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Sample records for brain regions concerns

  1. Activation in inhibitory brain regions during food choice correlates with temptation strength and self-regulatory success in weight-concerned women

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Laura Nynke; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Food choices constitute a classic self-control dilemma involving the trade-off between immediate eating enjoyment and the long term goal of being slim and healthy, especially for weight-concerned women. For them, decision-making concerning high (HE) and low energy (LE) snacks differs when it comes to the need for self-control. In line, our first study aim was to investigate which brain regions are activated during food choices during HE compared to LE energy snacks in weight-concerned women. Since it is particularly difficult to resist HE snacks when they are very tasty, our second aim was to investigate in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with the food's tastiness. Our third aim was to assess in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with individual differences in self-regulatory success. To this end, 20 weight-concerned women indicated for 100 HE or LE snacks whether they wanted to eat them or not, while their brains were scanned using fMRI. HE snacks were refused more often than equally-liked LE snacks. HE snack choice elicited stronger activation in reward-related brain regions [medial to middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), caudate]. Highly tasty HE snacks were more difficult to resist and, accordingly, activation in inhibitory areas (inferior frontal gyrus, lateral OFC) was negatively associated with tastiness. More successful self-controllers showed increased activation in the supplementary motor area during HE food choices. In sum, the results suggest that HE snacks constitute a higher reward for weight-concerned women compared to (equally-liked) LE snacks, and that activation during food choice in brain regions involved in response inhibition varied with tastiness and individual differences in self-regulatory success. These findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates of food choice and point to new avenues for investigating explanations for self-regulatory failure. PMID:25324714

  2. Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Michael J.; Bishop, Daniel T.; Jackson, Robin C.; Abernethy, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Expert soccer players are able to utilize their opponents' early body kinematics to predict the direction in which the opponent will move. We have previously demonstrated enhanced fMRI activation in experts in the motor components of an action observation network (AON) during sports anticipation tasks. Soccer players often need to prevent opponents from successfully predicting their line of attack, and consequently may try to deceive them; for example, by performing a step-over. We examined how AON activations and expertise effects are modified by the presence of deception. Three groups of participants; higher-skilled males, lower-skilled males, and lower-skilled females, viewed video clips in point-light format, from a defender's perspective, of a player approaching and turning with the ball. The observer's task in the scanner was to determine whether the move was normal or deceptive (involving a step-over), while whole-brain functional images were acquired. In a second counterbalanced block with identical stimuli the task was to predict the direction of the ball. Activations of AON for identification of deception overlapped with activations from the direction identification task. Higher-skilled players showed significantly greater activation than lower-skilled players in a subset of AON areas; and lower-skilled males in turn showed greater activation than lower-skilled females, but females showed more activation in visual cortex. Activation was greater for deception identification than for direction identification in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, cingulate gyrus, and premotor cortex. Conversely, greater activation for direction than deception identification was found in anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. Results are consistent with the view that explicit identification of deceptive moves entails cognitive effort and also activates limbic structures associated with social cognition and affective responses. PMID

  3. Nanoparticles and the Brain: Cause for Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Rinderknecht, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are in the same size category as atmospheric ultrafine particles, <100 nm. Per given volume, both have high numbers and surface areas compared to larger particles. The high proportion of surface atoms/molecules can give rise to a greater chemical as well as biological activity, for example the induction of reactive oxygen species in cell-free medium as well as in cells. When inhaled as singlet particles, NPs of different sizes deposit efficiently in all regions of the respiratory tract by diffusion. A major difference to larger size particles is the propensity of NPs to translocate across cell barriers from the portal of entry (e.g., the respiratory tract) to secondary organs and to enter cells by various mechanisms and associate with subcellular structures. This makes NPs uniquely suitable for therapeutic and diagnostic uses, but it also leaves target organs such as the central nervous system (CNS) vulnerable to potential adverse effects (e.g., oxidative stress). Neuronal transport of NPs has been described, involving retrograde and anterograde movement in axons and dendrites as well as perineural translocation. This is of importance for access of inhaled NPs to the central nervous system (CNS) via sensory nerves existing in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions of the respiratory tract. The neuronal pathway circumvents the very tight blood brain barrier. In general, translocation rates of NP from the portal of entry into the blood compartment or the CNS are very low. Important modifiers of translocation are the physicochemical characteristics of NPs, most notably their size and surface properties, particularly surface chemistry. Primary surface coating (when NPs are manufactured) and secondary surface coating (adsorption of lipids/proteins occurring at the portal of entry and during subsequent translocation) can significantly alter NP biokinetics and their effects. Implications of species differences in respiratory tract

  4. Ensembling brain regions for brain decoding.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Sarper; Yarman-Vural, Fatos T

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we propose a new method which ensembles the brain regions for brain decoding. The ensemble is generated by clustering the fMRI images recorded during an experimental set-up which measures the cognitive states associated to semantic categories. Initially, voxel clusters are formed by using hierarchical agglomerative clustering with correlation as the similarity metric. Then, for each voxel cluster, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to estimate the class-posteriori probabilities. Lastly, the class-posteriori probabilities are ensembled by concatenating them under the same feature space, which are then used to train a meta-layer SVM for the final classification of the cognitive states. By using the voxel clusters, we aim to utilize the distributed, but complementing nature of the semantic representations in the brain and improve the classification accuracy. Thus, we make an existential claim that the brain regions provide a natural basis for ensemble learning which should be superior to the random clusters formed over a selected set of voxels. Our approach yields to better classification accuracies in Mitchell dataset on most of the subjects, when compared to state-of-the-art which emphasizes voxel selection and ensemble learning with random subspaces. PMID:26736910

  5. Brain Region Mapping using Global Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Epstein, Adrian; Kurczy, Michael E.; Benton, H. Paul; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Fox, Howard S.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Historically, studies of brain metabolism have been based on targeted analyses of a limited number of metabolites. Here we present a novel untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach that has successfully uncovered differences in broad array of metabolites across anatomical regions of the mouse brain. The NSG immunodeficient mouse model was chosen because of its ability to undergo humanization leading to numerous applications in oncology and infectious disease research. Metabolic phenotyping by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry revealed unique water-soluble and lipid metabolite patterns between brain regions. Neurochemical differences in metabolic phenotypes were mainly defined by various phospholipids and several intriguing metabolites including carnosine, cholesterol sulfate, lipoamino acids, uric and sialic acid whose physiological roles in brain metabolism are poorly understood. This study lays important groundwork by defining regional homeostasis for the normal mouse brain to give context to the reaction to pathological events. PMID:25457182

  6. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  7. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  8. Defining Scenarios: Linking Integrated Models, Regional Concerns, and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Mahmoud, M.

    2007-05-01

    Scenarios are important tools for long-term planning, and there is great interest in using integrated models in scenario studies. However, scenario definition and assessment are creative, as well as scientific, efforts. Using facilitated creative processes, we have worked with stakeholders to define regionally significant scenarios that encompass a broad range of hydroclimatic, socioeconomic, and institutional dimensions. The regional scenarios subsequently inform the definition of local scenarios that work with context-specific integrated models that, individually, can address only a subset of overall regional complexity. Based on concerns of stakeholders in the semi-arid US Southwest, we prioritized three dimensions that are especially important, yet highly uncertain, for long-term planning: hydroclimatic conditions (increased variability, persistent drought), development patterns (urban consolidation, distributed rural development), and the nature of public institutions (stressed, proactive). Linking across real-world decision contexts and integrated modeling efforts poses challenges of creatively connecting the conceptual models held by both the research and stakeholder communities.

  9. Recognition of regions in brain sections.

    PubMed

    Waks, A; Tretiak, O J

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of region identification in sequential brain sections and presents a recognition system that finds and tracks region boundaries in those sections. The characteristics of the areas of interest are unique in one sense because they are not stationary. Some regions are hardly discernible. In others, parts of the boundary are missing or so completely blurred that parts of the background may be considered as an extension of the region itself. Moreover, outliers are likely to exist in many cases. Due to the unique properties of brain regions, the emphasis is on robustification and efficiency. The region segmentation problem was expressed as a multi-hypothesis test seeking boundaries that maximize a performance criterion which is general in terms of blur and noise. Boundary candidates are restricted to an adaptive search area around a reference boundary which is usually the outcome of the algorithm from the previous section. The search for the maximum criterion uses a fast first order dynamic programing (DP) procedure, reducing the processing time. Outlier rejection techniques are integrated with the multi-hypothesis test to compensate for both outliers and noise. The result is the reference for the next section. Experimental results on boundary detection are presented. The algorithm is successful in tracing boundaries when the contrast is smaller than the noise power, and when parts of the outlines are missing. PMID:2224832

  10. Future Concerns of Adult Siblings of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Olney, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined future concerns conveyed by adult siblings who provided regular caregiving support to their brothers and sisters with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The authors surveyed a national sample of 280 adult siblings of persons with TBI. Using a constant comparative approach to text analysis, the authors analyzed responses to the…

  11. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  12. Reflecting on parental concerns in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: observations from a general pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Stern, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This issue of Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics explores the concerns and point of view of parents who have had to confront the devastating diagnosis of a pediatric brain tumor. This commentary, written by a general pediatrician, is a synthesis of several narrative themes which touch on a range of topics from relapse to long-term sequelae and other issues that effect a growing population of pediatric brain tumor patients. It offers a glimpse into the problems that need to be addressed by health professionals, educators and support teams who provide short and long term care to these patients and their families. PMID:24748259

  13. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry

    2015-07-01

    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620

  14. Regional brain monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer; Ziai, Wendy; O'Phelan, Kristine; Leroux, Peter D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Diringer, Michael N; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Regional multimodality monitoring has evolved over the last several years as a tool to understand the mechanisms of brain injury and brain function at the cellular level. Multimodality monitoring offers an important augmentation to the clinical exam and is especially useful in comatose neurocritical care patients. Cerebral microdialysis, brain tissue oxygen monitoring, and cerebral blood flow monitoring all offer insight into permutations in brain chemistry and function that occur in the context of brain injury. These tools may allow for development of individual therapeutic strategies that are mechanistically driven and goal-directed. We present a summary of the discussions that took place during the Second Neurocritical Care Research Conference regarding regional brain monitoring. PMID:25832349

  15. Regional research priorities in brain and nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Goya, Rodolfo G; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Russell, Vivienne Ann; Xin, Yu

    2015-11-19

    The characteristics of neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries are unique and the burden that they have will be different from country to country. Many of the differences are explained by the wide variation in population demographics and size, poverty, conflict, culture, land area and quality, and genetics. Neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders that result from, or are worsened by, a lack of adequate nutrition and infectious disease still afflict much of sub-Saharan Africa, although disorders related to increasing longevity, such as stroke, are on the rise. In the Middle East and North Africa, major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are a primary concern because of the conflict-ridden environment. Consanguinity is a serious concern that leads to the high prevalence of recessive disorders in the Middle East and North Africa and possibly other regions. The burden of these disorders in Latin American and Asian countries largely surrounds stroke and vascular disease, dementia and lifestyle factors that are influenced by genetics. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past 10 years, the epidemiology of the conditions in low- and middle-income countries still needs more research. Prevention and treatments could be better informed with more longitudinal studies of risk factors. Challenges and opportunities for ameliorating nervous-system disorders can benefit from both local and regional research collaborations. The lack of resources and infrastructure for health-care and related research, both in terms of personnel and equipment, along with the stigma associated with the physical or behavioural manifestations of some disorders have hampered progress in understanding the disease burden and improving brain health. Individual countries, and regions within countries, have specific needs in terms of research priorities. PMID:26580328

  16. Regional deconvolution method for partial volume correction in brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinek, Henry; Tsui, Wai-Hon; de Leon, Mony J.

    2001-05-01

    Correction of PET images for partial volume effects (PVE) is of particular utility in studies of metabolism in brain aging and brain disorders. PVE is commonly corrected using voxel-by- voxel factors obtained from a high resolution brain mask (obtained from the coregistered MR scan), after convolution with the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system. In a recently proposed regional deconvolution (RD) method, the observed regional activity is expressed as linear combinations of the true metabolic activity. The weights are obtained by integrating the PSF over the geometric extent of the brain regions. We have analyzed the accuracy of RD and two other PVE correction algorithms under a variety of conditions using simulated PET scans. Each of the brain regions was assigned a distribution of metabolic activity, with gray matter/white matter contrast representative of subjects in several age categories. Simulations were performed over a wide range of PET resolutions. The influence of PET/MR misregistration and heterogeneity of brain metabolism were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate the importance of correcting PET metabolic images for PVE. Without such correction, the regional brain activity values are contaminated with 30 - 40% errors. Under most conditions studied, the accuracy of RD and of the three- compartmental method were superior to the accuracy of the two- compartmental method. Our study provides the first demonstration of the feasibility of RD algorithm to provide accurate correction for a large number (n equals 109) of brain compartments. PVE correction methods appear to be promising tools in studies of metabolism in normal brain, brain aging, and brain disorders.

  17. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  18. Scans Spot Brain Region That Misfires in Depressed People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scans Spot Brain Region That Misfires in Depressed People Contrary to previous thinking, the habenula is less ... bad experiences acts in an unexpected way in people with depression, a small study finds. One theory ...

  19. Indices of Regional Brain Atrophy: Formulae and Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of brain atrophy helps to discriminate normal age-related changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit indices of regional brain atrophy have proven to be a parameter useful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of some neurodegenerative diseases, indices of absolute regional atrophy still have some important limitations. We propose using indices of relative atrophy for representing how the volume of a given region of interest (ROI) changes over time in comparison to changes in global brain measures over the same time. A second problem in morphometric studies is terminology. There is a lack of systematization naming indices and the same measure can be named with different terms by different research groups or imaging softwares. This limits the understanding and discussion of studies. In this technological report, we provide a general description on how to compute indices of absolute and relative regional brain atrophy and propose a standardized nomenclature. PMID:26261753

  20. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Edwards, A. David; Counsell, Serena J.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. PMID:26499811

  1. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. PMID:26499811

  2. Cocaine disposition in discrete regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1993-05-01

    It has been proposed that various effects of psychoactive drugs on the central nervous system may be related to the capacity of the drug to selectively concentrate in specific regions of the brain. In rat brain, cocaine effects on striatal and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems show quantitative differences. However, the disposition of cocaine in various brain regions has not been reported. In the present studies we examined the cocaine concentrations over time in serum and discrete brain regions of the rat after single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. At different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min) after i.p. injection of cocaine hydrochloride (10 mg kg-1, free base) the rats were decapitated and cocaine in serum and various brain regions was quantitated by a specific gas liquid chromatographic method. There was large inter-individual variability in different rats at each time-point. The disposition pattern of cocaine in rats after i.p. administration was similar to that observed in humans after intranasal administration. Initial absorption rate was rapid and, on average, the peak levels of cocaine were achieved in 10 min. The cocaine levels remained relatively high over the next 50 min indicating continual absorption, and then declined with a rate such that the levels 4 h after cocaine administration were undetectable in most of the animals. The overall changes in cocaine levels in various brain regions paralleled the serum concentrations. The area under the cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) revealed more than three-fold differences in cocaine accumulation in various brain regions. This unequal disposition of cocaine may be responsible in part for differential biochemical effects in different brain regions. PMID:8499585

  3. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA), as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions. PMID:22901705

  4. Injured Brain Regions Associated with Anxiety in Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristine M.; Rakowsky, Shana T.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Raymont, Vanessa; Tierney, Michael C.; Wassermann, Eric M.; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety negatively affects quality of life and psychosocial functioning. Previous research has shown that anxiety symptoms in healthy individuals are associated with variations in the volume of brain regions, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Brain lesion data also suggests the hemisphere damaged may affect levels of anxiety. We studied a sample of 182 male Vietnam War veterans with penetrating brain injuries, using a semi-automated voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach. VLSM reveals significant associations between a symptom such as anxiety and the location of brain lesions, and does not require a broad, subjective assignment of patients into categories based on lesion location. We found that lesioned brain regions in cortical and limbic areas of the left hemisphere, including middle, inferior and superior temporal lobe, hippocampus, and fusiform regions, along with smaller areas in the inferior occipital lobe, parahippocampus, amygdala, and insula, were associated with increased anxiety symptoms as measured by the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS). These results were corroborated by similar findings using Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) anxiety scores, which supports these regions’ role in regulating anxiety. In summary, using a semi-automated analysis tool, we detected an effect of focal brain damage on the presentation of anxiety. We also separated the effects of brain injury and war experience by including a control group of combat veterans without brain injury. We compared this control group against veterans with brain lesions in areas associated with anxiety, and against veterans with lesions only in other brain areas. PMID:23328629

  5. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  6. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780384

  7. Regional distributions of brain glutamate and glutamine in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew A

    2016-08-01

    Glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) play an important role in neuronal regulation and are of value as MRS-observable diagnostic biomarkers. In this study the relative concentrations of these metabolites have been measured in multiple regions in the normal brain using a short-TE whole-brain MRSI measurement at 3 T combined with a modified data analysis approach that used spatial averaging to obtain high-SNR spectra from atlas-registered anatomic regions or interest. By spectral fitting of high-SNR spectra this approach yielded reliable measurements across a wide volume of the brain. Spectral averaging also demonstrated increased SNR and improved fitting accuracy for the sum of Glu and Gln (Glx) compared with individual voxel fitting. Results in 26 healthy controls showed relatively constant Glu/Cr and Gln/Cr throughout the cerebrum, although with increased values in the anterior cingulum and paracentral lobule, and increased Gln/Cr in the superior motor area. The deep gray-matter regions of thalamus, putamen, and pallidum show lower Glu/Cr compared with cortical white-matter regions. Lobar measurements demonstrated reduced Glu/Cr and Gln/Cr in the cerebellum as compared with the cerebrum, where white-matter regions show significantly lower Glu/Cr and Gln/Cr as compared with gray-matter regions across multiple brain lobes. Regression analysis showed no significant effect of gender on Glu/Cr or Gln/Cr measurement; however, Glx/Cr ratio was found to be significantly negatively correlated with age in some lobar brain regions. In summary, this methodology provides the spectral quality necessary for reliable separation of Glu and Gln at 3 T from a single MRSI acquisition enabling generation of regional distributions of metabolites over a large volume of the brain, including cortical regions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27351339

  8. Regional brain glucose metabolism in patients with brain tumors before and after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Lau, Y.H.

    1994-05-01

    This study was performed to measure regional glucose metabolism in nonaffected brain regions of patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Seven female and four male patients (mean age 51.5{plus_minus}14.0 years old) were compared with eleven age and sex matched normal subjects. None of the patients had hydrocephalus and/or increased intracranial pressure. Brain glucose metabolism was measured using FDG-PET scan. Five of the patients were reevaluated one week after receiving radiation treatment (RT) to the brain. Patients were on Decadron and/or Dilantin at the time of both scan. PET images were analyzed with a template of 115 nonoverlapping regions of interest and then grouped into eight gray matter regions on each hemisphere. Brain regions with tumors and edema shown in MR imaging were excluded. Z scores were used to compare individual patients` regional values with those of normal subjects. The number of regional values with Z scores of less than - 3.0 were considered abnormal and were quantified. The mean global glucose metabolic rate (mean of all regions) in nonaffected brain regions of patients was significantly lower than that of normal controls (32.1{plus_minus}9.0 versus 44.8{plus_minus}6.3 {mu}mol/100g/min, p<0.001). Analyses of individual subjects revealed that none of the controls and 8 of the 11 patients had at least one abnormal region. In these 8 patients the regions which were abnormal were most frequently localized in right (n=5) and left occipital (n=6) and right orbital frontal cortex (n=7) whereas the basal ganglia was not affected. Five of the patients who had repeated scans following RT showed decrements in tumor metabolism (41{plus_minus}20.5%) and a significant increase in whole brain metabolism (8.6{plus_minus}5.3%, p<0.001). The improvement in whole brain metabolism after RT suggests that the brain metabolic decrements in the patients were related to the presence of tumoral tissue and not just a medication effect.

  9. Challenges to deep brain stimulation: a pragmatic response to ethical, fiscal, and regulatory concerns.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J; Dorfman, Gary S; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2012-08-01

    In response to the early success of deep brain stimulation, we offer some common-sense strategies to sustain the work, addressing the need to do so in a fiscally workable, ethically transparent, and scientifically informed manner. After delineating major threats, we will suggest reforms in both the legislative and regulatory spheres that might remediate these challenges. We will recommend (1) revisions to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, which governs intellectual property exchange resulting from federally funded research; (2) revisions to the Association of American Medical Colleges recommendations concerning the management of conflicts of interest when scientists with an intellectual property interest participate in clinical research in tandem; (3) revisions to the Food and Drug Administration's pre-market approval process for new devices, including a proposal for a mini-investigational device exemption; and (4) the establishment of a public-private partnership to build ethical and sustainable synergies between the scientific community, industry, and government that would foster discovery and innovation. PMID:22823486

  10. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Extracting regional brain patterns for classification of neurodegenerative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Andrea; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    In structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), neurodegenerative diseases generally present complex brain patterns that can be correlated with di erent clinical onsets of this pathologies. An objective method that aims to determine both global and local changes is not usually available in clinical practice, thus the interpretation of these images is strongly dependent on the radiologist's skills. In this paper, we propose a strategy which interprets the brain structure using a framework that highlights discriminant brain patterns for neurodegenerative diseases. This is accomplished by combining a probabilistic learning technique, which identi es and groups regions with similar visual features, with a visual saliency method that exposes relevant information within each region. The association of such patterns with a speci c disease is herein evaluated in a classi cation task, using a dataset including 80 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 76 healthy subjects (NC). Preliminary results show that the proposed method reaches a maximum classi cation accuracy of 81.39%.

  12. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  13. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  14. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  15. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with (6-/sup 14/C)glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus.

  16. Regional brain stiffness changes across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum☆

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Jones, David T.; Jack, Clifford R.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Manduca, Armando; Felmlee, Joel P.; Carter, Rickey E.; Ehman, Richard L.; Huston, John

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique to noninvasively measure tissue stiffness. Currently well established for clinical use in the liver, MRE is increasingly being investigated to measure brain stiffness as a novel biomarker of a variety of neurological diseases. The purpose of this work was to apply a recently developed MRE pipeline to measure regional brain stiffness changes in human subjects across the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum, and to gain insights into the biological processes underlying those stiffness changes by correlating stiffness with existing biomarkers of AD. The results indicate that stiffness changes occur mostly in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, in accordance with the known topography of AD pathology. Furthermore, stiffness in those areas correlates with existing imaging biomarkers of AD including hippocampal volumes and amyloid PET. Additional analysis revealed preliminary but significant evidence that the relationship between brain stiffness and AD severity is nonlinear and non-monotonic. Given that similar relationships have been observed in functional MRI experiments, we used task-free fMRI data to test the hypothesis that brain stiffness was sensitive to structural changes associated with altered functional connectivity. The analysis revealed that brain stiffness is significantly and positively correlated with default mode network connectivity. Therefore, brain stiffness as measured by MRE has potential to provide new and essential insights into the temporal dynamics of AD, as well as the relationship between functional and structural plasticity as it relates to AD pathophysiology. PMID:26900568

  17. Contaminant exposure and reproductive success of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay regions of concern.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; McGowan, P C; Golden, N H; Hatfield, J S; Toschik, P C; Lukei, R F; Hale, R C; Schmitz-Afonso, I; Rice, C P

    2004-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay osprey population has more than doubled in size since restrictions were placed on the production and use of DDT and other toxic organochlorine contaminants in the 1970s. Ospreys are now nesting in the most highly polluted portions of the Bay. In 2000 and 2001, contaminant exposure and reproduction were monitored in ospreys nesting in regions of concern, including Baltimore Harbor and the Patapsco River, the Anacostia and middle Potomac rivers, and the Elizabeth River, and a presumed reference site consisting of the South, West, and Rhode rivers. A "sample egg" from each study nest was collected for contaminant analysis, and the fate of eggs remaining in each nest (n = 14-16/site) was monitored at 7- to 10-day intervals from egg incubation through fledging of young. Ospreys fledged young in regions of concern (observed success: 0.88-1.53 fledglings/active nest), although productivity was marginal for sustaining local populations in Baltimore Harbor and the Patapsco River and in the Anacostia and middle Potomac rivers. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE and many other organochlorine pesticides or metabolites, total PCBs, some arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners, and perfluorooctanesulfonate were often greater in sample eggs from regions of concern compared to the reference site. Nonetheless, logistic regression analyses did not provide evidence linking marginal productivity to p,p'-DDE, total PCBs, or arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congener exposure in regions of concern. In view of the moderate concentrations of total PCBs in eggs from the reference site, concerns related to new and emerging toxicants, and the absence of ecotoxicological data for terrestrial vertebrates in many Bay tributaries, a more thorough spatial evaluation of contaminant exposure in ospreys throughout the Chesapeake may be warranted. PMID:15346786

  18. Contaminant exposure and reproductive success of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay regions of concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Golden, N.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Toschik, P.C.; Lukei, R.F., Jr.; Hale, R.C.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Rice, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay osprey population has more than doubled in size since restrictions were placed on the production and use of DDT and other toxic organochlorine contaminants in the 1970s. Ospreys are now nesting in the most highly polluted portions of the Bay. In 2000 and 2001, contaminant exposure and reproduction were monitored in ospreys nesting in regions of concern, including Baltimore Harbor and the Patapsco River, the Anacostia and middle Potomac rivers, and the Elizabeth River, and a presumed reference site consisting of the South, West, and Rhode rivers. A 'sample egg' from each study nest was collected for contaminant analysis, and the fate of eggs remaining in each nest (n = 14-16/site) was monitored at 7- to 10-day intervals from egg incubation through fledging of young. Ospreys fledged young in regions of concern (observed success: 0.88 -1.53 fledglings/active nest), although productivity was marginal for sustaining local populations in Baltimore Harbor and the Patapsco River and in the Anacostia and middle Potomac rivers. Concentrations of p,p'DDE and many other organochlorine pesticides or metabolites, total PCBs, some arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners, and perfluorooctanesulfonate were often greater in sample eggs from regions of concern compared to the reference site. Nonetheless, logistic regression analyses did not provide evidence linking marginal productivity to p,p' -DDE, total PCBs, or arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congener exposure in regions of concern. In view of the moderate concentrations of total PCBs in eggs from the reference site, concerns related to new and emerging toxicants, and the absence of ecotoxicological data for terrestrial vertebrates in many Bay tributaries, a more thorough spatial evaluation of contaminant exposure in ospreys throughout the Chesapeake may be warranted.

  19. Common DNA methylation alterations in multiple brain regions in autism

    PubMed Central

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Hansen, Kasper D.; Briem, Eirikur; Fallin, M. Daniele; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of post-mortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and cerebellum. We measured over 485,000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified 4 genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a novel bumphunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes. PMID:23999529

  20. Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2013-10-01

    There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. PMID:23872098

  1. Brain banks: benefits, limitations and cautions concerning the use of post-mortem brain tissue for molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Martinez, Anna; Boluda, Susana; Parchi, Piero; Barrachina, Marta

    2008-09-01

    Brain banks are facilities providing an interface between generous donation of nervous tissues and research laboratories devoted to increase our understanding of the diseases of the nervous system, discover new diagnostic targets, and develop new strategies. Considering this crucial role, it is important to learn about the suitabilities, limitations and proper handling of individual brain samples for particular studies. Several factors may interfere with preservation of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids, and, therefore, special care must be taken first to detect sub-optimally preserved tissues and second to provide adequate material for each specific purpose. Basic aspects related with DNA, RNA and protein preservation include agonal state, post-mortem delay, temperature of storage and procedures of tissue preservation. Examination of DNA and RNA preservation is best done by using bioanalyzer technologies instead of less sensitive methods such as agarose gels. Adequate RNA preservation is mandatory in RNA microarray studies and adequate controls are necessary for proper PCR validation. Like for RNA, the preservation of proteins is not homogeneous since some molecules are more vulnerable than others. This aspect is crucial in the study of proteins including expression levels and possible post-translational modifications. Similarly, the reliability of functional and enzymatic studies in human post-mortem brain largely depends on protein preservation. Much less is known about other aspects, such as the effects of putative deleterious factors on epigenetic events such as methylation of CpGs in gene promoters, nucleosome preservation, histone modifications, and conservation of microRNA species. Most brains are appropriate for morphological approaches but not all brains are useful for certain biochemical and molecular studies. PMID:18543077

  2. Fetal brain regional responses to cerebral hypoperfusion: modulation by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles E; Giroux, Damian; Gridley, Kelly

    2003-12-12

    We have previously demonstrated that cerebral hypoperfusion stimulates several physiological and molecular responses which are components of homeostatic reflexes. Physiological increases in fetal plasma estradiol concentration modulate fetal brain responsiveness to hypotension. In the present study, we tested the effect of cerebral hypoperfusion and/or estradiol on the expression of Fos, the protein product of the gene c-fos in late-gestation fetal sheep. We hypothesized that estrogen and cerebral hypoperfusion alone would augment Fos abundance in various brain regions, including the hypothalamus and brainstem, and that estrogen would augment or otherwise modify the Fos response to cerebral hypoperfusion. Singleton or twin fetuses of time-dated pregnant ewes were chronically catheterized and fitted with an extravascular balloon occluder around the brachiocephalic artery using aseptic techniques. In one-half of the fetuses, we implanted a pellet subcutaneously which released estradiol at a rate of 5 mg in 21 days. Fetuses were studied at least 5 days after surgery (124-128 days' gestation, term is approximately 147 days). One-half of the fetuses were subjected to a 10-min period of brachiocephalic occlusion (BCO). One hour after the start of the experiment, the ewe and fetus were euthanized and the fetal brain was rapidly recovered, dissected, and frozen in a polypropylene tube in an acetone/dry ice bath. Brain tissue was homogenized in a boiling lysis buffer, and protein concentrations measured using the Bradford method. Extracted proteins were electrophoresed on 7.5% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and probed for Fos. In most brain regions, estradiol or BCO altered the expression of Fos. Analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) interaction between estradiol and BCO in brainstem, cerebellum, and hippocampus, nearly significant in hypothalamus (p=0.07) and not statistically significant in

  3. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  4. Vascular risk and Aβ interact to reduce cortical thickness in AD vulnerable brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Madison, Cindee M.; Wirth, Miranka; Marchant, Natalie L.; Kriger, Stephen; Mack, Wendy J.; Sanossian, Nerses; DeCarli, Charles; Chui, Helena C.; Weiner, Michael W.; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to define whether vascular risk factors interact with β-amyloid (Aβ) in producing changes in brain structure that could underlie the increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Sixty-six cognitively normal and mildly impaired older individuals with a wide range of vascular risk factors were included in this study. The presence of Aβ was assessed using [11C]Pittsburgh compound B–PET imaging, and cortical thickness was measured using 3-tesla MRI. Vascular risk was measured with the Framingham Coronary Risk Profile Index. Results: Individuals with high levels of vascular risk factors have thinner frontotemporal cortex independent of Aβ. These frontotemporal regions are also affected in individuals with Aβ deposition, but the latter show additional thinning in parietal cortices. Aβ and vascular risk were found to interact in posterior (especially in parietal) brain regions, where Aβ has its greatest effect. In this way, the negative effect of Aβ in posterior regions is increased by the presence of vascular risk. Conclusion: Aβ and vascular risk interact to enhance cortical thinning in posterior brain regions that are particularly vulnerable to AD. These findings give insight concerning the mechanisms whereby vascular risk increases the likelihood of developing AD and supports the therapeutic intervention of controlling vascular risk for the prevention of AD. PMID:24907234

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  6. Region based Brain Computer Interface for a home control application.

    PubMed

    Akman Aydin, Eda; Bay, Omer Faruk; Guler, Inan

    2015-08-01

    Environment control is one of the important challenges for disabled people who suffer from neuromuscular diseases. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides a communication channel between the human brain and the environment without requiring any muscular activation. The most important expectation for a home control application is high accuracy and reliable control. Region-based paradigm is a stimulus paradigm based on oddball principle and requires selection of a target at two levels. This paper presents an application of region based paradigm for a smart home control application for people with neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a region based stimulus interface containing 49 commands was designed. Five non-disabled subjects were attended to the experiments. Offline analysis results of the experiments yielded 95% accuracy for five flashes. This result showed that region based paradigm can be used to select commands of a smart home control application with high accuracy in the low number of repetitions successfully. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was not observed between the level accuracies. PMID:26736451

  7. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  8. Brain Regions Associated With Internalizing and Externalizing Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients With Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Devanand, D P; Brickman, Adam M; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A factor structure underlying DSM-IV diagnoses has been previously reported in neurologically intact patients. The authors determined the brain regions associated with factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses and compared the ability of DSM-IV diagnoses, factor scores, and self-report measures to account for the neuroanatomical findings in patients with penetrating brain injuries. This prospective cohort study included 254 Vietnam War veterans: 199 with penetrating brain injuries and 55 matched control participants. Measures include DSM-IV diagnoses (from a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM), self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and CT scans. Factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using an exploratory factor analysis and correlated with percent of brain regions affected. The ability of the factor scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, and the self-report psychiatric measures to account for the anatomical variance was compared with multiple regressions. Internalizing and externalizing factors were identified in these brain-injured patients. Damage to the left amygdala and bilateral basal ganglia was associated with lower internalizing factor scores, and damage to the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with higher, and bilateral hippocampi with lower, externalizing factor scores. Factor scores best predicted left amygdala and bilateral hippocampal involvement, whereas DSM-IV diagnoses best predicted bilateral basal ganglia and left OFC involvement. Damage to the limbic areas involved in the processing of emotional and reward information, including structures involved in the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Negative Valence Domain, influences the development of internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Self-report measures underperformed DSM-IV and factor scores in predicting neuroanatomical findings. PMID:26715034

  9. Regional brain metabolism in a murine systemic lupus erythematosus model.

    PubMed

    Vo, An; Volpe, Bruce T; Tang, Chris C; Schiffer, Wynne K; Kowal, Czeslawa; Huerta, Patricio T; Uluğ, Aziz M; Dewey, Stephen L; Eidelberg, David; Diamond, Betty

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiorgan inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders (NPSLE), and anti-nuclear antibodies. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies (DNRAb) cross-reactive with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, present in 30% to 40% of patients, able to enhance excitatory post-synaptic potentials and trigger neuronal apoptosis. DNRAb+ mice exhibit memory impairment or altered fear response, depending on whether the antibody penetrates the hippocampus or amygdala. Here, we used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) microPET to plot changes in brain metabolism after regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach. In DNRAb+ mice, metabolism declined at the site of BBB breach in the first 2 weeks and increased over the next 2 weeks. In contrast, DNRAb- mice exhibited metabolic increases in these regions over the 4 weeks after the insult. Memory impairment was present in DNRAb+ animals with hippocampal BBB breach and altered fear conditioning in DNRAb+ mice with amygdala BBB breach. In DNRAb+ mice, we observed an inverse relationship between neuron number and regional metabolism, while a positive correlation was observed in DNRAb- mice. These findings suggest that local metabolic alterations in this model take place through different mechanisms with distinct time courses, with important implications for the interpretation of imaging data in SLE subjects. PMID:24824914

  10. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  11. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  12. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  13. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  14. Microglial brain region-dependent diversity and selective regional sensitivities to ageing

    PubMed Central

    Grabert, Kathleen; Michoel, Tom; Karavolos, Michail H; Clohisey, Sara; Baillie, J Kenneth; Stevens, Mark P; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; McColl, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific spatially-restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from discrete brain regions across the adult lifespan of the mouse and reveal that microglia have distinct region-dependent transcriptional identities and age in a regionally variable manner. In the young adult brain, differences in bioenergetic and immunoregulatory pathways were the major sources of heterogeneity and suggested that cerebellar and hippocampal microglia exist in a more immune vigilant state. Immune function correlated with regional transcriptional patterns. Augmentation of the distinct cerebellar immunophenotype and a contrasting loss in distinction of the hippocampal phenotype among forebrain regions were key features during ageing. Microglial diversity may enable regionally localised homeostatic functions but could also underlie region-specific sensitivities to microglial dysregulation and involvement in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26780511

  15. Microglial brain region-dependent diversity and selective regional sensitivities to aging.

    PubMed

    Grabert, Kathleen; Michoel, Tom; Karavolos, Michail H; Clohisey, Sara; Baillie, J Kenneth; Stevens, Mark P; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; McColl, Barry W

    2016-03-01

    Microglia have critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific, spatially restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed to our knowledge the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from discrete brain regions across the adult lifespan of the mouse, and found that microglia have distinct region-dependent transcriptional identities and age in a regionally variable manner. In the young adult brain, differences in bioenergetic and immunoregulatory pathways were the major sources of heterogeneity and suggested that cerebellar and hippocampal microglia exist in a more immune-vigilant state. Immune function correlated with regional transcriptional patterns. Augmentation of the distinct cerebellar immunophenotype and a contrasting loss in distinction of the hippocampal phenotype among forebrain regions were key features during aging. Microglial diversity may enable regionally localized homeostatic functions but could also underlie region-specific sensitivities to microglial dysregulation and involvement in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26780511

  16. Concerns and Awareness of Acne Patients About Isotretinoin in Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Mana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral Isotretinoin is the most effective choice in the treatment of severe acne, It is the most widely prescribed teratogenic drug in the USA and Canada. Due to large number of its adverse effects and the necessity of long term use, patients have difficulties in complying with the treatment and some may refuse taking the drug. Objectives: To assess knowledge, concerns and awareness of acne patients in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, about Isotretinoin, including the factors that may affect compliance. Subjects and Method: This non-interventional cross-sectional survey was conducted through distribution of questionnaires over two months period from 8th May to 23rd July 2009 in acne patients from the Qassim region. The returned questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The P <0.05 was accepted as cut-off point for statistical significance. Results: Three hundred fifty six acne patients were included in the study, 57.6% were female and 42.3% were male; 76.7% knew about Isotretinoin and its uses, the main source of information (for both genders) was the physician, followed by other acne patients. Sixty three percent of subjects knew about the adverse effects of the drug. Dryness and teratogenicity were the most well-known adverse effects and 85.9% didn't have any objection in using the drug. Adverse effects followed by duration of the treatment were the top concerned issues. Out of those who were using the drug, dryness of the lips and face were the most disturbing adverse effects. Conclusion: A majority of acne patients have the knowledge about Isotretinoin and its adverse effects. This study highlighted the importance of health education for better acceptance of this drug. Patients should be instructed about proper moisturization methods while using this drug. PMID:21475525

  17. Brain Region-Specific Trafficking of the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.; Nuttle, Jacob; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Caltagarone, John; Watkins, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) controls dopaminergic neurotransmission by removing extracellular DA. Although DA reuptake is proposed to be regulated by DAT traffic to and from the cell surface, the membrane trafficking system involved in the endocytic cycling of DAT in the intact mammalian brain has not been characterized. Hence, we performed immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of the subcellular and regional distribution of DAT using the transgenic knock-in mouse expressing hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged DAT (HA-DAT) and by using a combination of electron microscopy and a novel method for immunofluorescence labeling of HA-DAT in acute sagittal brain slices. Both approaches demonstrated that, in midbrain somatodendritic regions, HA-DAT was present in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex, with a small fraction in early and recycling endosomes and an even smaller fraction in late endosomes and lysosomes. In the striatum and in axonal tracts between the midbrain and striatum, HA-DAT was detected predominantly in the plasma membrane, and quantitative analysis revealed increased DAT density in striatal compared with midbrain plasma membranes. Endosomes were strikingly rare and lysosomes were absent in striatal axons, in which there was little intracellular HA-DAT. Acute administration of amphetamine in vivo (60 min) or to slices ex vivo (10–60 min) did not result in detectable changes in DAT distribution. Altogether, these data provide evidence for regional differences in DAT plasma membrane targeting and retention and suggest a surprisingly low level of endocytic trafficking of DAT in the striatum along with limited DAT endocytic activity in somatodendritic areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the key regulator of the dopamine neurotransmission in the CNS. In the present study, we developed a new approach for studying DAT localization and dynamics in intact neurons in acute sagittal brain slices from

  18. Zika virus: no cases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region but concerns remain.

    PubMed

    Minh, N N Tran; Huda, Q; Asghar, H; Samhouri, D; Abubakar, A; Barwa, C; Shaikh, I; Buliva, E; Mala, P; Malik, M

    2016-05-01

    Following the WHO declaration on 1 February 2016 of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) with regard to clusters of microcephaly and neurological disorders potentially associated with Zika virus, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted three rounds of emergency meetings to address enhancing preparedness actions in the Region. The meetings provided up-to-date information on the current situation and agreed on a set of actions for the countries to undertake to enhance their preparedness and response capacities to Zika virus infection and its complications. The most urgent action is to enhance both epidemiological and entomological surveillance between now and the coming rainy seasons in countries with known presence of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus like other vector-borne diseases poses a particular challenge to the countries because of their complex nature which requires multidisciplinary competencies and strong rapid interaction among committed sectors. WHO is working closely with partners and countries to ensure the optimum support is provided to the countries to reduce the risk of this newly emerged health threat. PMID:27553402

  19. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  20. Brain metabolite concentrations across cortical regions in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Prescot, Andrew P.; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Öngür, Dost

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide in vivo information about metabolite levels across multiple brain regions. This study used MRS to examine concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity and function, and choline (Cho) which is related to the amount of cell membrane per unit volume, in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) in healthy individuals. Data were drawn from two experiments which examined glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. After controlling for gray matter percentages, NAA/Creatine (Cr) was 18% higher in POC than in ACC (p<0.001); Cho/Cr was 46% lower in POC than in ACC (p<0.001). There was an effect of study (p<0.001 for both metabolites), but no region by study interaction (NAA p=0.101, Cho p=0.850). Since NAA is localized to the intracellular space, these data suggest that ACC neuronal compartment is reduced as compared with POC, or that there is a lower concentration of NAA per cell in the ACC than POC, or both. Since elevated Cho suggests more cell membrane per unit volume, reduced NAA in ACC appears to be coupled with increases in overall cell membrane compartment. These findings are consistent with a number of previous studies using proton MRS which found increasing NAA and decreasing Cho moving caudally, and with post mortem anatomical studies which found neurons in more widely spaced bundles in ACC when compared to parietal and occipital cortices. MRS may be a useful tool for studying physical properties of the living human brain. PMID:21081116

  1. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  2. Effect of oxotremorine on the acetylcholine content of whole brain and various brain regions in the pigeon

    PubMed Central

    Igić, R.

    1971-01-01

    Oxotremorine (0·125 mg/kg) produces a significant increase in total acetylcholine content in whole pigeon brain. The contribution of different regions to this increase varies. The largest increase occurs in the nucleus basalis (paleostriatum augmentatum), a region which is highly involved in motor control. The mechanism by which oxotremorine increases the acetylcholine content of brain and the causal relationship between the rise in acetylcholine content and tremor are discussed. PMID:5091163

  3. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, Corrado Lai, Sabrina

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  4. Perspectives concerning living wills in medical staff of a main regional hospital in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Shintani, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Living wills, written types of advanced directives, are now widespread in western countries, but in Japan, their recognition still remains restricted to a small part of the population. As an initial step to introduction of such patient-oriented medicine, we surveyed present recognition and acceptance patterns concerning living wills in a main regional hospital located in a suburban area of Tokyo. Methods: Without any preceding guidance on living wills, the questionnaire on living wills was distributed to all the staff working at JA Toride Medical Center in September 2013, and their responses were collected for analysis within one month. Results: Questionnaires were distributed to all hospital staff, 843 in total, and 674 responses (80.0% of distributed) were obtained. The term of living will was known by 304 (45.1%) of the respondents, and introduction of living wills to patients was accepted in 373 (55.3%) of the respondents, meanwhile, 286 (42.4%) respondents did not indicate their attitude toward living wills. As to styles of document form, 332 respondents (49.3%) supported selection of wanted or unwanted medical treatments and care from a prepared list, and 102 respondents (15.1%) supported description of living wills in free form. As preferred treatment options that should be provided as a checklist, cardiac massage (chest compression) and a ventilator were selected by more than half of the respondents. Based on their responses, we developed an original type of living wills available to patients visiting the hospital. Conclusions: Although not all the respondents were aware of living wills even in this main regional hospital, introduction of living wills to patients was accepted by many of the hospital staff. Awareness programs or information campaigns are needed to introduce living wills to support patient-centered medicine. PMID:26380588

  5. GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators: Brain Region-Dependent Effects

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Tushar; Burke, Teresa F.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Koek, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the positive modulatory properties of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) at γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors in different brain regions. Using quantitative autoradiography, we measured GABAB receptor-stimulated binding of guanosine 5′-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPγS) to G proteins in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, and cerebellum. CGP7930 and rac-BHFF enhanced baclofen-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding similarly in mPFC and hippocampus, but were more effective in cerebellum. CGP7930 (100 μM) increased [35S]GTPγS binding stimulated by baclofen (30 μM) from 29 to 241% above basal in mPFC and from 13 to 1530% above basal in cerebellum. Likewise, rac-BHFF (10 μM) increased baclofen-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding more in cerebellum (from 13 to 1778% above basal) than in mPFC (from 29 to 514% above basal). rac-BHFF (10 μM) in combination with γ-hydroxybutyrate (20 mM) increased [35S]GTPγS binding in cerebellum but not in mPFC. rac-BHFF also enhanced the effects of 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348). Consistent with its partial agonist properties, CGP35348 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in mPFC when given alone (to 18% above basal), but less extensively than baclofen (140% above basal), and antagonized baclofen when given together. CGP35348 (1 mM) in combination with rac-BHFF (100 μM) produced an increase in [35S]GTPγS binding that was larger in cerebellum (from 61 to 1260% above basal) than in mPFC (from 18 to 118% above basal). Taken together, the results show that GABAB receptor-positive modulators enhance [35S]GTPγS binding stimulated by GABAB receptor agonists in a brain region-dependent manner. This regionally selective enhancement is further evidence of pharmacologically distinct GABAB receptor populations, possibly allowing for more selective therapeutic targeting

  6. Intelligence and Regional Brain Volumes in Normal Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Laura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Flaum, Michael; Swayze, Victor W., II

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between brain size and intelligence was examined in 90 normal volunteers. Results support the notion of a modest relationship between brain size and measures of global intelligence and suggest diffuse brain involvement on performance tasks that require integration and use of multiple cognitive domains. (Author/SLD)

  7. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gawdzik, Dorota; Jurczyk, Mieczysława U.; Sporny, Stanisław; Opala, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district) of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I), workers (doctors, nurses and midwives) of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II) and patients of the same clinics (Group III). Results According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36%) and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%). It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer. PMID:26327882

  8. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70–71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions. PMID:27333203

  9. MARGA: multispectral adaptive region growing algorithm for brain extraction on axial MRI.

    PubMed

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Vilanova, Joan C; Rovira, Alex; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Lladó, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Brain extraction, also known as skull stripping, is one of the most important preprocessing steps for many automatic brain image analysis. In this paper we present a new approach called Multispectral Adaptive Region Growing Algorithm (MARGA) to perform the skull stripping process. MARGA is based on a region growing (RG) algorithm which uses the complementary information provided by conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI) such as T1-weighted and T2-weighted to perform the brain segmentation. MARGA can be seen as an extension of the skull stripping method proposed by Park and Lee (2009) [1], enabling their use in both axial views and low quality images. Following the same idea, we first obtain seed regions that are then spread using a 2D RG algorithm which behaves differently in specific zones of the brain. This adaptation allows to deal with the fact that middle MRI slices have better image contrast between the brain and non-brain regions than superior and inferior brain slices where the contrast is smaller. MARGA is validated using three different databases: 10 simulated brains from the BrainWeb database; 2 data sets from the National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NAMIC) database, the first one consisting in 10 normal brains and 10 brains of schizophrenic patients acquired with a 3T GE scanner, and the second one consisting in 5 brains from lupus patients acquired with a 3T Siemens scanner; and 10 brains of multiple sclerosis patients acquired with a 1.5T scanner. We have qualitatively and quantitatively compared MARGA with the well-known Brain Extraction Tool (BET), Brain Surface Extractor (BSE) and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches. The obtained results demonstrate the validity of MARGA, outperforming the results of those standard techniques. PMID:24380649

  10. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  11. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  12. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Cletus A; Chopra, Vikramjit; Varhol, Richard; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Bohacec, Slavita; Zhao, Yongjun; Lee, Lisa LC; Bilenky, Mikhail; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; He, An; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Goldowitz, Daniel; Marra, Marco A; Holt, Robert A; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Jones, Steven JM

    2008-01-01

    Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters (< 4 kb) that drive gene expression in specific brain regions or cell-types of therapeutic interest. Our goal was to first identify genes displaying regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain so that promoters designed from orthologous human genes can then be tested to drive reporter expression in a similar pattern in the mouse brain. Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression. PMID:18625066

  13. Molecular cloning of the mouse CCK gene: expression in different brain regions and during cortical development.

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, M; Vashishtha, A; Linzer, E; Powell, D J; Friedman, J M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiments that address specific issues concerning the regulation of the mouse cholecystokinin gene in brain and intestine. The mouse cholecystokinin gene was cloned and sequenced. Extensive homology among the mouse, man and rat genes was noted particularly in the three exons and the regions upstream of the RNA start site. RNAse protection assays for each of the three exons were used to demonstrate that CCK is expressed in only a subset of tissues and that the same cap site and splice choices are used in brain, intestine as well as in cerebellum, cortex, midbrain, hypothalamus and hippocampus. CCK RNA was also noted to be detectable in kidney. Thus the same gene using the same promoter is expressed in subsets of cells that differ in their biochemical, morphologic and functional characteristics. The level of expression of CCK was also monitored during mouse cortical development and the appearance of CCK RNA was compared to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), enkephalin and somatostatin. It was noted that each of these cortical markers was first expressed at different times during cortical development. The appearance of CCK RNA during intestinal development was also measured and found to precede appearance in cortex by several days. Images PMID:2011497

  14. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and activities? 1311.7 Section 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  15. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-zhen; Liu, Zhaoguo; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zetian; Zhou, Guangfu; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of ‘isolated’ structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics. PMID:26536598

  16. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  17. Quantitative Expression Profile of Distinct Functional Regions in the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Mamoru; Uno, Kenichiro D.; Tsujino, Kaori; Hanashima, Carina; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B*) project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/) for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems. PMID:21858037

  18. Transcriptome analyses of adult mouse brain reveal enrichment of lncRNAs in specific brain regions and neuronal populations

    PubMed Central

    Kadakkuzha, Beena M.; Liu, Xin-An; McCrate, Jennifer; Shankar, Gautam; Rizzo, Valerio; Afinogenova, Alina; Young, Brandon; Fallahi, Mohammad; Carvalloza, Anthony C.; Raveendra, Bindu; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating biological functions, the expression profiles of lncRNAs in the sub-regions of the mammalian brain and neuronal populations remain largely uncharacterized. By analyzing RNASeq datasets, we demonstrate region specific enrichment of populations of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the mouse hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex (PFC), the two major regions of the brain involved in memory storage and neuropsychiatric disorders. We identified 2759 lncRNAs and 17,859 mRNAs in the hippocampus and 2561 lncRNAs and 17,464 mRNAs expressed in the PFC. The lncRNAs identified correspond to ~14% of the transcriptome of the hippocampus and PFC and ~70% of the lncRNAs annotated in the mouse genome (NCBIM37) and are localized along the chromosomes as varying numbers of clusters. Importantly, we also found that a few of the tested lncRNA-mRNA pairs that share a genomic locus display specific co-expression in a region-specific manner. Furthermore, we find that sub-regions of the brain and specific neuronal populations have characteristic lncRNA expression signatures. These results reveal an unexpected complexity of the lncRNA expression in the mouse brain. PMID:25798087

  19. The robo-pigeon based on the multiple brain regions synchronization implanted microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Huai, Rui-Tuo; Yang, Jun-Qing; Wang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Almost all multichannel microelectrodes are only applied to the same nucleus. The multiple brain regions synchronization implanted microelectrodes can be implanted in the several brain regions at the same time, when used in the robo-animal, which can reduce the operation process, shorten animals operation time. Due to electrode position relatively fixed, errors caused by each separately implanted electrode were reduced and the animal control effect was greatly increased compared to the original electrodes. The electrode fixed time was also extended. This microelectrode provided beneficial reference function for the study of the free state of small animals in different brain regions. PMID:27459594

  20. An improved filtration procedure for measuring opiate receptors in small regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bardo, M T; Bhatnagar, R K; Gebhart, G F

    1982-12-01

    A modified filtration method for in vitro receptor binding was used to determine specific binding of [3H]naloxone to small regions of adult rat brain. Reliable determinations of ligand binding were quantified with about 50 micrograms of protein per assay tube. Large differences in [3H]naloxone binding were obtained between various brain nuclei, and these differences were consistent with prior determinations of opiate receptor densities in various rat brain nuclei using autoradiographic techniques. PMID:6292368

  1. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  2. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  3. In Alzheimer's disease, hypometabolism in low-amyloid brain regions may be a functional consequence of pathologies in connected brain regions.

    PubMed

    Klupp, Elisabeth; Förster, Stefan; Grimmer, Timo; Tahmasian, Masoud; Yakushev, Igor; Sorg, Christian; Yousefi, Behrooz H; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), prominent hypometabolism has been observed in brain regions with minor amyloid load. These hypometabolism-only (HO) areas cannot be explained merely as a consequence of local amyloid toxicity. The aim of this multimodal imaging study was to explore whether such HO phenomenon may be related to pathologies in functionally connected, remote brain regions. Nineteen AD patients and 15 matched controls underwent examinations with [(11)C]PiB-PET and [(18)F]FDG-PET. Voxel-based statistical group comparisons were performed to obtain maps of significantly elevated amyloid burden and reduced cerebral glucose metabolism, respectively, in patients. An HO area was identified by subtraction of equally thresholded result maps (hypometabolism minus amyloid burden). To identify the network typically functionally connected to this HO area, it was used as a seed region for a functional connectivity analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 elderly healthy controls. The resulting intrinsic connectivity network (HO-ICN) was retransferred into the brains of AD patients to be able to analyze pathologies within this network in the positron emission tomography (PET) datasets. The most prominent HO area was detected in the left middle frontal gyrus of AD patients. The HO-ICN in healthy controls showed a major overlap with brain areas significantly affected by both amyloid deposition and hypometabolism in patients. This association was substantiated by the results of region-of-interest-based and voxel-wise correlation analyses, which revealed strong correlations between the degree of hypometabolism within the HO region and within the HO-ICN. These results support the notion that hypometabolism in brain regions not strongly affected by locoregional amyloid pathology may be related to ongoing pathologies in remote but functionally connected regions, that is, by reduced neuronal input from these regions. PMID:24870443

  4. Age- and brain region-specific differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Royland, Joyce E; MacPhail, Robert C; Sullivan, Patrick G; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters in 5 brain regions (brain stem [BS], frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus [HIP]) of 4 diverse age groups (1 month [young], 4 months [adult], 12 months [middle-aged], 24 months [old age]) to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their possible contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and enzyme activities were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5/group). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State III respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12, and 24-months age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and electron transport chain complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age and brain region specific. In general, changes associated with age were more pronounced with enzyme activities declining as the animals aged (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). These age- and brain region-specific observations may aid in evaluating brain bioenergetic impact on the age-related susceptibility to environmental chemical stressors. PMID:27143418

  5. Neural Representations Used by Brain Regions Underlying Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segawa, Jennifer Anne

    2013-01-01

    Speech utterances are phoneme sequences but may not always be represented as such in the brain. For instance, electropalatography evidence indicates that as speaking rate increases, gestures within syllables are manipulated separately but those within consonant clusters act as one motor unit. Moreover, speech error data suggest that a syllable's…

  6. Bilateral Brain Regions Associated with Naming in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in older adults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…

  7. Better Glasgow outcome score, cerebral perfusion pressure and focal brain oxygenation in severely traumatized brain following direct regional brain hypothermia therapy: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zamzuri; Zenian, Mohd Sofan; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Hamid, Wan Zuraida Wan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled pilot study involving patients with severe traumatic brain injury with GCS 6 and 7 who required decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: Cooling and no cooling. For the cooling group, analysis was made by dividing the group into mild and deep cooling. Brain was cooled by irrigating the brain continuously with cold Hartmann solution for 24-48 h. Main outcome assessments were a dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at 6 months posttrauma. Results: A total of 32 patients were recruited. The cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling. There were 63.2% of patients in cooling group attained good GOS at 6 months compared to only 15.4% in noncooling group (P = 0.007). Interestingly, the analysis at 6 months post-trauma disclosed mild-cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling (70% vs. 15.4% attained good GOS, P = 0.013) and apparently, the deep-cooling-treated patients failed to be better than either no cooling (P = 0.074) or mild cooling group (P = 0.650). Conclusion: Data from this pilot study imply direct regional brain hypothermia appears safe, feasible and maybe beneficial in treating severely head-injured patients. PMID:25685201

  8. Some specifics on the brain drain from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Mckee, D L

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the brain drain from the Andean countries of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the United States is presented. The data are from a survey of 62 persons from those countries who are currently residing in the United States and are listed in the current edition of "American Men and Women of Science". The reasons why they left their country of origin and are staying in the United States are considered. (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159629

  9. Regional and cellular expression of CYP2D6 in human brain: higher levels in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Rao, Yushu; Hoffmann, Ewa; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2002-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is expressed in liver, brain and other extrahepatic tissues where it metabolizes a range of centrally acting drugs and toxins. As ethanol can induce CYP2D in rat brain, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 expression is higher in brains of human alcoholics. We examined regional and cellular expression of CYP2D6 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR, Southern blotting, slot blotting, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. A significant correlation was found between mean mRNA and CYP2D6 protein levels across 13 brain regions. Higher expression was detected in 13 brain regions of alcoholics (n = 8) compared to nonalcoholics (n = 5) (anovap < 0.0001). In hippocampus this was localized in CA1-3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granular neurons. In cerebellum this was localized in Purkinje cells and their dendrites. Both of these brain regions, and these same cell-types, are known to be susceptible to alcohol damage. For one case, a poor metabolizer (CYP2D6*4/*4), there was no detectable CYP2D6 protein, confirming the specificity of the antibody used. These data suggest that in alcoholics elevated brain CYP2D6 expression may contribute to altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs and to the mediation of neurotoxic and behavioral effects of alcohol. PMID:12354285

  10. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. Objective: To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. Methods: There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Results: Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. Conclusion: The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition. PMID:25767303

  11. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  12. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to investigate regional brain distribution kinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Westerhout, Joost; Ploeger, Bart; Smeets, Jean; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2012-09-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of central nervous system (CNS)-targeted drugs is predicting CNS exposure in human from preclinical data. In this study, we present a methodology to investigate brain disposition in rats using a physiologically based modeling approach aiming at improving the prediction of human brain exposure. We specifically focused on quantifying regional diffusion and fluid flow processes within the brain. Acetaminophen was used as a test compound as it is not subjected to active transport processes. Microdialysis probes were implanted in striatum, for sampling brain extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations, and in lateral ventricle (LV) and cisterna magna (CM), for sampling cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. Serial blood samples were taken in parallel. These data, in addition to physiological parameters from literature, were used to develop a physiologically based model to describe the regional brain pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. The concentration-time profiles of brain ECF, CSF(LV), and CSF(CM) indicate a rapid equilibrium with plasma. However, brain ECF concentrations are on average fourfold higher than CSF concentrations, with average brain-to-plasma AUC(0-240) ratios of 121%, 28%, and 35% for brain ECF, CSF(LV), and CSF(CM), respectively. It is concluded that for acetaminophen, a model compound for passive transport into, within, and out of the brain, differences exist between the brain ECF and the CSF pharmacokinetics. The physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach is important, as it allowed the prediction of human brain ECF exposure on the basis of human CSF concentrations. PMID:22588644

  13. Stars from the darkest night: unlocking the neurogenic potential of astrocytes in different brain regions.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Jens P; Frisén, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    In a few regions of the adult brain, specialized astrocytes act as neural stem cells capable of sustaining life-long neurogenesis. In other, typically non-neurogenic regions, some astrocytes have an intrinsic capacity to produce neurons when provoked by particular conditions but do not use this ability to replace neurons completely after injury or disease. Why do astrocytes display regional differences and why do they not use their neurogenic capacity for brain repair to a greater extent? In this Review, we discuss the neurogenic potential of astrocytes in different brain regions and ask what stimulates this potential in some regions but not in others. We discuss the transcriptional networks and environmental cues that govern cell identity, and consider how the activation of neurogenic properties in astrocytes can be understood as the de-repression of a latent neurogenic transcriptional program. PMID:27048686

  14. Mapping brain region activity during chewing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, M; Fujita, M; Watanabe, K; Hirano, Y; Niwa, M; Nishiyama, K; Saito, S

    2002-11-01

    Mastication has been suggested to increase neuronal activities in various regions of the human brain. However, because of technical difficulties, the fine anatomical and physiological regions linked to mastication have not been fully elucidated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during cycles of rhythmic gum-chewing and no chewing, we therefore examined the interaction between chewing and brain regional activity in 17 subjects (aged 20-31 years). In all subjects, chewing resulted in a bilateral increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and cerebellum. In addition, in the first three regions, chewing of moderately hard gum produced stronger BOLD signals than the chewing of hard gum. However, the signal was higher in the cerebellum and not significant in the thalamus, respectively. These results suggest that chewing causes regional increases in brain neuronal activities which are related to biting force. PMID:12407087

  15. The Construction of Common and Specific Significance Subnetworks of Alzheimer's Disease from Multiple Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Na; Zeng, Weiming; Li, Shasha; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively and fatally neurodegenerative disorder and leads to irreversibly cognitive and memorial damage in different brain regions. The identification and analysis of the dysregulated pathways and subnetworks among affected brain regions will provide deep insights for the pathogenetic mechanism of AD. In this paper, commonly and specifically significant subnetworks were identified from six AD brain regions. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were integrated to add molecular biological information to construct the functional modules of six AD brain regions by Heinz algorithm. Then, the simulated annealing algorithm based on edge weight is applied to predicting and optimizing the maximal scoring networks for common and specific genes, respectively, which can remove the weak interactions and add the prediction of strong interactions to increase the accuracy of the networks. The identified common subnetworks showed that inflammation of the brain nerves is one of the critical factors of AD and calcium imbalance may be a link among several causative factors in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the extracted specific subnetworks for each brain region revealed many biologically functional mechanisms to understand AD pathogenesis. PMID:25866779

  16. Permittivity coupling across brain regions determines seizure recruitment in partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Proix, Timothée; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2014-11-01

    Brain regions generating seizures in patients with refractory partial epilepsy are referred to as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During a seizure, paroxysmal activity is not restricted to the EZ, but may recruit other brain regions and propagate activity through large brain networks, which comprise brain regions that are not necessarily epileptogenic. The identification of the EZ is crucial for candidates for neurosurgery and requires unambiguous criteria that evaluate the degree of epileptogenicity of brain regions. To obtain such criteria and investigate the mechanisms of seizure recruitment and propagation, we develop a mathematical framework of coupled neural populations, which can interact via signaling through a slow permittivity variable. The permittivity variable captures effects evolving on slow timescales, including extracellular ionic concentrations and energy metabolism, with time delays of up to seconds as observed clinically. Our analyses provide a set of indices quantifying the degree of epileptogenicity and predict conditions, under which seizures propagate to nonepileptogenic brain regions, explaining the responses to intracerebral electric stimulation in epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic areas. In conjunction, our results provide guidance in the presurgical evaluation of epileptogenicity based on electrographic signatures in intracerebral electroencephalograms. PMID:25378166

  17. The construction of common and specific significance subnetworks of Alzheimer's disease from multiple brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei; Mou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Na; Zeng, Weiming; Li, Shasha; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively and fatally neurodegenerative disorder and leads to irreversibly cognitive and memorial damage in different brain regions. The identification and analysis of the dysregulated pathways and subnetworks among affected brain regions will provide deep insights for the pathogenetic mechanism of AD. In this paper, commonly and specifically significant subnetworks were identified from six AD brain regions. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were integrated to add molecular biological information to construct the functional modules of six AD brain regions by Heinz algorithm. Then, the simulated annealing algorithm based on edge weight is applied to predicting and optimizing the maximal scoring networks for common and specific genes, respectively, which can remove the weak interactions and add the prediction of strong interactions to increase the accuracy of the networks. The identified common subnetworks showed that inflammation of the brain nerves is one of the critical factors of AD and calcium imbalance may be a link among several causative factors in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the extracted specific subnetworks for each brain region revealed many biologically functional mechanisms to understand AD pathogenesis. PMID:25866779

  18. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  19. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. PMID:18257873

  20. An integrative analysis of regional gene expression profiles in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Myers, Emma M; Bartlett, Christopher W; Machiraju, Raghu; Bohland, Jason W

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the brain's transcriptome have become prominent in recent years, resulting in an accumulation of datasets with somewhat distinct attributes. These datasets, which are often analyzed only in isolation, also are often collected with divergent goals, which are reflected in their sampling properties. While many researchers have been interested in sampling gene expression in one or a few brain areas in a large number of subjects, recent efforts from the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences and others have focused instead on dense neuroanatomical sampling, necessarily limiting the number of individual donor brains studied. The purpose of the present work is to develop methods that draw on the complementary strengths of these two types of datasets for study of the human brain, and to characterize the anatomical specificity of gene expression profiles and gene co-expression networks derived from human brains using different specific technologies. The approach is applied using two publicly accessible datasets: (1) the high anatomical resolution Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA, Hawrylycz et al., 2012) and (2) a relatively large sample size, but comparatively coarse neuroanatomical dataset described previously by Gibbs et al. (2010). We found a relatively high degree of correspondence in differentially expressed genes and regional gene expression profiles across the two datasets. Gene co-expression networks defined in individual brain regions were less congruent, but also showed modest anatomical specificity. Using gene modules derived from the Gibbs dataset and from curated gene lists, we demonstrated varying degrees of anatomical specificity based on two classes of methods, one focused on network modularity and the other focused on enrichment of expression levels. Two approaches to assessing the statistical significance of a gene set's modularity in a given brain region were studied, which provide complementary information about the anatomical specificity of a gene

  1. Acid rain phenomenon in niger delta region of Nigeria: economic, biodiversity, and public health concern.

    PubMed

    Nduka, J K C; Orisakwe, O E; Ezenweke, L O; Ezenwa, T E; Chendo, M N; Ezeabasili, N G

    2008-01-01

    Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a "non-oil" city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pH meter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. PMID:18758657

  2. Longitudinal regional brain volume loss in schizophrenia: Relationship to antipsychotic medication and change in social function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Joyce Y.; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Nikkinen, Juha; Moilanen, Jani; Haapea, Marianne; Mäki, Pirjo; Jones, Peter B.; Veijola, Juha; Isohanni, Matti; Murray, Graham K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive brain volume loss in schizophrenia has been reported in previous studies but its cause and regional distribution remains unclear. We investigated progressive regional brain reductions in schizophrenia and correlations with potential mediators. Method Participants were drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. A total of 33 schizophrenia individuals and 71 controls were MRI scanned at baseline (mean age = 34.7, SD = 0.77) and at follow-up (mean age = 43.4, SD = 0.44). Regional brain change differences and associations with clinical mediators were examined using FSL voxelwise SIENA. Results Schizophrenia cases exhibited greater progressive brain reductions than controls, mainly in the frontal and temporal lobes. The degree of periventricular brain volume reductions were predicted by antipsychotic medication exposure at the fourth ventricular edge and by the number of days in hospital between the scans (a proxy measure of relapse duration) at the thalamic ventricular border. Decline in social and occupational functioning was associated with right supramarginal gyrus reduction. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the possibility that antipsychotic medication exposure and time spent in relapse partially explain progressive brain reductions in schizophrenia. However, residual confounding could also account for the findings and caution must be applied before drawing causal inferences from associations demonstrated in observational studies of modest size. Less progressive brain volume loss in schizophrenia may indicate better preserved social and occupational functions. PMID:26189075

  3. Regional brain volumes and cognition in childhood epilepsy: Does size really matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zelko, Frank A.; Pardoe, Heath R.; Blackstone, Sarah R.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Berg, Anne T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have correlated neurocognitive function and regional brain volumes in children with epilepsy. We tested whether brain volume differences between children with and without epilepsy explained differences in neurocognitive function. Methods The study sample included 108 individuals with uncomplicated nonsyndromic epilepsy (NSE) and 36 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Participants received a standardized cognitive battery. Whole brain T1-weighted MRI was obtained and volumes analyzed with FreeSurfer (TM). Key Findings Total brain volume (TBV) was significantly smaller in cases. After adjustment for TBV, cases had significantly larger regional grey matter volumes for total, frontal, parietal, and precentral cortex. Cases had poorer performance on neurocognitive indices of intelligence and variability of sustained attention. In cases, TBV showed small associations with intellectual indices of verbal and perceptual ability, working memory, and overall IQ. In controls, TBV showed medium associations with working memory and variability of sustained attention. In both groups, small associations were seen between some TBV-adjusted regional brain volumes and neurocognitive indices, but not in a consistent pattern. Brain volume differences did not account for cognitive differences between the groups. Significance Patients with uncomplicated NSE have smaller brains than controls but areas of relative grey matter enlargement. That this relative regional enlargement occurs in the context of poorer overall neurocognitive functioning suggests that it is not adaptive. However, the lack of consistent associations between case-control differences in brain volumes and cognitive functioning suggests that brain volumes have limited explanatory value for cognitive functioning in childhood epilepsy. PMID:24630049

  4. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  5. Test-retest reproducibility for regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |||

    1996-05-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism as assessed with PET and FDG in response to acute administration of benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men were scanned with positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: prior to placebo and prior to lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 weeks later to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained for the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased whole brain metabolism and the magnitude as well as the regional pattern of the changes was comparable for both studies (12.3 {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7 {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were largest in thalamus (22.2 {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures ROI/global were highly reproducible both for drug as well as replication condition. This is the first study to measure test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic response to a pharmacological challenge. While the global and regional absolute metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam was highly reproducible.

  6. Parameters of diffusional kurtosis imaging for the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction in different brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue-Lin; Li, Su-Juan; Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Gui-Shan; Yan, Gen; Wang, Yan-Ting; Rao, Hai-Bing; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Wu, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a new type diffusion-weighted sequence which measures the non-Gaussianity of water diffusion. The present study aimed to investigate whether the parameters of DKI could distinguish between differences in water molecule diffusion in various brain regions under the conditions of acute infarction and to identify the optimal DKI parameter for locating ischemic lesions in each brain region. A total of 28 patients with acute ischemic stroke in different brain regions were recruited for the present study. The relative values of DKI parameters were selected as major assessment indices, and the homogeneity of background image and contrast of adjacent structures were used as minor assessment indices. According to the brain region involved in three DKI parametric maps, including mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (Ka) and radial kurtosis (Kr), 112 groups of regions of interest were outlined in the following regions: Corpus callosum (n=17); corona radiata (n=26); thalamus (n=21); subcortical white matter (n=24); and cerebral cortex (n=24). For ischemic lesions in the corpus callosum and corona radiata, significant increases in relative Ka were detected, as compared with the other parameters (P<0.05). For ischemic lesions in the thalamus, subcortical white matter and cerebral cortices, an increase in the three parameters was detected, however this difference was not significant. Minor assessment indices demonstrated that Ka lacked tissue contrast and the background of Kr was heterogeneous; thus, MK was the superior assessment parameter for ischemic lesions in these regions. In conclusion, Ka is better suited for the diagnosis of acute ischemic lesions in highly anisotropic brain regions, such as the corpus callosum and corona radiate. MK may be appropriate for the lesions in low anisotropic or isotropic brain regions, such as the thalamus, subcortical white matter and cerebral cortices.

  7. The DNA methylome and transcriptome of different brain regions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Camarillo, Cynthia; Ping, Yanyan; Arana, Tania Bedard; Zhao, Hongying; Thompson, Peter M; Xu, Chaohan; Su, Bin Brenda; Fan, Huihui; Ordonez, Javier; Wang, Li; Mao, Chunxiang; Zhang, Yunpeng; Cruz, Dianne; Escamilla, Michael A; Li, Xia; Xu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Extensive changes in DNA methylation have been observed in schizophrenia (SC) and bipolar disorder (BP), and may contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders. Here, we performed genome-scale DNA methylation profiling using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-seq) on two brain regions (including frontal cortex and anterior cingulate) in 5 SC, 7 BP and 6 normal subjects. Comparing with normal controls, we identified substantial differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in these two brain regions of SC and BP. To our surprise, different brain regions show completely distinct distributions of DMRs across the genomes. In frontal cortex of both SC and BP subjects, we observed widespread hypomethylation as compared to normal controls, preferentially targeting the terminal ends of the chromosomes. In contrast, in anterior cingulate, both SC and BP subjects displayed extensive gain of methylation. Notably, in these two brain regions of SC and BP, only a few DMRs overlapped with promoters, whereas a greater proportion occurs in introns and intergenic regions. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that important psychiatric disorder-related biological processes such as neuron development, differentiation and projection may be altered by epigenetic changes located in the intronic regions. Transcriptome analysis revealed consistent dysfunctional processes with those determined by DMRs. Furthermore, DMRs in the same brain regions from SC and BP could successfully distinguish BP and/or SC from normal controls while differentially expressed genes could not. Overall, our results support a major role for brain-region-dependent aberrant DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of these two disorders. PMID:24776767

  8. Regional brain perfusion in 10 normal dogs measured using Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer spect.

    PubMed

    Peremans, K; De Bondt, P; Audenaert, K; Van Laere, K; Gielen, I; Koole, M; Versijpt, J; Van Bree, H; Verschooten, F; Dierckx, R

    2001-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using perfusion tracers allows estimation of regional brain perfusion. This allows in vivo examination of brain function in the setting of neuropsychologic and pathophysiologic changes. However functional imaging data on brain perfusion in dogs are limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the scintigraphic regional perfusion pattern of the normal canine brain. Ten healthy shepherd type dogs were injected with 925 MBq Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate (ECD) 20 minutes before the examination. Acquisition was performed using a triple head gamma camera equipped with fanbeam collimators. Uniform attenuation correction and triple energy window correction were applied. Computed tomographic images were obtained from the same dogs, reoriented along the orbito-meatal axis and SPECT perfusion data were coregistered to the CT-volume data. Based on morphological and suggested brain divisions, regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined for the bilateral frontocerebral, temporocerebral, parietocerebral, occipitocerebral, cerebellar, thalamic, and striatal area. Regional count density was normalized on total counts. All dogs had the highest uptake in the thalamic/striatal area compared to a rather homogeneous cerebral uptake. No significant left/right count differences were found, but a rostro-caudal gradient (+12-13%) was present. In this group, age and gender did not influence the perfusion pattern. PMID:11768526

  9. Regional Brain Volumes and ADHD Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults: The PATH Through Life Study.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J; Abhayaratna, Walter; Easteal, Simon

    2014-02-24

    Objective: We investigated whether volumetric differences in ADHD-associated brain regions are related to current symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in healthy middle-aged adults and whether co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these relationships. Method: ADHD Self-Report Scale and Brief Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess current symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, anxiety, and depression in a population-based sample (n = 269). Brain volumes, measured using a semi-automated method, were analyzed using multiple regression and structural equation modeling to evaluate brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom relationships for selected regions. Results: Volumes of the left nucleus accumbens and a region overlapping the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were positively associated with inattention symptoms. Left hippocampal volume was negatively associated with hyperactivity symptoms. The brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom associations were stronger when anxiety/depression symptoms were controlled for. Conclusion: Inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in middle-aged adults are associated with different brain regions and co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these brain-behavior relationships. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567365

  10. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected). The ReHo index of the left insula showed a positive correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  11. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  12. Perinatal Risk Factors Altering Regional Brain Structure in the Preterm Infant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…

  13. Brain regions associated with visual cues are important for bird migration.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Orsolya; Vágási, Csongor I; Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Long-distance migratory birds have relatively smaller brains than short-distance migrants or residents. Here, we test whether reduction in brain size with migration distance can be generalized across the different brain regions suggested to play key roles in orientation during migration. Based on 152 bird species, belonging to 61 avian families from six continents, we show that the sizes of both the telencephalon and the whole brain decrease, and the relative size of the optic lobe increases, while cerebellum size does not change with increasing migration distance. Body mass, whole brain size, optic lobe size and wing aspect ratio together account for a remarkable 46% of interspecific variation in average migration distance across bird species. These results indicate that visual acuity might be a primary neural adaptation to the ecological challenge of migration. PMID:26538538

  14. Regional brain atrophy development is related to specific aspects of clinical dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jasperse, Bas; Vrenken, Hugo; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; de Groot, Vincent; Smith, Stephen M; Polman, Chris H; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-11-15

    Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to reflect irreversible tissue damage leading to persistent clinical deficit. Little is known about the rate of atrophy in specific brain regions in relation to specific clinical deficits. We determined the displacement of the brain surface between two T1-weighted MRI images obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 2.2 years for 79 recently diagnosed, mildly disabled MS patients. Voxel- and cluster-wise permutation-based statistics were used to identify brain regions in which atrophy development was significantly related to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed Walk Test (TWT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and 9-Hole Peg Test (HPT). Clusters were considered significant at a corrected cluster-wise p-value of 0.05. Worse EDSS change-score and worse follow-up EDSS were related to atrophy development of periventricular and brainstem regions and right-sided parietal, occipital and temporal regions. Worse PASAT at follow-up was significantly related to atrophy of the ventricles. A worse TWT change-score and worse follow-up TWT were exclusively related to atrophy around the ventricles and of the brainstem. Worse HPT change-score and worse follow-up HPT of either arm were significantly related to the atrophy of widely distributed peripheral regions, as well as atrophy of periventricular and brainstem regions. Our findings suggest that decline in ambulatory function is related to atrophy of central brain regions exclusively, whereas decline in neurologically more complex tasks for coordinated hand function is related to atrophy of both central and peripheral brain regions. PMID:17889567

  15. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  16. Light Scattering Properties Vary across Different Regions of the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Stubblefield, Elizabeth A.; Felsen, Gidon

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed optogenetic tools provide powerful approaches to optically excite or inhibit neural activity. In a typical in-vivo experiment, light is delivered to deep nuclei via an implanted optical fiber. Light intensity attenuates with increasing distance from the fiber tip, determining the volume of tissue in which optogenetic proteins can successfully be activated. However, whether and how this volume of effective light intensity varies as a function of brain region or wavelength has not been systematically studied. The goal of this study was to measure and compare how light scatters in different areas of the mouse brain. We delivered different wavelengths of light via optical fibers to acute slices of mouse brainstem, midbrain and forebrain tissue. We measured light intensity as a function of distance from the fiber tip, and used the data to model the spread of light in specific regions of the mouse brain. We found substantial differences in effective attenuation coefficients among different brain areas, which lead to substantial differences in light intensity demands for optogenetic experiments. The use of light of different wavelengths additionally changes how light illuminates a given brain area. We created a brain atlas of effective attenuation coefficients of the adult mouse brain, and integrated our data into an application that can be used to estimate light scattering as well as required light intensity for optogenetic manipulation within a given volume of tissue. PMID:23874433

  17. Attentional performance is correlated with the local regional efficiency of intrinsic brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Tang, Yuchun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC). Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT) task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN). In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/VAN at rest. PMID:26283939

  18. Toward Epileptic Brain Region Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticle Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Pedram, Maysam Z.; Shamloo, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Resection of the epilepsy foci is the best treatment for more than 15% of epileptic patients or 50% of patients who are refractory to all forms of medical treatment. Accurate mapping of the locations of epileptic neuronal networks can result in the complete resection of epileptic foci. Even though currently electroencephalography is the best technique for mapping the epileptic focus, it cannot define the boundary of epilepsy that accurately. Herein we put forward a new accurate brain mapping technique using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs). The main hypothesis in this new approach is the creation of super-paramagnetic aggregates in the epileptic foci due to high electrical and magnetic activities. These aggregates may improve tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that results in improving the resection of epileptic foci. In this paper, we present the mathematical models before discussing the simulation results. Furthermore, we mimic the aggregation of SPMNs in a weak magnetic field using a low-cost microfabricated device. Based on these results, the SPMNs may play a crucial role in diagnostic epilepsy and the subsequent treatment of this disease. PMID:26402686

  19. Toward Epileptic Brain Region Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticle Patterning.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Maysam Z; Shamloo, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Resection of the epilepsy foci is the best treatment for more than 15% of epileptic patients or 50% of patients who are refractory to all forms of medical treatment. Accurate mapping of the locations of epileptic neuronal networks can result in the complete resection of epileptic foci. Even though currently electroencephalography is the best technique for mapping the epileptic focus, it cannot define the boundary of epilepsy that accurately. Herein we put forward a new accurate brain mapping technique using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs). The main hypothesis in this new approach is the creation of super-paramagnetic aggregates in the epileptic foci due to high electrical and magnetic activities. These aggregates may improve tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that results in improving the resection of epileptic foci. In this paper, we present the mathematical models before discussing the simulation results. Furthermore, we mimic the aggregation of SPMNs in a weak magnetic field using a low-cost microfabricated device. Based on these results, the SPMNs may play a crucial role in diagnostic epilepsy and the subsequent treatment of this disease. PMID:26402686

  20. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  1. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  2. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  3. Regional Brain [11C]carfentanil Binding Following Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [11C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Methods Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [11C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Results Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6,56,18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; −2,46,44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, −10), left insula (Ins; −42,10, −12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, −6, −14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; −10, −88, −34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; −20,0, −22), left putamen (Put; −22, 10, −6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; −10,12, −8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. Conclusion The present study demonstrates BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. PMID:25598501

  4. Longitudinal change in regional brain volumes in prodromal Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Ross, Christopher A.; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Mills, James A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective As therapeutics are being developed to target the underlying neuropathology of Huntington disease (HD), interest is increasing in methodologies for conducting clinical trials in the prodromal phase. This study was designed to examine the potential utility of structural MRI measures as outcome measures for such trials. Methods Data are presented from 211 prodromal individuals and 60 controls, scanned both at baseline and two-year follow-up. Prodromal participants were divided into groups based on proximity to estimated onset of diagnosable clinical disease: Far (>15 years from estimated onset); Mid (9–15 years); and Near (<9 years). Volumetric measurements of caudate, putamen, total striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, total gray and white matter, and CSF were performed. Results All prodromal groups showed a faster rate of atrophy than Controls in striatum, total brain, and cerebral white matter (especially in the frontal lobe). Neither prodromal participants nor Controls showed significant longitudinal change in cortex (either total cortical gray or within individual lobes). When normal age-related atrophy (i.e., change observed in the Control group) was taken into account, there was more statistically significant disease-related atrophy in white matter than in striatum. Conclusion Measures of volume change in striatum and white matter volume, particularly in the frontal lobe, may serve as excellent outcome measures for future clinical trials in prodromal HD. Clinical trials using white matter or striatal volume change as an outcome measure will be most efficient if the sample is restricted to individuals who are within 15 years of estimated onset of diagnosable disease. PMID:20884680

  5. Changes in Dietary Iron Exacerbate Regional Brain Manganese Accumulation as Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Zhang, Na; Avison, Malcolm J.; Erikson, Keith M.; Gore, John C.; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal required for normal homeostasis. Humans chronically exposed to high Mn levels, however, may exhibit psychomotor signs secondary to increased brain Mn. As Mn and iron (Fe) share several cellular membrane transporters, decreased Fe levels resulting from Fe deficiency or anemia lead to increased brain Mn deposition. Conversely, decreased Mn levels are associated with abnormal brain Fe accumulation. To reduce potential Mn toxicity resulting from brain Mn accumulation, we proposed that increased dietary Fe would attenuate brain Mn deposition. To test this hypothesis, three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were injected weekly (14 weeks) with Mn (3 mg/kg) and fed normal Fe (TX), Fe-supplemented (FeS), or Fe-deficient (FeD) chow. Control (CN) rats received normal dietary Fe and saline injections. Using magnetic resonance imaging, rats were imaged biweekly for 14 weeks to qualitatively monitor brain Mn and Fe accumulation. Both FeS and FeD had greater brain Mn deposition than TX rats. By week 3, R1 values, which correlate with Mn deposition, were statistically significantly increased (p < 0.05) in brain stem, cerebellum, cortex, midbrain, and striatum compared with CN or TX animals. By week 14, R1 values for all brain regions in FeS and FeD animals were statistically significantly increased (p < 0.05). By the end of the study, similar results were obtained for R2 values, a marker of Fe accumulation. These data suggest that Fe supplementation does not effectively protect and may even exacerbate brain Mn accumulation in mammals subchronically exposed to Mn. PMID:21177776

  6. Rheological regional properties of brain tissue studied under cyclic creep/ recovery shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, F.; Lounis, M.; Khelidj, B.; Bessai, N.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of brain tissue were studied by repeated creep-recovery shear tests under static conditions for different regions. Corpus callosum CC, Thalamus Th and Corona radiata CR. Non-linear viscoelastic model was also proposed to characterize the transient/steady states of shear creep results. From the creep-recovery data it was obvious that the brain tissues show high regional anisotropy. However. the both samples exhibit fluid viscoelastic properties in the first shear stress cycle of 100 Pa, while this behaviour evolutes to solid viscoelastic with cyclic effect.

  7. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development. PMID:26786896

  8. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in violent juvenile offenders: a biomarker of brain immaturity?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Liu, Chunhong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Jing, Bin; Li, Chun; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether male violent juvenile offenders demonstrate any differences in local functional connectivity indicative of delayed maturation of the brain that may serve as a biomarker of violence. Twenty-nine violent juvenile offenders and 28 age-matched controls were recruited. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) method was used to analyze resting-state magnetic resonance images. Violent offenders showed significantly lower ReHo values in the right caudate, right medial prefrontal cortex, and left precuneus, and higher values in the right supramarginal gyrus than the controls. These regions had both high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between the two groups suggesting that dysfunction in these regions can be used to correctly classify those individuals who are violent. Dysfunction in the right medial prefrontal-caudate circuit may, therefore, represent an important biomarker of violence juvenile males. PMID:25716485

  9. Brain regional angiogenic potential at the neurovascular unit during normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Nivetha; Demarest, Tyler G.; Madri, Joseph A.; Pachter, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Given strong regional specialization of the brain, cerebral angiogenesis may be regionally modified during normal aging. To test this hypothesis, expression of a broad cadre of angiogenesis-associated genes was assayed at the neurovascular unit (NVU) in discrete brain regions of young vs. aged mice by laser capture microdissection coupled to quantitative real-time PCR. Complementary quantitative capillary density/branching studies were performed as well. Effects of physical exercise were also assayed to determine if age-related trends could be reversed. Additionally, gene response to hypoxia was probed to highlight age-associated weaknesses in adapting to this angiogenic stress. Aging impacted resting expression of angiogenesis-associated genes at the NVU in a region-dependent manner. Physical exercise reversed some of these age-associated gene trends, as well as positively influenced cerebral capillary density/branching in a region-dependent way. Lastly, hypoxia revealed a weaker angiogenic response in aged brain. These results suggest heterogeneous changes in angiogenic capacity of the brain during normal aging, and imply a therapeutic benefit of physical exercise that acts at the level of the NVU. PMID:22019053

  10. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Produces Time- and Brain Region-Dependent Changes in Gene Coexpression Networks

    PubMed Central

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A.; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Farris, Sean P.; Tiwari, Gayatri R.; Nunez, Yury O.; Harris, R. Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global ‘rewiring‘ of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes. PMID:25803291

  11. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Profoundly Alters Regional Brain Ceramide and Sphingomyelin Content in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ceramides (CER) are involved in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. In a mouse model of chronic alcohol exposure, 16 CER and 18 sphingomyelin (SM) concentrations from whole brain lipid extracts were measured using electrospray mass spectrometry. All 18 CER concentrations in alcohol exposed adults increased significantly (range: 25–607%); in juveniles, 6 CER decreased (range: −9 to −37%). In contrast, only three SM decreased in adult and one increased significantly in juvenile. Next, regional identification at 50 μm spatial resolution from coronal sections was obtained with matrix implanted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MILDI-MSI) by implanting silver nanoparticulate matrices followed by focused laser desorption. Most of the CER and SM quantified in whole brain extracts were detected in MILDI images. Coronal sections from three brain levels show qualitative regional changes in CER-SM ion intensities, as a function of group and brain region, in cortex, striatum, accumbens, habenula, and hippocampus. Highly correlated changes in certain white matter CER-SM pairs occur in regions across all groups, including the hippocampus and the lateral (but not medial) cerebellar cortex of adult mice. Our data provide the first microscale MS evidence of regional lipid intensity variations induced by alcohol. PMID:25387107

  12. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filas, Benjamen A.; Oltean, Alina; Majidi, Shabnam; Bayly, Philip V.; Beebe, David C.; Taber, Larry A.

    2012-12-01

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis.

  13. Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO) Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of NDUFS4, a subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), causes Leigh syndrome (LS), a progressive encephalomyopathy. Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction. For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration. Results Here we used the Ndufs4(KO) mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration. In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found. By contrast, the KO retained near normal levels of synaptosomal respiration in the degeneration-resistant/resilient “rest” of the brain. We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria. The KO expectedly had diminished capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (state 3 respiration) with complex I dependent substrate combinations pyruvate/malate and glutamate/malate but surprisingly had normal activity with α-ketoglutarate/malate. No correlation between oxidative phosphorylation (pyruvate/malate driven state 3 respiration) and neurodegeneration was found: Notably, state 3 remained constant in the KO while in controls it tended to increase with time leading to significant differences between the genotypes in older mice in both vulnerable and resilient brain regions. Neither regional ROS damage, measured as HNE-modified protein, nor regional complex I stability, assessed by blue

  14. Specific binding of naloxone to ovine brain tissue: comparison of brain regions and endocrine states.

    PubMed

    Weesner, G D; Trout, W E; Malven, P V

    1989-06-01

    Binding of [3H]naloxone ([3H]NAL) to brain membranes was quantified by Scatchard analysis using two methods of separating bound from free [3H]NAL. In the centrifugation method, membranes that were soluble at 1,000 x g, but sedimented at 20,000 x g, were incubated with [3H]NAL. For filtration, all membranes that sedimented at 20,000 x g were incubated and filtered through glass filter fibers. Nonspecific binding was estimated using greater than 500-fold excess of unlabeled naloxone (10(-6) M). Specific binding of [3H]NAL was used to generate linear multiple-point Scatchard plots, which indicated a single class of high-affinity sites. In Exp. 1, 10 ovariectomized (OVX) ewes were injected with estradiol-17 beta alone or in combination with progesterone. Compared with OVX controls, these hormonal treatments did not affect binding of [3H]NAL (centrifugation method) to combined hypothalamus (HYP) + preoptic (POA) tissues. In cyclic ewes (Exp. 2, filtration method), affinity constants (2.4 +/- .2 x 10(8) M-1) did not differ among HYP, POA and basal forebrain (BF) tissues, but BF had more sites (39 +/- 3 fmol/mg) than either HYP (14 +/- 1) or POA (17 +/- 1). Binding affinity and concentration of sites within each brain area (HYP, POA, BF) did not differ between d 8 and d 16 (preovulatory but after luteolysis) in normally cycling ewes. Overall, neural tissue dissected from BF had a greater concentration of binding sites than HYP or POA. Exogenous and endogenous fluctuations in ovarian steroids did not affect binding of [3H]NAL to these tissues. PMID:2768110

  15. REGIONAL LOCALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF THE BCR GENE IN RODENT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Fioretos, Thoas; Voncken, Jan Willem; Baram, Tallie Z.; Kamme, Fredrik; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The BCR gene is implicated in the development of Ph-positive leukemia through its fusion with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase gene ABL. The normal 160 kDa Bcr protein has several functional domains, and recently one specific role for Bcr was established in the regulation of respiratory burst activity in white blood cells. Bcr expression levels are relatively constant throughout mouse development until adulthood in brain and in hematopoietic tissues, a pattern that is distinctly different from that of the functionally related n-chimerin gene. In the present study, RNA in situ hybridization was used to explore the normal cellular function of Bcr in rodent brain and hematopoietic organs. The data pinpoint the high bcr expression in the brain to the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and the dentate gyrus, and to the piriform cortex and the olfactory nuclei, reflecting a potentially interesting function for Bcr in these highly specialized brain regions. PMID:8581068

  16. Brain regional pharmacokinetics of /sup 11/C-labeled diphenylhydantoin: positron emission tomography in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.C.; Roeda, D.; Munari, C.; Crouzel, C.; Chodkiewicz, J.P.; Comar, D.

    1983-05-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study the regional cerebral pharmacokinetics of /sup 11/C-labeled diphenylhydantoin (/sup 11/C-DPH), which was given intravenously to 10 patients (8 intractable partial epileptics and 2 nonepileptics). In the nonaffected hemisphere, /sup 11/C-DPH concentration in gray matter reached equilibrium with blood within 20 minutes but was still rising at 60 minutes in white matter, where equilibrium was too slow to be detected owing to the fast physical decay of /sup 11/C. Brain-blood concentration ratios at 50 minutes were 1.37 and 1.06 in gray and white matter, respectively, similar but less variable than steady-state DPH ratios reported in human brain surgical samples. There was no indication that normal brain regions of medically resistant epileptics bind DPH less effectively than in nonepileptic patients. Brain and blood /sup 11/C-DPH concentrations were well correlated, confirming that the latter gives a reliable estimate of the former in unaffected brain regions.

  17. Development and iron-dependent expression of hephaestin in different brain regions of rats.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhong-Ming; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Zhu, Li; Yang, Lei; Du, Jun-Rong; Ho, Kwok-Ping; Wang, Qin; Li, Lian-Zhi; Wang, Chen-Yuen; Ge, Xiaohu; Jing, Niu Li; Li, Lin; Ke, Ya

    2007-12-01

    It has been suggested that Hephaestin (Heph), a newly discovered ceruloplasmin homologue, is necessary for iron egress from the enterocytes into circulation via interacting with ferroportin1 (FP1). Based on the putative function of Heph, and the similarity between the process of iron transport in the enterocytes and that in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) cells, it has also been proposed that Heph plays a similar role in exporting iron from the BBB cells and other brain cells as it works in the enterocytes via interacting with FP1. The existence of FP1 in the brain has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated Heph expression and effects of development and iron in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and substantia nigra. The data demonstrated that all the four regions we examined have the ability to express Heph mRNA and protein. The findings also showed that both the development and iron status have a significant effect on Heph expression and the effects of iron status are regionally specific. It was also suggested that Heph expression is probably regulated at the transcriptional level by the development and iron in these brain regions. These findings, together with other published data, support a putative role of Heph in the iron metabolism in the brain. PMID:17516501

  18. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. PMID:26508861

  19. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. PMID:26508861

  20. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  1. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. PMID:27056328

  2. Age- and brain region-dependent α-synuclein oligomerization is attributed to alterations in intrinsic enzymes regulating α-synuclein phosphorylation in aging monkey brains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Wang, Peng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Hui; Chan, Piu; Yu, Shun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the levels of α-syn oligomers, which play pivotal pathogenic roles in age-related Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, increase heterogeneously in the aging brain. Here, we show that exogenous α-syn incubated with brain extracts from older cynomolgus monkeys and in Lewy body pathology (LBP)-susceptible brain regions (striatum and hippocampus) forms higher amounts of phosphorylated and oligomeric α-syn than that in extracts from younger monkeys and LBP-insusceptible brain regions (cerebellum and occipital cortex). The increased α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization in the brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions were associated with higher levels of polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), an enzyme promoting α-syn phosphorylation, and lower activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an enzyme inhibiting α-syn phosphorylation, in these brain extracts. Further, the extent of the age- and brain-dependent increase in α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization was reduced by inhibition of PLK2 and activation of PP2A. Inversely, phosphorylated α-syn oligomers reduced the activity of PP2A and showed potent cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity of GCase and the levels of ceramide, a product of GCase shown to activate PP2A, were lower in brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions. Our results suggest a role for altered intrinsic metabolic enzymes in age- and brain region-dependent α-syn oligomerization in aging brains. PMID:27032368

  3. Brain activation during the perception of stressful word stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships in anorexia nervosa patients with high degrees of alexithymia in an fMRI paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have reported that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have high levels of alexithymia. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neurobiological relationships between alexithymia and AN. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses in 30 AN patients and 20 healthy women during the processing of negative words concerning interpersonal relationships. We investigated the relationship between alexithymia levels and brain activation in AN. AN patients showed significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex while processing negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, as compared to the processing of neutral words. Moreover, the subjective rating of unpleasantness with negative words and neural activities in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) negatively correlated with the level of alexithymia in AN. Our neuroimaging results suggest that AN patients tend to cognitively process negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, resulting in activation of the prefrontal cortex. Lower activation of the amygdala, PCC and ACC in response to these words may contribute to the impairments of emotional processing that are hallmarks of alexithymia. Functional abnormalities associated with alexithymia may be involved in the emotional processing impairments in AN patients. PMID:22398299

  4. MR Analysis of Regional Brain Volume in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Neurological Manifestation of a Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianming; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Young, Geoffrey; Li, Kaiming; Yeung, Benson H.Y.; Guo, Lei; Man, Gene C.W.; Lam, Wynnie W.M.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Cheng, Jack C.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether regional brain volumes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients differ from matched control subjects as AIS subjects are reported to have poor performance on combined visual and proprioceptive testing and impaired postural balance in previous studies. Materials and Methods Twenty AIS female patients with typical right-convex thoracic curve (age range,11−18 years; mean, 14.1 years) and 26 female controls (mean age, 14.8 years) underwent three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (3D-MPRAGE) MR imaging. Volumes of 99 preselected neuroanatomical regions were compared by statistical parametric mapping and atlas-based hybrid warping. Results Analysis of variance statistics revealed significant mean volumetric differences in 22 brain regions between AIS and controls. Ten regions were larger in AIS including the left frontal gyri and white matter in left frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, corpus callosum and brainstem. Twelve regions were smaller in AIS, including right-sided descending white matter tracts (anterior and posterior limbs of the right internal capsule and the cerebral peduncle) and deep nucleus (caudate), bilateral perirhinal cortices, left hippocampus and amygdala, bilateral precuneus gyri, and left middle and inferior occipital gyri. Conclusion Regional brain volume difference in AIS subjects may help to explain neurological abnormalities in this group. PMID:18302230

  5. Quantitative map of multiple auditory cortical regions with a stereotaxic fine-scale atlas of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging studies have recently revealed the presence of multiple auditory cortical regions in the mouse brain. We have previously demonstrated, using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, at least six regions in the mouse auditory cortex, including the anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (AI), the secondary auditory field (AII), dorsoanterior field (DA), dorsomedial field (DM), and dorsoposterior field (DP). While multiple regions in the visual cortex and somatosensory cortex have been annotated and consolidated in recent brain atlases, the multiple auditory cortical regions have not yet been presented from a coronal view. In the current study, we obtained regional coordinates of the six auditory cortical regions of the C57BL/6 mouse brain and illustrated these regions on template coronal brain slices. These results should reinforce the existing mouse brain atlases and support future studies in the auditory cortex. PMID:26924462

  6. Mapping the Regional Influence of Genetics on Brain Structure Variability - A Tensor-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Caroline; Leporé, Natasha; Pennec, Xavier; Lee, Agatha D.; Barysheva, Marina; Madsen, Sarah K.; Avedissian, Christina; Chou, Yi-Yu; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie; Wright, Margaret; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence brain structure and function profoundly The search for heritable anatomical features and their influencing genes would be accelerated with detailed 3D maps showing the degree to which brain morphometry is genetically determined. As part of an MRI study that will scan 1150 twins, we applied Tensor-Based Morphometry to compute morphometric differences in 23 pairs of identical twins and 23 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins (mean age: 23.8 ± 1.8 SD years). All 92 twins’ 3D brain MRI scans were nonlinearly registered to a common space using a Riemannian fluid-based warping approach to compute volumetric differences across subjects. A multi-template method was used to improve volume quantification. Vector fields driving each subject’s anatomy onto the common template were analyzed to create maps of local volumetric excesses and deficits relative to the standard template. Using a new structural equation modeling method, we computed the voxelwise proportion of variance in volumes attributable to additive (A) or dominant (D) genetic factors versus shared environmental (C) or unique environmental factors (E). The method was also applied to various anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). As hypothesized, the overall volumes of the brain, basal ganglia, thalamus, and each lobe were under strong genetic control; local white matter volumes were mostly controlled by common environment. After adjusting for individual differences in overall brain scale, genetic influences were still relatively high in the corpus callosum and in early-maturing brain regions such as the occipital lobes, while environmental influences were greater in frontal brain regions which have a more protracted maturational time-course. PMID:19446645

  7. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  8. Functional Connectivity between Brain Regions Involved in Learning Words of a New Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroude, Kim; Norris, David G.; Shumskaya, Elena; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have identified several brain regions that appear to be involved in the acquisition of novel word forms. Standard word-by-word presentation is often used although exposure to a new language normally occurs in a natural, real world situation. In the current experiment we investigated naturalistic language exposure and applied a…

  9. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  10. Differential effects of age and history of hypertension on regional brain volumes and iron

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Karen M.; Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2010-01-01

    Aging affects various structural and metabolic properties of the brain. However, associations among various aspects of brain aging are unclear. Moreover, those properties and associations among them may be modified by age-associated increase in vascular risk. In this study, we measured volume of brain regions that vary in their vulnerability to aging and estimated local iron content via T2* relaxometry. In 113 healthy adults (19–83 years old), we examined prefrontal cortex (PFC), primary visual cortex (VC), hippocampus (HC), entorhinal cortex (EC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and putamen (Pt). In some regions (PFC, VC, Cd, Pt) age-related differences in iron and volume followed similar patterns. However, in the medial temporal structures, volume and iron content exhibited different age trajectories. Whereas age-related volume reduction was mild in HC and absent in EC, iron content evidenced significant age-related declines. In hypertensive participants significantly greater iron content was noted in all examined regions. Thus, iron content as measured by T2* may be a sensitive index of regional brain aging and may reveal declines that are more prominent than gross anatomical shrinkage. PMID:20923707

  11. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  12. Regional Differences in the Neuronal Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the Newborn Pig Brain

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Orsolya; Németh, István; Tóth-Szűki, Valéria; Bari, Ferenc; Domoki, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is the major constitutively expressed COX isoform in the newborn brain. COX-2 derived prostanoids and reactive oxygen species appear to play a major role in the mechanism of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury in the newborn piglet, an accepted animal model of the human term neonate. The study aimed to quantitatively determine COX-2 immunopositive neurons in different brain regions in piglets under normoxic conditions (n=15), and 4 hours after 10 min asphyxia (n=11). Asphyxia did not induce significant changes in neuronal COX-2 expression of any studied brain areas. In contrast, there was a marked regional difference in all experimental groups. Thus, significant difference was observed between fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions: 59±4% and 67±3% versus 41±2%* and 31±3%* respectively (mean±SEM, data are pooled from all subjects, n=26, *p<0.05, vs. fronto-parietal region). In the hippocampus, COX-2 immunopositivity was rare (highest expression in CA1 region: 14±2%). The studied subcortical areas showed negligible COX-2 staining. Our findings suggest that asphyxia does not significantly alter the pattern of neuronal COX-2 expression in the early reventilation period. Furthermore, based on the striking differences observed in cortical neuronal COX-2 distribution, the contribution of COX-2 mediated neuronal injury after asphyxia may also show region-specific differences. PMID:22829712

  13. Preserved pontine glucose metabolism in Alzheimer disease: A reference region for functional brain image (PET) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Frey, K.A.; Foster, N.L.; Kuhl, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Our goal was to examine regional preservation of energy metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) and to evaluate effects of PET data normalization to reference regions. Regional metabolic rates in the pons, thalamus, putamen, sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex, and cerebellum (reference regions) were determined stereotaxically and examined in 37 patients with probable AD and 22 normal controls based on quantitative {sup 18}FDG-PET measurements. Following normalization of metabolic rates of the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain to each reference region, distinctions of the two groups were assessed. The pons showed the best preservation of glucose metabolism in AD. Other reference regions showed relatively preserved metabolism compared with the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain, but had significant metabolic reduction. Data normalization to the pons not only enhanced statistical significance of metabolic reduction in the parietotemporal association cortex, but also preserved the presence of global cerebral metabolic reduction indicated in analysis of the quantitative data. Energy metabolism in the pons in probable AD is well preserved. The pons is a reliable reference for data normalization and will enhance diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of quantitative and nonquantitative functional brain imaging. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Duflou, H.; Maenhaut, W.; De Reuck, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster.

  15. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  16. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  17. REGIONAL BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTIONS RELATE TO FACIAL DYSMORPHOLOGY AND NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION IN FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Adnams, Colleen M.; May, Philip A.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Narr, Katherine L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and alterations in brain structure that persist into adulthood. In this report, data from 99 participants collected across three sites (Los Angeles and San Diego, California, and Cape Town, South Africa) were analyzed to examine relationships between brain structure, neurocognitive function, facial morphology, and maternal reports of quantities of alcohol consumption during the first trimester. Across study sites, we found highly significant volume reductions in the FASD group for all of the brain regions evaluated. After correcting for scan location, age, and total brain volume, these differences remained significant in some regions of the basal ganglia and diencephalon. In alcohol-exposed subjects, we found that smaller palpebral fissures were significantly associated with reduced volumes in the diencephalon bilaterally, that greater dysmorphology of the philtrum predicted smaller volumes in basal ganglia and diencephalic structures, and that lower IQ scores were associated with both smaller basal ganglia volumes and greater facial dysmorphology. In subjects from South Africa, we found a significant negative correlation between intracranial volume and total number of drinks per week in the first trimester. These results corroborate previous reports that prenatal alcohol exposure is particularly toxic to basal ganglia and diencephalic structures. We extend previous findings by illustrating relationships between specific measures of facial dysmorphology and the volumes of particular subcortical structures, and for the first time show that continuous measures of maternal alcohol consumption during the first trimester relates to overall brain volume reduction. PMID:21416562

  18. Brain regions essential for improved lexical access in an aged aphasic patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Obleser, Jonas; Assadollahi, Ramin; Djundja, Daniela; Barthel, Gabriela; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between functional recovery after brain injury and concomitant neuroplastic changes is emphasized in recent research. In the present study we aimed to delineate brain regions essential for language performance in aphasia using functional magnetic resonance imaging and acquisition in a temporal sparse sampling procedure, which allows monitoring of overt verbal responses during scanning. Case presentation An 80-year old patient with chronic aphasia (2 years post-onset) was investigated before and after intensive language training using an overt picture naming task. Differential brain activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus for correct word retrieval and errors was found. Improved language performance following therapy was mirrored by increased fronto-thalamic activation while stability in more general measures of attention/concentration and working memory was assured. Three healthy age-matched control subjects did not show behavioral changes or increased activation when tested repeatedly within the same 2-week time interval. Conclusion The results bear significance in that the changes in brain activation reported can unequivocally be attributed to the short-term training program and a language domain-specific plasticity process. Moreover, it further challenges the claim of a limited recovery potential in chronic aphasia, even at very old age. Delineation of brain regions essential for performance on a single case basis might have major implications for treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:16916464

  19. Changes in multiple brain regions underlie species differences in a complex, congenital behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Evan

    1997-01-01

    The evolutionary brain modifications that produce any complex, congenital behavioral difference between two species have never been identified. Evolutionary processes may (i) alter a single, “higher” brain area that generates and/or coordinates the diverse motor components of a complex act; (ii) separately change independent, “lower” brain areas that modulate the fine motor control of the individual components; or (iii) modify both types of areas. This study explores the brain localization of a species difference in one such behavior, the crowing of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two major subcomponents of the behavioral difference can be independently transferred with interspecies transplantation of separate brain regions, despite the fact that these components, sound and patterned head movement, occur together in a highly integrated fashion. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration that species differences in a complex behavior are built up from separate changes to distinct cell groups in different parts of the brain and that these cell groups have independent effects on individual behavioral components. PMID:9050894

  20. Regional brain glucose use in unstressed rats after two days of starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Mans, A.M.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    Regional brain glucose use was measured in conscious, unrestrained, fed rats and after 2 days of starvation, using quantitative autoradiography and (6-/sup 14/C)glucose. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketone body concentrations and brain glucose and lactate content were measured in separate groups of rats. Glucose concentrations were lower in starved rats in both plasma and brain; plasma ketone body concentrations were elevated. Glucose use was found to be lower throughout the brain by about 12%. While some areas seemed to be affected more than others, statistical analysis showed that none were exceptionally different. The results could not be explained by increased loss of /sup 14/C as lactate or pyruvate during the experimental period, because the arteriovenous differences of these species were insignificant. The calculated contribution by ketone bodies to the total energy consumption was between 3 and 9% for the brain as a whole in the starved rats and could, therefore, partially account for the depression seen in glucose use. It was concluded that glucose oxidation is slightly depressed throughout the brain after 2 days of starvation.

  1. Evidence from cyclostomes for complex regionalization of the ancestral vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Aota, Shin-ichi; Adachi, Noritaka; Takagi, Wataru; Hirai, Tamami; Sato, Noboru; Murakami, Yasunori; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    The vertebrate brain is highly complex, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. Because of the absence of certain developmental domains generally marked by the expression of regulatory genes, the embryonic brain of the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, had been regarded as representing a less complex, ancestral state of the vertebrate brain. Specifically, the absence of a Hedgehog- and Nkx2.1-positive domain in the lamprey subpallium was thought to be similar to mouse mutants in which the suppression of Nkx2-1 leads to a loss of the medial ganglionic eminence. Here we show that the brain of the inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri), another cyclostome group, develops domains equivalent to the medial ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip, resembling the gnathostome brain. Moreover, further investigation of lamprey larvae revealed that these domains are also present, ruling out the possibility of convergent evolution between hagfish and gnathostomes. Thus, brain regionalization as seen in crown gnathostomes is not an evolutionary innovation of this group, but dates back to the latest vertebrate ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes more than 500 million years ago. PMID:26878236

  2. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  3. Decadal re-evaluation of contaminant exposure and productivity of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay Regions of Concern.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Rebecca S; Rattner, Barnett A; McGowan, Peter C; Hale, Robert C; Schultz, Sandra L; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    The last large-scale ecotoxicological study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake Bay was conducted in 2000-2001 and focused on U.S. EPA-designated Regions of Concern (ROCs; Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco, Anacostia/middle Potomac, and Elizabeth Rivers). In 2011-2012, ROCs were re-evaluated to determine spatial and temporal trends in productivity and contaminants. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were low in eggs and below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Eggs from the Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers had lower total PCB concentrations in 2011 than in 2000; however, concentrations remained unchanged in Baltimore Harbor. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants declined by 40%, and five alternative brominated flame retardants were detected at low levels. Osprey productivity was adequate to sustain local populations, and there was no relation between productivity and halogenated contaminants. Our findings document continued recovery of the osprey population, declining levels of many persistent halogenated compounds, and modest evidence of genetic damage in nestlings from industrialized regions. PMID:26114899

  4. Decadal re-evaluation of contaminant exposure and productivity of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay Regions of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lazarus, Rebecca; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Schultz, Sandra; Karouna, Natalie; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    The last large-scale ecotoxicological study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake Bay was conducted in 2000-2001 and focused on U.S. EPA-designated Regions of Concern (ROCs; Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco, Anacostia/middle Potomac, and Elizabeth Rivers). In 2011-2012, ROCs were re-evaluated to determine spatial and temporal trends in productivity and contaminants. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were low in eggs and below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Eggs from the Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers had lower total PCB concentrations in 2011 than in 2000; however, concentrations remained unchanged in Baltimore Harbor. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants declined by 40%, and five alternative brominated flame retardants were detected at low levels. Osprey productivity was adequate to sustain local populations, and there was no relation between productivity and halogenated contaminants. Our findings document continued recovery of the osprey population, declining levels of many persistent halogenated compounds, and modest evidence of genetic damage in nestlings from industrialized regions.

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  6. Brain region-specific activity patterns after recent or remote memory retrieval of auditory conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or retrieval. To investigate this possibility, we systematically imaged the brain activity patterns in the lateral amygdala, MGm/PIN, and AuV/TeA using activity-dependent induction of immediate early gene zif268 after recent and remote memory retrieval of auditory conditioned fear. Consistent with the critical role of the amygdala in fear memory, the zif268 activity in the lateral amygdala was significantly increased after both recent and remote memory retrieval. Interesting, however, the density of zif268 (+) neurons in both MGm/PIN and AuV/TeA, particularly in layers IV and VI, was increased only after remote but not recent fear memory retrieval compared to control groups. Further analysis of zif268 signals in AuV/TeA revealed that conditioned tone induced stronger zif268 induction compared to familiar tone in each individual zif268 (+) neuron after recent memory retrieval. Taken together, our results support that the lateral amygdala is a key brain site for permanent fear memory storage and suggest that MGm/PIN and AuV/TeA might play a role for remote memory storage or retrieval of auditory conditioned fear, or, alternatively, that these auditory brain regions might have a different way of processing for familiar or conditioned tone information at recent and remote time phases. PMID:22993170

  7. Brain regional distribution of GABAA receptors exhibiting atypical GABA agonism: roles of receptor subunits

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Lauri M.; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Chandra, Dev; Homanics, Gregg E.; Korpi, Esa R.

    2009-01-01

    The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has only partial efficacy at certain subtypes of GABAA receptors. To characterize these minor receptor populations in rat and mouse brains, we used autoradiographic imaging of t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate ([35S]TBPS) binding to GABAA receptors in brain sections and compared the displacing capacities of 10 mM GABA and 1 mM 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), a competitive GABA-site agonist. Brains from GABAA receptor α1, α4, δ, and α4 + δ subunit knockout (KO) mouse lines were used to understand the contribution of these particular receptor subunits to “GABA-insensitive” (GIS) [35S]TBPS binding. THIP displaced more [35S]TBPS binding than GABA in several brain regions, indicating that THIP also inhibited GIS-binding. In these regions, GABA prevented the effect of THIP on GIS-binding. GIS-binding was increased in the cerebellar granule cell layer of δ KO and α4 + δ KO mice, being only slightly diminished in that of α1 KO mice. In the thalamus and some other forebrain regions of wild-type mice, a significant amount of GIS-binding was detected. This GIS-binding was higher in α4 KO mice. However, it was fully abolished in α1 KO mice, indicating that the α1 subunit was obligatory for the GIS-binding in the forebrain. Our results suggest that native GABAA receptors in brain sections showing reduced displacing capacity of [35S]TBPS binding by GABA (partial agonism) minimally require the assembly of α1 and β subunits in the forebrain and of α6 and β subunits in the cerebellar granule cell layer. These receptors may function as extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:19397945

  8. Brain regional distribution of GABA(A) receptors exhibiting atypical GABA agonism: roles of receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Lauri M; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Chandra, Dev; Homanics, Gregg E; Korpi, Esa R

    2009-11-01

    The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has only partial efficacy at certain subtypes of GABA(A) receptors. To characterize these minor receptor populations in rat and mouse brains, we used autoradiographic imaging of t-butylbicyclophosphoro[(35)S]thionate ([(35)S]TBPS) binding to GABA(A) receptors in brain sections and compared the displacing capacities of 10mM GABA and 1mM 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), a competitive GABA-site agonist. Brains from GABA(A) receptor alpha1, alpha4, delta, and alpha4+delta subunit knockout (KO) mouse lines were used to understand the contribution of these particular receptor subunits to "GABA-insensitive" (GIS) [(35)S]TBPS binding. THIP displaced more [(35)S]TBPS binding than GABA in several brain regions, indicating that THIP also inhibited GIS-binding. In these regions, GABA prevented the effect of THIP on GIS-binding. GIS-binding was increased in the cerebellar granule cell layer of delta KO and alpha4+delta KO mice, being only slightly diminished in that of alpha1 KO mice. In the thalamus and some other forebrain regions of wild-type mice, a significant amount of GIS-binding was detected. This GIS-binding was higher in alpha4 KO mice. However, it was fully abolished in alpha1 KO mice, indicating that the alpha1 subunit was obligatory for the GIS-binding in the forebrain. Our results suggest that native GABA(A) receptors in brain sections showing reduced displacing capacity of [(35)S]TBPS binding by GABA (partial agonism) minimally require the assembly of alpha1 and beta subunits in the forebrain and of alpha6 and beta subunits in the cerebellar granule cell layer. These receptors may function as extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. PMID:19397945

  9. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Natalia; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc). We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham) is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory. PMID:26594625

  10. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Natalia; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc). We demonstrate that the PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham) is related to the modulation of PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory. PMID:26594625

  11. Theory of Mind Performance in Children Correlates with Functional Specialization of a Brain Region for Thinking about Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gweon, Hyowon; Dodell-Feder, David; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about other people's thoughts recruits a specific group of brain regions, including the temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), precuneus (PC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The same brain regions were recruited when children (N = 20, 5-11 years) and adults (N = 8) listened to descriptions of characters' mental states, compared to…

  12. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Huai; Yao, Zhi-Jian; Qin, Jiao-Long; Yan, Rui; Hua, Ling-Ling; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear. This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients. Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls. The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed, and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology, but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found. Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions. Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network. PMID:26960371

  13. Regional Variations in Brain Gyrification Are Associated with General Cognitive Ability in Humans.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Carrasco, Jessica; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2016-05-23

    Searching for a neurobiological understanding of human intellectual capabilities has long occupied those very capabilities. Brain gyrification, or folding of the cortex, is as highly evolved and variable a characteristic in humans as is intelligence. Indeed, gyrification scales with brain size, and relationships between brain size and intelligence have been demonstrated in humans [1-3]. However, gyrification shows a large degree of variability that is independent from brain size [4-6], suggesting that the former may independently contribute to cognitive abilities and thus supporting a direct investigation of this parameter in the context of intelligence. Moreover, uncovering the regional pattern of such an association could offer insights into evolutionary and neural mechanisms. We tested for this brain-behavior relationship in two separate, independently collected, large cohorts-440 healthy adults and 662 healthy children-using high-resolution structural neuroimaging and comprehensive neuropsychometric batteries. In both samples, general cognitive ability was significantly associated (pFDR < 0.01) with increasing gyrification in a network of neocortical regions, including large portions of the prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and temporoparietal junction, as well as the insula, cingulate cortex, and fusiform gyrus, a regional distribution that was nearly identical in both samples (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.80). This neuroanatomical pattern is consistent with an existing, well-known proposal, the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence [7], and is also consistent with research in comparative evolutionary biology showing rapid neocortical expansion of these regions in humans relative to other species. These data provide a framework for understanding the neurobiology of human cognitive abilities and suggest a potential neurocellular association. PMID:27133866

  14. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  15. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  16. Regional Health and Function in the hippocampus: Evolutionary compromises for a critical brain region

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Travis C.; Foster, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to damage caused by metabolic dysregulation. However distinct sub-regions within the hippocampus differ by their relative susceptibility to such damage. Region CA1 pyramidal neurons are most sensitive to metabolic perturbations while region CA3 pyramidal neurons show more resistance, and these unique profiles of susceptibility are but one example that differentiates CA1/CA3 neurons. We present here a hypothesis that inextricably links the unique biochemistries of learning and memory in region CA1, to that of cell survival signaling, and in so doing, suggest an explanation for region CA1 susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction. Further, we propose a signaling mechanism to explain how both pathways can be simultaneously regulated. Critical to this process is the protein phosphatase PHLPP1. Finally we discuss the implications of this hypothesis and the inherent challenges it poses for treatment of neurological disorders resulting in reduced hippocampal function by increased neuron death. PMID:20161206

  17. Different Brain Regions are Infected with Fungi in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pisa, Diana; Alonso, Ruth; Rábano, Alberto; Rodal, Izaskun; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The possibility that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a microbial aetiology has been proposed by several researchers. Here, we provide evidence that tissue from the central nervous system (CNS) of AD patients contain fungal cells and hyphae. Fungal material can be detected both intra- and extracellularly using specific antibodies against several fungi. Different brain regions including external frontal cortex, cerebellar hemisphere, entorhinal cortex/hippocampus and choroid plexus contain fungal material, which is absent in brain tissue from control individuals. Analysis of brain sections from ten additional AD patients reveals that all are infected with fungi. Fungal infection is also observed in blood vessels, which may explain the vascular pathology frequently detected in AD patients. Sequencing of fungal DNA extracted from frozen CNS samples identifies several fungal species. Collectively, our findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of fungal infection in the CNS from AD patients, but not in control individuals. PMID:26468932

  18. Regional brain volumes changes in adult male FMR1-KO mouse on the FVB strain.

    PubMed

    Lai, J K Y; Lerch, J P; Doering, L C; Foster, J A; Ellegood, J

    2016-03-24

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable single gene cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FMR1-KO mice mimic the etiology and phenotypic manifestations of FXS. Neuroanatomical changes in specific brain regions have been reported in clinical settings and in preclinical models. FMR1-KO mice have been generated in different strains including C57Bl/6 (B6) and FVB. Mice on different genetic backgrounds have stable yet distinct behavioral phenotypes that may lead to unique gene-strain interactions on brain structure. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined FMR1 knockout male mice on a B6 and found few differences compared to wild-type mice. Here, we examine brain volumes in FMR1 knockout male mice on a FVB background using high resolution (multi-channel 7.0Tesla) MRI. We observe multiple differences in the neuroanatomy of male FMR1-/y mice on a FVB background. Significantly larger relative volume (% total brain volume) differences were found in major white matter structures throughout the brain. In addition, there were changes in areas associated with fronto-striatal circuitry and other regions. Functional and structural connectivity differences are often seen in human ASD, and therefore, this increased white matter seen in the FMR1-KO-FVB could be highlighting a structural over-connectivity, which could lead to some of the behavioral abnormalities seen with the FMR1-KO-FVB mice. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of genetic strain contribution to brain structure. PMID:26794591

  19. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    PubMed Central

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for 28 days. Both dietary forms of vitamin K were converted to menaquinone-4 in the brain. The efficiency of dietary dihydrophylloquinone conversion to menaquinone-4 compared to dietary phylloquinone was lower in the striatum and cortex, and was similar to those in the hippocampus. There were significant positive correlations between sulfatides and menaquinone-4 in the hippocampus (phylloquinone-supplemented diet -12mo and 24mo; dihydrophylloquinone -supplemented diet - 12mo) and cortex (phylloquinone-supplemented diet -12mo and 24 mo). No significant correlations were observed in the striatum. Furthermore, sulfatides in the hippocampus were significantly positively correlated with MK-4 in serum. This is the first attempt to establish and characterize a novel animal model that exploits the inability of dietary dihydrophylloquinone to convert to brain menaquinone-4 to study the dietary effects of vitamin K on brain sulfatide in brain regions controlling motor and cognitive functions. Our findings suggest that this animal model may be useful for investigation of the effect of the dietary vitamin K on sulfatide metabolism, myelin structure, and behavior functions. PMID:20092997

  20. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Rogalsky, Corianne; Sheng, Tong; Liu, Brent; Damasio, Hanna; Winstein, Carolee J.; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has significant potential in the study and treatment of neurological disorders and stroke. Region of interest (ROI) analysis in such studies allows for testing of strong a priori clinical hypotheses with improved statistical power. A commonly used automated approach to ROI analysis is to spatially normalize each participant’s structural brain image to a template brain image and define ROIs using an atlas. However, in studies of individuals with structural brain lesions, such as stroke, the gold standard approach may be to manually hand-draw ROIs on each participant’s non-normalized structural brain image. Automated approaches to ROI analysis are faster and more standardized, yet are susceptible to preprocessing error (e.g., normalization error) that can be greater in lesioned brains. The manual approach to ROI analysis has high demand for time and expertise, but may provide a more accurate estimate of brain response. In this study, commonly used automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis were directly compared by reanalyzing data from a previously published hypothesis-driven cognitive fMRI study, involving individuals with stroke. The ROI evaluated is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. Significant differences were identified in task-related effect size and percent-activated voxels in this ROI between the automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis. Task interactions, however, were consistent across ROI analysis approaches. These findings support the use of automated approaches to ROI analysis in studies of lesioned brains, provided they employ a task interaction design. PMID:26441816

  1. A finite element model of region-specific response for mild diffuse brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fijalkowski, Ronald J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that rotational loading is responsible for a spectrum of diffuse brain injuries spanning from concussion to diffuse axonal trauma. Many experimental studies have been performed to understand the pathological and biomechanical factors associated with diffuse brain injuries. Finite element models have also been developed to correlate experimental findings with intrinsic variables such as strain. However, a paucity of studies exist examining the combined role of the strain-time parameter. Consequently, using the principles of finite element analysis, the present study introduced the concept of sustained maximum principal strain (SMPS) criterion and explored its potential applicability to diffuse brain injury. An algorithm was developed to determine if the principal strain in a finite element of the brain exceeded a specified magnitude over a specific time interval. The anatomical and geometrical details of the rat for the two-dimensional model were obtained from published data. Using material properties from literature and iterative techniques, the model was validated under three distinct rotational loading conditions indicative of non-injury, concussion, and diffuse axonal trauma. Validation results produced a set of material properties to define the model and were deemed appropriate to examine the role of sustained strain as an indicator of the mechanics of mild diffuse brain injury at the local level. Using a separate set of histological data obtained from graded mild diffuse brain injury experimental studies in rats, different formulations of SMPS criterion were evaluated. For the hippocampus and parietal cortex regions, 4-4 SMPS criterion was found to most closely match with the pattern of histological results. This was further verified by correlating the fractional areas to the time of unconsciousness for each animal group. Although not fully conclusive, these results are valuable in the understanding of diffuse brain injury pathologies

  2. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-li; Deng, Hong-xia; Xing, Gui-yang; Xia, Xiao-luan; Li, Hai-fang

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception. PMID:25883631

  3. Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Emile G; Jacoby, Nir; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Brain regions in the "pain matrix", can be activated by observing or reading about others in physical pain. In previous research, we found that reading stories about others' emotional suffering, by contrast, recruits a different group of brain regions mostly associated with thinking about others' minds. In the current study, we examined the neural circuits responsible for deliberately regulating empathic responses to others' pain and suffering. In Study 1, a sample of college-aged participants (n=18) read stories about physically painful and emotionally distressing events during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while either actively empathizing with the main character or trying to remain objective. In Study 2, the same experiment was performed with professional social workers, who are chronically exposed to human suffering (n=21). Across both studies activity in the amygdala was associated with empathic regulation towards others' emotional pain, but not their physical pain. In addition, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis and Granger causal modeling (GCM) showed that amygdala activity while reading about others' emotional pain was preceded by and positively coupled with activity in the theory of mind brain regions, and followed by and negatively coupled with activity in regions associated with physical pain and bodily sensations. Previous work has shown that the amygdala is critically involved in the deliberate control of self-focused distress - the current results extend the central importance of amygdala activity to the control of other-focused empathy, but only when considering others' emotional pain. PMID:25913703

  4. Regional brain effects of sodium azide treatment on cytochrome oxidase activity: a quantitative histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cada, A; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Rose, G M; Bennett, M C

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if regional variation in brain cytochrome oxidase activity was observed following systemic administration of sodium azide. An image analysis system calibrated with internal standards of known cytochrome oxidase activity was used to quantify cytochrome oxidase in histochemically stained brain sections. Rats receiving chronic infusion of sodium azide (400 micrograms/hr), which were sacrificed after two weeks, showed a substantial decrease in brain cytochrome oxidase activity over those infused with saline. All of the 22 regions sampled from telencephalic, diencephalic, and mesencephalic levels, showed a significant activity reduction which ranged between 26% and 37%. The regions that appeared significantly more vulnerable to the sodium azide effects were the mesencephalic reticular formation and the central amygdala, which displayed the largest decrease in activity. In addition, interregional correlations of activity showed a deeply modified pattern of correlative metabolic activity between hippocampal, amygdaloid and cortical areas after azide treatment. The regional effects found were consistent with azide-induced learning and memory dysfunctions. PMID:8847994

  5. Functional integration changes in regional brain glucose metabolism from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Nicola; Archambaud, Frédérique; Goldman, Serge; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Wens, Vincent; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Chiron, Catherine; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in resting-state neurometabolic connectivity from childhood to adulthood (6-50 years old). Fifty-four healthy adult subjects and twenty-three pseudo-healthy children underwent [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at rest. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), age and age squared were first used as covariate of interest to identify linear and non-linear age effects on the regional distribution of glucose metabolism throughout the brain. Then, by selecting voxels of interest (VOI) within the regions showing significant age-related metabolic changes, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to search for age-induced changes in the contribution of VOIs to the metabolic activity in other brain areas. Significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism were found in prefrontal cortices (DMPFC/ACC), cerebellar lobules, and thalamo-hippocampal areas bilaterally. Decreases were found in the contribution of thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar regions to DMPFC/ACC metabolic activity as well as in the contribution of hippocampi to preSMA and right IFG metabolic activities. Increases were found in the contribution of the right hippocampus to insular cortex and of the cerebellar lobule IX to superior parietal cortex metabolic activities. This study evidences significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism of mesial prefrontal, thalamic, mesiotemporal, and cerebellar areas, associated with significant modifications in neurometabolic connectivity involving fronto-thalamic, fronto-hippocampal, and fronto-cerebellar networks. These changes in functional brain integration likely represent a metabolic correlate of age-dependent effects on sensory, motor, and high-level cognitive functional networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3017-3030, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133021

  6. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  7. Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kenzelmann, Daniela; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Leachman, Nathaniel T; Tucker, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Background Teneurins are a unique family of transmembrane proteins conserved from C. elegans and D. melanogaster to mammals. In vertebrates there are four paralogs (teneurin-1 to -4), all of which are expressed prominently in the developing central nervous system. Results Analysis of teneurin-1 expression in the developing chick brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry defined a unique, distinct expression pattern in interconnected regions of the brain. Moreover we found complementary patterns of teneurin-1 and-2 expression in many parts of the brain, including the retina, optic tectum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum as well as in brain nuclei involved in processing of sensory information. Based on these expression patterns, we suspect a role for teneurins in neuronal connectivity. In contrast to the cell-surface staining of the antibody against the extracellular domain, an antibody recognizing the intracellular domain revealed nuclear staining in subpopulations of neurons and in undifferentiated mesenchyme. Western blot analysis of brain lysates showed the presence of N-terminal fragments of teneurin-1 containing the intracellular domain indicating that proteolytic processing occurs. Finally, the teneurin-1 intracellular domain was found to contain a nuclear localization signal, which is required for nuclear localization in transfected cells. Conclusion Teneurin-1 and -2 are expressed by distinct interconnected populations of neurons in the developing central nervous system. Our data support the hypothesis that teneurins can be proteolytically processed leading to the release of the intracellular domain and its translocation to the nucleus. PMID:18366734

  8. Acute effects of oral or parenteral aspartame on catecholamine metabolism in various regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Wurtman, R J

    1986-03-01

    Hypertensive (SHR) and nonhypertensive [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY); Sprague-Dawley (SD)] strains of rats received the dipeptide sweetener aspartame (200 mg/kg) or, as a positive control, tyrosine (200 mg/kg) by gavage or parenterally, after a brief (2-h) fast. Two hours later, compared with those of saline controls brain levels of the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylethyleneglycol (MHPG) sulfate were significantly higher in the hypothalamus (WKY), locus coeruleus (SD and SHR) and brain stem (SHR) in tyrosine-treated animals, and in the locus coeruleus (SD) of those given aspartame. Brain norepinephrine levels were also higher, compared with those of saline-treated control rats, in the cerebral cortex (SD and SHR), amygdala (SD) and locus coeruleus (WKY) after tyrosine administration, and in the amygdala (SD) and cerebral cortex (SHR) after aspartame administration. In another study, oral aspartame was found to be at least as effective as the parenterally administered sweetener in raising regional brain levels of tyrosine or MHPG sulfate (i.e., compared with corresponding levels in saline-treated rats). Animals receiving oral aspartame also exhibited higher plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine ratios (i.e., the ratios of their plasma concentrations to the summed concentrations of other large neutral amino acids that compete with them for uptake into the brain), than animals receiving saline. PMID:3950762

  9. Variation in brain regions associated with fear and learning in contrasting climates.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Gallagher, Caitlin M; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    In environments where resources are difficult to obtain and enhanced cognitive capabilities might be adaptive, brain structures associated with cognitive traits may also be enhanced. In our previous studies, we documented a clear and significant relationship among environmental conditions, memory and hippocampal structure using ten populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over a large geographic range. In addition, focusing on just the two populations from the geographical extremes of our large-scale comparison, Alaska and Kansas, we found enhanced problem-solving capabilities and reduced neophobia in a captive-raised population of black-capped chickadees originating from the energetically demanding environment (Alaska) relative to conspecifics from the milder environment (Kansas). Here, we focused on three brain regions, the arcopallium (AP), the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala and the lateral striatum (LSt), that have been implicated to some extent in aspects of these behaviors in order to investigate whether potential differences in these brain areas may be associated with our previously detected differences in cognition. We compared the variation in neuron number and volumes of these regions between these populations, in both wild-caught birds and captive-raised individuals. Consistent with our behavioral observations, wild-caught birds from Kansas had a larger AP volume than their wild-caught conspecifics from Alaska, which possessed a higher density of neurons in the LSt. However, there were no other significant differences between populations in the wild-caught and captive-raised groups. Interestingly, individuals from the wild had larger LSt and AP volumes with more neurons than those raised in captivity. Overall, we provide some evidence that population-related differences in problem solving and neophobia may be associated with differences in volume and neuron numbers of our target brain regions. However, the relationship is not

  10. Automatic atlas-based volume estimation of human brain regions from MR images

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, N.C.; Rajarethinam, R.; Cizadlo, T.; Arndt, S.

    1996-01-01

    MRI offers many opportunities for noninvasive in vivo measurement of structure-function relationships in the human brain. Although automated methods are now available for whole-brain measurements, an efficient and valid automatic method for volume estimation of subregions such as the frontal or temporal lobes is still needed. We adapted the Talairach atlas to the study of brain subregions. We supplemented the atlas with additional boxes to include the cerebellum. We assigned all the boxes to 1 of 12 regions of interest (ROIs) (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, cerebellum, and subcortical regions on right and left sides of the brain).Using T1-weighted MR scans collected with an SPGR sequence (slice thickness = 1.5 mm), we manually traced these ROIs and produced volume estimates. We then transformed the scans into Talairach space and compared the volumes produced by the two methods ({open_quotes}traced{close_quotes} versus {open_quotes}automatic{close_quotes}). The traced measurements were considered to be the {open_quotes}gold standard{close_quotes} against which the automatic measurements were compared. The automatic method was found to produce measurements that were nearly identical to the traced method. We compared absolute measurements of volume produced by the two methods, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the automatic method. We also compared the measurements of cerebral blood flow obtained through [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET studies in a sample of nine subjects. Absolute measurements of volume produced by the two methods were very similar, and the sensitivity and specificity of the automatic method were found to be high for all regions. The flow values were also found to be very similar by both methods. The automatic atlas-based method for measuring the volume of brain subregions produces results that are similar to manual techniques. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Brain regions involved in dispositional mindfulness during resting state and their relation with well-being.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907

  12. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants’ degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants’ degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain’s intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  13. Global and Regional Differences in Brain Anatomy of Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    De Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Barkhof, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    In children who are born small for gestational age (SGA), an adverse intrauterine environment has led to underdevelopment of both the body and the brain. The delay in body growth is (partially) restored during the first two years in a majority of these children. In addition to a negative influence on these physical parameters, decreased levels of intelligence and cognitive impairments have been described in children born SGA. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain anatomy in 4- to 7-year-old SGA children with and without complete bodily catch-up growth and compared them to healthy children born appropriate for gestational age. Our findings demonstrate that these children strongly differ on brain organisation when compared with healthy controls relating to both global and regional anatomical differences. Children born SGA displayed reduced cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, smaller volumes of subcortical structures and reduced cortical surface area. Regional differences in prefrontal cortical thickness suggest a different development of the cerebral cortex. SGA children with bodily catch-up growth constitute an intermediate between those children without catch-up growth and healthy controls. Therefore, bodily catch-up growth in children born SGA does not implicate full catch-up growth of the brain. PMID:21931650

  14. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: region-specific analysis of organic acids and acylcarnitines in post mortem brain predicts vulnerability of the putamen.

    PubMed

    Kölker, S; Hoffmann, G F; Schor, D S M; Feyh, P; Wagner, L; Jeffrey, I; Pourfarzam, M; Okun, J G; Zschocke, J; Baric, I; Bain, M D; Jakobs, C; Chalmers, R A

    2003-06-01

    The neurometabolic disorder glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency is biochemically characterised by an accumulation of the marker metabolites 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaric acid, and glutarylcarnitine. If untreated, the disease is complicated by acute encephalopathic crises, resulting in neurodegeneration of vulnerable brain regions, in particular the putamen. 3-hydroxyglutaric acid is considered the major neurotoxin in this disease. There are only preliminary data concerning glutaric acid concentrations in the brains of affected children and the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and glutarylcarnitine has not been described. In the present study, we investigated post mortem the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acids as well as glutarylcarnitine in 14 different brain regions, internal organs, and body fluids (urine, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid) in a 14-year-old boy. 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid showed the highest concentration (62 nmol/g protein) in the putamen among all brain areas investigated. The glutarylcarnitine concentration was also highest in the putamen (7.1 nmol/g protein). We suggest that the regional-specific differences in the relative concentrations of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid contribute to the pattern of neuronal damage in this disease. These results provide an explanatory basis for the high vulnerability of the putamen in this disease, adding to the strong corticostriatal glutamatergic input into the putamen and the high excitotoxic susceptibility of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. PMID:14598231

  15. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI. PMID:26447861

  16. Protein synthesis rates in rat brain regions and subcellular fractions during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Avola, R.; Condorelli, D.F.; Ragusa, N.; Renis, M.; Alberghina, M.; Giuffrida Stella, A.M.; Lajtha, A.

    1988-04-01

    In vivo protein synthesis rates in various brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum) of 4-, 12-, and 24-month-old rats were examined after injection of a flooding dose of labeled valine. The incorporation of labeled valine into proteins of mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions from cerebral cortex and cerebellum was also measured. At all ages examined, the incorporation rate was 0.5% per hour in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and 0.4% per hour in striatum. Of the subcellular fractions examined, the microsomal proteins were synthesized at the highest rate, followed by cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins. The results obtained indicate that the average synthesis rate of proteins in the various brain regions and subcellular fractions examined is fairly constant and is not significantly altered in the 4 to 24-month period of life of rats.

  17. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Glenn R.; Sobhani, Mona; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1) disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2) liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the somatosensory cortex), reward processing (the striatum), and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left ACC and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person's pain. PMID:24167496

  18. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  19. Regional dynamics of N-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphetamine in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, S.; Tanada, S.; Yonekura, Y.; Fujita, T.; Mukai, T.; Saji, H.; Fukuyama, H.; Miyoshi, T.; Harada, K.; Ishikawa, M.

    1989-02-01

    Regional cerebral dynamics of N-isopropyl-(123I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the human brain were studied using a multi-detector single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanner in 35 subjects both normal and with a variety of neurological conditions. Distribution of IMP in the brain was also compared with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 15 of these 35 cases. A significant regional difference in temporal changes of radioactivity was observed among normal brain structures. A rapid increase with early washout of the tracer was shown in the cerebellum and the occipital cortex, while the basal ganglia revealed a relatively slow increase and prolonged retention, indicating the regional difference in extraction and/or retention of IMP among the cerebral tissues. In cases with unilateral hypoperfusion, the percentage of the activity in the lesion to that in the contralateral normal cortex on the early SPECT was correlated well with that on CBF measured by PET (r = 0.870, p less than 0.001). However, the contrast on the SPECT image decreased with time after injection; 84.0 +/- 7.4% on the SPECT at 5-20 min scan, 87.6 +/- 7.6% at 35-50 min scan and 96.2 +/- 6.3% at 5 hr scan. In a case with a brain tumor having high blood flow documented by PET, increased accumulation of IMP was observed in the tumor on the early images obtained within 20 min followed by a rapid washout. These findings suggested altered extraction and/or retention of IMP in normal and diseased tissues, and these factors should be considered for the assessment of distribution and redistribution of IMP.

  20. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. PMID:26808776

  1. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology. PMID:26899160

  2. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivoH-MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Minati, Ludovico; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo(1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference) as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification. PMID:20927223

  3. Pain Sensitivity is Inversely Related to Regional Grey Matter Density in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V.; Hadsel, Morten S.; Martucci, Katherine T.; Quevedo, Alexandre S.; Starr, Christopher J.; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a highly personal experience that varies substantially among individuals. In search of an anatomical correlate of pain sensitivity we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the relationship between grey matter density across the whole brain and inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity in 116 healthy volunteers (62 females, 54 males). Structural MRI and psychophysical data from 10 previous fMRI studies were used. Age, sex, unpleasantness ratings, scanner sequence, and sensory testing location were added to the model as covariates. Regression analysis of grey matter density across the whole brain and thermal pain intensity ratings at 49°C revealed a significant inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and grey matter density in bilateral regions of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule. Unilateral regions of the left primary somatosensory cortex also exhibited this inverse relationship. No regions exhibited a positive relationship to pain sensitivity. These structural variations occurred in areas associated with the default mode network, attentional direction and shifting, as well as somatosensory processing. These findings underscore the potential importance of processes related to default mode thought and attention in shaping individual differences in pain sensitivity and indicate that pain sensitivity can potentially be predicted on the basis of brain structure. PMID:24333778

  4. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-09-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  5. Morphological Features of the Neonatal Brain Following Exposure to Regional Anesthesia During Labor and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Serino, Dana; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Nati, Giancarlo; Toth, Zachary; Walsh, Kirwan; Chiang, I-Chin; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Liu, Jun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Shova, Satie; Fried, Jane; Tau, Gregory Z.; Rosen, Tove S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent animal and human epidemiological studies suggest that early childhood exposure to anesthesia may have adverse effects on brain development. As more than 50% of pregnant women in the United States and one-third in the United Kingdom receive regional anesthesia during labor and delivery, understanding the effects of perinatal anesthesia on postnatal brain development has important public health relevance. Methods We used high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess the effects of regional anesthesia during labor and delivery as part of a larger study of perinatal exposures on the morphological features of the neonatal brain. We mapped morphological features of the cortical surface in 37 healthy infants, 24 exposed and 13 unexposed to regional anesthesia at delivery, who were scanned within the first 6 weeks of life. Results Infants exposed to maternal anesthesia compared with unexposed infants had greater local volumes in portions of the frontal and occipital lobes bilaterally and right posterior portion of the cingulate gyrus. Longer durations of exposure to anesthesia correlated positively with local volumes in the occipital lobe. Conclusions Anesthesia exposure during labor and delivery was associated with larger volumes in portions of the frontal and occipital lobes and cingulate gyrus in neonates. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to determine whether these morphological effects of anesthesia persist and what their consequences on cognition and behavior may be. PMID:25179140

  6. Financial Literacy is Associated with Medial Brain Region Functional Connectivity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A.; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post-hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. PMID:24893911

  7. Anxiety type modulates immediate versus delayed engagement of attention-related brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; De Leon, Angeline A; Bredemeier, Keith; Heller, Wendy; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Background Habituation of the fear response, critical for the treatment of anxiety, is inconsistently observed during exposure to threatening stimuli. One potential explanation for this inconsistency is differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type. Methods The present study tested this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli. Results As predicted, the two anxiety types evidenced distinct patterns of attentional engagement. Anxious arousal was associated with immediate activation in attention-related brain regions that habituated over time, whereas anxious apprehension was associated with delayed activation in attention-related brain regions that occurred only after habituation in a worry-related brain region. Conclusions Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli. PMID:24392275

  8. Hindbrain regional growth in preterm newborns and its impairment in relation to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hosung; Gano, Dawn; Ho, Mai-Lan; Guo, Xiaoyue M; Unzueta, Alisa; Hess, Christopher; Ferriero, Donna M; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A James

    2016-02-01

    Premature birth globally affects about 11.1% of all newborns and is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disability in surviving infants. Histology has suggested that hindbrain subdivisions grow differentially, especially in the third trimester. Prematurity-related brain injuries occurring in this period may selectively affect more rapidly developing areas of hindbrain, thus accompanying region-specific impairments in growth and ultimately neurodevelopmental deficits. The current study aimed to quantify regional growth of the cerebellum and the brainstem in preterm neonates (n = 65 with individually multiple scans). We probed associations of the regional volumes with severity of brain injury. In neonates with no imaging evidence of injury, our analysis using a mixed-effect linear model showed faster growth in the pons and the lateral convexity of anterior/posterior cerebellar lobes. Different patterns of growth impairment were found in relation to early cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage (P < 0.05), likely explaining different mechanisms through which neurogenesis is disrupted. The pattern of cerebellar growth identified in our study agreed excellently with details of cerebellar morphogenesis in perinatal development, which has only been observed in histological data. Our proposed analytic framework may provide predictive imaging biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome, enabling early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:678-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26589992

  9. Cerebral Apolipoprotein-D Is Hypoglycosylated Compared to Peripheral Tissues and Is Variably Expressed in Mouse and Human Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyun; Ruberu, Kalani; Karl, Tim; Garner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cerebral apoD levels increase with age and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, loss of cerebral apoD in the mouse increases sensitivity to lipid peroxidation and accelerates AD pathology. Very little data are available, however, regarding the expression of apoD protein levels in different brain regions. This is important as both brain lipid peroxidation and neurodegeneration occur in a region-specific manner. Here we addressed this using western blotting of seven different regions (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem) of the mouse brain. Our data indicate that compared to most brain regions, the hippocampus is deficient in apoD. In comparison to other major organs and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, heart and skeletal muscle), brain apoD was approximately 10-fold higher (corrected for total protein levels). Our analysis also revealed that brain apoD was present at a lower apparent molecular weight than tissue and plasma apoD. Utilising peptide N-glycosidase-F and neuraminidase to remove N-glycans and sialic acids, respectively, we found that N-glycan composition (but not sialylation alone) were responsible for this reduction in molecular weight. We extended the studies to an analysis of human brain regions (hippocampus, frontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum) where we found that the hippocampus had the lowest levels of apoD. We also confirmed that human brain apoD was present at a lower molecular weight than in plasma. In conclusion, we demonstrate apoD protein levels are variable across different brain regions, that apoD levels are much higher in the brain compared to other tissues and organs, and that cerebral apoD has a lower molecular weight than peripheral apoD; a phenomenon that is due to the N-glycan content of the protein. PMID:26829325

  10. Cerebral Apolipoprotein-D Is Hypoglycosylated Compared to Peripheral Tissues and Is Variably Expressed in Mouse and Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyun; Ruberu, Kalani; Karl, Tim; Garner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cerebral apoD levels increase with age and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, loss of cerebral apoD in the mouse increases sensitivity to lipid peroxidation and accelerates AD pathology. Very little data are available, however, regarding the expression of apoD protein levels in different brain regions. This is important as both brain lipid peroxidation and neurodegeneration occur in a region-specific manner. Here we addressed this using western blotting of seven different regions (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem) of the mouse brain. Our data indicate that compared to most brain regions, the hippocampus is deficient in apoD. In comparison to other major organs and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, heart and skeletal muscle), brain apoD was approximately 10-fold higher (corrected for total protein levels). Our analysis also revealed that brain apoD was present at a lower apparent molecular weight than tissue and plasma apoD. Utilising peptide N-glycosidase-F and neuraminidase to remove N-glycans and sialic acids, respectively, we found that N-glycan composition (but not sialylation alone) were responsible for this reduction in molecular weight. We extended the studies to an analysis of human brain regions (hippocampus, frontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum) where we found that the hippocampus had the lowest levels of apoD. We also confirmed that human brain apoD was present at a lower molecular weight than in plasma. In conclusion, we demonstrate apoD protein levels are variable across different brain regions, that apoD levels are much higher in the brain compared to other tissues and organs, and that cerebral apoD has a lower molecular weight than peripheral apoD; a phenomenon that is due to the N-glycan content of the protein. PMID:26829325

  11. Selective normalisation of regional brain bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in the mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler) mouse.

    PubMed

    Saville, Jennifer T; Lehmann, Rebecca J; Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fuller, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a glycerophospholipid highly enriched in the lysosomal network and elevated in lysosomal diseases. To correct this elevation, BMP synthesis was manipulated by dietary fatty acid supplementation and the impact on subregional brain BMP and pathology assessed in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler syndrome (HS)). There was widespread elevation of BMP in HS mice across all six sub-regions - brain stem, cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and the sub-cortex - with 22:6/22:6 the most abundant species. Linoleic acid normalised total BMP in all regions except the cortex and cerebellum, although there were differences in fatty acid species; the major finding a decrease in 22:6- and a concomitant increase in 22:5-containing species. A battery of behaviour assessments showed that in the water cross maze both HS and wild type mice performed less well on the linoleic acid diet, and that both HS and wild type mice on the linoleic acid diet performed similarly and better in the exploratory open field test. This may be a consequence of differential subregional BMP composition in the brain. The effects of high fat and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid enriched diets were generally unremarkable. Although major pathologies were not completely abrogated, much of the neurobehavioural testing was confounded by skeletal pathology that did not resolve. This is the first detailed characterisation of subregional brain BMP species informing on the ability to manipulate this phospholipid in the brain, and as such, may hold promise as an adjunct therapy not only for HS but also for other lysosomal diseases. PMID:26710715

  12. Effects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men1234

    PubMed Central

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Alsop, David C; Holsen, Laura M; Stern, Emily; Rojas, Rafael; Ebbeling, Cara B; Goldstein, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Qualitative aspects of diet influence eating behavior, but the physiologic mechanisms for these calorie-independent effects remain speculative. Objective: We examined effects of the glycemic index (GI) on brain activity in the late postprandial period after a typical intermeal interval. Design: With the use of a randomized, blinded, crossover design, 12 overweight or obese men aged 18–35 y consumed high- and low-GI meals controlled for calories, macronutrients, and palatability on 2 occasions. The primary outcome was cerebral blood flow as a measure of resting brain activity, which was assessed by using arterial spin-labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging 4 h after test meals. We hypothesized that brain activity would be greater after the high-GI meal in prespecified regions involved in eating behavior, reward, and craving. Results: Incremental venous plasma glucose (2-h area under the curve) was 2.4-fold greater after the high- than the low-GI meal (P = 0.0001). Plasma glucose was lower (mean ± SE: 4.7 ± 0.14 compared with 5.3 ± 0.16 mmol/L; P = 0.005) and reported hunger was greater (P = 0.04) 4 h after the high- than the low-GI meal. At this time, the high-GI meal elicited greater brain activity centered in the right nucleus accumbens (a prespecified area; P = 0.0006 with adjustment for multiple comparisons) that spread to other areas of the right striatum and to the olfactory area. Conclusions: Compared with an isocaloric low-GI meal, a high-GI meal decreased plasma glucose, increased hunger, and selectively stimulated brain regions associated with reward and craving in the late postprandial period, which is a time with special significance to eating behavior at the next meal. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064778. PMID:23803881

  13. Regional specificity in deltamethrin induced cytochrome P450 expression in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Sanjay; Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Seth, Prahlad K.; Parmar, Devendra . E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com

    2006-11-15

    Oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg x 7 or 15 or 21 days) was found to produce a time-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), 1A2 and CYP2B1, 2B2 isoenzymes in rat brain. RT-PCR studies further showed that increase in the mRNA expression of these CYP isoenzymes observed after 21 days of exposure was region specific. Hippocampus exhibited maximum increase in the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which was followed by pons-medulla, cerebellum and hypothalamus. The mRNA expression of CYP2B1 also exhibited maximum increase in the hypothalamus and hippocampus followed by almost similar increase in midbrain and cerebellum. In contrast, mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2, the constitutive isoenzymes exhibited relatively higher increase in pons-medulla, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Immunoblotting studies carried out with polyclonal antibody raised against rat liver CYP1A1/1A2 or CYP2B1/2B2 isoenzymes also showed increase in immunoreactivity comigrating with CYP1A1/1A2 or 2B1/2B2 in the microsomal fractions isolated from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of rat treated with deltamethrin. Though the exact relationship of the xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs with the physiological function of the brain is yet to be clearly understood, the increase in the mRNA expression of the CYPs in the brain regions that regulate specific brain functions affected by deltamethrin have further indicated that modulation of these CYPs could be associated with the various endogenous functions of the brain.

  14. Assessing Region of Interest Schemes for the Corticospinal Tract in Patients With Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chen; Liu, Xin; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kun; Min, Zhigang; Wang, Maode; Li, Wenfei; Guo, Liping; Lin, Pan; Zhang, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) techniques are widely used for identifying the corticospinal tract (CST) white matter pathways as part of presurgical planning. However, mass effects in patients with brain tumors tend to cause anatomical distortions and compensatory functional reorganization of the cortex, which may lead to inaccurate mapping of white matter tracts. To overcome these problems, we compared different region-of-interest (ROI) selection schemes to track CST fibers in patients with brain tumors. Our study investigated the CSTs of 16 patients with intracranial tumors. The patients were classified into 3 subgroups according to the spatial relationships of the lesion and the primary motor cortex (PMC)/internal capsule. Specifically, we investigated the key factors that cause distorted tractography in patients with tumors. We compared 3 CST tractography methods that used different ROI selection schemes. The results indicate that CST fiber tracking methods based only on anatomical ROIs could possibly lead to distortions near the PMC region and may be unable to effectively localize the PMC. In contrast, the dual ROI method, which uses ROIs that have been selected from both blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) activation and anatomical landmarks, enabled the tracking of fibers to the motor cortex. The results demonstrate that the dual ROI method can localize the entire CST fiber pathway and can accurately describe the spatial relationships of CST fibers relative to the tumor. These results illustrate the reliability of using fMRI-guided DTT in patients with tumors. The combination of fMRI and anatomical information enhances the identification of tracts of interest in brains with anatomical deformations, which provides neurosurgeons with a more accurate approach for visualizing and localizing white matter fiber tracts in patients with brain tumors. This approach enhances surgical performance and perserves

  15. Decreased functional connectivity density in pain-related brain regions of female migraine patients without aura.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Xu, Fei; Jiang, Cui; Chen, Zhifeng; Chen, Huafu; Liao, Huaqiang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders which is suggested to be associated with dysfunctions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to detect the altered functional connectivity architecture in the large-scale network of the whole brain in migraine without aura (MWoA). Meanwhile, the brain functional hubs which are targeted by MWoA could be identified. A new voxel-based method named functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 55 female MWoA patients and 44 age-matched female healthy controls (HC). Comparing to HC, MWoA patients showed abnormal short-range FCD values in bilateral hippocampus, bilateral insula, right amygdale, right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putamen, bilateral caudate nucleus and the prefrontal cortex. The results suggested decreased intraregional connectivity of these pain-related brain regions in female MWoA. In addition, short-range FCD values in left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly negatively correlated with duration of disease in MWoA group, implying the repeated migraine attacks over time may consistently affect the resting-state functional connectivity architecture of these brain hubs. Our findings revealed the dysfunction of brain hubs in female MWoA, and suggested the left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus served as sensitive neuroimaging markers for reflecting the disease duration of female MWoA. This may provide us new insights into the changes in the organization of the large-scale brain network in MWoA. PMID:26688226

  16. A novel analytical brain block tool to enable functional annotation of discriminatory transcript biomarkers among discrete regions of the fronto-limbic circuit in primate brain.

    PubMed

    Dalgard, Clifton L; Jacobowitz, David M; Singh, Vijay K; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Ursano, Robert J; Starr, Joshua M; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-03-10

    Fronto-limbic circuits in the primate brain are responsible for executive function, learning and memory, and emotions, including fear. Consequently, changes in gene expression in cortical and subcortical brain regions housing these circuits are associated with many important psychiatric and neurological disorders. While high quality gene expression profiles can be identified in brains from model organisms, primate brains have unique features such as Brodmann Area 25, which is absent in rodents, yet profoundly important in primates, including humans. The potential insights to be gained from studying the human brain are complicated by the fact that the post-mortem interval (PMI) is variable, and most repositories keep solid tissue in the deep frozen state. Consequently, sampling the important medial and internal regions of these brains is difficult. Here we describe a novel method for obtaining discrete regions from the fronto-limbic circuits of a 4 year old and a 5 year old, male, intact, frozen non-human primate (NHP) brain, for which the PMI is exactly known. The method also preserves high quality RNA, from which we use transcriptional profiling and a new algorithm to identify region-exclusive RNA signatures for Area 25 (NFκB and dopamine receptor signaling), the anterior cingulate cortex (LXR/RXR signaling), the amygdala (semaphorin signaling), and the hippocampus (Ca(++) and retinoic acid signaling). The RNA signatures not only reflect function of the different regions, but also include highly expressed RNAs for which function is either poorly understood, or which generate proteins presently lacking annotated functions. We suggest that this new approach will provide a useful strategy for identifying changes in fronto-limbic system biology underlying normal development, aging and disease in the human brain. PMID:25529630

  17. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866

  18. "Hiding the story": indigenous consumer concerns about communication related to chronic disease in one remote region of Australia.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Anne; Maypilama, Elaine; Yikaniwuy, Stephanie; Rrapa, Elizabeth; Williams, Robyn; Dunn, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative qualitative study which explored education and communication practice related to chronic disease from the perspectives of Aboriginal people in a remote region of the Northern Territory, Australia, where the prevalence of chronic disease is extremely high. Most Yolngu (Aboriginal people of Northeast Arnhem Land) do not speak English as their first language and few health staff share the language and cultural background of their clients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Yolngu community members and health staff in their preferred language in small groups or individually, in an approach that was flexible and responsive to the concerns and priorities of Yolngu researchers and participants. As well, health education interactions were videotaped to facilitate more in-depth understanding of the strengths and challenges in communication (one video can be viewed at http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/17549507.2012.663791). An iterative and collaborative process of analysis, interpretation, and verification revealed that communication and education related to chronic disease is highly ineffective, restricting the extent to which Yolngu can make informed decisions in managing their health. Yolngu participants consistently stated that they wanted a detailed and direct explanation about causes and management of chronic disease from health staff, and rarely believed this had been provided, sometimes assuming that information about their health is deliberately withheld. These serious limitations in communication and education have extensive negative consequences for individuals, their families, and health services. These findings also have broader relevance to all areas of healthcare, including allied health services, which share similar challenges in achieving effective communication. Without addressing the profound and pervasive inadequacies in communication, other interventions designed to close the gap in Indigenous

  19. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p < 0.002) positively correlated with lipid content for all brain regions. Lipid-normalized PFOS and PFCA (C(10) -C(15) ) concentrations were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. PMID:23280712

  20. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  1. Regional brain glucose metabolism in chronic schizophrenia. A positron emission transaxial tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, T.; Wolf, A.P.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen diagnosed schizophrenics and 11 normal controls were studied with a method using the PETT III positron emission tomograph (PET) and fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18. Each subject also had a computed tomographic (CT) scan. For each subject, two brain levels, one through the basal ganglia and one through the semioval center, were analyzed for the mean regional metabolic glucose rate. Specifically, relationships between frontal and posterior regions were evaluated. The CT scans of matching levels were superimposed on the functional PET images to provide anatomic criteria for region of interest selection. While no whole-slice metabolic differences were apparent between groups, schizophrenics had significantly lower activity in the frontal lobes, relative to posterior regions. The medicated and drug-free groups did not differ from one another in these regards. Trait v state dependency of the phenomenon was analyzed, and several technological limitations were considered.

  2. [An automated detection of lacunar infarct regions in brain MR images: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Lee, Yongbum; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Asano, Takahiko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Iwama, Toru; Sakai, Noboru

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to detect lacunar infarct regions automatically in brain MR images. Our detection method is based on the definition of lacunar infarcts. After inputted images were binarized, we used feature values such as area, circularities and the center of gravity of candidate regions to extract isolated lacunar infarct regions. We also developed and used a new filter to enhance the signals of lacunar infarcts adjacent to some high intensity regions. 10 cases involving 81 sectional images were applied to our experiment. As a result, the sensitivity was 100% with approximately 1.77 false-positives per image. Our results are promising on the first stage, although it remains to improve on problems that to eliminate false-positives and automatically establish threshold value. PMID:12522348

  3. Regional distribution and postnatal changes of D-amino acids in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hamase, K; Homma, H; Takigawa, Y; Fukushima, T; Santa, T; Imai, K

    1997-03-15

    Regional distribution of D-amino acids in rat brain was studied by the modified highly sensitive analytical method which was previously developed. The method includes fluorogenic derivatization of each amino acid, isolation of each amino acid by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by enantiomeric separation with Pirkle-type chiral stationary phases. D-Amino acid contents were determined in the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus, medulla oblongata, pituitary gland and pineal gland. D-Aspartic acid was observed in the pineal gland (3524 +/- 263 nmol/g, data are for male rats of 6 weeks of age) and the pituitary gland (80.5 +/- 9.0 nmol/g). D-Serine was found in various regions of the brain except for the cerebellum and medulla oblongata. D-Alanine was observed exclusively in the pituitary gland (25.9 +/- 4.4 nmol/g), whereas D-leucine was found in the pineal gland (3.4 +/- 0.4 nmol/g) and the hippocampus (1.6 +/- 0.07 nmol/g). No other D-amino acids were detected in the brain. The contents of D-aspartic acid in the pituitary gland and D-serine in the pineal gland were higher in female rats. In contrast the contents of D-alanine in the pituitary gland and D-leucine in the pineal gland and the hippocampus were higher in males. Postnatal changes of D-aspartic acid and D-leucine in the pineal gland and D-alanine in the pituitary gland were also investigated. The results described in this paper suggested that distinct regulatory mechanisms exist for individual D-amino acids in the corresponding region of rat brain. PMID:9101716

  4. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. PMID:25720349

  5. Identification of Chronic Stress Activated Regions Reveals a Potential Recruited Circuit in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Flak, Jonathan N.; Solomon, Matia B.; Jankord, Ryan; Krause, Eric G.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress induces pre-synaptic and post-synaptic modifications in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that are consistent with enhanced excitatory hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis drive. The brain regions mediating these molecular modifications are not known. We hypothesized that chronic variable stress (CVS) tonically activates stress-excitatory regions that interact with the PVN, culminating in stress facilitation. In order to identify chronically activated brain regions, ΔFosB, a documented marker of tonic neuronal activation, was assessed in known stress regulatory limbic and brainstem sites. Four experimental groups were included: CVS, repeated restraint (RR) (control for HPA habituation), animals weight-matched (WM) to CVS animals (control for changes in circulating metabolic factors due to reduced weight gain), and non-handled controls. CVS, but not RR or WM, induced adrenal hypertrophy, indicating that sustained HPA axis drive only occurred in the CVS group. CVS (but not RR or WM) selectively increased the number of FosB/ΔFosB nuclei in the nucleus of the solitary tract, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and both the infralimbic and prelimbic divisions of the medial prefrontal cortex, indicating an involvement of these regions in chronic drive of the HPA axis. Increases in FosB/ΔFosB-immunoreactive cells were observed following both RR and CVS in the other regions (e.g., the dorsomedial hypothalamus), suggesting activation by both habituating and non-habituating stress conditions. The data suggest that unpredictable stress uniquely activates interconnected cortical, hypothalamic, and brainstem nuclei, potentially revealing the existence of a recruited circuitry mediating chronic drive of brain stress effector systems. PMID:22789020

  6. Regional brain activation during verbal declarative memory in metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Bennett, F. Chris; Mahaffey, Misty L.; Spiegel, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the neurofunctional basis of verbal memory dysfunction in women with metastatic breast cancer. This objective was based on previous research suggesting memory and other cognitive deficits in this population. We attempted to determine if verbal memory impairments were related to the most commonly studied disease parameters including adjuvant chemotherapy and chronic stress-related disruption of limbic system structures. Experimental Design We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate significantly lower brain activation during a verbal declarative memory tasks compared to age and education-matched healthy female controls. We also assessed several stress-related variables including diurnal cortisol levels to test our hypothesis that women with breast cancer would demonstrate higher stress and this would contribute to brain activation deficits during memory tasks. Results Women with breast cancer had significantly lower prefrontal cortex activation during the memory encoding condition compared to controls. However, the breast cancer group demonstrated significantly greater activation than controls during the recall condition in multiple, diffuse brain regions. There were no significant differences between the groups in stress-related variables. Women who were treated with CMF chemotherapy demonstrated lower prefrontal cortex activation during memory encoding. Conclusions These results suggest that women with metastatic breast cancer may be at risk for verbal memory impairments as a result of altered functional brain activation profiles. These findings may be associated with chemotherapy type and/or other aspects of the breast cancer disease process. PMID:19843664

  7. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  8. A NOVEL TETRODE MICRODRIVE FOR SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-NEURON RECORDING FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PRIMATE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Lucas; Opris, Ioan; Fuqua, Joshua; Hampson, Robert; Deadwyler, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A unique custom-made tetrode microdrive for recording from large numbers of neurons in several areas of primate brain is described as a means of assessing simultaneous neural activity in cortical and subcortical structures in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing behavioral tasks. The microdrive device utilizes tetrode technology with up to six ultra-thin microprobe guide tubes (0.1 mm) that can be independently positioned, each containing reduced diameter tetrode and/or hexatrode microwires (0.02 mm) for recording and isolating single neuron activity. The microdrive device is mounted within the standard NHP cranial well and allows traversal of brain depths up to 40.0 mm. The advantages of this technology are demonstrated via simultaneously recorded large populations of neurons with tetrode type probes during task performance from a) primary motor cortex and deep brain structures (caudate-putamen and hippocampus) and b) multiple layers within the prefrontal cortex. The means to characterize interactions of well-isolated ensembles of neurons recorded simultaneously from different regions, as shown with this device, has not been previously available for application in primate brain. The device has extensive application to primate models for the detection and study of inoperative or maladaptive neural circuits related to human neurological disorders. PMID:22326226

  9. Spontaneous mentalizing captures variability in the cortical thickness of social brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM)—or thinking about the mental states of others—is a cornerstone of successful everyday social interaction. However, the brain bases of ToM are most frequently measured via explicit laboratory tasks that pose direct questions about mental states (e.g. “In this story, what does Steve think Julia believes?”). Neuroanatomical measures may provide a way to explore the brain bases of individual differences in more naturalistic everyday mentalizing. In the current study, we examined the relation between cortical thickness and spontaneous ToM using the novel Spontaneous Theory of Mind Protocol (STOMP), which measures participants’ spontaneous descriptions of the beliefs, emotions and goals of characters in naturalistic videos. We administered standard ToM tasks and the STOMP to young adults (aged 18–26 years) and collected structural magnetic resonance imaging data from a subset of these participants. The STOMP produced robust individual variability and was correlated with performance on traditional ToM tasks. Further, unlike the traditional ToM tasks, STOMP performance was related to cortical thickness for a set of brain regions that have been functionally linked to ToM processing. These findings offer novel insight into the brain bases of variability in naturalistic mentalizing performance, with implications for both typical and atypical populations. PMID:24847726

  10. Research of brain activation regions of "yes" and "no" responses by auditory stimulations in human EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min; Liu, GuoZhong

    2011-11-01

    People with neuromuscular disorders are difficult to communicate with the outside world. It is very important to the clinician and the patient's family that how to distinguish vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) for a disorders of consciousness (DOC) patient. If a patient is diagnosed with VS, this means that the hope of recovery is greatly reduced, thus leading to the family to abandon the treatment. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is aiming to help those people by analyzing patients' electroencephalogram (EEG). This paper focus on analyzing the corresponding activated regions of the brain when a subject responses "yes" or "no" to an auditory stimuli question. When the brain concentrates, the phase of the related area will become orderly from desultorily. So in this paper we analyzed EEG from the angle of phase. Seven healthy subjects volunteered to participate in the experiment. A total of 84 groups of repeatability stimulation test were done. Firstly, the frequency is fragmented by using wavelet method. Secondly, the phase of EEG is extracted by Hilbert. At last, we obtained approximate entropy and information entropy of each frequency band of EEG. The results show that brain areas are activated of the central area when people say "yes", and the areas are activated of the central area and temporal when people say "no". This conclusion is corresponding to magnetic resonance imaging technology. This study provides the theory basis and the algorithm design basis for designing BCI equipment for people with neuromuscular disorders.

  11. Global and Regional Brain Mean Diffusivity Changes in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Mary A.; Palomares, Jose A.; Macey, Paul M.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show gray and white matter changes in multiple brain sites, including autonomic and motor coordination areas. It is unclear whether the changes represent acute or chronic tissue pathology, a distinction necessary for understanding pathological processes, and can be resolved with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based mean diffusivity (MD) procedures. We collected four DTI series from 16 HF (age, 55.1±7.8 years; 12 male) and 26 controls (49.7±10.8 years; 17 male), using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. MD maps were realigned, averaged, normalized, and smoothed. Global and regional MD values from autonomic and motor coordination sites were calculated using normalized MD maps and brain masks; group MD values and whole-brain smoothed MD maps were compared using analysis of covariance (covariates: age, gender). Global brain MD (HF vs. controls; Unit ×10−6 mm2/s; 1103.8±76.6 vs. 1035.9±69.4, p=0.038) and regional autonomic and motor site values (left insula, 1085.4±95.7 vs. 975.7±65.4, p=0.001; right insula, 1050.2±100.6 vs. 965.7±58.4, p=0.004; left hypothalamus, 1419.6±165.2 vs. 1234.9±136.3, p=0.002; right hypothalamus, 1446.5±178.8 vs. 1273.3±136.9, p=0.004; left cerebellar cortex, 889.1±81.9 vs. 796.6±46.8, p<0.001; right cerebellar cortex, 797.8±50.8 vs. 750.3±27.5, p=0.001; cerebellar deep nuclei, 1236.1±193.8 vs. 1071.7±107.1; p=0.002) were significantly higher in HF over controls, indicating chronic tissue changes. Whole-brain comparisons showed increased MD values in HF, including limbic, basal-ganglia, thalamic, solitary tract nucleus, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Brain injury occurs in autonomic and motor control areas, which may contribute to deficient functions in HF. The chronic tissue changes likely result from processes which develop over a prolonged time-period. PMID:25502071

  12. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  13. Genome-wide coexpression of steroid receptors in the mouse brain: Identifying signaling pathways and functionally coordinated regions

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Weert, Lisa T. C. M.; Mol, Isabel M.; Sips, Hetty C. M.; van den Heuvel, José K.; Datson, Nicole A.; Visser, Jenny A.; Meijer, Onno C.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid receptors are pleiotropic transcription factors that coordinate adaptation to different physiological states. An important target organ is the brain, but even though their effects are well studied in specific regions, brain-wide steroid receptor targets and mediators remain largely unknown due to the complexity of the brain. Here, we tested the idea that novel aspects of steroid action can be identified through spatial correlation of steroid receptors with genome-wide mRNA expression across different regions in the mouse brain. First, we observed significant coexpression of six nuclear receptors (NRs) [androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), glucocorticoid receptor (Gr), mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr), and progesterone receptor (Pgr)] with sets of steroid target genes that were identified in single brain regions. These coexpression relationships were also present in distinct other brain regions, suggestive of as yet unidentified coordinate regulation of brain regions by, for example, glucocorticoids and estrogens. Second, coexpression of a set of 62 known NR coregulators and the six steroid receptors in 12 nonoverlapping mouse brain regions revealed selective downstream pathways, such as Pak6 as a mediator for the effects of Ar and Gr on dopaminergic transmission. Third, Magel2 and Irs4 were identified and validated as strongly responsive targets to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol in the mouse hypothalamus. The brain- and genome-wide correlations of mRNA expression levels of six steroid receptors that we provide constitute a rich resource for further predictions and understanding of brain modulation by steroid hormones. PMID:26811448

  14. Genome-wide coexpression of steroid receptors in the mouse brain: Identifying signaling pathways and functionally coordinated regions.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Weert, Lisa T C M; Mol, Isabel M; Sips, Hetty C M; van den Heuvel, José K; Datson, Nicole A; Visser, Jenny A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Meijer, Onno C

    2016-03-01

    Steroid receptors are pleiotropic transcription factors that coordinate adaptation to different physiological states. An important target organ is the brain, but even though their effects are well studied in specific regions, brain-wide steroid receptor targets and mediators remain largely unknown due to the complexity of the brain. Here, we tested the idea that novel aspects of steroid action can be identified through spatial correlation of steroid receptors with genome-wide mRNA expression across different regions in the mouse brain. First, we observed significant coexpression of six nuclear receptors (NRs) [androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), glucocorticoid receptor (Gr), mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr), and progesterone receptor (Pgr)] with sets of steroid target genes that were identified in single brain regions. These coexpression relationships were also present in distinct other brain regions, suggestive of as yet unidentified coordinate regulation of brain regions by, for example, glucocorticoids and estrogens. Second, coexpression of a set of 62 known NR coregulators and the six steroid receptors in 12 nonoverlapping mouse brain regions revealed selective downstream pathways, such as Pak6 as a mediator for the effects of Ar and Gr on dopaminergic transmission. Third, Magel2 and Irs4 were identified and validated as strongly responsive targets to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol in the mouse hypothalamus. The brain- and genome-wide correlations of mRNA expression levels of six steroid receptors that we provide constitute a rich resource for further predictions and understanding of brain modulation by steroid hormones. PMID:26811448

  15. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Britta K.; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M.; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date, little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical MRI images from sixteen healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the eight-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared to a wait-list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared to the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking. PMID:21071182

  16. 3D MRI brain image segmentation based on region restricted EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Fan, Jianping

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm of 3D human brain tissue segmentation and classification in magnetic resonance image (MRI) based on region restricted EM algorithm (RREM). The RREM is a level set segmentation method while the evolution of the contours was driven by the force field composed by the probability density functions of the Gaussian models. Each tissue is modeled by one or more Gaussian models restricted by free shaped contour so that the Gaussian models are adaptive to the local intensities. The RREM is guaranteed to be convergency and achieving the local minimum. The segmentation avoids to be trapped in the local minimum by the split and merge operation. A fuzzy rule based classifier finally groups the regions belonging to the same tissue and forms the segmented 3D image of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) which are of major interest in numerous applications. The presented method can be extended to segment brain images with tumor or the images having part of the brain removed with the adjusted classifier.

  17. The mouse brain metabolome: region-specific signatures and response to excitotoxic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Christian; Glaab, Enrico; Michelucci, Alessandro; Binz, Tina M; Koeglsberger, Sandra; Garcia, Pierre; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Ghelfi, Jenny; Balling, Rudi; Buttini, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Neurodegeneration is a multistep process characterized by a multitude of molecular entities and their interactions. Systems analyses, or omics approaches, have become an important tool in characterizing this process. Although RNA and protein profiling made their entry into this field a couple of decades ago, metabolite profiling is a more recent addition. The metabolome represents a large part or all metabolites in a tissue, and gives a snapshot of its physiology. By using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we analyzed the metabolic profile of brain regions of the mouse, and found that each region is characterized by its own metabolic signature. We then analyzed the metabolic profile of the mouse brain after excitotoxic injury, a mechanism of neurodegeneration implicated in numerous neurological diseases. More important, we validated our findings by measuring, histologically and molecularly, actual neurodegeneration and glial response. We found that a specific global metabolic signature, best revealed by machine learning algorithms, rather than individual metabolites, was the most robust correlate of neuronal injury and the accompanying gliosis, and this signature could serve as a global biomarker for neurodegeneration. We also observed that brain lesioning induced several metabolites with neuroprotective properties. Our results deepen the understanding of metabolic changes accompanying neurodegeneration in disease models, and could help rapidly evaluate these changes in preclinical drug studies. PMID:25934215

  18. Regional contraction of brain surface area involves three large-scale networks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Mallikarjun, Pavan; Joseph, Verghese; White, Thomas P; Liddle, Peter F

    2011-07-01

    In schizophrenia, morphological changes in the cerebral cortex have been primarily investigated using volumetric or cortical thickness measurements. In healthy subjects, as the brain size increases, the surface area expands disproportionately when compared to the scaling of cortical thickness. In this structural MRI study, we investigated the changes in brain surface area in schizophrenia by constructing relative areal contraction/expansion maps showing group differences in surface area using Freesurfer software in 57 patients and 41 controls. We observed relative areal contraction affecting Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and Salience Network, in addition to other regions in schizophrenia. We confirmed the surface area reduction across these three large-scale brain networks by undertaking further region-of-interest analysis of surface area. We also observed a significant hemispheric asymmetry in the surface area changes, with the left hemisphere showing a greater reduction in the areal contraction maps. Our findings suggest that a fundamental disturbance in cortical expansion is likely in individuals who develop schizophrenia. PMID:21497489

  19. Differential, regional, and cellular expression of the stathmin family transcripts in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ozon, S; El Mestikawy, S; Sobel, A

    1999-06-01

    Stathmin is a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein, preferentially expressed in the nervous system, and previously described as a relay integrating diverse intracellular signaling pathways. Stathmin is the generic element of a mammalian protein family including SCG10, SCLIP, and RB3 with its splice variants RB3' and RB3". In contrast with stathmin, SCG10, SCLIP, and RB3/RB3'/RB3" are exclusively expressed in the nervous system, stathmin and SCG10 being mostly expressed during cell proliferation and differentiation, and SCLIP and RB3 rather in mature neural cells. To further understand their specific roles in the CNS, we compared the localization of the stathmin, SCG10, SCLIP, and RB3 transcripts in adult rat brain. Northern blot analysis as well as in situ hybridization experiments showed that all stathmin-related mRNAs are expressed in a wide range of adult rat brain areas. At a regional level, SCG10 and SCLIP appear generally distributed similarly except in a few areas. The pattern of expression of the RB3 transcript is very different from that of the three other members of the stathmin family. Furthermore, unlike SCG10 and SCLIP, which were detected only in neurons, but like stathmin, RB3 was detected in neurons and also in glial cells of the white matter. Altogether, our results suggest distinct roles for each member of the stathmin-related phosphoprotein family, in regard to their specific regional and cellular localization in the rat brain. PMID:10369222

  20. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  1. Regional Volume Decreases in the Brain of Pax6 Heterozygous Mutant Rats: MRI Deformation-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kikkawa, Takako; Kawashima, Ryuta; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Pax6 is a transcription factor that pleiotropically regulates various developmental processes in the central nervous system. In a previous study, we revealed that Pax6 heterozygous mutant (rSey2/+) adult rats exhibit abnormalities in social interaction. However, the brain malformations underlying the behavioral abnormality are unknown. To elucidate the brain malformations in rSey2/+ rats, we morphometrically analyzed brains of rSey2/+ and wild type rats using small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixty 10-week-old rats underwent brain MRI (29 rSey2/+ rats and 31 wild type rats). SPM8 software was used for image preprocessing and statistical image analysis. Normalized maps of the Jacobian determinant, a parameter for the expansion and/or contraction of brain regions, were obtained for each rat. rSey2/+ rats showed significant volume decreases in various brain regions including the neocortex, corpus callosum, olfactory structures, hippocampal formation, diencephalon, and midbrain compared to wild type rats. Among brain regions, the anterior commissure showed significant interaction between genotype and sex, indicating the effect of genotype difference on the anterior commissure volume was more robust in females than in males. The rSey2/+ rats exhibited decreased volume in various gray and white matter regions of the brain, which may contribute to manifestation of abnormal social behaviors. PMID:27355350

  2. Regional Volume Decreases in the Brain of Pax6 Heterozygous Mutant Rats: MRI Deformation-Based Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kikkawa, Takako; Kawashima, Ryuta; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Pax6 is a transcription factor that pleiotropically regulates various developmental processes in the central nervous system. In a previous study, we revealed that Pax6 heterozygous mutant (rSey2/+) adult rats exhibit abnormalities in social interaction. However, the brain malformations underlying the behavioral abnormality are unknown. To elucidate the brain malformations in rSey2/+ rats, we morphometrically analyzed brains of rSey2/+ and wild type rats using small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixty 10-week-old rats underwent brain MRI (29 rSey2/+ rats and 31 wild type rats). SPM8 software was used for image preprocessing and statistical image analysis. Normalized maps of the Jacobian determinant, a parameter for the expansion and/or contraction of brain regions, were obtained for each rat. rSey2/+ rats showed significant volume decreases in various brain regions including the neocortex, corpus callosum, olfactory structures, hippocampal formation, diencephalon, and midbrain compared to wild type rats. Among brain regions, the anterior commissure showed significant interaction between genotype and sex, indicating the effect of genotype difference on the anterior commissure volume was more robust in females than in males. The rSey2/+ rats exhibited decreased volume in various gray and white matter regions of the brain, which may contribute to manifestation of abnormal social behaviors. PMID:27355350

  3. The effect of education on regional brain metabolism and its functional connectivity in an aged population utilizing positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeik; Chey, Jeanyung; Kim, Sang-Eun; Kim, Hoyoung

    2015-05-01

    Education involves learning new information and acquiring cognitive skills. These require various cognitive processes including learning, memory, and language. Since cognitive processes activate associated brain areas, we proposed that the brains of elderly people with longer education periods would show traces of repeated activation as increased synaptic connectivity and capillary in brain areas involved in learning, memory, and language. Utilizing positron emission topography (PET), this study examined the effect of education in the human brain utilizing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism rates (rCMRglcs). 26 elderly women with high-level education (HEG) and 26 with low-level education (LEG) were compared with regard to their regional brain activation and association between the regions. Further, graphical theoretical analysis using rCMRglcs was applied to examine differences in the functional network properties of the brain. The results showed that the HEG had higher rCMRglc in the ventral cerebral regions that are mainly involved in memory, language, and neurogenesis, while the LEG had higher rCMRglc in apical areas of the cerebrum mainly involved in motor and somatosensory functions. Functional connectivity investigated with graph theoretical analysis illustrated that the brain of the HEG compared to those of the LEG were overall more efficient, more resilient, and characterized by small-worldness. This may be one of the brain's mechanisms mediating the reserve effects found in people with higher education. PMID:25557900

  4. REGION-SPECIFIC MECHANISMS FOR TESTOSTERONE-INDUCED FOS IN HAMSTER BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Nagypál, Anita; Wood, Ruth I.

    2007-01-01

    Hamsters self-administer androgens. Previously, we determined that testosterone (T) activates select steroid- and opiate-sensitive brain regions. Is T-stimulated neuronal activation androgenic? 35 castrated males with physiologic T replacement (n=7/group) were pre-treated with the androgen antagonist flutamide (15 mg/kg sc) or ethanol (0.25 ml), and infused into the lateral ventricle (ICV) for 4h with 40 μg T (TF and TE, respectively) or 40 μl vehicle (VF and VE). To determine if androgens and opiates activate overlapping brain areas, 7 additional males received 20 μg morphine sulfate ICV following ethanol injection (ME). Immediately after ICV infusion, animals were perfused. 60 μm coronal brain slices were stained for Fos. Fos-positive neurons were counted in a 0.3 mm2 area from 5 regions previously shown to express T-induced Fos: the posteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTPM), posteromedial amygdala (MeP), lateral habenula (LHb), ventral tegmental area, and lateral pontine nucleus. T induced Fos in all areas reported previously (TE vs. VE, p<0.05), except LHb (p>0.05). Morphine induced Fos in all 5 brain regions (ME vs. VE, p<0.05), indicating that androgens and opiates activate overlapping brain regions. Flutamide alone did not induce Fos (VF vs. VE, p>0.05). Moreover, flutamide treatment blocked T-induced Fos expression only in the steroid-sensitive BSTPM, suggesting that androgens mediate neuronal activation in this area (mean±SEM: TF: 68.4±13.2 vs. TE: 137.9±17.6, p<0.05). The absence of flutamide effects on T-induced Fos in the steroid-sensitive MeP (TE: 210.6±50.0 vs. TF: 215.3±28.2, p>0.05) suggests that distinct mechanisms activate Fos in individual androgen-responsive nuclei. PMID:17276422

  5. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  6. Are there theory of mind regions in the brain? A review of the neuroimaging literature.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Sarah J; Bailey, Anthony J

    2009-08-01

    There have been many functional imaging studies of the brain basis of theory of mind (ToM) skills, but the findings are heterogeneous and implicate anatomical regions as far apart as orbitofrontal cortex and the inferior parietal lobe. The functional imaging studies are reviewed to determine whether the diverse findings are due to methodological factors. The studies are considered according to the paradigm employed (e.g., stories vs. cartoons and explicit vs. implicit ToM instructions), the mental state(s) investigated, and the language demands of the tasks. Methodological variability does not seem to account for the variation in findings, although this conclusion may partly reflect the relatively small number of studies. Alternatively, several distinct brain regions may be activated during ToM reasoning, forming an integrated functional "network." The imaging findings suggest that there are several "core" regions in the network-including parts of the prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus-while several more "peripheral" regions may contribute to ToM reasoning in a manner contingent on relatively minor aspects of the ToM task. PMID:19034900

  7. Reduced glucose uptake and Aβ in brain regions with hyperintensities in connected white matter

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, H.; Tsui, W.; Mosconi, L.; Li, Y.; Osorio, R.S.; Williams, S.; Randall, C.; Spector, N.; McHugh, P.; Murray, J.; Pirraglia, E.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Raj, A.; de Leon, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial concentration of amyloid beta (Aß) is positively related to synaptic activity in animal experiments. In humans, Aß deposition in Alzheimer's disease overlaps with cortical regions highly active earlier in life. White matter lesions (WML) disrupt connections between gray matter (GM) regions which in turn changes their activation patterns. Here, we tested if WML are related to Aß accumulation (measured with PiB-PET) and glucose uptake (measured with FDGPET) in connected GM. WML masks from 72 cognitively normal (age 61.7±9.6 years, 71% women) individuals were obtained from T2-FLAIR. MRI and PET images were normalized into common space, segmented and parcellated into gray matter (GM) regions. The effects of WML on connected GM regions were assessed using the Change in Connectivity (ChaCo) score. Defined for each GM region, ChaCo is the percentage of WM tracts connecting to that region that pass through the WML mask. The regional relationship between ChaCo, glucose uptake and Aß was explored via linear regression. Subcortical regions of the bilateral caudate, putamen, calcarine, insula, thalamus and anterior cingulum had WM connections with the most lesions, followed by frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Regional analysis revealed that GM with more lesions in connecting WM and thus impaired connectivity had lower FDG-PET (r=0.20, p<0.05 corrected) and lower PiB uptake (r=0.28, p<0.05 corrected). Regional regression also revealed that both ChaCo (β=0.045) and FDG-PET (β=0.089) were significant predictors of PiB. In conclusion, brain regions with more lesions in connecting WM had lower glucose metabolism and lower Aß deposition. PMID:24999038

  8. Seasonal and Regional Differences in Gene Expression in the Brain of a Hibernating Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christine; Hampton, Marshall; Andrews, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel utilization. This study

  9. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  10. Fast functional imaging of multiple brain regions in intact zebrafish larvae using selective plane illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Panier, Thomas; Romano, Sebastián A; Olive, Raphaël; Pietri, Thomas; Sumbre, Germán; Candelier, Raphaël; Debrégeas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The optical transparency and the small dimensions of zebrafish at the larval stage make it a vertebrate model of choice for brain-wide in-vivo functional imaging. However, current point-scanning imaging techniques, such as two-photon or confocal microscopy, impose a strong limit on acquisition speed which in turn sets the number of neurons that can be simultaneously recorded. At 5 Hz, this number is of the order of one thousand, i.e., approximately 1-2% of the brain. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be greatly overcome by using Selective-plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM). Zebrafish larvae expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were illuminated with a scanned laser sheet and imaged with a camera whose optical axis was oriented orthogonally to the illumination plane. This optical sectioning approach was shown to permit functional imaging of a very large fraction of the brain volume of 5-9-day-old larvae with single- or near single-cell resolution. The spontaneous activity of up to 5,000 neurons was recorded at 20 Hz for 20-60 min. By rapidly scanning the specimen in the axial direction, the activity of 25,000 individual neurons from 5 different z-planes (approximately 30% of the entire brain) could be simultaneously monitored at 4 Hz. Compared to point-scanning techniques, this imaging strategy thus yields a ≃20-fold increase in data throughput (number of recorded neurons times acquisition rate) without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The extended field of view offered by the SPIM method allowed us to directly identify large scale ensembles of neurons, spanning several brain regions, that displayed correlated activity and were thus likely to participate in common neural processes. The benefits and limitations of SPIM for functional imaging in zebrafish as well as future developments are briefly discussed. PMID:23576959

  11. Molecular profiling of the developing avian telencephalon: regional timing and brain subdivision continuities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chun; Winkler, Candace M.; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    In our companion study (Jarvis et al., 2013) we used quantitative brain molecular profiling to discover that distinct subdivisions in the avian pallium above and below the ventricle and the associated mesopallium lamina have similar molecular profiles, leading to a hypothesis that they may form as continuous subdivisions around the lateral ventricle. To explore this hypothesis, here we profiled the expression of 16 genes at 8 developmental stages. The genes included those that define brain subdivisions in the adult and some that are also involved in brain development. We found that phyletic hierarchical cluster and linear regression network analyses of gene expression profiles implicated single and mix ancestry of these brain regions at early embryonic stages. Most gene expression-defined pallial subdivisions began as one ventral or dorsal domain that later formed specific folds around the lateral ventricle. Subsequently a clear ventricle boundary formed, partitioning them into dorsal and ventral pallial subdivisions surrounding the mesopallium lamina. These subdivisions each included two parts of the mesopallium, the nidopallium and hyperpallium, and the arcopallium and hippocampus, respectively. Each subdivision expression profile had a different temporal order of appearance, similar in timing to the order of analogous cell types of the mammalian cortex. Further, like the mammalian pallium, expression in the ventral pallial subdivisions became distinct during pre-hatch development, whereas the dorsal portions did so during post-hatch development. These findings support the continuum hypothesis of avian brain subdivision development around the ventricle and influence hypotheses on homologies of the avian pallium with other vertebrates. PMID:23818174

  12. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  13. Effect of time period after boric acid injection on 10B absorption in different regions of adult male rat's brain.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Behnam; Goodarzi, Samereh

    2012-06-01

    Distribution of (10)B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of (10)B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest (10)B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. PMID:22476013

  14. Diversity of endurance training effects on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in different brain regions of adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J

    2015-08-01

    Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal

  15. Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Paul; Zhou, Juan; Lim, Joseph K W; Poh, Joann S; Zheng, Hui; Tng, Han Ying; Krishnan, Ranga; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S E; Adcock, R Alison; Wood, Stephen J; Fornito, Alex; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-11-01

    There is cumulative evidence that young people in an "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to, but less extensive than those reported in established schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while large studies from other populations are missing. We conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we did not find any statistically significant difference between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2 regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes, did not return any significant difference either. Several characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in ARMS. PMID:25745033

  16. Brain regions and molecular pathways responding to food reward type and value in honey bees.

    PubMed

    McNeill, M S; Kapheim, K M; Brockmann, A; McGill, T A W; Robinson, G E

    2016-03-01

    The ability of honey bees to evaluate differences in food type and value is crucial for colony success, but these assessments are made by individuals who bring food to the hive, eating little, if any, of it themselves. We tested the hypothesis that responses to food type (pollen or nectar) and value involve different subsets of brain regions, and genes responsive to food. mRNA in situ hybridization of c-jun revealed that brain regions responsive to differences in food type were mostly different from regions responsive to differences in food value, except those dorsal and lateral to the mushroom body calyces, which responded to all three. Transcriptomic profiles of the mushroom bodies generated by RNA sequencing gave the following results: (1) responses to differences in food type or value included a subset of molecular pathways involved in the response to food reward; (2) genes responsive to food reward, food type and food value were enriched for (the Gene Ontology categories) mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum activity; (3) genes responsive to only food and food type were enriched for regulation of transcription and translation; and (4) genes responsive to only food and food value were enriched for regulation of neuronal signaling. These results reveal how activities necessary for colony survival are channeled through the reward system of individual honey bees. PMID:26566901

  17. Genetic variability in the regulation of gene expression in ten regions of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Vibin; Smith, Colin; Walker, Robert; De, Tisham; Coin, Lachlan; de Silva, Rohan; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Germ-line genetic control of gene expression occurs via expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We present a large, exon-specific eQTL data set covering ten human brain regions. We found that cis-eQTL signals (within 1 Mb of their target gene) were numerous, and many acted heterogeneously among regions and exons. Co-regulation analysis of shared eQTL signals produced well-defined modules of region-specific co-regulated genes, in contrast to standard coexpression analysis of the same samples. We report cis-eQTL signals for 23.1% of catalogued genome-wide association study hits for adult-onset neurological disorders. The data set is publicly available via public data repositories and via http://www.braineac.org/. Our study increases our understanding of the regulation of gene expression in the human brain and will be of value to others pursuing functional follow-up of disease-associated variants. PMID:25174004

  18. Regional Homogeneity of Intrinsic Brain Activity in Happy and Unhappy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangmei; Huang, Xiting; Yang, Zhen; Li, Baolin; Liu, Jie; Wei, Dongtao

    2014-01-01

    Background Why are some people happier than others? This question has intrigued many researchers. However, limited work has addressed this question within a neuroscientific framework. Methods The present study investigated the neural correlates of trait happiness using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) approach. Specifically, regional homogeneity (ReHo) was examined on two groups of young adults: happy and unhappy individuals (N = 25 per group). Results Decreased ReHo in unhappy relative to happy individuals was observed within prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, superior temporal lobe, and retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, increased ReHo in unhappy relative to happy individuals was observed within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle cingulate gyrus, putamen, and thalamus. In addition, the ReHo within the left thalamus was negatively correlated with Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) score within the happy group. Limitations As an exploratory study, we examined how general trait happiness is reflected in the regional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in a relatively small sample. Examining other types of happiness in a larger sample using a multitude of intrinsic brain activity indices are warranted for future work. Conclusions The local synchronization of BOLD signal is altered in unhappy individuals. The regions implicated in this alteration partly overlapped with previously identified default mode network, emotional circuitry, and rewarding system, suggesting that these systems may be involved in happiness. PMID:24454814

  19. Correlations between apolipoprotein E ε4 gene dose and brain-imaging measurements of regional hypometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Alexander, Gene E.; Caselli, Richard J.; Bandy, Daniel; Osborne, David; Saunders, Ann M.; Hardy, John

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have abnormally low positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in regions of the precuneus and the posterior cingulate, parietotemporal, and frontal cortex. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene dose (i.e., the number of ε4 alleles in a person's APOE genotype) is associated with a higher risk of AD and a younger age at dementia onset. We previously found that cognitively normal late-middle-aged APOE ε4 carriers have abnormally low CMRgl in the same brain regions as patients with probable Alzheimer's dementia. In a PET study of 160 cognitively normal subjects 47–68 years of age, including 36 ε4 homozygotes, 46 heterozygotes, and 78 ε4 noncarriers who were individually matched for their gender, age, and educational level, we now find that ε4 gene dose is correlated with lower CMRgl in each of these brain regions. This study raises the possibility of using PET as a quantitative presymptomatic endophenotype to help evaluate the individual and aggregate effects of putative genetic and nongenetic modifiers of AD risk. PMID:15932949

  20. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C; Small, Steven L

    2010-06-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury. PMID:20466762

  1. Brain reward region responsivity of adolescents with and without parental substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-09-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (n = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from 2 smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively, results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model. PMID:24128289

  2. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury. PMID:20466762

  3. HIV-1 Tat-Mediated Calcium Dysregulation and Neuronal Dysfunction in Vulnerable Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy, more than half of HIV-1-infected patients in the USA show HIV-associated neurological and neuropsychiatric deficits. This is accompanied by anatomical and functional alterations in vulnerable brain regions of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal systems that regulate cognition, mood and motivation-driven behaviors, and could occur at early stages of infection. Neurons are not infected by HIV, but HIV-1 proteins (including but not limited to the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription, Tat) induce Ca2+ dysregulation, indicated by abnormal and excessive Ca2+ influx and increased intracellular Ca2+ release that consequentially elevate cytosolic free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]in). Such alterations in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis significantly disturb normal functioning of neurons, and induce dysregulation, injury, and death of neurons or non-neuronal cells, and associated tissue loss in HIV-vulnerable brain regions. This review discusses certain unique mechanisms, particularly the over-activation and/or upregulation of the ligand-gated ionotropic glutamatergic NMDA receptor (NMDAR), the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel (L-channel) and the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel (a non-selective cation channel that is also permeable for Ca2+), which may underlie the deleterious effects of Tat on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and neuronal hyper-excitation that could ultimately result in excitotoxicity. This review also seeks to provide summarized information for future studies focusing on comprehensive elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological effects of Tat (as well as some other HIV-1 proteins and immunoinflammatory molecules) on neuronal function, particularly in HIV-vulnerable brain regions. PMID:26028040

  4. Brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are present during the disease course of nearly all AD patients and consist of psychosis, agitation/aggression, and depression, among others. Given their detrimental consequences regarding life expectancy, cognition, and socio-economic costs, it is essential to elucidate their neurochemical etiology to facilitate the development of novel and effective pharmacotherapeutics. This study attempted to identify brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of NPS by measuring the levels of eight monoamines and metabolites in nine relevant postmortem brain regions of 40 behaviorally characterized AD patients, i.e., dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), using RP-HPLC-ECD. Likewise, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations were calculated. As a result, MMSE scores, used as a measure of dementia severity, correlated positively with hippocampal 5-HIAA levels as well as with 5-HT levels of the superior temporal gyrus and cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, hippocampal 5-HIAA levels inversely correlated with agitation scores, whereas thalamic MHPG levels comparably did with the presence of hallucinations. Finally, in the cerebellar cortex, DOPAC/DA ratios, indicative of DA turnover, correlated with physically agitated behavior while MHPG levels correlated with affective disturbances. These findings support the assumption that specific NPS features in AD might be (in)directly related to brain region-specific monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations. Additionally, the effect of AD pathology on neurochemical alterations in the cerebellum requires further examination due to its important but underestimated role in the neurochemical pathophysiology of NPS in AD. PMID:24685637

  5. Loss in connectivity among regions of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Raj, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) regions. LoCo scores are computed from WM abnormality masks derived at two levels: (1) groupwise differences of alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) versus light-drinking (LD) controls and (2) differences of each ALC individual versus the LD control group. LoCo scores based on groupwise WM differences show that GM regions belonging to the extended brain reward system (BRS) network have significantly higher LoCo (i.e., disconnectivity) than those not in this network (t = 2.18, P = 0.016). LoCo scores based on individuals' WM differences are also higher in BRS versus non-BRS (t = 5.26, P = 3.92 × 10(-6) ) of ALC. These results suggest that WM alterations in alcohol dependence, although subtle and spatially heterogeneous across the population, are nonetheless preferentially localized to the BRS. LoCo is shown to provide a more sensitive estimate of GM involvement than conventional volumetric GM measures by better differentiating between brains of ALC and LD controls (rates of 89.3% vs. 69.6%). However, just as volumetric measures, LoCo is not significantly correlated with standard metrics of drinking severity. LoCo is a sensitive WM measure of regional cortical disconnectivity that uniquely characterizes anatomical network disruptions in alcohol dependence. PMID:22815206

  6. Regional Brain Changes Occurring during Disobedience to “Experts” in Financial Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Brown, Matthew R. G.; Morck, Randall K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that individuals follow “Expert” advice, even when flawed and offers no advantage, and sometimes leads to disadvantages. The neurobiology underlying this is uncertain, and in particular there is an incomplete understanding of which brain regions are most involved when individuals chose to disobey an expert. To study this we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) differences during an investment game where subjects received differentially credible investment advice. Participants (n = 42; 32 males) played an investment game, in which they could Buy or Not Buy a sequence of stocks. The better they did, the more money they made. Participants received either “Expert” advice or “Peer” advice. Those receiving Expert advice were told the advice came from a certified financial “Expert”. Those receiving Peer Advice were told the advice was that of the student administering the scans, who deliberately dressed and acted casually. Both streams of advice were predetermined and identical. The advice was scripted to be helpful initially, but progressively worse as the task continued, becoming 100% wrong by the end of the task. Subjects receiving Expert Advice followed the advice significantly longer on average, even though this was progressively worse advice. Thus, following Expert advice had poorer consequences for individuals, but this did not dissuade them from continuing to follow the advice. In contrast, when subjects disobeyed Expert advice they exhibited significant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior frontal gyrus activation relative to those disobeying Peer advice. These findings may suggest that in subjects who defy authority, or believe they are doing so (in this case by disobeying an “Expert”) there is increased activation of these two brain regions. This may have relevance to several areas of behavior, and the potential role of these two brain regions in regard to disobedience behavior requires

  7. HIV-1 Tat-Mediated Calcium Dysregulation and Neuronal Dysfunction in Vulnerable Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy, more than half of HIV-1-infected patients in the USA show HIV-associated neurological and neuropsychiatric deficits. This is accompanied by anatomical and functional alterations in vulnerable brain regions of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal systems that regulate cognition, mood and motivation-driven behaviors, and could occur at early stages of infection. Neurons are not infected by HIV, but HIV-1 proteins (including but not limited to the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription, Tat) induce Ca(2+) dysregulation, indicated by abnormal and excessive Ca(2+) influx and increased intracellular Ca(2+) release that consequentially elevate cytosolic free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]in). Such alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis significantly disturb normal functioning of neurons, and induce dysregulation, injury, and death of neurons or non-neuronal cells, and associated tissue loss in HIV-vulnerable brain regions. This review discusses certain unique mechanisms, particularly the over-activation and/or upregulation of the ligand-gated ionotropic glutamatergic NMDA receptor (NMDAR), the voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel (L-channel) and the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel (a non-selective cation channel that is also permeable for Ca(2+)), which may underlie the deleterious effects of Tat on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and neuronal hyper-excitation that could ultimately result in excitotoxicity. This review also seeks to provide summarized information for future studies focusing on comprehensive elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological effects of Tat (as well as some other HIV-1 proteins and immunoinflammatory molecules) on neuronal function, particularly in HIV-vulnerable brain regions. PMID:26028040

  8. Regional expression of Pax7 in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Pax7 is a member of the highly conserved Pax gene family that is expressed in restricted zones of the central nervous system (CNS) during development, being involved in early brain regionalization and the maintenance of the regional identity. Using sensitive immunohistochemical techniques we have analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of Pax7 expression in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, during development. Pax7 expression was first detected in early embryos in the basal plate of prosomere 3, roof and alar plates of prosomere 1 and mesencephalon, and the alar plate of rhombomere 1. As development proceeded, Pax7 cells were observed in the hypothalamus close to the catecholaminergic population of the mammillary region. In the diencephalon, Pax7 was intensely expressed in a portion of the basal plate of prosomere 3, in the roof plate and in scattered cells of the thalamus in prosomere 2, throughout the roof of prosomere 1, and in the commissural and juxtacommissural domains of the pretectum. In the mesencephalon, Pax7 cells were localized in the optic tectum and, to a lesser extent, in the torus semicircularis. The rostral portion of the alar part of rhombomere 1, including the ventricular layer of the cerebellum, expressed Pax7 and, gradually, some of these dorsal cells were observed to populate ventrally the interpeduncular nucleus and the isthmus (rhombomere 0). Additionally, Pax7 positive cells were found in the ventricular zone of the ventral part of the alar plate along the rhombencephalon and the spinal cord. The findings show that the strongly conserved features of Pax7 expression through development shared by amniote vertebrates are also present in the anamniote amphibians as a common characteristic of the brain organization of tetrapods. PMID:24399938

  9. Regional dependence of morphine-induced mu-opiate receptor down-regulation in perinatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R P; Seatriz, J V; Ricalde, A R

    1991-12-17

    The effect of perinatal morphine administration was examined in various brain regions using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Morphine was administered by continuous s.c. infusion of 10 mg/kg per day; brains of offspring were examined at five days of age. Morphine exposure reduced mu-receptor binding density in the preoptic area of hypothalamus, but not in the primary somatosensory cortex. mu-Receptor density was greater in the medial preoptic area of females than males, and in superficial layers of cortex in males than females. The results suggest that morphine has selective regional effects on mu-receptor ontogeny in rat brain. PMID:1665797

  10. Automatic classification of sulcal regions of the human brain cortex using pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Kirsten J.; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Pham, Dzung L.; Shen, Dinggang; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Prince, Jerry L.

    2003-05-01

    Parcellation of the cortex has received a great deal of attention in magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis, but its usefulness has been limited by time-consuming algorithms that require manual labeling. An automatic labeling scheme is necessary to accurately and consistently parcellate a large number of brains. The large variation of cortical folding patterns makes automatic labeling a challenging problem, which cannot be solved by deformable atlas registration alone. In this work, an automated classification scheme that consists of a mix of both atlas driven and data driven methods is proposed to label the sulcal regions, which are defined as the gray matter regions of the cortical surface surrounding each sulcus. The premise for this algorithm is that sulcal regions can be classified according to the pattern of anatomical features (e.g. supramarginal gyrus, cuneus, etc.) associated with each region. Using a nearest-neighbor approach, a sulcal region is classified as being in the same class as the sulcus from a set of training data which has the nearest pattern of anatomical features. Using just one subject as training data, the algorithm correctly labeled 83% of the regions that make up the main sulci of the cortex.

  11. Hypoglycaemia-induced changes in regional brain volume and memory function

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, B. A.; Lugar, H. M.; Smith, S. E.; Meyer, E. J.; Perantie, D. C.; Kolody, B. C.; Koller, J. M.; Arbelaez, A. M.; Shimony, J. S.; Hershey, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoglycaemic events can be a serious complication of insulin therapy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Severe hypoglycaemic exposure can lead to episodic memory impairments, including anterograde amnesia. However, relatively little is known regarding the long-term impact of severe hypoglycaemia on brain structure in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The goals of the present study were to gain a greater understanding of the long-term effects of severe hypoglycaemia exposure on brain structure and the neural correlates of memory impairments in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Case report Regional grey and white matter volume and total white matter lesion volume were quantified in an individual with long-standing hypoglycaemia-induced anterograde amnesia and compared with age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Our patient has significant reductions in grey matter volume in the hippocampus, thalamus and pallidum, and significant reductions in white matter volume in the splenium, isthmus of the cingulate and cerebellum. He also has a significantly larger total white matter lesion volume than control subjects. Conclusion This case study highlights the potential of hypoglycaemia for permanent deleterious effects on brain structure and memory function. Our results suggest that subcortical grey matter, periventricular white matter and posterior white matter may be most susceptible to injury from hypoglycaemia exposure, and that structural damage to the hippocampus and isthmus of the cingulate may play a central role in hypoglycaemia-induced memory impairments. PMID:23330574

  12. Brain-Region-Specific Organoids Using Mini-bioreactors for Modeling ZIKV Exposure.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xuyu; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Song, Mingxi M; Hadiono, Christopher; Ogden, Sarah C; Hammack, Christy; Yao, Bing; Hamersky, Gregory R; Jacob, Fadi; Zhong, Chun; Yoon, Ki-Jun; Jeang, William; Lin, Li; Li, Yujing; Thakor, Jai; Berg, Daniel A; Zhang, Ce; Kang, Eunchai; Chickering, Michael; Nauen, David; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Wen, Zhexing; Christian, Kimberly M; Shi, Pei-Yong; Maher, Brady J; Wu, Hao; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hengli; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-05-19

    Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability, and tissue heterogeneity limit their broad applications. Here, we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids recapitulate key features of human cortical development, including progenitor zone organization, neurogenesis, gene expression, and, notably, a distinct human-specific outer radial glia cell layer. We also developed protocols for midbrain and hypothalamic organoids. Finally, we employed the forebrain organoid platform to model Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure. Quantitative analyses revealed preferential, productive infection of neural progenitors with either African or Asian ZIKV strains. ZIKV infection leads to increased cell death and reduced proliferation, resulting in decreased neuronal cell-layer volume resembling microcephaly. Together, our brain-region-specific organoids and SpinΩ provide an accessible and versatile platform for modeling human brain development and disease and for compound testing, including potential ZIKV antiviral drugs. PMID:27118425

  13. Graft derived cells with double nuclei in the penumbral region of experimental brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Eszter M; Lacza, Zsombor; Csordás, Attila; Szabó, Csaba; Kollai, Márk; Busija, David W

    2006-04-01

    Recent in vitro studies showed that stem cells might fuse with mature cells or each other; however, there is no in vivo evidence for this phenomenon in the cerebral cortex. Our goal was to find evidence for cell fusion in a model of traumatic brain injury followed by grafting of embryonic cortical cells. Cold lesion protocol was applied to induce lesion of the motor cortex in adult male rats. Six days later we grafted a suspension of freshly isolated rat brain cortical cells of early embryonic stage (E14) into the penumbra area of the lesion. The grafted cell nuclei were labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). Six days after transplantation 4,328 BrDU positive cells were observed in nine animals. 89.5% of these cells had cytoplasmic staining probably representing dead or phagocyted grafted cells. Ten percent of surviving BrDU positive cells had only one BrDU positive nucleus and negative cytoplasm, while 0.5% had two distinct nuclei, one was unlabelled and one was BrDU positive. These cells were similar in appearance and size to the astrocytes in the vicinity and expressed the astocyte specific glial fibrillaly acidic protein. Thus, these cells showed a possible sign of cell fusion in the penumbral region of the injured brain. PMID:16377084

  14. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  15. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J.; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A.; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Unwin, Richard D.; Cooper, Garth J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  16. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  17. What Is the Threshold of Teachers' Recognition and Report of Concerns about Anxiety and Depression in Students? An Exploratory Study with Teachers of Adolescents in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgen, Michelle; Lawn, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety and depression in adolescence is prevalent but often unrecognised and untreated. This can lead to serious disorders in later life. This study explored how teachers recognise anxiety and depression in secondary school students and act on their concerns. Method: Twenty teachers from four secondary colleges in regional Victoria,…

  18. A Profile of the Needs and Concerns of English Speaking Public Secondary School Science Teachers from Five Geographic Regions of the Republic of Lebanon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jbeily, Kamil Assaad; Barufaldi, James P.

    This study identified the needs and concerns of English speaking public secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics teachers in the five geographic regions of the Republic of Lebanon. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, a modified version of the Moore Assessment Profile (an instrument developed to assess the needs of…

  19. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  20. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Butler, Julie M; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and -ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during territorial

  1. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Early Region 1A Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Pretto, Carla D.; Castro Jorge, Luiza A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infects endothelial cells and disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causing encephalitis in inbred and outbred mice. Using a virus mutant that does not produce the early region 1A protein E1A, we investigated whether the activity of this known viral transcriptional regulator is needed for BBB disruption and other phenotypes associated with encephalitis. The wild-type (wt) virus and E1A mutant virus caused similar levels of permeability of sodium fluorescein in brains of infected mice. In an in vitro assay of BBB integrity, wt and mutant virus caused similar decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance in primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayers. These results indicate that E1A protein does not contribute to disruption of BBB integrity in animals or cultured cells. Both wt and E1A mutant virus infection of mice led to similar increases in the activity of two matrix metalloproteinases known to correlate with BBB disruption, MMP2 and MMP9, while causing no increase in the steady-state expression of MMP2 or MMP9 mRNA. In contrast, the amount of MMP3 transcripts increased upon infection by both viruses and to a higher level in infections by the mutant virus lacking E1A protein production. There was no difference in the levels of steady-state expression of mRNA for tight junction proteins among mock virus, wt virus, and mutant virus infections. Thus, the MAV-1 E1A protein does not measurably affect BBB integrity in the parameters assayed, although it reduces the amount of MMP3 mRNA steady-state expression induced in brains upon infection. IMPORTANCE Encephalitis can be caused by viruses, and it is potentially life-threatening because of the vital nature of the brain and the lack of treatment options. MAV-1 produces viral encephalitis in its natural host, providing a model for investigating factors involved in development of encephalitis. MAV-1 infection disrupts the BBB and increases activity of matrix

  2. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Early Region 1A Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Pretto, Carla D; Castro Jorge, Luiza A; Spindler, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infects endothelial cells and disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causing encephalitis in inbred and outbred mice. Using a virus mutant that does not produce the early region 1A protein E1A, we investigated whether the activity of this known viral transcriptional regulator is needed for BBB disruption and other phenotypes associated with encephalitis. The wild-type (wt) virus and E1A mutant virus caused similar levels of permeability of sodium fluorescein in brains of infected mice. In an in vitro assay of BBB integrity, wt and mutant virus caused similar decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance in primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayers. These results indicate that E1A protein does not contribute to disruption of BBB integrity in animals or cultured cells. Both wt and E1A mutant virus infection of mice led to similar increases in the activity of two matrix metalloproteinases known to correlate with BBB disruption, MMP2 and MMP9, while causing no increase in the steady-state expression of MMP2 or MMP9 mRNA. In contrast, the amount of MMP3 transcripts increased upon infection by both viruses and to a higher level in infections by the mutant virus lacking E1A protein production. There was no difference in the levels of steady-state expression of mRNA for tight junction proteins among mock virus, wt virus, and mutant virus infections. Thus, the MAV-1 E1A protein does not measurably affect BBB integrity in the parameters assayed, although it reduces the amount of MMP3 mRNA steady-state expression induced in brains upon infection. IMPORTANCE Encephalitis can be caused by viruses, and it is potentially life-threatening because of the vital nature of the brain and the lack of treatment options. MAV-1 produces viral encephalitis in its natural host, providing a model for investigating factors involved in development of encephalitis. MAV-1 infection disrupts the BBB and increases activity of matrix metalloproteinases in

  3. Quantitative gene expression profiling of mouse brain regions reveals differential transcripts conserved in human and affected in disease models.

    PubMed

    Brochier, Camille; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Diguet, Elsa; Caudy, Nicolas; Dossat, Carole; Ségurens, Béatrice; Wincker, Patrick; Roze, Emmanuel; Caboche, Jocelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Elalouf, Jean-Marc; de Chaldée, Michel

    2008-04-22

    Using serial analysis of gene expression, we collected quantitative transcriptome data in 11 regions of the adult wild-type mouse brain: the orbital, prelimbic, cingulate, motor, somatosensory, and entorhinal cortices, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the substantia nigra, and the ventral tegmental area. With >1.2 million cDNA tags sequenced, this database is a powerful resource to explore brain functions and disorders. As an illustration, we performed interregional comparisons and found 315 differential transcripts. Most of them are poorly characterized and 20% lack functional annotation. For 78 differential transcripts, we provide independent expression level measurements in mouse brain regions by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We also show examples where we used in situ hybridization to achieve infrastructural resolution. For 30 transcripts, we next demonstrated that regional enrichment is conserved in the human brain. We then quantified the expression levels of region-enriched transcripts in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington disease and the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease and observed significant alterations in the striatum, cerebral cortex, thalamus and substantia nigra of R6/2 mice and in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. These results show that the gene expression data provided here for the mouse brain can be used to explore pathophysiological models and disclose transcripts differentially expressed in human brain regions. PMID:18252803

  4. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  5. Notch Receptor Expression in Neurogenic Regions of the Adult Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Carlos, Vanessa; Ganz, Julia; Hans, Stefan; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches. PMID:24039926

  6. Neurochemical measurement of adenosine in discrete brain regions of five strains of inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Pani, Amar K; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J; Smeyne, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

  7. Brain regions associated with telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in primary glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Lei; Li, Shaowu; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations are important genetic alterations in many kinds of human malignancies, including glioma. The current study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of TERT promoter mutations in glioblastomas (GBMs). Clinical information and preoperative magnetic resonance images of 203 patients with GBMs were reviewed. TERT promoter mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing in all cases. Tumor lesions were manually segmented and then registered to a standard brain atlas. Then the specific brain regions associated with TERT promoter mutation status were subsequently identified by voxel-based regression analysis. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 94 (46.3 %) of the 203 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that GBMs with TERT promoter mutations were much more likely to locate in the right temporal lobe, while those with wild-type TERT promoters were more likely to occur in the anterior region of the right lateral ventricle. No significant difference was found in the lesion volumes of the T2-identified tumor or in the contrast enhancement areas between the two groups. The current study demonstrated the anatomic specificity of TERT promoter mutation status in GBM. These findings may provide new insight into the molecular classification of GBM and further our understanding of the associations between tumor-specific molecular alterations and tumor location. PMID:27230769

  8. Between-network connectivity occurs in brain regions lacking layer IV input.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Korey P; Kronberg, Eugene; Maharajh, Keeran; Smucny, Jason; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-08-01

    To better understand the cortical circuitry underlying connectivity between large-scale neural networks, we develop a novel, data-driven approach to identify potential integration subregions. Between-network connectivity (BNC) associated with any anatomical region is the amount of connectivity between that point and all large-scale networks, as measured using simple and multiple correlations. It is straightforward to calculate and applicable to functional networks identified using independent components analysis. We calculated BNC for all fMRI voxels within the brain and compared the results to known regional cytoarchitectural patterns. Based on previous observations of the relationship between macroscopic connectivity and microscopic cytoarchitecture, we predicted that areas with high BNC will be located in paralimbic subregions with an undifferentiated laminar structure. Results suggest that the anterior insula and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices play prominent roles in information integration. Cytoarchitecturely, these areas show agranular or dysgranular cytologies with absent or disrupted cortical layer IV. Since layer IV is the primary recipient of feed-forward thalamocortical connections, and due to the exclusive nature of driving connections to this layer, we suggest that the absence of cortical layer IV might allow for information to be exchanged across networks, and is an organizational characteristic of brain-subregions serving as inter-network communication hubs. PMID:25979667

  9. A possible functional localizer for identifying brain regions sensitive to sentence-level prosody

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Hsieh, Po-Jang; Balewski, Zuzanna

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of how we produce and perceive prosodic patterns are not only interesting in their own right but can inform fundamental questions in language research. We here argue that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in general – and the functional localization approach in particular (e.g., Kanwisher et al., 1997; Saxe et al., 2006; Fedorenko et al., 2010; Nieto-Castañon & Fedorenko, 2012) – has the potential to help address open research questions in prosody research and at the intersection of prosody and other domains. Critically, this approach can go beyond questions like “where in the brain does mental process x produce activation” and toward questions that probe the nature of the representations and computations that subserve different mental abilities. We describe one way to functionally define regions sensitive to sentence-level prosody in individual subjects. This or similar “localizer” contrasts can be used in future studies to test hypotheses about the precise contributions of prosody-sensitive brain regions to prosodic processing and cognition more broadly. PMID:25642425

  10. Brain region and activity-dependent properties of M for calibrated fMRI.

    PubMed

    Shu, Christina Y; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Wang, Helen; Juchem, Christoph; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-15

    Calibrated fMRI extracts changes in oxidative energy demanded by neural activity based on hemodynamic and metabolic dependencies of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. This procedure requires the parameter M, which is determined from the dynamic range of the BOLD signal between deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetic) and oxyhemoglobin (diamagnetic). Since it is unclear if the range of M-values in human calibrated fMRI is due to regional/state differences, we conducted a 9.4T study to measure M-values across brain regions in deep (α-chloralose) and light (medetomidine) anesthetized rats, as verified by electrophysiology. Because BOLD signal is captured differentially by gradient-echo (R2*) and spin-echo (R2) relaxation rates, we measured M-values by the product of the fMRI echo time and R2' (i.e., the reversible magnetic susceptibility component), which is given by the absolute difference between R2* and R2. While R2' mapping was shown to be dependent on the k-space sampling method used, at nominal spatial resolutions achieved at high magnetic field of 9.4T the M-values were quite homogenous across cortical gray matter. However cortical M-values varied in relation to neural activity between brain states. The findings from this study could improve precision of future calibrated fMRI studies by focusing on the global uniformity of M-values in gray matter across different resting activity levels. PMID:26529646

  11. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  12. Automatic regional analysis of DTI properties in the developmental macaque brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2008-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to monkeys as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for the use of an atlas based, fully automatic segmentation of brain tissues, lobar parcellations, subcortical structures and the regional extraction of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) properties. We first built a structural atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps, a lobar parcellation and subcortical structures were determined. This information is applied to each subjects structural image via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1 and T2 based tissue classification. The deformed parcellation regions mask the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation for white and gray matter separately. Each subjects structural image is then non-rigidly matched with its DTI image by normalized mutual information, b-spline based registration. The DTI property histograms were then computed using the probabilistic white matter information for each lobar parcellation. We successfully built an average atlas using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. Our framework was successfully applied to over 50 additional subjects in the age range of 9 70 months. The probabilistically weighted FA average in the corpus callosum region showed the largest increase over time in the observed age range. Most cortical regions show modest FA increase, whereas the cerebellums FA values remained stable. The individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before, but their combination is novel, as is their application to macaque MRI data. Furthermore, this is the first study to date looking at the DTI properties of the developing macaque brain.

  13. Explore the Functional Connectivity between Brain Regions during a Chemistry Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Duann, Jeng-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have rarely examined how temporal dynamic patterns, event-related coherence, and phase-locking are related to each other. This study assessed reaction-time-sorted spectral perturbation and event-related spectral perturbation in order to examine the temporal dynamic patterns in the frontal midline (F), central parietal (CP), and occipital (O) regions during a chemistry working memory task at theta, alpha, and beta frequencies. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between F-CP, CP-O, and F-O were assessed by component event-related coherence (ERCoh) and component phase-locking (PL) at different frequency bands. In addition, this study examined whether the temporal dynamic patterns are consistent with the functional connectivity patterns across different frequencies and time courses. Component ERCoh/PL measured the interactions between different independent components decomposed from the scalp EEG, mixtures of time courses of activities arising from different brain, and artifactual sources. The results indicate that the O and CP regions’ temporal dynamic patterns are similar to each other. Furthermore, pronounced component ERCoh/PL patterns were found to exist between the O and CP regions across each stimulus and probe presentation, in both theta and alpha frequencies. The consistent theta component ERCoh/PL between the F and O regions was found at the first stimulus and after probe presentation. These findings demonstrate that temporal dynamic patterns at different regions are in accordance with the functional connectivity patterns. Such coordinated and robust EEG temporal dynamics and component ERCoh/PL patterns suggest that these brain regions’ neurons work together both to induce similar event-related spectral perturbation and to synchronize or desynchronize simultaneously in order to swiftly accomplish a particular goal. The possible mechanisms for such distinct component phase-locking and coherence patterns were also further discussed

  14. Cytochrome P450 mRNA Expression in the Rodent Brain: Species-, Sex-, and Region-Dependent Differences

    PubMed Central

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity. PMID:24255117

  15. Cytochrome p450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex-, and region-dependent differences.

    PubMed

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity. PMID:24255117

  16. Brain Volumetrics, Regional Cortical Thickness and Radiographic Findings in Adults with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Cordina, Rachael; Grieve, Stuart; Barnett, Michael; Lagopoulos, Jim; Malitz, Nathan; Celermajer, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic cyanosis in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) may cause structural brain changes that could contribute to impaired neurological functioning. The extent of these changes has not been adequately characterized. Hypothesis We hypothesized that adults with cyanotic CHD would have widespread changes including abnormal brain volumetric measures, decreased cortical thickness and an increased burden of small and large vessel ischemic changes. Methods Ten adults with chronic cyanosis from CHD (40 ± 4 years) and mean oxygen saturations of 82 ± 2% were investigated using quantitative MRI. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also assessed. All subjects were free from major physical or intellectual impairment. Brain volumetric results were compared with randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls from our database of normal subjects. Results Five of 10 cyanotic subjects had cortical lacunar infarcts. The white matter (WM) hyperintensity burden was also abnormally high (Scheltens Scale was 8 ± 2). Quantitative MRI revealed evidence of extensive generalized WM and gray matter (GM) volumetric loss; global GM volume was reduced in cyanosed subjects (630 ± 16 vs. 696 ± 14 mL in controls, p = 0.01) as was global WM volume (471 ± 10 vs. 564 ± 18 mL, p = 0.003). Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume was increased (35 ± 10 vs. 26 ± 5 mL, p = 0.002). There were widespread regions of local cortical thickness reduction observed across the brain. These changes included bilateral thickness reductions in the frontal lobe including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus, the posterior parietal lobe and the middle temporal gyrus. Sub-cortical volume changes were observed in the caudate, putamen and in the thalamus (p ≤ 0.005 for all regions). Cortical GM volume negatively correlated with brain natriuretic peptide (R = − 0.89, p = 0.009), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (R = − 0

  17. Global and regional brain mean diffusivity changes in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mary A; Palomares, Jose A; Macey, Paul M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show gray and white matter changes in multiple brain sites, including autonomic and motor coordination areas. It is unclear whether the changes represent acute or chronic tissue pathology, a distinction necessary for understanding pathological processes that can be resolved with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based mean diffusivity (MD) procedures. We collected four DTI series from 16 HF (age 55.1 ± 7.8 years, 12 male) and 26 control (49.7 ± 10.8 years, 17 male) subjects with a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. MD maps were realigned, averaged, normalized, and smoothed. Global and regional MD values from autonomic and motor coordination sites were calculated by using normalized MD maps and brain masks; group MD values and whole-brain smoothed MD maps were compared by analysis of covariance (covariates; age and gender). Global brain MD (HF vs. controls, units × 10(-6) mm(2) /sec, 1103.8 ± 76.6 vs. 1035.9 ± 69.4, P = 0.038) and regional autonomic and motor control site values (left insula, 1,085.4 ± 95.7 vs. 975.7 ± 65.4, P = 0.001; right insula, 1,050.2 ± 100.6 vs. 965.7 ± 58.4, P = 0.004; left hypothalamus, 1,419.6 ± 165.2 vs. 1,234.9 ± 136.3, P = 0.002; right hypothalamus, 1,446.5 ± 178.8 vs. 1,273.3 ± 136.9, P = 0.004; left cerebellar cortex, 889.1 ± 81.9 vs. 796.6 ± 46.8, P < 0.001; right cerebellar cortex, 797.8 ± 50.8 vs. 750.3 ± 27.5, P = 0.001; cerebellar deep nuclei, 1,236.1 ± 193.8 vs. 1,071.7 ± 107.1, P = 0.002) were significantly higher in HF vs. control subjects, indicating chronic tissue changes. Whole-brain comparisons showed increased MD values in HF subjects, including limbic, basal-ganglia, thalamic, solitary tract nucleus, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Brain injury occurs in autonomic and motor control areas, which may contribute to deficient function in HF patients. The chronic tissue

  18. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  19. Response of face-selective brain regions to trustworthiness and gender of faces.

    PubMed

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Andrews, Timothy J; Asghar, Aziz U R; Towler, John R; Young, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated a role for the amygdala in processing the perceived trustworthiness of faces, but it remains uncertain whether its responses are linear (with the greatest response to the least trustworthy-looking faces), or quadratic (with increased fMRI signal for the dimension extremes). It is also unclear whether the trustworthiness of the stimuli is crucial or if the same response pattern can be found for faces varying along other dimensions. In addition, the responses to perceived trustworthiness of face-selective regions other than the amygdala are seldom reported. The present study addressed these issues using a novel set of stimuli created through computer image-manipulation both to maximise the presence of naturally occurring cues that underpin trustworthiness judgments and to allow systematic manipulation of these cues. With a block-design fMRI paradigm, we investigated neural responses to computer-manipulated trustworthiness in the amygdala and core face-selective regions in the occipital and temporal lobes. We asked whether the activation pattern is specific for differences in trustworthiness or whether it would also track variation along an orthogonal male-female gender dimension. The main findings were quadratic responses to changes in both trustworthiness and gender in all regions. These results are consistent with the idea that face-responsive brain regions are sensitive to face distinctiveness as well as the social meaning of the face features. PMID:22659107

  20. Automatic Region-Based Brain Classification of MRI-T1 Data

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Rubiyah

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem with several still not totally solved issues, such as noise interference and image artifacts. Region-based and histogram-based segmentation methods have been widely used in image segmentation. Problems arise when we use these methods, such as the selection of a suitable threshold value for the histogram-based method and the over-segmentation followed by the time-consuming merge processing in the region-based algorithm. To provide an efficient approach that not only produce better results, but also maintain low computational complexity, a new region dividing based technique is developed for image segmentation, which combines the advantages of both regions-based and histogram-based methods. The proposed method is applied to the challenging applications: Gray matter (GM), White matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) segmentation in brain MR Images. The method is evaluated on both simulated and real data, and compared with other segmentation techniques. The obtained results have demonstrated its improved performance and robustness. PMID:27096925

  1. Automatic Region-Based Brain Classification of MRI-T1 Data.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Sepideh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Karimian, Alireza; Mitsukira, Yasue; Hematian, Amirshahram

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem with several still not totally solved issues, such as noise interference and image artifacts. Region-based and histogram-based segmentation methods have been widely used in image segmentation. Problems arise when we use these methods, such as the selection of a suitable threshold value for the histogram-based method and the over-segmentation followed by the time-consuming merge processing in the region-based algorithm. To provide an efficient approach that not only produce better results, but also maintain low computational complexity, a new region dividing based technique is developed for image segmentation, which combines the advantages of both regions-based and histogram-based methods. The proposed method is applied to the challenging applications: Gray matter (GM), White matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) segmentation in brain MR Images. The method is evaluated on both simulated and real data, and compared with other segmentation techniques. The obtained results have demonstrated its improved performance and robustness. PMID:27096925

  2. Regional differences in neurovascular coupling in rat brain as determined by fMRI and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sloan, H L; Austin, V C; Blamire, A M; Schnupp, J W H; Lowe, A S; Allers, K A; Matthews, P M; Sibson, N R

    2010-11-01

    Increases in neuronal activity induce local increases in cerebral perfusion. However, our understanding of the processes underlying this neurovascular coupling remains incomplete and, particularly, how these vary across the brain. Recent work supports an important role for astrocytes in neurovascular coupling, in large part via activation of their metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). Here, using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology we demonstrate regional heterogeneity in the mechanisms underlying neurovascular coupling. Direct electrical stimulation of the rat hindpaw sensorimotor cortex induces blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI responses in several anatomically distinct cortical and subcortical structures. Following intraperitoneal administration of the type 5 mGluR antagonist, MPEP, both BOLD and CBV responses to cortical stimulation were significantly reduced, whilst the local field potential (LFP) responses remained largely constant. Spatially, the degree of reduction in fMRI responses varied between cortical and subcortical regions (primary cortex approximately 18% vs. striatum approximately 66%), and also between primary and secondary cortical areas ( approximately 18% vs. approximately 55%). Similarly, greater decreases in response amplitude were seen in the contralateral secondary cortex ( approximately 91%) and ipsilateral striatum (approximately 70%), compared to the primary cortex (approximately 44%). Following MPEP, a negative component of the BOLD and CBV responses became more apparent, suggesting that different mechanisms mediate vasodilatory and vasoconstrictory responses. Interestingly, under baseline conditions the quantitative relationship between fMRI and LFP responses in cortical and subcortical regions was markedly different. Our data indicate that coupling between neuronal and fMRI responses is neither empirically nor mechanistically consistent

  3. Altered neuronal gene expression in brain regions differentially affected by Alzheimer’s disease: a reference data set

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Winnie S.; Dunckley, Travis; Beach, Thomas G.; Grover, Andrew; Mastroeni, Diego; Ramsey, Keri; Caselli, Richard J.; Kukull, Walter A.; McKeel, Daniel; Morris, John C.; Hulette, Christine M.; Schmechel, Donald; Reiman, Eric M.; Rogers, Joseph; Stephan, Dietrich A.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most widespread form of dementia during the later stages of life. If improved therapeutics are not developed, the prevalence of AD will drastically increase in the coming years as the world’s population ages. By identifying differences in neuronal gene expression profiles between healthy elderly persons and individuals diagnosed with AD, we may be able to better understand the molecular mechanisms that drive AD pathogenesis, including the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this study, we expression profiled histopathologically normal cortical neurons collected with laser capture microdissection (LCM) from six anatomically and functionally discrete postmortem brain regions in 34 AD-afflicted individuals, using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. These regions include the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and primary visual cortex. This study is predicated on previous parallel research on the postmortem brains of the same six regions in 14 healthy elderly individuals, for which LCM neurons were similarly processed for expression analysis. We identified significant regional differential expression in AD brains compared with control brains including expression changes of genes previously implicated in AD pathogenesis, particularly with regards to tangle and plaque formation. Pinpointing the expression of factors that may play a role in AD pathogenesis provides a foundation for future identification of new targets for improved AD therapeutics. We provide this carefully phenotyped, laser capture microdissected intraindividual brain region expression data set to the community as a public resource. PMID:18270320

  4. Automatic segmentation of different-sized leukoaraiosis regions in brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Kunieda, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ando, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Asano, Takahiko; Kato, Hiroki; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-03-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of death in Japan. Therefore, a screening system for the early detection of asymptomatic brain diseases is widely used. In this screening system, leukoaraiosis is often detected in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis is important because its presence and extension is associated with an increased risk of severe stroke. However, thus far, the diagnosis of leukoaraiosis has generally been limited to subjective judgments by radiologists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for the segmentation of leukoaraiosis, and provide an objective measurement of the lesion volume. Our database comprised of T1- and T2-weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of leukoaraiosis regions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. We first segment cerebral parenchymal regions in T1-weighted images by using a region growing technique. For determining the initial candidate regions for leukoaraiosis, the k-means clustering of pixel values in the T1- and T2-weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. For the elimination of false positives (FPs), we determined features such as the location, size, and circularity from each of the initial candidates. Finally, rule-based schemes and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed for distinguishing between the leukoaraiosis regions and the FPs. The results indicated that the sensitivity for the detection of leukoaraiosis was 100% with 5.84 FPs per image. Our computerized scheme can be useful in assisting radiologists for the quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis in T1- and T2-weighted images.

  5. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    PubMed Central

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  6. Early menopausal hormone use influences brain regions used for visual working memory

    PubMed Central

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Persad, Carol C.; Love, Tiffany; Tkaczyk, Anne; Wang, Heng; Reame, Nancy K.; Frey, Kirk A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cognitive benefit of postmenopausal hormone use is controversial; however, timing treatment close to menopause may increase the likelihood of preserving cognitive function. We examined effects of early-initiation hormone use on visual working memory, hypothesizing that long-term hormone use is associated with greater brain activation during visual working memory. Methods This is a cross-sectional comparison of long-term early hormone users – current (n=13) and past (n=24, 2.1±1.0 years off hormones) – to never-users (n=18), using a visual memory task and functional MRI. We evaluated 55 women over age 60 at the University of Michigan’s General Clinical Research Center. Hormone users had completed at least ten continuous years of conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate, began within two years of menopause. Women were excluded for illness, medication, intermittent estrogen use, phytoestrogen use, recent smoking, and MRI contraindications. The primary outcome was functional MRI-detected brain activity during the visual memory task. Results Compared to never-users, both hormone-user groups had increased activation in the frontal and parietal cortices, insula, hippocampus, and cingulate; combined hormone-users also had increased activation in the putamen and raphe (corrected p<0.05 or uncorrected p<0.001 with a priori hypothesis). Across the entire sample, medial temporal cortex (p<0.000 right; p<0.018 left) and right hippocampus (p<0.000) positively correlated with task performance. Conclusions Hormone use was associated with increased brain activation during the visual memory task, in regions used for visual working memory. A positive correlation between activation and task performance suggests that early-initiated long-term postmenopausal hormone use may benefit visual working memory. PMID:20300040

  7. Region-specific changes in gene expression in rat brain after chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Taubøll, Erik; Shaw, Renee; Gjerstad, Leif; Dingledine, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose It is commonly assumed that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) act similarly in the various parts of the brain as long as their molecular targets are present. A few experimental studies on metabolic effects of vigabatrin, levetiracetam, valproate, and lamotrigine have shown that these drugs may act differently in different brain regions. We examined effects of chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin on mRNA levels to detect regional drug effects in a broad, nonbiased manner. Methods mRNA levels were monitored in three brain regions with oligonucleotide-based microarrays. Results Levetiracetam (150 mg/kg for 90 days) changed the expression of 65 genes in pons/medulla oblongata, two in hippocampus, and one in frontal cortex. Phenytoin (75 mg/kg), in contrast, changed the expression of only three genes in pons/medulla oblongata, but 64 genes in hippocampus, and 327 genes in frontal cortex. Very little overlap between regions or drug treatments was observed with respect to effects on gene expression. Discussion We conclude that chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin causes region-specific and highly differential effects on gene expression in the brain. Regional effects on gene expression could reflect regional differences in molecular targets of AEDs, and they could influence the clinical profiles of AEDs. PMID:20345932

  8. Chemical mapping of anxiety in the brain of healthy humans: an in vivo 1H-MRS study on the effects of sex, age, and brain region.

    PubMed

    Grachev, I D; Apkarian, A V

    2000-12-01

    We recently presented results in an in vivo study of human brain chemistry in 'physiologic' anxiety, i.e., the anxiety of normal everyday life. Normal subjects with high anxiety demonstrated increased concentration of chemicals in orbital frontal cortex (OFC) as compared to lower anxiety. In a separate study of aging we demonstrated a decrease of total chemical concentration in OFC of middle-aged subjects, as compared with younger age. This brain region also showed gender dependence; men demonstrating decreased chemical concentration compared to women. We hypothesized that these sex- and age-dependent differences in OFC chemistry changes are a result of anxiety effects on this brain region. In the present study we examined these sex- and age-differential regional brain chemistry changes (as identified by localized in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy [1H-MRS]) in relation to the state-trait-anxiety (as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) in 35 healthy subjects. The concentrations for all nine chemicals of 1H-MRS spectra were measured relative to creatine across multiple brain regions, including OFC in the left hemisphere. Analysis of variance showed anxiety-specific effects on chemical concentration changes in OFC, which were different for both sexes and age groups. Male subjects showed larger effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry as compared to females when the same sex high-anxiety subjects were compared to lower anxiety. Similarly, middle-aged subjects showed larger effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry as compared to younger age when the same age subjects with high anxiety were compared to lower anxiety. Largest effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry was due to changes of N-Acetyl aspartate. The results indicate that the state-trait anxiety has sex- and age-differential patterns on OFC chemistry in healthy humans, providing new information about the neurobiological roots of anxiety. PMID:11144755

  9. Repeated vapor ethanol exposure induces transient histone modifications in the brain that are modified by genotype and brain region

    PubMed Central

    Finegersh, Andrey; Ferguson, Carolyn; Maxwell, Seth; Mazariegos, David; Farrell, Daniel; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emerging research implicates ethanol (EtOH)-induced epigenetic modifications in regulating gene expression and EtOH consumption. However, consensus on specific epigenetic modifications induced by EtOH has not yet emerged, making it challenging to identify mechanisms and develop targeted treatments. We hypothesized that chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) induces persistent changes in histone modifications across the cerebral cortex (CCx), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that these histone modifications are altered in a knock-in mouse strain with altered sensitivity to EtOH. Methods: C57BL/6J (B6) mice and α1SHLA knockin mice on a B6 background were exposed to 16 h of vapor EtOH or room air followed by 8 h of room air for 4 consecutive days and sacrificed at multiple time points up to 72 h following exposure. Histone modifications were assessed using Western blot and dot blot. RT-qPCR was used to study expression of chromatin modifying enzymes in NAc and PFC. Results: In NAc, CIE significantly increased acetylation of histone subunit H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) but not lysine 14 (H3K14ac) or lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In PFC, CIE significantly increased H3K9ac but not H3K14 or H3K27ac. There were no significant changes at 8 or 72 h after EtOH exposure in either NAc or PFC. CIE was also associated with increased expression of Kat2b, Kat5, and Tet1 in NAc but not PFC. In CCx, CIE had a significant effect on levels of H3K18ac; there was also a significant effect of the α1SHLA mutation on levels of H3K27me3, H3K14ac, and H3K18ac as well as a trend for H3S10pK14ac. Conclusions: The EtOH-induced histone modifications observed were transient and varied significantly between brain regions. A genetic mutation that altered sensitivity to EtOH was associated with altered induction of histone modifications during CIE. These results have implications for studying EtOH-induced histone modifications and EtOH sensitivity. PMID:26300722

  10. Methylation quantitative trait loci in the developing brain and their enrichment in schizophrenia-associated genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Eilis; Spiers, Helen; Viana, Joana; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Murphy, Therese M; Troakes, Claire; Turecki, Gustavo; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Bray, Nicholas J.; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We characterized DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) in a large collection (n=166) of human fetal brain samples spanning 56–166 days post-conception, identifying >16,000 fetal brain mQTLs. Fetal brain mQTLs are primarily cis-acting, enriched in regulatory chromatin domains and transcription factor binding sites, and show significant overlap with genetic variants also associated with gene expression in the brain. Using tissue from three distinct regions of the adult brain (prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum) we show that most fetal brain mQTLs are developmentally stable, although a subset is characterized by fetal-specific effects. We show that fetal brain mQTLs are enriched amongst risk loci identified in a recent large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia, a severe psychiatric disorder with a hypothesized neurodevelopmental component. Finally, we demonstrate how mQTLs can be used to refine GWAS loci through the identification of discrete sites of variable fetal brain methylation associated with schizophrenia risk variants. PMID:26619357

  11. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yin; Yao, Ying; Pan, Yu; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD). Materials and methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males) underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS), and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013) and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=−0.706, P=0.01). Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016). Conclusion SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. PMID:27110113

  12. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r=−0.90; P=0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r=−0.73; P=0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r=−0.76; P=0.002; STS 0.25 μM r=−0.62; P=0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P<0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  13. The Brain-to-Pancreatic Islet Neuronal Map Reveals Differential Glucose Regulation From Distinct Hypothalamic Regions.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Wilfredo; Singh, Inderroop; Wautlet, Arnaud; Patterson, Christa; Flak, Jonathan; Becker, Thomas C; Ali, Almas; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H; Enquist, Lynn W; Myers, Martin G; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped. Here, we refine this map using pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing, indicating that the pancreatic islets are innervated by efferent circuits that emanate from the hypothalamus. We found that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) significantly overlap PRV and the physiological glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase. Then, experimentally lowering glucose sensing, specifically in the ARC, resulted in glucose intolerance due to deficient insulin secretion and no significant effect in the VMN, but in the LHA it resulted in a lowering of the glucose threshold that improved glucose tolerance and/or improved insulin sensitivity, with an exaggerated counter-regulatory response for glucagon secretion. No significant effect on insulin sensitivity or metabolic homeostasis was noted. Thus, these data reveal novel direct neuronal effects on pancreatic islets and also render a functional validation of the brain-to-islet neuronal map. They also demonstrate that distinct regions of the hypothalamus differentially control insulin and glucagon secretion, potentially in partnership to help maintain glucose homeostasis and guard against hypoglycemia. PMID:27207534

  14. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2011-08-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal cortex (PFC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and amygdala in response to chronic variable stress (CVS). Following 14 days of CVS, the presynaptic protein synaptophysin was assessed in male and female rats. Our results demonstrate that synaptophysin staining density was higher in females than males in all brain areas evaluated, indicating sex differences in the organization of presynaptic innervation. After CVS, the PVN, principal nucleus of the BST (BSTpr), and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) displayed significantly reduced synaptophysin density in females but not males. Furthermore, males showed an increase in synaptophysin in the PVN after CVS, suggesting a sex difference in the modulation of presynaptic inputs to the PVN following chronic stress. Overall, these data suggest marked sex differences in PVN, BSTpr, and BLA presynaptic innervation as a consequence of chronic stress, which may be associated with differential stress responsivity and perhaps susceptibility to pathologies in males and females. PMID:21315096

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure could modify the dopaminergic system in several limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, R; López-Doval, S; Pereiro, N; Lafuente, A

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most representative of a rising class of persistent organic pollutants perfluorochemicals. In the present study, its neurotoxicity was examined using adult male rats orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the dopamine concentration and its metabolism expressed like the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine and homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine were measured in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Gene and protein expression of the dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were also determined in these limbic areas. The obtained results suggest that: (1) PFOS can alter the dopamine system by modifying its neuronal activity and/or its D1 and D2 receptors in the studied brain regions; (2) the dopamine concentration and metabolism seem to be more sensitive against PFOS toxicity in the hippocampus than in the other analyzed brain areas; (3) the inhibited gene and protein expression of the D1 receptors induced by PFOS in the amygdala could be related to several changes in the HPA axis activity, and lastly; (4) the observed alterations on the dopamine system induced by PFOS could be a possible neurotoxicity mechanism of PFOS, leading to many neurological diseases. PMID:26529483

  16. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  17. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status. PMID:25202027

  18. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Cognition and Regional Brain Volumes Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status. PMID:25202027

  19. Interrelationships of the emotionally positive and negative regions of the brain of the edible snail.

    PubMed

    Balaban, P M; Chase, R

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the behavior of the garden snail during self-stimulation through electrodes chronically implanted in specific regions of the brain are described in this study. The stimulation of the mesocerebral region led to an increase in the frequency of reinforced behavior, whereas stimulation of the rostral portion of the parietal ganglia led to a decrease in the frequency of reinforced behavior. An inference is reached regarding the emotional coloration of the effects of the stimulation of these regions. The interrelationships of the neurons located in the mesocerebrum and the parietal ganglia were studied in neurophysiologic experiments. It was found that the activation of the cells of the mesocerebrum inhibits the spontaneous activity of the serotoninergic cells of the pedal ganglia which sensitize the defensive reactions of the snail, and simultaneosly attenuate the sensory input of the command neurons of defensive behavior, which leads to the effective inhibition of the defensive reactions that is necessary during the activation of sexual behavior. PMID:1876273

  20. Dissociating the "retrieval success" regions of the brain: effects of retrieval delay.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, W; Pennartz, C M A; Daselaar, S M

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the hippocampal formation critically supports episodic memory retrieval, the remembering of episodes including contextual details. Yet, a group of other brain regions has also been consistently implicated in successful episodic retrieval. This retrieval success network (RSN) includes the posterior midline region, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Despite these consistent findings, the functional roles of the RSN regions remain poorly understood. Given that vivid remembering leads to high-confidence retrieval decisions, it is unclear whether activity in these regions reflects episodic long-term memory, or is merely associated with retrieval confidence. In order to distinguish between these alternatives, we manipulated study-test delays within the context of a continuous recognition task during fMRI-scanning. The design was based on previous evidence indicating that retrieval at short delays is easier leading to high-evidence mnemonic decisions, whereas retrieval at longer delays is more difficult but also more hippocampus-dependent. Confirming previous findings, we found that retrieval decisions at short delays were more accurate and faster, and that the hippocampus showed greater activity at longer delays. Within the other RSN regions, we found three distinct activation patterns as a function of delay. Similar to the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex showed increased activity as a function of retrieval delay. Dorsal PPC and the precuneus showed decreased activity. Finally, the posterior cingulate, medial PFC and ventral PPC showed a V-shaped pattern. These findings support the idea that dorsal PPC and the precuneus are involved in decision-related retrieval processes rather than successful remembering. PMID:19835893

  1. Psychological Well-Being and Regional Brain Amyloid and Tau in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen T.; Siddarth, Prabha; Saito, Nathan Y.; Rueda, Flori; Haight, Taylor; Ercoli, Linda M.; Miller, Karen J.; Lavretsky, Helen; Barrio, Jorge R.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Small, Gary W.; Merrill, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether psychological well-being in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk state for Alzheimer disease (AD), is associated with in vivo measures of brain pathology. Methods Cross-sectional clinical assessments and positron emission tomography (PET) scans after intravenous injections of 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F18]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene) malononitrile (FDDNP), a molecule that binds to plaques and tangles, were performed on middle-aged and older adults at a university research institute. Volunteers were aged 40–85 years with MCI (N = 35) or normal cognition (N = 29) without depression or anxiety. Statistical analyses included general linear models, using regional FDDNP-PET binding values as dependent variables and the Vigor-Activity subscale of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as the independent variable, covarying for age. The POMS is a self-rated inventory of 65 adjectives that describe positive and negative feelings. Results Scores on the POMS Vigor-Activity subscale were inversely associated with degree of FDDNP binding in the posterior cingulate cortex (r = −0.35, p = 0.04) in the MCI group but not in the control group. Conclusion Psychological well-being, as indicated by self-reports of greater vigor and activity, is associated with lower FDDNP-PET binding in the posterior cingulate cortex, a region involved in emotional regulation, in individuals with MCI but not in those with normal cognition. These findings are consistent with previous work indicating that deposition of brain amyloid plaques and tau tangles may result in noncognitive and cognitive symptoms in persons at risk for AD. PMID:23567426

  2. Effect of ethanol on tyrosine hydroxylation in brain regions of long and short sleep mice.

    PubMed

    French, T A; Weiner, N

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the in vivo rate of tyrosine hydroxylation in 6 brain regions was examined in two lines of mice selectively bred for a differential sensitivity to ethanol. The mice are designated long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) and lose their righting reflex for a duration of 100 minutes (LS) and 13 minutes (SS) following an intraperitoneal dose of ethanol of 4.0 g/kg. DOPA accumulation after NSD-1015 administration was measured in the absence and presence of ethanol (4.0 g/kg, IP) in the periods 5-35 minutes and 85-115 minutes after saline or ethanol. There were no differences between the lines in either basal catecholamine levels or basal tyrosine hydroxylation rates (as measured by DOPA accumulation) in any brain region except the cerebellum, where the norepinephrine content in the SS mice is 33% greater and the tyrosine hydroxylation rate is 25% higher than that in the LS mice. In the presence of ethanol, there was a differential effect on the in vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate. In the cerebellum of both LS and SS mice there was a decreased rate of tyrosine hydroxylation in the early period after ethanol, but the rate in the cerebellum of SS mice returned to the control value at 85-115 min. At that time, the rate in LS mice is still decreased. In the locus ceruleus, hypothalamus and frontal cortex, ethanol has no effect on the rate of tyrosine hydroxylation in either LS or SS mice during the early period, but ethanol decreases the rate during the later period in the LS mice only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6443068

  3. Chronic lead and brain development: intraocular brain grafts as a method to reveal regional and temporal effects in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, H.; Olson, L.; Seiger, A.; Hoffer, B.

    1980-06-01

    A model is presented for selective studies of regional and temporal effects of chronic lead exposure on brain development, based on intraocular brain tissue grafting. Adult rat recipients were given lead acetate (1 to 2%) in their drinking water. Controls received sodium acetate in the drinking water or tap water. One week later, developing brain tissues obtained prenatally from different regions of the central nervous system were homologously grafted to the anterior chamber of the eye. Survival, vascularization, and growth were followed in oculo by repeated measurements of graft size. Growth curves were thus obtained for grafts from isolated selected brain areas, grafted at different stages of development to recipients on different concentrations of lead. Lead treatment (1%) caused a significant and pronounced delay of growth of the substantia nigra area during the second and third week postgrafting, approximately corresponding to the first 2 weeks after birth. Grafts of the hippocampal formation showed a slight impairment of growth following lead treatment while there were no detectable effects on size of cerebellar grafts. Grafts of the developing parietal cerebral cortex were inhibited in their growth in host animals given 2% lead while there was a small but significant increase in size following 1% lead. These results demonstrate the applicability of the grafting technique for studies of chronic low level lead intoxication. The method has revealed highly significant effects of lead on growth of certain selected brain areas and will be used for further histological, biochemical, and electrophysiological analysis of chronic lead effects on development of defined brain areas.

  4. Concerning effects of low-beta region fringe fields and multipole error distribution on dynamics in LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Paris, A.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of fringe fields in separation dipoles D1/D2 and low-{beta} quadrupoles Q1-Q3 of LHC interaction regions in collision optics are investigated by means of stepwise ray-tracing in terms of aberrations, beam envelopes and other detunings. Effects of the longitudinal distribution of b{sub 10} error coefficient are next investigated in a similar way for assessment and comparison.

  5. The size of non-hippocampal brain regions varies by season and sex in Richardson's ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; Burger, D K; Saucier, D M; Iwaniuk, A N

    2015-03-19

    Sex- and season-specific modulation of hippocampal size and function is observed across multiple species, including rodents. Other non-hippocampal-dependent behaviors exhibit season and sex differences, and whether the associated brain regions exhibit similar variation with sex and season remains to be fully characterized. As such, we examined the brains of wild-caught Richardson's ground squirrels (RGS; Urocitellus richardsonii) for seasonal (breeding, non-breeding) and sex differences in the volumes of specific brain areas, including: total brain volume, corpus callosum (CC), anterior commissure (AC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), total neocortex (NC), entorhinal cortex (EC), and superior colliculus (SC). Analyses of variance and covariance revealed significant interactions between season and sex for almost all areas studied, primarily resulting from females captured during the breeding season exhibiting larger volumes than females captured during the non-breeding season. This was observed for volumes of the AC, mPFC, NC, EC, and SC. Where simple main effects of season were observed for males (the NC and the SC), the volume advantage favoured males captured during the NBr season. Only two simple main effects of sex were observed: males captured in the non-breeding season had significantly larger total brain volume than females captured in the non-breeding season, and females captured during the breeding season had larger volumes of the mPFC and EC than males captured in the breeding season. These results indicate that females have more pronounced seasonal differences in brain and brain region sizes. The extent to which seasonal differences in brain region volumes vary with behaviour is unclear, but our data do suggest that seasonal plasticity is not limited to the hippocampus and that RGS is a useful mammalian species for understanding seasonal plasticity in an ecologically relevant context. PMID:25595988

  6. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of

  7. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    PubMed

    Maksimow, Anu; Silfverhuth, Minna; Långsjö, Jaakko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Georgiadis, Stefanos; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Scheinin, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA), deep sedation (SED), loss (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus). The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004) in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040) in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003). However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back) connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly related

  8. Total and Regional Brain Volumes in a Population-Based Normative Sample from 4 to 18 Years: The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5–18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents. PMID:21613470

  9. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents. PMID:21613470

  10. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  11. Managing marine mollusc diseases in the context of regional and international commerce: policy issues and emerging concerns.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Ryan B; Arzul, Isabelle; Bushek, David

    2016-03-01

    Marine mollusc production contributes to food and economic security worldwide and provides valuable ecological services, yet diseases threaten these industries and wild populations. Although the infrastructure for mollusc aquaculture health management is well characterized, its foundations are not without flaws. Use of notifiable pathogen lists can leave blind spots with regard to detection of unlisted and emerging pathogens. Increased reliance on molecular tools has come without similar attention to diagnostic validation, raising questions about assay performance, and has been accompanied by a reduced emphasis on microscopic diagnostic expertise that could weaken pathogen detection capabilities. Persistent questions concerning pathogen biology and ecology promote regulatory paralysis that impedes trade and which could weaken biosecurity by driving commerce to surreptitious channels. Solutions that might be pursued to improve shellfish aquaculture health management include the establishment of more broad-based surveillance programmes, wider training and use of general methods like histopathology to ensure alertness to emerging diseases, an increased focus on assay assessment and validation as fundamental to assay development, investment in basic research, and application of risk analyses to improve regulation. A continual sharpening of diagnostic tools and approaches and deepening of scientific knowledge is necessary to manage diseases and promote sustainable molluscan shellfish industries. PMID:26880834

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Disparate Regions of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Expression That Are Temporally Limited

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N.G.; Carmichael, S.T.; Hovda, D.A.; Sutton, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Axonal injury is a major hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and it seems likely that therapies directed toward enhancing axon repair could potentially improve functional outcomes. One potential target is chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are major axon growth inhibitory molecules that are generally, but not always, up-regulated after central nervous system injury. The current study was designed to determine temporal changes in cerebral cortical mRNA or protein expression levels of CSPGs and to determine their regional localization and cellular association by using immunohistochemistry in a controlled cortical impact model of TBI. The results showed significant increases in versican mRNA at 4 and 14 days after TBI but no change in neurocan, aggrecan, or phosphacan. Semiquantitative Western blot (WB) analysis of cortical CSPG protein expression revealed a significant ipsilateral decrease of all CSPGs at 1 day after TBI. Lower CSPG protein levels were sustained until at least 14 days, after which the levels began to normalize. Immunohistochemistry data confirm previous reports of regional increases in CSPG proteins after CNS injury, seen primarily within the developing glial scar after TBI, but also corroborate the WB data by revealing wide areas of pericontusional tissue that are deficient in both extracellular and perineuronal net-associated CSPGs. Given the evidence that CSPGs are largely inhibitory to axonal growth, we interpret these data to indicate a potential for regional spontaneous plasticity after TBI. If this were the case, the gradual normalization of CSPG proteins over time postinjury would suggest that this may be temporally as well as regionally limited. PMID:19437549

  13. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: automatic training point extraction for neural-network-based classification of brain tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Obladen, Thorsten; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-04-01

    Individual region-of-interest atlas extraction consists of two main parts: T1-weighted MRI grayscale images are classified into brain tissues types (gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), scalp/bone (SB), background (BG)), followed by class image analysis to define automatically meaningful ROIs (e.g., cerebellum, cerebral lobes, etc.). The purpose of this algorithm is the automatic detection of training points for neural network-based classification of brain tissue types. One transaxial slice of the patient data set is analyzed. Background separation is done by simple region growing. A random generator extracts spatially uniformly distributed training points of class BG from that region. For WM training point extraction (TPE), the homogeneity operator is the most important. The most homogeneous voxels define the region for WM TPE. They are extracted by analyzing the cumulative histogram of the homogeneity operator response. Assuming a Gaussian gray value distribution in WM, a random number is used as a probabilistic threshold for TPE. Similarly, non-white matter and non-background regions are analyzed for GM and CSF training points. For SB TPE, the distance from the BG region is an additional feature. Simulated and real 3D MRI images are analyzed and error rates for TPE and classification calculated.

  14. "You Can't Imagine Unless You've Been There Yourself": A Report on the Concerns of Parents of Children with Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Nixon, Charles

    This report describes a qualitative study of the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and summarizes the experiences of several parents during the first year following their child's traumatic brain injury. Twenty-five parents participated in a day-long focus group, in lengthy structured…

  15. Unique brain region-dependent cytokine signatures after prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Tomas; Wilson, Caleb D; Janata, Andreas; Stezoski, Jason P; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Garman, Robert H; Tisherman, Samuel A; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    We previously showed that prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) produces neuronal death with microglial proliferation. Microglial proliferation, but not neuronal death, was attenuated by deeper hypothermia. Microglia are reportedly a major source of cytokines. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) CA will result in highly specific regional and temporal increases in brain cytokines; and (2) these increases will be attenuated by deep hypothermia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to rapid exsanguination. After 6 minutes of normothermic no-flow, different levels of hypothermia were induced by either ice-cold (IC) or room-temperature (RT) aortic flush. After 20 minutes CA, rats were resuscitated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and sacrificed at 6 or 24 hours. Rats subjected to CPB only (without CA) and shams (no CPB or CA) served as controls (n=6 per group). Cytokines were analyzed in cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Immunofluorescence was used to identify cell types associated with individual cytokines. Intra-CA temperature was lower after IC versus RT flush (21°C vs. 28°C, p<0.05). At 6 hours, striatum showed a massive increase in interleukin (IL)-1α and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (>100-fold higher than in hippocampus), which was attenuated by deeper hypothermia in the IC versus RT group. In contrast, IL-12 was 50-fold higher in hippocampus versus striatum. At 24 hours, cytokines decreased. In striatum, IL-1α colocalized with astrocytes while TNF-α colocalized with neurons. In hippocampus, IL-12 colocalized with hippocampal hilar neurons, the only region where neuronal degeneration was observed at 24 hours at both IC and RT groups. We report important temporo-spatial differences in the brain cytokine response to hypothermic CA, with a novel role of striatum. Astrocytes and neurons, but not microglia colocalized with individual cytokines. Hypothermia showed protective effects. These neuroinflammatory reactions precede

  16. Re-Examining the Brain Regions Crucial for Orchestrating Speech Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.; Work, Melissa; Barker, Peter B.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Breese, Elisabeth L.; Maurer, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    A traditional method of localizing brain functions has been to identify shared areas of brain damage in individuals who have a particular deficit. The rationale of this "lesion overlap" approach is straightforward: if the individuals can no longer perform the function, the area of brain damaged in most of these individuals must have been…

  17. Systems-Based Analyses of Brain Regions Functionally Impacted in Parkinson's Disease Reveals Underlying Causal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Emig-Agius, Dorothea; Bessarabova, Marina; Ivliev, Alexander E.; Schüle, Birgit; Alexander, Jeff; Wallace, William; Halliday, Glenda M.; Langston, J. William; Braxton, Scott; Yednock, Ted; Shaler, Thomas; Johnston, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of disease-affected tissue provides insight into molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex are functionally connected with increasing degrees of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. We undertook functional and causal pathway analysis of gene expression and proteomic alterations in these three regions, and the data revealed pathways that correlated with disease progression. In addition, microarray and RNAseq experiments revealed previously unidentified causal changes related to oligodendrocyte function and synaptic vesicle release, and these and other changes were reflected across all brain regions. Importantly, subsets of these changes were replicated in Parkinson's disease blood; suggesting peripheral tissue may provide important avenues for understanding and measuring disease status and progression. Proteomic assessment revealed alterations in mitochondria and vesicular transport proteins that preceded gene expression changes indicating defects in translation and/or protein turnover. Our combined approach of proteomics, RNAseq and microarray analyses provides a comprehensive view of the molecular changes that accompany functional loss and alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, and may be instrumental to understand, diagnose and follow Parkinson's disease progression. PMID:25170892

  18. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations in postmortem brain regions of depressed and aggressive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-12-01

    Depression and aggression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are 2 of the most severe and prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Altered monoaminergic neurotransmitter system functioning has been implicated in both NPS, although their neurochemical etiology remains to be elucidated. Left frozen hemispheres of 40 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients were regionally dissected. Dichotomization based on depression and aggression scores resulted in depressed/nondepressed (AD + D/AD - D) and aggressive/nonaggressive (AD + Agr/AD - Agr) groups. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine ((N)E), and respective metabolites were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly lower 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and higher homovanillic acid levels were observed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and 10 of AD + D compared with AD - D. In AD + Agr, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in BA9, 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios in BA11, and MHPG, NE, and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased compared with AD - Agr. These findings indicate that brain region-specific altered monoamines and metabolites may contribute to the occurrence of depression and aggression in AD. PMID:24997673

  19. Dopamine in thelimbic regions of the human brain: normal and abnormal.

    PubMed

    Farley, I J; Price, K S; Hornykiewicz, O

    1977-01-01

    1. In the human brain, DA was found in appreciable amounts in most of the examined basal telencephalic limbic regions, with the nucleus accumbens having the highest mean level (3.38 microgram/g). In the cortical areas of the limbic lobe of Broca, DA could be measured with certainty only in the parolfactory gyrus (0.35 microgram/g). 2. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the DA concentration in the parolfactory gyrus and nucleur accumbens was markedly reduced, whereas little change was seen in the olfactory areas. Quantitatively, the DA decrease in the nucleus accumbens was of the same magnitude as in the caudate nucleus, being, in both regions, distinctly less severe than in the putamen. 3. In three cases of paranoid schizophrenia, there were no statistically significant changes of the mean levels of DA or HVA in the nucleus accumbens. However, the DA/HVA ratio was shifted noticeably in favor of HVA, possibly indicating an increase in DA turnover. This change was less pronounced in the putamen of these cases and was absent in the caudate nucleus. 4. The possibility of the substantia nigra contributing to the dopaminergic innervation of the human nucleus accumbens, as well as the significance of the observations on DA metabolism in the schizophrenic cases, is discussed. PMID:883559

  20. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech. PMID:19384890

  1. Regional brain hematocrit in stroke by single photon emission computed tomography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfi, I.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Myers, M.J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Nineteen studies on 18 subjects were performed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the head after the successive intravenous administration of a plasma label (/sup 99m/Tc-human serum albumin (HSA)) and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled autologous red blood cells (RBC). Two sets of cerebral tomographic sections were generated: for cerebral /sup 99m/Tc-HSA alone and for combined /sup 99m/Tc-HSA and /sup 99m/Tc-RBC. By relating counts in regions of interest from the cerebral tomograms to counts from blood samples obtained during each tomographic acquisition, regional cerebral haematocrit (Hct) was calculated by the application of a simple formula. Results show 1) lower cerebral Hct than venous Hct (ratio of HCT brain/Hct venous 0.65-0.90) in all subjects, and 2) comparison between right and left hemisphere Hct in 3/3 normal subjects, 6/6 patients with transient ischaemic attacks and 3/8 patients with stroke showed no significant difference. However, in 3/8 patients with stroke (most recent strokes) significant differences were found, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side.

  2. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  3. Trans-cranial opening of the blood-brain barrier in targeted regions using a stereotaxic brain atlas and focused ultrasound energy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by preventing the entry of large molecules; this poses a major obstacle for the delivery of drugs to the brain. A novel technique using focused ultrasound (FUS) energy combined with microbubble contrast agents has been widely used for non-invasive trans-cranial BBB opening. Traditionally, FUS research is conducted with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, which is expensive and poses physical limitations due to the magnetic field. A system that could allow researchers to test brain therapies without MR intervention could facilitate and accelerate translational research. Methods In this study, we present a novel FUS system that uses a custom-built FUS generator mounted on a motorized stereotaxic apparatus with embedded brain atlas to locally open the BBB in rodents. The system was initially characterized using a tissue-mimicking phantom. Rodent studies were also performed to evaluate whether non-invasive, localized BBB opening could be achieved using brain atlas-based targeting. Brains were exposed to pulsed focused ultrasound energy at 1.06 MHz in rats and 3.23 MHz in mice, with the focal pressure estimated to be 0.5–0.6 MPa through the skull. BBB opening was confirmed in gross tissue sections by the presence of Evans blue leakage in the exposed region of the brain and by histological assessment. Results The targeting accuracy of the stereotaxic system was better than 0.5 mm in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Reproducible localized BBB opening was verified with Evans blue dye leakage in 32/33 rats and had a targeting accuracy of ±0.3 mm. The use of higher frequency exposures in mice enabled a similar precision of localized BBB opening as was observed with the low frequency in the rat model. Conclusions With this dedicated small-animal motorized stereotaxic-FUS system, we achieved accurate targeting of focused ultrasound exposures in the brain for non-invasive opening of the BBB. This system can

  4. DNA variation and brain region-specific expression profiles exhibit different relationships between inbred mouse strains: implications for eQTL mapping studies

    PubMed Central

    Hovatta, Iiris; Zapala, Matthew A; Broide, Ron S; Schadt, Eric E; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Lockhart, David J; Barlow, Carrolee

    2007-01-01

    Background Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping is used to find loci that are responsible for the transcriptional activity of a particular gene. In recent eQTL studies, expression profiles were derived from either homogenized whole brain or collections of large brain regions. However, the brain is a very heterogeneous organ, and expression profiles of different brain regions vary significantly. Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. Results Gene expression profiles of five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains were studied. Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the expression relationships between the strains and compared them with a DNA-level relationship tree. The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis-acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans-acting elements. Conclusion Our results suggest that many regulatory networks are highly brain region specific and indicate the importance of conducting eQTL mapping studies using data from brain regions or tissues that are physiologically and phenotypically relevant to the trait of interest. PMID:17324278

  5. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients

  6. Tau isoform regulation is region- and cell-specific in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Pamela; Korvatska, Elena; Poorkaj, Parvoneh; Evstafjeva, Zana; Robinson, Linda; Greenup, Lynne; Leverenz, James; Schellenberg, Gerard D; D'Souza, Ian

    2008-12-20

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Alternative splicing of the tau gene (MAPT) generates six tau isoforms, distinguishable by the exclusion or inclusion of a repeat region of exon 10, which are referred to as 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat (4R) tau, respectively. We developed transgenic mouse models that express the entire human MAPT gene in the presence and absence of the mouse Mapt gene and compared the expression and regulation of mouse and human tau isoforms during development and in the young adult. We found differences between mouse and human tau in the regulation of exon 10 inclusion. Despite these differences, the isoform splicing pattern seen in normal human brain is replicated in our mouse models. In addition, we found that all tau, both in the neonate and young adult, is phosphorylated. We also examined the normal anatomic distribution of mouse and human tau isoforms in mouse brain. We observed developmental and species-specific variations in the expression of 3R- and 4R-tau within the frontal cortex and hippocampus. In addition, there were differences in the cellular distribution of the isoforms. Mice transgenic for the human MAPT gene exhibited higher levels of neuronal cell body expression of tau compared to wildtype mice. This neuronal cell body expression of tau was limited to the 3R isoform, whereas expression of 4R-tau was more "synaptic like," with granular staining of neuropil rather than in neuronal cell bodies. These developmental and species-specific differences in the regulation and distribution of tau isoforms may be important to the understanding of normal and pathologic tau isoform expression. PMID:18925637

  7. Tau isoform regulation is region and cell-specific in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Pamela; Korvatska, Elena; Poorkaj, Parvoneh; Evstafjeva, Zana; Robinson, Linda; Greenup, Lynne; Leverenz, James; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; D’Souza, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Alternative splicing of the tau gene (MAPT) generates six tau isoforms, distinguishable by the exclusion or inclusion of a repeat region of exon 10, that are referred to as 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat (4R) tau, respectively. We developed transgenic mouse models that express the entire human MAPT gene in the presence and absence of the mouse Mapt gene and compared the expression and regulation of mouse and human tau isoforms during development and in the young adult. We found differences between mouse and human tau in the regulation of exon 10 inclusion. Despite these differences, the isoform splicing pattern seen in normal human brain is replicated in our mouse models. In addition, we found that all tau, both in the neonate and young adult, is phosphorylated. We also examined the normal anatomic distribution of mouse and human tau isoforms in mouse brain. We observed developmental and species-specific variations in the expression of 3R and 4R-tau within the frontal cortex and hippocampus. In addition, there were differences in the cellular distribution of the isoforms. Mice transgenic for the human MAPT gene exhibited higher levels of neuronal cell body expression of tau compared to wild-type mice. This neuronal cell body expression of tau was limited to the 3R isoform, whereas expression of 4R tau was more “synaptic like”, with granular staining of neuropil rather than in neuronal cell bodies. These developmental and species-specific differences in the regulation and distribution of tau isoforms may be important to the understanding of normal and pathologic tau isoform expression. PMID:18925637

  8. Conserved localization of Pax6 and Pax7 transcripts in the brain of representatives of sarcopterygian vertebrates during development supports homologous brain regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Nerea; Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Bandín, Sandra; López, Jesús M.; González, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Many of the genes involved in brain patterning during development are highly conserved in vertebrates and similarities in their expression patterns help to recognize homologous cell types or brain regions. Among these genes, Pax6 and Pax7 are expressed in regionally restricted patterns in the brain and are essential for its development. In the present immunohistochemical study we analyzed the distribution of Pax6 and Pax7 cells in the brain of six representative species of tetrapods and lungfishes, the closest living relatives of tetrapods, at several developmental stages. The distribution patterns of these transcription factors were largely comparable across species. In all species only Pax6 was expressed in the telencephalon, including the olfactory bulbs, septum, striatum, and amygdaloid complex. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, mainly in prosomeres 1 and 3. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the optic tectum (superior colliculus) and Pax6, but not Pax7, cells were found in the tegmentum. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum and Pax7 labeling was detected in cells of the ventricular zone of the rostral alar plate and in migrated cells in the basal plate, including the griseum centrale and the interpeduncular nucleus. Caudally, Pax6 cells formed a column, whereas the ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Since the observed Pax6 and Pax7 expression patterns are largely conserved they can be used to identify subdivisions in the brain across vertebrates that are not clearly discernible with classical techniques. PMID:25147506

  9. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The 'rich club' is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub 'rich club' brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington's disease and manifest Huntington's disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic pattern of structural

  10. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seunarine, Kiran K.; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H.; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Stout, Julie C.; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I.; Clark, Chris A.; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The ‘rich club’ is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub ‘rich club’ brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington’s disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington’s disease and manifest Huntington’s disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic

  11. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  12. Paleoneurology: neurodegenerative diseases are age-related diseases of specific brain regions recently developed by Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Ghika, J

    2008-11-01

    Bipedal locomotion and fine motility of hand and larynx of humans introduced musculoskeletal adaptations, new pyramidal, corticostriatal, corticobulbar, nigrostriatal, and cerebellar pathways and expansions of prefrontal, cingular, parieto-temporal and occipital cortices with derived new brain capabilities. All selectively degenerate in aged homo sapiens following 16 syndromic presentations: (1) Parkinsonism: nigrostriatal control for fast automatic movements of hand, larynx, bipedal posture and gait ("simian gait and hand"). (2) Frontal (highest level) gait disorders (lower body parkinsonism, gait apraxia, retropulsion): prefrontostriatal executive control of bipedal locomotion. (3) ataxia: new synergistic coordination of bipedal gait and fine motility. (4) Dyskinesias (chorea, dystonia, tremor...): intrusions of simian basal ganglia motor subroutines. (5) motoneuron diseases: new proximo-distal and bulbar motoneurones, preserving older ones (oculomotor, abdominal...). (6) Archaic reflexes: prefrontal disinhibition of old mother/tree-climbing-oriented reflexes (sucking, grasping, Babinski/triple retraction, gegenhalten), group alarms (laughter, crying, yawning, grunting...) or grooming (tremor=scratching). (7) Dysautonomia: contextual regulation (orthostatism...). (8) REM sleep disorders of new cortical functions. (9) Corticobasal syndrome: melokinetic control of hand prehension-manipulation and language (retrocession to simian patterns). (10) Frontal/temporal lobe degeneration: medial-orbitofrontal behavioural variant: self monitoring of internal needs and social context: apathy, loss of personal hygiene, stereotypia, disinhibition, loss of concern for consequences of acts, social rules, danger and empathy; dorsolateral executive variant: inadequacy to the context of action (goal, environmental changes...); progressive non-fluent aphasia: executive and praxic processing of speech; temporal variant: abstract concepts for speech, gestures and vision (semantic

  13. Predictive models of autism spectrum disorder based on brain regional cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2010-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a wide phenotypic range, often affecting personality and communication. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of ASD have identified both gray- and white-matter volume changes. However, the cerebral cortex is a 2-D sheet with a highly folded and curved geometry, which VBM cannot directly measure. Surface-based morphometry (SBM) has the advantage of being able to measure cortical surface features, such as thickness. The goals of this study were twofold: to construct diagnostic models for ASD, based on regional thickness measurements extracted from SBM, and to compare these models to diagnostic models based on volumetric morphometry. Our study included 22 subjects with ASD (mean age 9.2+/-2.1 years) and 16 volunteer controls (mean age 10.0+/-1.9 years). Using SBM, we obtained regional cortical thicknesses for 66 brain structures for each subject. In addition, we obtained volumes for the same 66 structures for these subjects. To generate diagnostic models, we employed four machine-learning techniques: support vector machines (SVMs), multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), functional trees (FTs), and logistic model trees (LMTs). We found that thickness-based diagnostic models were superior to those based on regional volumes. For thickness-based classification, LMT achieved the best classification performance, with accuracy=87%, area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC)=0.93, sensitivity=95%, and specificity=75%. For volume-based classification, LMT achieved the highest accuracy, with accuracy=74%, AUC=0.77, sensitivity=77%, and specificity=69%. The thickness-based diagnostic model generated by LMT included 7 structures. Relative to controls, children with ASD had decreased cortical thickness in the left and right pars triangularis, left medial orbitofrontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left frontal pole, and increased cortical thickness in the left caudal anterior

  14. Edaravone increases regional cerebral blood flow after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Dohi, Kenji; Tsumuraya, Tomomi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Kiriyama, Keisuke; Song, Dandan; Aruga, Tohru; Shioda, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity, with subsequent low cerebral blood flow (CBF) considered to be associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on regional CBF (rCBF) after TBI. Male mice (C57/BL6) were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impactor device. Immediately after TBI, the animals were intravenously administered 3.0 mg/kg of edaravone or a vehicle saline solution. Two-dimensional rCBF images were acquired before and 24 h post-TBI, and were quantified in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres (n = 5 animals per group). CBF in the vehicle-treated animals decreased broadly over the ipsilateral hemisphere, with the region of low rCBF spreading from the frontal cortex to the occipital lobe. The zone of lowest rCBF matched that of the contusion area. The mean rCBF at 24 h for a defined elliptical region between the bregma and lambda was 73.7 ± 5.8 %. In comparison, the reduction of rCBF in edaravone-treated animals was significantly attenuated (93.4 ± 5.7 %, p < 0.05). The edaravone-treated animals also exhibited higher rCBF in the contralateral hemisphere compared with that seen in -vehicle-treated animals. It is suggested that edaravone reduces neuronal damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by maintaining intact the autoregulation of the cerebral vasculature. PMID:23564113

  15. Geochemical evidence concerning the nature of the source region to the Middle Proterozoic Granite-Rhyolite Province

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, R.D. . Dept. Geography Mueller, P.A.; Heatherington, A.L. . Dept. Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The mostly buried 1.5--1.3 Ga old Granite-Rhyolite Province of the midcontinent of North America, is characterized by extensive, undeformed silicic volcanic rocks and related epizonal granitic plutons. Thirty-three previously dated samples from a wide geographic range (Michigan to Colorado) have been analyzed to determine their chemical and Nd and Pb isotopic compositions in order to constrain source regions and processes involved in the formation of these rocks. Major and trace element analyses of these rocks indicate their anorogenic nature, with relatively high Ce/Nb and Y/Nb ratios, as well as relatively high Ga/Al ratios. Geochemically, these rocks are similar to the A2 granites of Eby (1992), which are thought to be generated from the melting of crust which has experienced at least one cycle of subduction-related magmatism. Rare earth element and Pb isotopic data suggest melting at middle to shallow depths. The isotopic data (Nd and Pb) indicate little to no contribution of Archean crust to the source of these rocks. Initial Pb isotopic ratios (208Pb/204Pb) suggest a low Th/U ratio in the source, which contrasts strongly with high Th/U ratios of the Wyoming Province. The Pb isotopic ratios for these rocks are variable, but cluster about the orogene plumbotectonics curve. The variability in the data suggest sources which are variable in their U/Pb ratios and/or ages. The isotopic data are consistent with the existence of a proposed lithospheric boundary which trend NE-SW through the Granite-Rhyolite Province and separates 1.65 Ga old lithosphere (to the NW) from 1.5 Ga old lithosphere (to the SE). Samples analyzed from either side of this boundary have different isotopic signatures. Many of the samples appear to be derived from sources which are only slightly older than the crystallization ages of the granites themselves.

  16. Aging modifies brain region-specific vulnerability to experimental oxidative stress induced by low dose hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna; Dallal, Gerard E.; Joseph, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated a significant decline in brain function and behavior in Fischer 344 (F344) rats with age. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysregulation in calcium homeostasis (as assessed through 45Ca flux) may contribute to the increase in age-related vulnerability to oxidative stress in brain regions, and result in a deficit in behavior-mediated signaling. Crude membrane (P-2) and more purified synaptosomal fractions were isolated from the striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of young (6 months) and old (22 months) F344 rats and were assessed for calcium flux and extracellular-regulated kinase activity 1 (ERK) under control and oxidative stress conditions induced by low dose hydrogen peroxide (final concentration 5 μM). The level of oxidative stress responses was monitored by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). The results showed a significant difference in oxidative stress responses between young and old rats in evaluated brain regions. Old rats showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress than young rats. The present findings show the differential effects of oxidative stress on calcium flux in brain regions with age that are dependent upon the brain areas examined and the fraction assessed. The accumulation of ROS and the decrease in GSH in the frontal cortex were sufficient to decrease ERK activity in old rats. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that demonstrates age-related differential sensitivity to oxidative stress expressed as a function of behavior-mediated signaling and stress levels among different fractions isolated from brain regions controlling behavior. PMID:19424838

  17. EFFECTS OF NEONATAL METHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE ON DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN RAT BRAIN: REGIONAL SPECIFICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of neonatal rats to methylmercury (1 or 2.5 mg/kg SC daily) during the preweaning period caused regionally-specific alterations in DNA, RNA and protein content in brain. In midbrain + brainstem, where neuronal replication and differentiation conclude early, reduced DNA c...

  18. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    PubMed Central

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  19. Altered intrinsic regional brain spontaneous activity in patients with comitant strabismus: a resting-state functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Li, Sheng-Hong; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Zhang, Ying; Zhong, Yu-Lin; Cai, Feng-Qin; Shao, Yi; Zeng, Xian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo) of brain-activity abnormalities in patients with comitant strabismus (CS) and their relationship with behavioral performance. Methods Twenty patients with CS (ten men and ten women) and 20 (ten men and ten women) age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess local features of spontaneous brain activities. Patients with CS were distinguished from HCs by receiver operating characteristic curve. Correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and behavioral performance. Results Compared to HCs, the patients with CS showed significantly increased ReHo values in the right inferior temporal cortex/fusiform gyrus/cerebellum anterior lobe, right lingual gyrus, and bilateral cingulate gyrus. We did not find any relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and behavioral performance. Conclusion CS causes dysfunction in many brain regions, which may explain the fusion compensation in CS. PMID:27350747

  20. Regional brain abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: association with cognitive abilities and behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Monterosso, John R; Simon, Tony J; Glahn, David C; Saleh, Peter A; Hill, Nicole M; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2004-06-01

    Children with 22q11.2 microdeletions (Velocardiofacial Syndrome; VCFS) have previously been shown to exhibit learning deficits and elevated rates of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to assess regional brain abnormalities in children with 22q11DS, and to determine the relationship of these measures to neurocognitive and behavioral function. Thirteen children with confirmed deletions and 9 demographically matched comparison subjects were assessed with a neurocognitive battery, behavioral measures, and high-resolution MRI. Twenty-two qllDS children showed a nonsignificant 4.3% global decrease in total brain volume as compared to healthy controls,with differential reduction in white matter, and significantly increased sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in temporal and posterior brain regions. In 22q11 DS subjects, but not controls, bilateral temporal gray and white matter volumes were significant predictors of overall cognitive performance. Further, reduced temporal gray matter was associated with elevated Thought Problems score on the CBCL. Results indicate that global alterations in brain volume are common in children with 22q deletions, particularly those with low IQ and/or behavioral disturbance. Although preliminary,these findings suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits seen in this syndrome,and provide insight into complex gene-brain-behavior relationships. PMID:15788257

  1. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  2. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L

    2015-10-21

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R(*)2 values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers. PMID:26422177

  3. Regional TNFα mapping in the brain reveals the striatum as a neuroinflammatory target after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Janata, Andreas; Magnet, Ingrid A.M.; Uray, Thomas; Stezoski, Jason P.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Drabek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) triggers neuroinflammation that could play a role in a delayed neuronal death. In our previously established rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA characterized by extensive neuronal death, we tested the hypothesis that individual brain regions have specific neuroinflammatory responses, as reflected by regional brain tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and other cytokines. In a prospective study, rats were randomized to 6 min (CA6), 8 min (CA8) or 10 min (CA10) of VF CA, or sham group. Cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were evaluated for TNFα and interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon gamma at 3 h, 6 h or 14 d after CA by ELISA and Luminex. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the cell source of TNFα. CA resulted in a selective TNFα response with significant regional and temporal differences. At 3 h after CA, TNFα-levels increased in all regions depending on the duration of the insult. The most pronounced increase was observed in striatum that showed 20-fold increase in CA10 vs. sham, and 3-fold increase vs. CA6 or CA8 group, respectively (p < 0.01). TNFα levels in striatum decreased between 3 h and 6 h, but increased in other regions between 3 h and 14 d. TNFα levels remained twofold higher in CA6 vs. shams across brain regions at 14 d (p < 0.01). In contrast to pronounced TNFα response, other cytokines showed only a minimal increase in CA6 and CA8 groups vs. sham in all brain regions with the exception that IL-1β increased twofold in cerebellum and striatum (p < 0.01). TNFα colocalized with neurons. In conclusion, CA produced a duration-dependent acute TNFα response, with dramatic increase in the striatum where TNFα colocalized with neurons. Increased TNFα levels persist for at least two weeks. This TNFα surge contrasts the lack of an acute increase in other cytokines in brain after CA. Given that striatum is a selectively vulnerable brain region, our data

  4. Telomerase Activity in the Various Regions of Mouse Brain: Non-Radioactive Telomerase Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) Assay

    PubMed Central

    Grin, Yossi; Admoni, Tamar; Priel, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the various mouse brain regions and to protect motor neurons cells from oxidative stress. These results strengthen the notion that telomerase is involved in the protection of neurons from various lesions. To underline the role of telomerase in the brain, we here compare the activity of telomerase in male and female mouse brain and its dependence on age. TRAP assay is a standard method for detecting telomerase activity in various tissues or cell lines. Here we demonstrate the analysis of telomerase activity in three regions of the mouse brain by non-denaturing protein extraction using CHAPS lysis buffer followed by modification of the standard TRAP assay. In this 2-step assay, endogenous telomerase elongates a specific telomerase substrate (TS primer) by adding TTAGGG 6 bp repeats (telomerase reaction). The telomerase reaction products are amplified by PCR reaction creating a DNA ladder of 6 bp increments. The analysis of the DNA ladder is made by 4.5% high resolution agarose gel electrophoresis followed by staining with highly sensitive nucleic acid stain. Compared to the traditional TRAP assay that utilize 32P labeled radioactive dCTP's for DNA detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for resolving the DNA ladder, this protocol offers a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for evaluating telomerase activity in the mouse brain, demonstrating the ability to detect differences in telomerase activity in the various female and male mouse brain region. PMID:25225832

  5. Analysis of the protein network of cholesterol homeostasis in different brain regions: an age and sex dependent perspective.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Di Giovanni, Annalaura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-07-01

    Although a great knowledge about the patho-physiological roles of cholesterol metabolism perturbation in several organs has been reached, scarce information is available on the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain where this lipid is involved in the maintenance of several of neuronal processes. Currently, no study is available in literature dealing how and if sex and age may modulate the major proteins involved in the regulatory network of cholesterol levels in different brain regions. Here, we investigated the behavior of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in adult (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) male and female rats. The analyses were performed in four different brain regions: cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and cerebellum which represent brain areas characterized by different neuronal cell types, metabolism, cytoarchitecture and white matter composition. The results show that in hippocampus HMGR is lower (30%) in adult female rats than in age-matched males. Differences in LDLr expression are also observable in old females with respect to age-matched males: the protein levels increase (40%) in hippocampus and decrease (20%) in cortex, displaying different mechanisms of regulation. The mechanism underlying the observed modifications are ascribable to Insig-1 and SREBP-1 modulation. The obtained data demonstrate that age- and sex-related differences in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance exist among brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, important for learning, memory and affection. Some of these differences could be at the root of marked gender disparities observed in clinical disease incidence, manifestation, and prognosis. PMID:23280554

  6. Telomerase activity in the various regions of mouse brain: non-radioactive telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay.

    PubMed

    Grin, Yossi; Admoni, Tamar; Priel, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the various mouse brain regions and to protect motor neurons cells from oxidative stress. These results strengthen the notion that telomerase is involved in the protection of neurons from various lesions. To underline the role of telomerase in the brain, we here compare the activity of telomerase in male and female mouse brain and its dependence on age. TRAP assay is a standard method for detecting telomerase activity in various tissues or cell lines. Here we demonstrate the analysis of telomerase activity in three regions of the mouse brain by non-denaturing protein extraction using CHAPS lysis buffer followed by modification of the standard TRAP assay. In this 2-step assay, endogenous telomerase elongates a specific telomerase substrate (TS primer) by adding TTAGGG 6 bp repeats (telomerase reaction). The telomerase reaction products are amplified by PCR reaction creating a DNA ladder of 6 bp increments. The analysis of the DNA ladder is made by 4.5% high resolution agarose gel electrophoresis followed by staining with highly sensitive nucleic acid stain. Compared to the traditional TRAP assay that utilize (32)P labeled radioactive dCTP's for DNA detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for resolving the DNA ladder, this protocol offers a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for evaluating telomerase activity in the mouse brain, demonstrating the ability to detect differences in telomerase activity in the various female and male mouse brain region. PMID:25225832

  7. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  8. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures' volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15-18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal 'increases' in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence. PMID:24526186

  9. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease. PMID:27413576

  10. Semi-supervised clustering for parcellating brain regions based on resting state fMRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hewei; Fan, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Many unsupervised clustering techniques have been adopted for parcellating brain regions of interest into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. However, the unsupervised clustering techniques are not able to take advantage of exiting knowledge of the functional neuroanatomy readily available from studies of cytoarchitectonic parcellation or meta-analysis of the literature. In this study, we propose a semi-supervised clustering method for parcellating amygdala into functionally homogeneous subregions based on resting state fMRI data. Particularly, the semi-supervised clustering is implemented under the framework of graph partitioning, and adopts prior information and spatial consistent constraints to obtain a spatially contiguous parcellation result. The graph partitioning problem is solved using an efficient algorithm similar to the well-known weighted kernel k-means algorithm. Our method has been validated for parcellating amygdala into 3 subregions based on resting state fMRI data of 28 subjects. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method is more robust than unsupervised clustering and able to parcellate amygdala into centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial parts with improved functionally homogeneity compared with the cytoarchitectonic parcellation result. The validity of the parcellation results is also supported by distinctive functional and structural connectivity patterns of the subregions and high consistency between coactivation patterns derived from a meta-analysis and functional connectivity patterns of corresponding subregions.

  11. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases. PMID:25941797

  12. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  13. Do fearful eyes activate empathy-related brain regions in individuals with callous traits?

    PubMed

    Han, Thida; Alders, Gésine L; Greening, Steven G; Neufeld, Richard W J; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2012-11-01

    Psychopathy, a developmental disorder characterized by profound social disturbance, is associated with impaired recognition of distress cues. Since distress processing and moral socialization are closely linked, uncovering techniques to improve distress recognition could have positive treatment implications for developmental disorders that feature empathy impairments. Previous studies demonstrate that fear-recognition deficits can be remedied by redirecting attention to critical cues (the eyes for fearful faces). However, it remains unclear whether this manipulation increases activity in empathy-related brain regions, or has an alternate compensatory effect that may not promote prosocial behaviours. In this fMRI study, a community sample of individuals with high vs low callous traits completed an emotion recognition task that varied whether the most or least socially meaningful facial features were visible (the eyes were isolated or occluded). For fearful faces, individuals with high callous traits showed significantly less amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex activity than those with low callous traits when the eyes were occluded, but not when they were isolated. Consistent with recent models of the amygdala that emphasize orientation to disambiguate stimuli rather than represent distress, individuals with low trait empathy showed greater amygdala activity to the least vs most socially meaningful features of fearful faces. PMID:22021652

  14. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease. PMID:27413576

  15. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  16. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    PubMed Central

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases. PMID:25941797

  17. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  18. Neuropeptide Y administration acutely increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity: lack of effect in other rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; George, S.R.

    1987-12-21

    The effect of acute central administration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) to adult male rats on the brain content of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) was investigated. The brain regions studied included frontal cortex, hippocampus, medulla-pons, midbrain-thalamus, cerebellum, neurointermediate lobe of pituitary, median eminence and the remaining hypothalamus. CRF-ir was determined in each of these regions using radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF. CRF-ir was found to be significantly increased in the major site of CRF localization in the brain, the hypothalamus, in NPY-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls either 15 minutes (p<0.025) or 45 minutes (p<0.005) post-injection. This increase was localized to the median eminence (p<0.05 after 15 minutes, p<0.01 after 45 minutes). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other brain regions assessed. Plasma adrenocorticotropin levels were also found to increase following NPY treatment, an effect which became significant after 45 minutes (p<0.05). These data show that NPY can alter the content of hypothalamic CRF and may play a role in its regulation. 33 references, 4 figures.

  19. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 hours to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. PMID:21546146

  20. Regional and subcellular localization of Li+ and other cations in the rat brain following long-term lithium administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, H R; Christensen, S

    1992-10-01

    Rats were given LiCl in their diet (40 mmol/kg dry weight) for at least 3 months to elucidate the regional and subcellular localization of Li+ in the brain as well as the effect of chronic lithium administration on the distribution of other cations. At steady-state the mean concentrations of Li+ were 0.66 mmol/kg wet weight in the whole brain and 0.52 mM in plasma. The tissue/plasma concentration ratio exceeded unity in all anatomical regions. No region showed excessive accumulation of Li+. Whole brain or regional contents of Na+ or K+ were unaffected by lithium treatment. Subcellular Li+ localization was demonstrated in nuclear, crude mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions of whole brain homogenate. Subfractionation of the crude mitochondrial fraction revealed energy-independent intrasynaptosomal and intramitochondrial Li+ and K+ localization at 0-4 degrees C. Li+ administered in vivo disappeared within 10 min from synaptosomes incubated at 37 degrees C. Li+ added in vitro at 1 mM attained a synaptosomal steady-state concentration within 30 min at 37 degrees C. In control rats, synaptosomal concentrations and synaptosomal/medium concentration gradients of cations paralleled their respective in vivo concentrations and gradients. Lithium treatment caused synaptosomal depletion of K+ and Mg2+ and hence probably partial membrane depolarization. Addition of 1 mM Li+ in vitro also caused synaptosomal Mg2+ depletion. The results indicate that Li+ is "accumulated" in brain sediments and synaptosomes following its long-term treatment. The estimated intracellular and intrasynaptosomal Li+ concentrations are lower than predicted by passive distribution according to the Nernst equation, evidencing active extrusion of Li+. PMID:1402889

  1. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Charboneau, Evonne J; Dietrich, Mary S; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M; Martin, Peter R; Buchowski, Maciej S; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-30

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  2. Reversal of an aluminium induced alteration in redox status in different regions of rat brain by administration of centrophenoxine.

    PubMed

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-10-01

    Aluminium is one of the most studied neurotoxin, and its effects on nervous system are both structural and functional, involving various regions of brain. Aluminium toxicity is known to have multiple mechanisms of action in the central nervous system. Affinity of aluminium for thiol substrates is considered a possible molecular mechanism involved in aluminium neurotoxicity. The reduced glutathione (GSH) is especially important for cellular defence against aluminium toxicity. This study pertains to the modulatory action of centrophenoxine on GSH status in aluminium exposed different brain regions of the female rats. Aluminium was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of eight weeks whereas, centrophenoxine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/Kg x b x wt x /day for a period of six weeks. The study was carried out in different regions of brain namely cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus. Animals exposed to aluminum, registered a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione as well as in the activity of glutathione reductase in all the different regions studied when compared to normal control animals. Post-treatment with centrophenoxine, showed a significant improvement in the thiol levels in different regions. Centrophenoxine when administered alone also had a profound effect on the levels of reduced glutathione as well as on the activity of glutathione reductase. From the present results, it can be stated that centrophenoxine administration, as a thiol-antioxidant, arrests the aluminium induced cellular damage by improving the thiol status in brain regions. PMID:16969688

  3. Brain regions engaged by part- and whole-task performance in a video game: a model-based test of the decomposition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, Abraham R; Poole, Ben; Qin, Yulin

    2011-12-01

    Part- and whole-task conditions were created by manipulating the presence of certain components of the Space Fortress video game. A cognitive model was created for two-part games that could be combined into a model that performed the whole game. The model generated predictions both for behavioral patterns and activation patterns in various brain regions. The activation predictions concerned both tonic activation that was constant in these regions during performance of the game and phasic activation that occurred when there was resource competition. The model's predictions were confirmed about how tonic and phasic activation in different regions would vary with condition. These results support the Decomposition Hypothesis that the execution of a complex task can be decomposed into a set of information-processing components and that these components combine unchanged in different task conditions. In addition, individual differences in learning gains were predicted by individual differences in phasic activation in those regions that displayed highest tonic activity. This individual difference pattern suggests that the rate of learning of a complex skill is determined by capacity limits. PMID:21557648

  4. Blueberries and strawberries activate neuronal housekeeping in critical brain regions of stress-induced young rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysfunctional autophagy, where accumulation of damaged or complex cellular components in neurons in response to sublethal cell stress has been implicated in an array of brain disorders. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in aging, because of the increased vulnerability of the aging brain to incre...

  5. Differential Engagement of Brain Regions within a "Core" Network during Scene Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Jennifer J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2010-01-01

    Reliving past events and imagining potential future events engages a well-established "core" network of brain areas. How the brain constructs, or reconstructs, these experiences or scenes has been debated extensively in the literature, but remains poorly understood. Here we designed a novel task to investigate this (re)constructive process by…

  6. Mercury, selenium and neurochemical biomarkers in different brain regions of migrating common loons from Lake Erie, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melanie; Scheuhammer, Anton; Basu, Niladri

    2011-10-01

    Common loons (Gavia immer) can be exposed to relatively high levels of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption, and several studies have documented MeHg-associated health effects in this species. To further study the neurological risks of MeHg accumulation, migrating loons dying of Type E botulism were collected opportunistically from the Lake Erie shore at Long Point (Ontario, Canada) and relationships between total mercury (THg), selenium (Se), and selected neurochemical receptors and brain enzymes were investigated. THg concentrations were 1-78 μg/g in liver; and 0.3-4 μg/g in the brain (all concentrations reported on a dry weight basis). A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation was found between THg in liver and THg in 3 subregions of the brain (cerebral cortex: r = 0.433; cerebellum: r = 0.293; brain stem: r = 0.405). THg varied significantly among different brain regions, with the cortex having the highest concentrations. Se levels in the cortex and cerebellum were 1-29 and 1-10 μg/g, respectively, with no significant differences between regions. Se was not measured in brain stem due to insufficient tissue mass. There were molar excesses of Se over mercury (Hg) in both cortex and cerebellum at all Hg concentrations, and a significant positive relationship between THg and the Hg:Se molar ratio (cortex: r = 0.63; cerebellum: r = 0.47). No significant associations were observed between brain THg and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor concentration, nor between THg and muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptor concentration; however, brain THg levels were lower than in previous studies that reported significant Hg-associated changes in neuroreceptor densities. Together with previous studies, the current findings add to our understanding of Hg distribution in the brain of common loons, and the associations between Hg and sub-lethal neurochemical changes in fish-eating wildlife. PMID:21847660

  7. Selective brain cooling seems to be a mechanism leading to human craniofacial diversity observed in different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M K; Korkmaz, A; Erogul, O

    2004-01-01

    Selective brain cooling (SBC) can occur in hyperthermic humans despite the fact that humans have no carotid rete, a vascular structure that facilitates countercurrent heat exchange located at the base of the skull in some mammals. Emissary and angular veins, upper respiratory tract, tympanic cavity and cerebrospinal fluid are major components of SBC system in humans. The efficiency of SBC is increased by evaporation of sweat on the head and by ventilation through the nose, but it is surprising to find out that mammals do not display SBC during exercise hyperthermia. What is the explanation then for the SBC at high body temperatures? Our hypothesis is that selective brain cooling protects the brain from thermal damage in a long-standing manner by allowing adaptive mechanisms to change the craniofacial morphology appropriate for different environmental conditions. Since the brain can only be as big that can cool, it is not surprising to find a lower (below 1300 cm(3)) cranial volume in Australian Aborigines with respect to the one (over 1450 cm(3)) in Eskimos. In addition to lower brain volume, other craniofacial features such as thick everted lips, broader nasal cavity and bigger paranasal sinuses that provide more evaporating surfaces seem to be anatomical variations developed in time for an effective SBC in hot climates. It was reported previously that these biological adaptations result from the tissues of neural crest origin. Among the crest derivatives, leptomeninges (pia and arachnoid mater), skeletal and connective tissues of the face and much of the skull seem to be structures upon which environment operates to produce more convenient craniofacial morphology for an effective SBC. In conclusion, selective brain cooling seems to be a mechanism leading to adaptive craniofacial diversity observed in different geographical regions. Thus, SBC is necessary for long-term biological adaptation, not for protecting the brain from acute thermal damage. PMID:15504564

  8. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri; Ohmori, Harunori

    2015-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  9. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  10. Sustained maintenance of somatotopic information in brain regions recruited by tactile working memory.

    PubMed

    Katus, Tobias; Müller, Matthias M; Eimer, Martin

    2015-01-28

    To adaptively guide ongoing behavior, representations in working memory (WM) often have to be modified in line with changing task demands. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to demonstrate that tactile WM representations are stored in modality-specific cortical regions, that the goal-directed modulation of these representations is mediated through hemispheric-specific activation of somatosensory areas, and that the rehearsal of somatotopic coordinates in memory is accomplished by modality-specific spatial attention mechanisms. Participants encoded two tactile sample stimuli presented simultaneously to the left and right hands, before visual retro-cues indicated which of these stimuli had to be retained to be matched with a subsequent test stimulus on the same hand. Retro-cues triggered a sustained tactile contralateral delay activity component with a scalp topography over somatosensory cortex contralateral to the cued hand. Early somatosensory ERP components to task-irrelevant probe stimuli (that were presented after the retro-cues) and to subsequent test stimuli were enhanced when these stimuli appeared at the currently memorized location relative to other locations on the cued hand, demonstrating that a precise focus of spatial attention was established during the selective maintenance of tactile events in WM. These effects were observed regardless of whether participants performed the matching task with uncrossed or crossed hands, indicating that WM representations in this task were based on somatotopic rather than allocentric spatial coordinates. In conclusion, spatial rehearsal in tactile WM operates within somatotopically organized sensory brain areas that have been recruited for information storage. PMID:25632117

  11. A novel lead design enables selective deep brain stimulation of neural populations in the subthalamic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease are sensitive to the location of the DBS lead within the STN. New high density (HD) lead designs have been created which are hypothesized to provide additional degrees of freedom in shaping the stimulating electric field. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of a new HD lead with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. Approach. A computational model, consisting of a finite element electric field model combined with multi-compartment neuron and axon models representing different neural populations in the subthalamic region, was used to evaluate the two leads. We compared ring-mode and steering-mode stimulation with the HD lead to single contact stimulation with the CC lead. These stimulation modes were tested for the lead: (1) positioned in the centroid of the STN, (2) shifted 1 mm towards the internal capsule (IC), and (3) shifted 2 mm towards the IC. Under these conditions, we quantified the number of STN neurons that were activated without activating IC fibers, which are known to cause side-effects. Main results. The modeling results show that the HD lead is able to mimic the stimulation effect of the CC lead. Additionally, in steering-mode stimulation there was a significant increase of activated STN neurons compared to the CC mode. Significance. From the model simulations we conclude that the HD lead in steering-mode with optimized stimulation parameter selection can stimulate more STN cells. Next, the clinical impact of the increased number of activated STN cells should be tested and balanced across the increased complexity of identifying the optimized stimulation parameter settings for the HD lead.

  12. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  13. Sustained Maintenance of Somatotopic Information in Brain Regions Recruited by Tactile Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To adaptively guide ongoing behavior, representations in working memory (WM) often have to be modified in line with changing task demands. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to demonstrate that tactile WM representations are stored in modality-specific cortical regions, that the goal-directed modulation of these representations is mediated through hemispheric-specific activation of somatosensory areas, and that the rehearsal of somatotopic coordinates in memory is accomplished by modality-specific spatial attention mechanisms. Participants encoded two tactile sample stimuli presented simultaneously to the left and right hands, before visual retro-cues indicated which of these stimuli had to be retained to be matched with a subsequent test stimulus on the same hand. Retro-cues triggered a sustained tactile contralateral delay activity component with a scalp topography over somatosensory cortex contralateral to the cued hand. Early somatosensory ERP components to task-irrelevant probe stimuli (that were presented after the retro-cues) and to subsequent test stimuli were enhanced when these stimuli appeared at the currently memorized location relative to other locations on the cued hand, demonstrating that a precise focus of spatial attention was established during the selective maintenance of tactile events in WM. These effects were observed regardless of whether participants performed the matching task with uncrossed or crossed hands, indicating that WM representations in this task were based on somatotopic rather than allocentric spatial coordinates. In conclusion, spatial rehearsal in tactile WM operates within somatotopically organized sensory brain areas that have been recruited for information storage. PMID:25632117

  14. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    PubMed

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus. PMID:27393312

  15. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  16. The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Akhter, Samiha; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Alam, Tanzir; Nageeb Hasan, S M; Saifullah, A R M; Shohel, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in mice brain. Animals were divided into 4 groups; treatment young (3 months, n = 6) (AY), treatment old (16 months, n = 6) (AO), placebo young (3 months, n = 6) (PY) and placebo old (16 months, n = 6) (PO) groups. Treatment group was given astaxanthin (2 mg/kg/day, body weight), and placebo group was given 100 μl of 0.9% normal saline orally to the healthy Swiss albino mice for 4 weeks. The level of non-enzymatic oxidative markers namely malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO); advanced protein oxidation product (APOP); glutathione (GSH) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants i.e.; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined from the isolated brain regions. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the level of MDA, APOP, NO in the cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in both age groups. Astaxanthin markedly (p < 0.05) enhances the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes while improves the level of GSH in the brain. Overall, improvement of oxidative markers was significantly greater in the young group than the aged animal. In conclusion, we report that the activity of astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain. PMID:26116165

  17. Regional specific regulation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 immunoreactivity by orchidectomy in the brain of adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chen; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Zhao, Yangang; Guo, Qiang; Cai, Wenqin; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Androgens including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone play important roles on brain structure and function, either directly through androgen receptor or indirectly through estrogen receptors, which need coactivators for their transcription activation. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) has been shown to be multifunctional potentials in the brain, but how it is regulated by androgens in the brain remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of orchidectomy (ORX) on the expression of SRC-1 in the adult male mice using nickel-intensified immunohistochemistry. The results showed that ORX induced dramatic decrease of SRC-1 immunoreactivity in the olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex, ventral pallidum, most parts of the septal area, hippocampus, substantia nigra (compact part), pontine nuclei and nucleus of the trapezoid body (p<0.01). Significant decrease of SRC-1 was noticed in the dorsal and lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptical area, dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and superior paraolivary nucleus (p<0.05). Whereas in other regions examined, levels of SRC-1 immunoreactivity were not obviously changed by ORX (p>0.05). The above results demonstrated ORX downregulation of SRC-1 in specific regions that have been involved in sense of smell, learning and memory, cognition, neuroendocrine, reproduction and motor control, indicating that SRC-1 play pivotal role in the mediating circulating androgenic regulation on these important brain functions. It also indicates that SRC-1 may serve as a novel target for the central disorders caused by the age-related decrease of circulating androgens. PMID:24945110

  18. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  19. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  20. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  1. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  2. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-08-15

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the image were disrupted, but edge information was preserved. In a behavioural experiment, contrast-reversal significantly attenuated judgements of facial identity, but only had a marginal effect on judgements of expression. An fMR-adaptation paradigm was then used to ask how brain regions involved in the processing of identity and expression responded to blocks comprising all normal, all contrast-reversed, or a mixture of normal and contrast-reversed faces. Adaptation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus--a region directly linked with processing facial expression--was relatively unaffected by mixing normal with contrast-reversed faces. In contrast, the response of the fusiform face area--a region linked with processing facial identity--was significantly affected by contrast-reversal. These results offer a new perspective on the reasons underlying the neural segregation of facial identity and expression in which brain regions involved in processing invariant aspects of faces, such as identity, are very sensitive to surface-based cues, whereas regions involved in processing changes in faces, such as expression, are relatively dependent on edge-based cues. PMID:24747739

  3. Decreased Functional Connectivity of Homotopic Brain Regions in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Resting State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Sun, Fenfen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing; Fan, Mingxia; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of motor functions is accompanied by brain reorganization, and identifying the inter-hemispheric interaction post stroke will conduce to more targeted treatments. However, the alterations of bi-hemispheric coordination pattern between homologous areas in the whole brain for chronic stroke patients were still unclear. The present study focuses on the functional connectivity (FC) of mirror regions of the whole brain to investigate the inter-hemispheric interaction using a new fMRI method named voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Thirty left subcortical chronic stroke patients with pure motor deficits and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI scans. We employed a VMHC analysis to determine the brain areas showed significant differences between groups in FC between homologous regions, and we explored the relationships between the mean VMHC of each survived area and clinical tests within patient group using Pearson correlation. In addition, the brain areas showed significant correlations between the mean VMHC and clinical tests were defined as the seed regions for whole brain FC analysis. Relative to HCs, patients group displayed lower VMHC in the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine gyrus, thalamus, cerebellum anterior lobe, and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL). Moreover, the VMHC of CPL was positively correlated with the Fugl–Meyer Score of hand (FMA-H), while a negative correlation between illness duration and the VMHC of this region was also detected. Furthermore, we found that when compared with HCs, the right CPL exhibited reduced FC with the left precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, thalamus and hippocampus. Our results suggest that the functional coordination across hemispheres is impaired in chronic stroke patients, and increased VMHC of the CPL is significantly associated with higher FMA-H scores

  4. Regionally accentuated reversible brain grey matter reduction in ultra marathon runners detected by voxel-based morphometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the 4,487 km ultra marathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), runners showed catabolism with considerable reduction of body weight as well as reversible brain volume reduction. We hypothesized that ultra marathon athletes might have developed changes to grey matter (GM) brain morphology due to the burden of extreme physical training. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we undertook a cross sectional study and two longitudinal studies. Methods Prior to the start of the race 13 runners volunteered to participate in this study of planned brain scans before, twice during, and 8 months after the race. A group of matched controls was recruited for comparison. Twelve runners were able to participate in the scan before the start of the race and were taken into account for comparison with control persons. Because of drop-outs during the race, VBM could be performed in 10 runners covering the first 3 time points, and in 7 runners who also had the follow-up scan after 8 months. Volumetric 3D datasets were acquired using an MPRAGE sequence. A level of p < 0.05, family-wise corrected for multiple comparisons was the a priori set statistical threshold to infer significant effects from VBM. Results Baseline comparison of TEFR09 participants and controls revealed no significant differences regarding GM brain volume. During the race however, VBM revealed GM volume decreases in regionally distributed brain regions. These included the bilateral posterior temporal and occipitoparietal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus. After eight months, GM normalized. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe significant differences between TEFR09 athletes and controls at baseline. If this missing difference is not due to small sample size, extreme physical training obviously does not chronically alter GM. However, during the race GM volume decreased in brain regions normally associated with visuospatial and language tasks. The

  5. Effects of exposure to pyrethroid cyfluthrin on serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J L; Ares, I; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2016-04-01

    The effects of cyfluthrin oral exposure (1, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male rats were examined. Cyfluthrin-treated rats (1, 5 and 10mg/kg bw, orally 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. However, rats treated with cyfluthrin at the highest dose (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) showed skeletal muscle contraction in the hind limbs, slight movement incoordination without any signs of dyskinesia and tremor after 1-2h of treatment. These signs were reversible at 6h after dose. After last dose of cyfluthrin, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolites levels were determined in brain regions hypothalamus, midbrain, hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex by HPLC. Cyfluthrin (1mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) did not affect the DA, 5-HT and metabolites levels in the brain regions studied. Cyfluthrin (5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) caused a statistically significant decrease in DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA levels and in 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA levels in a brain region- and dose-related manner. Moreover, cyfluthrin (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) evoked a statistically significant increase in 5-HT turnover in striatum and midbrain, and in DA turnover in striatum and prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is affected by exposure to cyfluthrin and may contribute to the overall spectrum of neurotoxicity caused by this pyrethroid. PMID:26826775

  6. Regional Brain Glucose Hypometabolism in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Possible Link to Mild Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sébastien; Fortier, Mélanie; Imbeault, Hélène; Duval, Julie; Cunnane, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) is altered in normal weight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who exhibit mild insulin resistance. Materials and methods Seven women with PCOS were compared to eleven healthy female controls of similar age, education and body mass index. Regional brain glucose uptake was quantified using FDG with dynamic positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and its potential relationship with insulin resistance assessed using the updated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR). A battery of cognitive tests was administered to evaluate working memory, attention and executive function. Results The PCOS group had 10% higher fasting glucose and 40% higher HOMA2-IR (p ≤ 0.035) compared to the Controls. The PCOS group had 9–14% lower CMRglu in specific regions of the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices (p ≤ 0.018). A significant negative relation was found between the CMRglu and HOMA2-IR mainly in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices as well as in the hippocampus and the amygdala (p ≤ 0.05). Globally, cognitive performance was normal in both groups but scores on the PASAT test of working memory tended to be low in the PCOS group. Conclusions The PCOS group exhibited a pattern of low regional CMRglu that correlated inversely with HOMA2-IR in several brain regions and which resembled the pattern seen in aging and early Alzheimer’s disease. These results suggest that a direct association between mild insulin resistance and brain glucose hypometabolism independent of overweight or obesity can exist in young adults in their 20s. Further investigation of the influence of insulin resistance on brain glucose metabolism and cognition in younger and middle-aged adults is warranted. PMID:26650926

  7. Application of intracerebral microdialysis to study regional distribution kinetics of drugs in rat brain.

    PubMed

    de Lange, E C; Bouw, M R; Mandema, J W; Danhof, M; de Boer, A G; Breimer, D D

    1995-11-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether intracerebral microdialysis can be used for the assessment of local differences in drug concentrations within the brain. 2. Two transversal microdialysis probes were implanted in parallel into the frontal cortex of male Wistar rats, and used as a local infusion and detection device respectively. Within one rat, three different concentrations of atenolol or acetaminophen were infused in randomized order. By means of the detection probe, concentration-time profiles of the drug in the brain were measured at interprobe distances between 1 and 2 mm. 3. Drug concentrations were found to be dependent on the drug as well as on the interprobe distance. It was found that the outflow concentration from the detection probe decreased with increasing lateral spacing between the probes and this decay was much steeper for acetaminophen than for atenolol. A model was developed which allows estimation of kbp/Deff (transfer coefficient from brain to blood/effective diffusion coefficient in brain extracellular fluid), which was considerably larger for the more lipohilic drug, acetaminophen. In addition, in vivo recovery values for both drugs were determined. 4. The results show that intracerebral microdialysis is able to detect local differences in drug concentrations following infusion into the brain. Furthermore, the potential use of intracerebral microdialysis to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters of drug distribution in brain by means of monitoring local concentrations of drugs in time is demonstrated. PMID:8581296

  8. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Minati, Ludovico; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference) as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification. PMID:20927223

  9. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  10. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Chronic food restriction and streptozotocin-induced diabetes differentially alter prodynorphin mRNA levels in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Berman, Y; Devi, L; Spangler, R; Kreek, M J; Carr, K D

    1997-06-01

    It was previously reported that chronic food restriction and streptozotocin-induced diabetes lead to brain region-specific changes in levels of Prodyn-derived peptides. These changes parallel behavioral adaptations that are reversed by opioid antagonists. In the present study, effects of food restriction and diabetes on Prodyn gene expression were measured in rat brain regions using a quantitative solution hybridization mRNA assay. Picogram amounts of Prodyn mRNA were determined in extracts of five brain regions. The highest density of Prodyn mRNA was observed in extracts of nucleus accumbens (4.68 pg/microg total RNA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (4.18 pg/microg), and in caudate nucleus (3.51 pg/microg). Lower levels were observed in the lateral hypothalamus (1.87 pg/microg) and central nucleus of the amygdala (1.22 pg/microg). Food restriction and diabetes both markedly increased the levels of Prodyn mRNA in the central amygdala (163% and 93%, respectively). Levels in the lateral hypothalamus were also increased (35% and 29%, respectively), though only the food-restriction effect was statistically significant. Neither treatment altered prodynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These results suggest that dynorphin neurons in central amygdala and lateral hypothalamus may be involved in behavioral or physiological adaptations to sustained metabolic need. PMID:9191075

  12. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  13. Vocal Parameters That Indicate Threat Level Correlate with FOS Immunolabeling in Social and Vocal Control Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M.S.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  14. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow found by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single photon emission computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with normal brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, J J-H; Yen, R-F; Kao, A; Lin, C-C; Lee, C-C

    2002-11-01

    In this study, technetium-(99m) ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to detect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the brain in SLE patients with normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Twenty female SLE patients were enrolled in this study, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients without neuropsychiatric manifestations. All patients had normal brain MRI findings. Another 10 SLE patients with abnormal MRI findings were included as group 3 for comparison. Meanwhile, 10 healthy female volunteers also underwent brain MRI and (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT for comparison. The scans revealed hypoperfusion lesions in 9/20 (45%) SLE patients, including 7/10 (70%) cases in group 1 and 2/10 (20%) cases in group 2. In contrast, all 10 patients (100%) in group 3 had abnormal (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT findings. The parietal lobes were the most commonly involved areas. We conclude that (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT is more sensitive for detecting rCBF changes than is brain MRI in detecting the brain anatomic changes, and may have a diagnostic value in lupus cerebral involvement. However, (99m)Tc ECD brain SPECT may not be indicated for SLE patients with normal MRI and mild neuropsychiatric symptoms/signs, such headaches and dizziness. PMID:12447638

  15. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  16. Aromatase immunoreactivity in the bluehead wrasse brain, Thalassoma bifasciatum: Immunolocalization and co-regionalization with arginine vasotocin and tyrosine hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, K. Erica; Creutz, Lela M.; Hawkins, M. Beth; Godwin, John

    2007-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate various neural functions that regulate vertebrate sociosexual behavior. A number of sex steroids can be synthesized de novo in the brain, including estrogens by the enzyme aromatase. Aromatase, the neuropeptides arginine vasotocin/vasopressin, and the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine have all been implicated in the control of male sexual and aggressive behavior in a variety of vertebrates. This study examined the expression of brain aromatase in a teleost fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), a teleost fish that exhibits socially-controlled behavioral and gonadal sex change. We used immunocytochemistry (ICC) to characterize distributions of aromatase-immunoreactive (ir) cells, and to examine their relationship with AVT-ir neurons, and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir (TH-ir) neurons in the key sensory and integrative areas of the brain of this species. Aromatase-ir appeared to be in glial cell populations, and was found in the dorsal and ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, and the lateral recess of the third ventricle, among other brain areas. Aromatase-ir fibers are closely associated with AVT-ir neurons throughout the preoptic area, indicating the potential for functional interactions. Aromatase-ir cell bodies and fibers were also co-regionalized with TH-ir neurons, suggesting possible interaction between the dopaminergic system and neural estrogen production. The presence of aromatase in brain regions important in the regulation of sexual and aggressive behavior suggests local estrogen synthesis could regulate sex change through effects on signaling systems that subserve reproductive behavior and function. PMID:17045250

  17. Training of Verbal Creativity Modulates Brain Activity in Regions Associated with language- and memory-Related Demands

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. PMID:26178653

  18. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    PubMed

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. PMID:26178653

  19. Redox proteomic profiling of neuroketal-adducted proteins in human brain: Regional vulnerability at middle age increases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Mayelín; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Odena, María Antonia; Portero, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-01

    Protein lipoxidation was assessed in the parietal cortex (PC), frontal cortex (FC), and cingulate gyrus (CG) in middle-aged and old-aged individuals with no clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, in order to increase understanding of regional brain vulnerability to oxidative damage during aging. Twenty-five lipoxidized proteins were identified in all the three regions although with regional specificities, by using redox proteomics to detect target proteins of neuroketals (NKT) adduction. The number of cases with NKT-adducted proteins was higher in old-aged individuals but most oxidized proteins were already present in middle-aged individuals. Differences in vulnerability to oxidation were dependent on the sub-cellular localization, secondary structure, and external exposition of certain amino acids. Lipoxidized proteins included those involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, neurotransmission and O2/CO2, and heme metabolism. Total NKT and soluble oligomer levels were estimated employing slot-blot, and these were compared between age groups. Oligomers increased with age in PC and FC; NKT significantly increased with age in FC, whereas total NKT and oligomer levels were not modified in CG, thus highlighting differences in brain regional vulnerability with age. Oligomers significantly correlated with NKT levels in the three cortical regions, suggesting that protein NKT adduction parallels soluble oligomer formation. PMID:26968793

  20. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    (MAPK) pathway in LGGs, but still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. Conclusions The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs. PMID:23947815

  1. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  2. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  3. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  4. 1,3-dinitrobenzene induces age- and region-specific oxidation to mitochondria-related proteins in brain.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Laura L; Landis, Rory W; Remmer, Henriette; Bergin, Ingrid L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Regions of the brain with high energy requirements are especially sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial function. Hence, neurotoxicant exposures that target mitochondria in regions of high energy demand have the potential to accelerate mitochondrial damage inherently occurring during the aging process. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) is a model neurotoxicant that selectively targets mitochondria in brainstem nuclei innervated by the eighth cranial nerve. This study investigates the role of age in the regional susceptibility of brain mitochondria-related proteins (MRPs) to oxidation following exposure to DNB. Male F344 rats (1 month old [young], 3 months old [adult], 18 months old [aged]) were exposed to 10 mg/kg DNB prior to mitochondrial isolation and histopathology experiments. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, 3 important region- and age-related increases in DNB-induced MRP oxidation were determined: (1) brainstem mitochondria are ×3 more sensitive to DNB-induced oxidation than cortical mitochondria; (2) oxidation of brainstem MRPs is significantly higher than in cortical counterparts; and (3) MRPs from the brainstems of older rats are significantly more oxidized than those from young or adult rats. Furthermore, lower levels of DNB cause signs of intoxication (ataxia, chromodacryorrhea) and vacuolation of the susceptible neuropil in aged animals, while neither is observed in DNB-exposed young rats. Additionally, methemoglobin levels increase significantly in DNB-exposed adult and aged animals, but not young DNB-exposed animals. This suggests that oxidation of key MRPs observed in brainstem of aged animals is necessary for DNB-induced signs of intoxication and lesion formation. These results provide compelling evidence that environmental chemicals such as DNB may aid in the acceleration of injury to specific brain regions by inducing oxidation of sensitive mitochondrial proteins. PMID:25716674

  5. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Induces Age- and Region-Specific Oxidation to Mitochondria-Related Proteins in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kubik, Laura L.; Landis, Rory W.; Remmer, Henriette; Bergin, Ingrid L.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Regions of the brain with high energy requirements are especially sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial function. Hence, neurotoxicant exposures that target mitochondria in regions of high energy demand have the potential to accelerate mitochondrial damage inherently occurring during the aging process. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) is a model neurotoxicant that selectively targets mitochondria in brainstem nuclei innervated by the eighth cranial nerve. This study investigates the role of age in the regional susceptibility of brain mitochondria-related proteins (MRPs) to oxidation following exposure to DNB. Male F344 rats (1 month old [young], 3 months old [adult], 18 months old [aged]) were exposed to 10 mg/kg DNB prior to mitochondrial isolation and histopathology experiments. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, 3 important region- and age-related increases in DNB-induced MRP oxidation were determined: (1) brainstem mitochondria are ×3 more sensitive to DNB-induced oxidation than cortical mitochondria; (2) oxidation of brainstem MRPs is significantly higher than in cortical counterparts; and (3) MRPs from the brainstems of older rats are significantly more oxidized than those from young or adult rats. Furthermore, lower levels of DNB cause signs of intoxication (ataxia, chromodacryorrhea) and vacuolation of the susceptible neuropil in aged animals, while neither is observed in DNB-exposed young rats. Additionally, methemoglobin levels increase significantly in DNB-exposed adult and aged animals, but not young DNB-exposed animals. This suggests that oxidation of key MRPs observed in brainstem of aged animals is necessary for DNB-induced signs of intoxication and lesion formation. These results provide compelling evidence that environmental chemicals such as DNB may aid in the acceleration of injury to specific brain regions by inducing oxidation of sensitive mitochondrial proteins. PMID:25716674

  6. Bulk regional viral injection in neonatal mice enables structural and functional interrogation of defined neuronal populations throughout targeted brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Claire E. J.; Grier, Bryce D.; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to label and manipulate specific cell types is central to understanding the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Here, we have developed a simple, affordable strategy for labeling of genetically defined populations of neurons throughout a targeted brain region: Bulk Regional Viral Injection (BReVI). Our strategy involves a large volume adeno-associated virus (AAV) injection in the targeted brain region of neonatal Cre driver mice. Using the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) as a model system, we tested the ability of BReVI to broadly and selectively label tufted cells, one of the two principal neuron populations of the OB, in CCK-IRES-Cre mice. BReVI resulted in labeling of neurons throughout the injected OB, with no spatial bias toward the injection site and no evidence of damage. The specificity of BReVI labeling was strikingly similar to that seen previously using immunohistochemical staining for cholecystokinin (CCK), an established tufted cell marker. Hence, the CCK-IRES-Cre line in combination with BReVI can provide an important tool for targeting and manipulation of OB tufted cells. We also found robust Cre-dependent reporter expression within three days of BReVI, which enabled us to assess developmental changes in the number and laminar distribution of OB tufted cells during the first three postnatal weeks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BReVI permits structural and functional imaging in vivo, and can be combined with transgenic strategies to facilitate multi-color labeling of neuronal circuit components. BReVI is broadly applicable to different Cre driver lines and can be used to regionally manipulate genetically defined populations of neurons in any accessible brain region. PMID:26594154

  7. The use of recently developed histochemical markers for localizing neurotoxicant induced regional brain pathologies.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Schmued, Larry C

    2014-04-01

    Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology; following exposure to well characterized neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed a Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin conjugate (FT-gel), a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label in vivo all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo, a fluorescent tracer that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the potential use of these novel histochemical markers to study the neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24763333

  8. Bridgman's concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns.

  9. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had