PubMed Central

    Hollenstein, Marcel; Hipolito, Christopher J.; Lam, Curtis H.; Perrin, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of modified DNAzymes represents an important endeavor in expanding the chemical and catalytic properties of catalytic nucleic acids. Few examples of such exist and to date, there is no example where three different modified bases have been simultaneously incorporated for catalytic activity. Herein, dCTP, dATP and dUTP bearing, respectively, a cationic amine, an imidazole and a cationic guanidine, were enzymatically polymerized on a DNA template for the selection of a highly functionalized DNAzyme, called DNAzyme 9-86, that catalyzed (M2+)-independent self-cleavage under physiological conditions at a single ribo(cytosine)phosphodiester linkage with a rate constant of (0.134 ± 0.026) min−1. A pH rate profile analysis revealed pKa's of 7.4 and 8.1, consistent with both general acid and base catalysis. The presence of guanidinium cations permits cleavage at significantly higher temperatures than previously observed for DNAzymes with only amines and imidazoles. Qualitatively, DNAzyme 9-86 presents an unprecedented ensemble of synthetic functionalities while quantitatively it expresses one of the highest reported values for any self-cleaving nucleic acid when investigated under M2+-free conditions at 37°C. PMID:19153138

  6. [The implementation of an independent and differentiated pain management SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) for the interdisciplinary intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Aust, Hansjörg; Wulf, Hinnerk; Vassiliou, Timon

    2013-03-01

    Up to the present day, pain management in the ICU (Intensive Care Units) is a unresolved clinical problem due to patient heterogeneity with complex variation in etiopathology and treatment of the underlying diseases. Therefore, therapeutic strategies in terms of standard operating procedure (SOP) are a necessary to improve the pain management for intensive care patients. Common guidelines for analgosedation are often inadequate to reflect the clinical situation. In particular, for an ICU setting without permanent presence of a physician a missing pain management SOP resulting in delayed pain therapy caused by a therapeutic uncertainty of the nurse staff. In addition to our pre-existing SOP for analgosedation we implemented a pain management SOP for our interdisciplinary, anaesthesiologic ICU. A exploratory survey among the nurse staff was conducted to assess the efficacy of the SOP. The results of the evaluation after a 6 month follow-up indicated a faster onset of pain management and good acceptance by the nursing staff. PMID:23589009

  7. Differential expression of genes encoding subthreshold-operating voltage-gated K+ channels in brain.

    PubMed

    Saganich, M J; Machado, E; Rudy, B

    2001-07-01

    The members of the three subfamilies (eag, erg, and elk) of the ether-a-go-go (EAG) family of potassium channel pore-forming subunits express currents that, like the M-current (I(M)), could have considerable influence on the subthreshold properties of neuronal membranes, and hence the control of excitability. A nonradioactive in situ hybridization (NR-ISH) study of the distribution of the transcripts encoding the eight known EAG family subunits in rat brain was performed to identify neuronal populations in which the physiological roles of EAG channels could be studied. These distributions were compared with those of the mRNAs encoding the components of the classical M-current (Kcnq2 and Kcnq3). NR-ISH was combined with immunohistochemistry to specific neuronal markers to help identify expressing neurons. The results show that each EAG subunit has a specific pattern of expression in rat brain. EAG and Kcnq transcripts are prominent in several types of excitatory neurons in the cortex and hippocampus; however, only one of these channel components (erg1) was consistently expressed in inhibitory interneurons in these areas. Some neuronal populations express more than one product of the same subfamily, suggesting that the subunits may form heteromeric channels in these neurons. Many neurons expressed multiple EAG family and Kcnq transcripts, such as CA1 pyramidal neurons, which contained Kcnq2, Kcnq3, eag1, erg1, erg3, elk2, and elk3. This indicates that the subthreshold current in many neurons may be complex, containing different components mediated by a number of channels with distinct properties and neuromodulatory responses. PMID:11425889

  8. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  9. A P300-based brain-computer interface aimed at operating electronic devices at home for severely disabled people.

    PubMed

    Corralejo, Rebeca; Nicolás-Alonso, Luis F; Alvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims at developing and assessing an assistive tool for operating electronic devices at home by means of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). Fifteen severely impaired subjects participated in the study. The developed tool allows users to interact with their usual environment fulfilling their main needs. It allows for navigation through ten menus and to manage up to 113 control commands from eight electronic devices. Ten out of the fifteen subjects were able to operate the proposed tool with accuracy above 77 %. Eight out of them reached accuracies higher than 95 %. Moreover, bitrates up to 20.1 bit/min were achieved. The novelty of this study lies in the use of an environment control application in a real scenario: real devices managed by potential BCI end-users. Although impaired users might not be able to set up this system without aid of others, this study takes a significant step to evaluate the degree to which such populations could eventually operate a stand-alone system. Our results suggest that neither the type nor the degree of disability is a relevant issue to suitably operate a P300-based BCI. Hence, it could be useful to assist disabled people at home improving their personal autonomy. PMID:25163823

  10. Comparative Assessment of the Prognostic Value of Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury Reveals an Independent Role for Serum Levels of Neurofilament Light.

    PubMed

    Al Nimer, Faiez; Thelin, Eric; Nyström, Harriet; Dring, Ann M; Svenningsson, Anders; Piehl, Fredrik; Nelson, David W; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability, worldwide. Early determination of injury severity is essential to improve care. Neurofilament light (NF-L) has been introduced as a marker of neuroaxonal injury in neuroinflammatory/-degenerative diseases. In this study we determined the predictive power of serum (s-) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-) NF-L levels towards outcome, and explored their potential correlation to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). A total of 182 patients suffering from TBI admitted to the neurointensive care unit at a level 1 trauma center were included. S-NF-L levels were acquired, together with S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). CSF-NF-L was measured in a subcohort (n = 84) with ventriculostomies. Clinical and neuro-radiological parameters, including computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, were included in the analyses. Outcome was assessed 6 to 12 months after injury using the Glasgow Outcome Score (1-5). In univariate proportional odds analyses mean s-NF-L, -S100B and -NSE levels presented a pseudo-R2 Nagelkerke of 0.062, 0.214 and 0.074 in correlation to outcome, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, in addition to a model including core parameters (pseudo-R2 0.33 towards outcome; Age, Glasgow Coma Scale, pupil response, Stockholm CT score, abbreviated injury severity score, S100B), S-NF-L yielded an extra 0.023 pseudo-R2 and a significantly better model (p = 0.006) No correlation between DAI or CT assessed-intracranial damage and NF-L was found. Our study thus demonstrates that S-NF-L correlates to TBI outcome, even if used in models with S100B, indicating an independent contribution to the prediction, perhaps by reflecting different pathophysiological processes, not possible to monitor using conventional neuroradiology. Although we did not find a predictive value of NF-L for DAI, this cannot be completely excluded. We suggest further studies, with volume quantification of axonal injury

  11. Cocaine inhibits store-operated Ca2+ entry in brain microvascular endothelial cells: critical role for sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Console-Bram, Linda M; Soboloff, Jonathan; Abood, Mary E; Unterwald, Ellen M; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an intracellular chaperone protein with many ligands, located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Binding of cocaine to Sig-1R has previously been found to modulate endothelial functions. In the present study, we show that cocaine dramatically inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), a Ca(2+) influx mechanism promoted by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores, in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVEC). Using either Sig-1R shRNA or pharmacological inhibition with the unrelated Sig-1R antagonists BD-1063 and NE-100, we show that cocaine-induced SOCE inhibition is dependent on Sig-1R. In addition to revealing new insight into fundamental mechanisms of cocaine-induced changes in endothelial function, these studies indicate an unprecedented role for Sig-1R as a SOCE inhibitor. PMID:26467159

  12. Adenosine receptor agonist NECA increases cerebral extravasation of fluorescein and low molecular weight dextran independent of blood-brain barrier modulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya Lan; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Lai, Ted Weita

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for therapeutic blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption facilitate drug delivery but are cumbersome to perform. A previous study demonstrated that adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation by 5′-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) increased the extravasation of intravascular tracers into the brain and proposed that AR agonism may be an effective method for therapeutic BBB disruption. We attempted to confirm the extravasation of tracers into the brain and also investigated tracer extravasation into peripheral organs and tracer retention in the blood. We found that NECA not only increased the extravasation of intravascular fluorescein and low molecular weight dextran into the brain of mice but also increased the concentrations of these tracers in the blood. In fact, the brain:blood ratio-normalized BBB permeability for either tracer is actually decreased by NECA administration. Elevated blood urea nitrogen levels in mice following NECA treatment suggested that renal function impairment was a probable cause of tracer retention. Therefore, NECA has almost no effect on the extravasation of intravascular Evans blue dye (EBD), an albumin-binding tracer with little renal clearance. Rather than inducing BBB disruption, our study demonstrated that NECA increased tracer extravasation into the brain by increasing the concentration gradient of the tracer across the BBB. PMID:27025761

  13. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  14. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Urb Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Upriver bright [URB] Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of at two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  15. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located along the Columbia River at Underwood, Washington, approximately 30 miles upstream of Bonneville Dam. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  16. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  17. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  18. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of tall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  19. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process. PMID:26737640

  20. Post operative radiation therapy in the management of brain astrocytomata: retrospective study of 142 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rutten, E.H.J.M.; Kazem, I.; Slooff, J.L.; Walder, A.H.D.

    1981-02-01

    A retrospective analysis of survival data of 142 patients with partially resected astrocytoma Grades II, III, and IV is presented. All patients received post-operative radiation therapy in the period 1957 to 1978 inclusive. There were 27 patients with Grade II tumors was 44%, and for Grade III 26%. The on, two, and three year survival rates for Grade II, 41 patients with Grade III, and 74 with Grade IV tumors. Two patients received a dose of 3800 and 4000 rad respectively, 86 a dose of 4000 to 5000 rad, and 54 a dose of 5000 to 6500 rad. The actuarial 5 year survival for patients with Grade II tumors was 44% and for Grade III 26%. The one, two, and three year survival rates for Grade IV were 33%, 15%, and 6.9% repectively. Median survival values were calculated according to histologic grade of malignancy for the whole group and for dead and alive patients separately. Of 27 patients with Grade II tumors, 11 patients were alive with a median survival of 63.7 months; 10 of 41 Grade III patients were alive with a median survival of 54 months; 7 of 74 Grade IV patients were alive with a median survival of 13.2 mon ths. There was no apparent dose effect on the median survival for Grade II and III patients. Patients with Grade IV tumors had a median survival of 12.1 months if they received doses between 4000 to 5000 rad and 14 months if they received doses between 5000 to 6500 rad. In view of the favorable 5 year survival rates of patients with Grade II and III astrocytoma, a dose of 5000 rad given as outlined in the text is both adequate and safe.

  1. Cortical Grey Matter and Subcortical White Matter Brain Microstructural Changes in Schizophrenia Are Localised and Age Independent: A Case-Control Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18–65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18–65 year age range. PMID:24124469

  2. Lactate and the Lactate-to-Pyruvate Molar Ratio Cannot Be Used as Independent Biomarkers for Monitoring Brain Energetic Metabolism: A Microdialysis Study in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sahuquillo, Juan; Merino, Maria-Angels; Sánchez-Guerrero, Angela; Arikan, Fuat; Vidal-Jorge, Marian; Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Rey, Anna; Riveiro, Marilyn; Poca, Maria-Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Background For decades, lactate has been considered an excellent biomarker for oxygen limitation and therefore of organ ischemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of increased brain lactate levels and the LP ratio (LPR) in a cohort of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) subjected to brain microdialysis monitoring to analyze the agreement between these two biomarkers and to indicate brain energy metabolism dysfunction. Methods Forty-six patients with an admission Glasgow coma scale score of ≤13 after resuscitation admitted to a dedicated 10-bed Neurotraumatology Intensive Care Unit were included, and 5305 verified samples of good microdialysis data were analyzed. Results Lactate levels were above 2.5 mmol/L in 56.9% of the samples. The relationships between lactate and the LPR could not be adequately modeled by any linear or non-linear model. Neither Cohen’s kappa nor Gwet’s statistic showed an acceptable agreement between both biomarkers to classify the samples in regard to normal or abnormal metabolism. The dataset was divided into four patterns defined by the lactate concentrations and the LPR. A potential interpretation for these patterns is suggested and discussed. Pattern 4 (low pyruvate levels) was found in 10.7% of the samples and was characterized by a significantly low concentration of brain glucose compared with the other groups. Conclusions Our study shows that metabolic abnormalities are frequent in the macroscopically normal brain in patients with traumatic brain injuries and a very poor agreement between lactate and the LPR when classifying metabolism. The concentration of lactate in the dialysates must be interpreted while taking into consideration the LPR to distinguish between anaerobic metabolism and aerobic hyperglycolysis. PMID:25025772

  3. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    PubMed

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-09-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research. PMID:18584309

  4. The Gully in the "Brain Glitch" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Learning to read is a complex process that requires multiple areas of the brain to operate together through intricate networks of neurons. The author of this article, a neurologist and middle school teacher, takes exception to interpretations of neuroimaging research that treat reading as an isolated, independent cognitive process. She…

  5. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Female Mice from Ischemic Brain Damage and the Mechanism Is Independent of the HO1/Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Glueck, Bryan; Hinds, Terry D; Shah, Zahoor A

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gender differences exist in experimental or clinical stroke with respect to brain damage and loss of functional outcome. We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia using male mice, and the mechanism of action was attributed to the upregulation of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)/Wnt pathway. Here, we sought to investigate whether EGb 761's protective effect in ovariectomized female mice following stroke is also mediated by the HO1/Wnt pathway. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to remove the protective effect of estrogen and were treated with EGb 761 for 7 days prior to inducing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and allowed to survive for an additional 7 days. At day 8, animals were sacrificed, and the brains were harvested for infarct volume analysis, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The OVX female mice treated with EGb 761 showed significantly lower infarct size as compared to Veh/OVX animals. EGb 761 treatment in female mice inhibited apoptosis by preventing caspase-3 cleavage and blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. EGb 761 pretreatment significantly enhanced neurogenesis in OVX mice as compared to the Veh/OVX group and significantly upregulated androgen receptor expression with no changes in HO1/Wnt signaling. These results suggest that EGb 761 prevented brain damage in OVX female mice by improving grip strength and neurological deficits, and the mechanism of action is not through HO1/Wnt but via blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:26573919

  6. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  7. [Deep brain stimulation in a patient with ocd and the intensive pre- and post-operative psychiatric/psychotherapeutic follow-up. A case study].

    PubMed

    Corveleyn, P; Nuttin, B; Gabriëls, L

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical intervention carried out in meticulously selected patients with a therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We describe the pre- and post-operative psychiatric care given to a 51-year-old woman before, during and after treatment with deep brain stimulation. The psychiatric follow-up included an intensive search for the optimal stimulation parameters, and considerable attention was given to psycho-education, psychotherapy and counselling. The procedure resulted in a marked improvement in the patient's OCD and made it easier for the patient to re-construct a meaningful life. PMID:23512633

  8. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  9. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable. PMID:23039631

  10. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable.