Sample records for brain tumour classification

  1. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FEEDFORWARD AND PROBABILISTIC NEURAL NETWORKS FOR THE AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristotelis Kostopoulos; Dimitris Glotsos; Panagiota Spyridonos; George Nikiforidis; Dimitris Sotiropoulos; Theodoula Grapsa

    Brain tumours grading is a crucial step for determining treatment planning and patient management. The grade of a tumour is defined by pathologists after reviewing biopsies under the microscope, a procedure that has been proven highly subjective. In this work, we propose a computer-based system for the automatic classification of astrocytomas that can be used as a second opinion tool

  2. Linear discriminant analysis of brain tumour (1)H MR spectra: a comparison of classification using whole spectra versus metabolite quantification.

    PubMed

    Opstad, K S; Ladroue, C; Bell, B A; Griffiths, J R; Howe, F A

    2007-12-01

    (1)H MRS is an attractive choice for non-invasively diagnosing brain tumours. Many studies have been performed to create an objective decision support system, but there is not yet a consensus as to the best techniques of MRS acquisition or data processing to be used for optimum classification. In this study, we investigate whether LCModel analysis of short-TE (30 ms), single-voxel tumour spectra provide a better input for classification than the use of the original spectra. A total of 145 histologically diagnosed brain tumour spectra were acquired [14 astrocytoma grade II (AS2), 15 astrocytoma grade III (AS3), 42 glioblastoma (GBM), 41 metastases (MET) and 33 meningioma (MNG)], and linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed on the LCModel analysis of the spectra and the original spectra. The results consistently suggest improvement in classification when the LCModel concentrations are used. LDA of AS2, MNG and high-grade tumours (HG, comprising GBM and MET) correctly classified 94% using the LCModel dataset compared with 93% using the spectral dataset. The inclusion of AS3 reduced the accuracy to 82% and 78% for LCModel analysis and the original spectra, respectively, and further separating HG into GBM and MET gave 70% compared with 60%. Generally MNG spectra have profiles that are visually distinct from those of the other tumour types, but the classification accuracy was typically about 80%, with MNG with substantial lipid/macromolecule signals being classified as HG. Omission of the lipid/macromolecule concentrations in the LCModel dataset provided an improvement in classification of MNG (91% compared with 76%). In conclusion, there appears to be an advantage to performing pattern recognition on the quantitative analysis of tumour spectra rather than using the whole spectra. However, the results suggest that a two-step LDA process may help in classifying the five tumour groups to provide optimum classification of MNG with high lipid/macromolecule contributions which maybe misclassified as HG. PMID:17326043

  3. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  4. Classification of tumours

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L; Sandvik, Arne K; Brenna, Eiliv; Fossmark, Reidar; Qvigstad, Gunnar; Soga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Tumours are classified according to the most differentiated cells with the exception of carcinomas where a few tumour cells show neuroendocrine differentiation. In this case these cells are regarded as redifferentiated tumour cells, and the tumour is not classified as neuroendocrine. However, it is now clear that normal neuroendocrine cells can divide, and that continuous stimulation of such cells results in tumour formation, which during time becomes increasingly malignant. To understand tumourigenesis, it is of utmost importance to recognize the cell of origin of the tumour since knowledge of the growth regulation of that cell may give information about development and thus possible prevention and prophylaxis of the tumour. It may also have implications for the treatment. The successful treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor is an example of the importance of a correct cellular classification of a tumour. In the future tumours should not just be classified as for instance adenocarcinomas of an organ, but more precisely as a carcinoma originating from a certain cell type of that organ. PMID:19014574

  5. Multicentre evaluation of the INTERPRET decision support system 2.0 for brain tumour classification.

    PubMed

    Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Majós, Carles; Camins, Àngels; Samitier, Alejandro; Baquero, Miguel; Serrallonga, Marta; Doménech, Sira; Grivé, Elisenda; Howe, Franklyn A; Opstad, Kirstie; Calvar, Jorge; Aguilera, Carles; Arús, Carles

    2014-09-01

    In a previous study, we have shown the added value of (1) H MRS for the neuroradiological characterisation of adult human brain tumours. In that study, several methods of MRS analysis were used, and a software program, the International Network for Pattern Recognition of Tumours Using Magnetic Resonance Decision Support System 1.0 (INTERPRET DSS 1.0), with a short-TE classifier, provided the best results. Since then, the DSS evolved into a version 2.0 that contains an additional long-TE classifier. This study has two objectives. First, to determine whether clinicians with no experience of spectroscopy are comparable with spectroscopists in the use of the system, when only minimum training in the use of the system was given. Second, to assess whether or not a version with another TE is better than the initial version. We undertook a second study with the same cases and nine evaluators to assess whether the diagnostic accuracy of DSS 2.0 was comparable with the values obtained with DSS 1.0. In the second study, the analysis protocol was flexible in comparison with the first one to mimic a clinical environment. In the present study, on average, each case required 5.4?min by neuroradiologists and 9?min by spectroscopists for evaluation. Most classes and superclasses of tumours gave the same results as with DSS 1.0, except for astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III, in which performance measured as the area under the curve (AUC) decreased: AUC?=?0.87 (0.72-1.02) with DSS 1.0 and AUC?=?0.62 (0.55-0.70) with DSS 2.0. When analysing the performance of radiologists and spectroscopists with respect to DSS 1.0, the results were the same for most classes. Having data with two TEs instead of one did not affect the results of the evaluation. PMID:25042391

  6. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Bilaniuk; P. T. Molloy; R. A. Zimmerman; P. C. Phillips; S. N. Vaughan; G. T. Liu; L. N. Sutton; M. Needle

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The\\u000a NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem\\u000a tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour\\u000a identification occurred much later

  7. Imaging biomarkers of brain tumour margin and tumour invasion.

    PubMed

    Price, S J; Gillard, J H

    2011-12-01

    Invasion of tumour cells into the normal brain is one of the major reasons of treatment failure for gliomas. Although there is a good understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that occur during this invasion, it is not possible to detect the extent of the tumour with conventional imaging. However, there is an understanding that the degree of invasion differs with individual tumours, and yet they are all treated the same. Newer imaging techniques that probe the pathological changes within tumours may be suitable biomarkers for invasion. Imaging methods are now available that can detect subtle changes in white matter organisation (diffusion tensor imaging), tumour metabolism and cellular proliferation (using MR spectroscopy and positron emission tomography) occurring in regions of tumour that cannot be detected by conventional imaging. The role of such biomarkers of invasion should allow better delineation of tumour margins, which should improve treatment planning (especially surgery and radiotherapy) and provide information on the invasiveness of an individual tumour to help select the most appropriate therapy and help stratify patients for clinical trials. PMID:22433826

  8. Epilepsy and Brain Tumours and Antiepileptic Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Dupont

    \\u000a Seizures are a common occurrence in patients with brain tumours and can contribute to undesirable side effects that can greatly\\u000a impact quality of life. In the vast majority of cases, seizures are the presenting clinical sign of the tumour, however, late\\u000a seizures may occur in the evolution of the disease. The tumours type and their locations are determining factors that

  9. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila K. Singh; Cynthia Hawkins; Ian D. Clarke; Jeremy A. Squire; Jane Bayani; Takuichiro Hide; R. Mark Henkelman; Michael D. Cusimano; Peter B. Dirks

    2004-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem

  10. Air Transportation of Patients with Brain Tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lindvall; Tommy Bergenheim

    \\u000a Air transportation of patients to specialised health care services has become ever more important in modern health care. Air\\u000a transport has the advantage of a swift transport and the possibility to cover large geographical areas. Air transport may\\u000a be used for the pre and postoperative transport of patients with brain tumours. Preoperative transport of patients harbouring\\u000a brain tumours seem to

  11. Nosologic imaging of the brain: segmentation and classification using MRI and MRSI

    E-print Network

    of brain tumours. As a consequence, auto- matic brain tumour segmentation based on MRI is a widely studiedNosologic imaging of the brain: segmentation and classification using MRI and MRSI Nosologic, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium Abstract A new technique is presented to create nosologic images of the brain

  12. Polyamine metabolism in brain tumours: diagnostic relevance of quantitative biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Ernestus, R; Rohn, G; Schroder, R; Els, T; Klekner, A; Paschen, W; Klug, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Activation of polyamine metabolism is closely associated with cellular proliferation. The purpose was to investigate whether the content of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of the first metabolic key enzyme of polyamine metabolism, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), represent biochemical markers of malignancy in brain tumours.?METHODS—The concentration of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of ODC were biochemically quantified in tissue samples obtained during open microsurgery of 670 patients with brain tumours. Biochemical analysis and histopathological classification were carried out in serial tumour samples.?RESULTS—The activity of ODC was very low in peritumorous non-neoplastic brain tissue (0.9 (SD 0.6) nmol/g/h). It was significantly higher in gliomas and it significantly increased with a higher grade of malignancy (grade I 2.7 (2.8) nmol/g/h, grade II 3.1(4.0) nmol/g/h, grade III 5.7 (5.6) nmol/g/h, grade IV 10.6 (11.7) nmol/g/h). High enzyme activity was also found in medulloblastomas (25.5 (15.1) nmol/g/h), malignant lymphomas (52.1 (42.1) nmol/g/h), and metastases from carcinoma (14.9 (22.1) nmol/g/h). Lowest values were measured in epidermoid cysts (0.5 (0.2) nmol/g/h), craniopharyngiomas (1.2 (0.9) nmol/g/h), angioblastomas (1.6 (1.7) nmol/g/h), and neurinomas (2.0 (1.8) nmol/g/h). By contrast with ODC activity, polyamine concentrations did not correlate with the grade of malignancy. Correlation of regional biochemical and histomorphological data in rapidly growing neoplasms showed high enzyme activity in solid tumour parts and low activity in necrotic areas.?CONCLUSIONS—Novel data relating ODC activation and polyamine concentrations to neuropathology is presented indicating that high ODC activity represents a biochemical marker of malignancy in brain tumours. This information is important for clinical and therapeutic investigations.?? PMID:11413269

  13. Combined texture feature analysis of segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour CT slices.

    PubMed

    Padma, A; Sukanesh, R

    2013-01-01

    A computer software system is designed for the segmentation and classification of benign from malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography (CT) images. This paper presents a method to find and select both the dominant run length and co-occurrence texture features of region of interest (ROI) of the tumour region of each slice to be segmented by Fuzzy c means clustering (FCM) and evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based classifiers in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices. Two hundred and six tumour confirmed CT slices are considered in this study. A total of 17 texture features are extracted by a feature extraction procedure, and six features are selected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This study constructed the SVM-based classifier with the selected features and by comparing the segmentation results with the experienced radiologist labelled ground truth (target). Quantitative analysis between ground truth and segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy, segmentation error and overlap similarity measures such as the Jaccard index. The classification performance of the SVM-based classifier with the same selected features is also evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation method. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices efficiently and accurately with less computational time. The experimental results showed that the proposed system is able to achieve the highest segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by jaccard index and sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23094909

  14. On the Implementation of HealthAgents : Agent-Based Brain Tumour Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magí Lluch-Ariet; Francesc Estanyol; Mariola Mier; Carla Delgado; Horacio González-Vélez; Tiphaine Dalmas; Montserrat Robles; Carlos Sáez; Javier Vicente; Sabine Huffel; Jan Luts; Carles Arús; Ana Paula Candiota Silveira; Margarida Julià-Sapé; Andrew Peet; Alex Gibb; Yu Sun; Bernardo Celda; Maria Carmen Martínez Bisbal; Giulia Valsecchi; David Dupplaw; Bo Hu; Paul Lewis

    This paper introduces HealthAgents, an EC-funded research project to improve the classification of brain tumours through multi-agent\\u000a decision support over a secure and distributed network of local databases or Data Marts. HealthAgents will not only develop\\u000a new pattern recognition methods for distributed classification and analysis of in vivo MRS and ex vivo\\/in vitro HRMAS and\\u000a DNA data, but also define

  15. Revised classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, pancreas and gut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Capella; P. U. Heitz; H. Höfler; E. Solcia; G. Klöppel

    1995-01-01

    In this article new classifications of the neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, pancreas and gut are proposed. These classifications use a common frame work and attempt to consider the morphological, functional as well as biological features of the tumours.

  16. Classification of primary hepatic tumours in the cat.

    PubMed

    van Sprundel, Renee G H M; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Guscetti, Franco; Kershaw, Olivia; van Wolferen, Monique E; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic tumours in dogs have recently been re-classified to follow a revised human classification system that takes account of identified hepatic progenitor cells. This study investigated the presence and relative frequency of morphological types of feline primary hepatic neoplasms and aimed to determine whether a similar new classification scheme could be applied in cats. Feline primary liver tumours (n?=?61) were examined histologically and with a series of immunohistochemical markers. Six cases of nodular hyperplasia and 21 tumours of hepatocellular origin were diagnosed. The latter were subdivided into hepatocellular tumours that were well differentiated and had no evidence of metastases (n?=?18) and tumours that showed poorly differentiated areas with marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism and had intrahepatic and, or, distant metastases (n?=?3). These malignant feline hepatocellular tumours maintained their hepatocellular characteristics (HepPar-1, MRP2, pCEA positive) and were negative, or only <5% positive, for K19. Twenty-five cholangiocellular tumours were diagnosed and all had intrahepatic and, or, distant metastases. Eight NSE positive small cell carcinomas (carcinoids) were diagnosed and subdivided into small cell carcinomas with HPC characteristics (K19 positive) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (K19 negative). In addition, one squamous cell carcinoma originating from the distal part of the choledochal duct was recognised. Feline primary hepatic neoplasms can be sub-divided into benign and malignant hepatocellular tumours, cholangiocellular carcinomas, small cell carcinomas with HPC characteristics, neuroendocrine carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The marked species difference justifies a specific classification for feline primary hepatic neoplasms. PMID:25439443

  17. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Thusyanth; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs), are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  18. Brain tumour surgery in the elderly: a brief reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Brain tumour surgery in the elderly has a relatively poor outcome and a high complication rate. In spite of this, well-selected patients can benefit substantially from aggressive intervention, and the health care team must individualize treatment in every case. Using two case reports and a review of the relevant literature, the author presents a neurosurgical approach to selected elderly patients with brain tumours. PMID:8769926

  19. Polyamine metabolism in brain tumours: diagnostic relevance of quantitative biochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R-I Ernestus; G Röhn; R Schröder; T Els; Á Klekner; W Paschen; N Klug

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVEActivation of polyamine metabolism is closely associated with cellular proliferation. The purpose was to investigate whether the content of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of the first metabolic key enzyme of polyamine metabolism, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), represent biochemical markers of malignancy in brain tumours.METHODSThe concentration of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of ODC were

  20. The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Louis; Hiroko Ohgaki; Otmar D. Wiestler; Webster K. Cavenee; Peter C. Burger; Anne Jouvet; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Paul Kleihues

    2007-01-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published\\u000a in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal\\u000a tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, pituicytoma and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis.\\u000a Histological variants were added if there was evidence of

  1. ASHRAF ELSAYED et al.: MRI BRAIN SCAN CLASSIFICATION 1 MRI Brain Scan Classification According to

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    , a structure of the mammalian brain that connects the two hemispheres; a graph mining based approach and a timeASHRAF ELSAYED et al.: MRI BRAIN SCAN CLASSIFICATION 1 MRI Brain Scan Classification According Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) brain scans ac- cording to the nature of the corpus callosum are described

  2. Genomics and Metabolomics Research for Brain Tumour Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Genomics and Metabolomics Research for Brain Tumour Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning Juan M diagnosis. We summarize some studies related to brain tumour research in Europe, based on the metabolic from the diagnosis and treatment of the patients to the evidence-based medicine paradigm. In brain

  3. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234

  4. Nanotechnology - new trends in the treatment of brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Kr?pa, Petr; ?ehák, Svatopluk; Diaz-Garcia, Daniel; Filip, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    High grade gliomas are some of the deadliest human tumours. Conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have only a limited effect. Nowadays, resection is the common treatment of choice and although new approaches, such as perioperative magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy have been developed, the survival rate of diagnosed patients is still very low. The inefficacy of conventional methods has led to the development of new strategies and the significant progress of nanotechnology in recent years. These platforms can be used either as novel imaging tools or to improve anticancer drug delivery into tumours while minimizing its distribution and toxicity in healthy tissues. Amongst the new nanotechnology platforms used for delivery into the brain tissue are: polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, superparamagnetic nanoparticles and nucleic acid based nanoparticles (DNA, RNA interference [RNAi] and antisense oligonucleotides [ASO]). These nanoparticles have been applied in the delivery of small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules - proteins, peptides and genes. The unique properties of these nanoparticles, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and ability to modify their surface with tissue recognition ligands and antibodies, improve their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. All of the above mentioned characteristics make of nanoplatforms a very suitable tool for its use in targeted, personalized medicine, where they could possibly carry large doses of therapeutic agents specifically into malignant cells while avoiding healthy cells. This review poses new possibilities in the large field of nanotechnology with special interest in the treatment of high grade brain tumours. PMID:25938897

  5. Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling.

    PubMed

    Zuckermann, Marc; Hovestadt, Volker; Knobbe-Thomsen, Christiane B; Zapatka, Marc; Northcott, Paul A; Schramm, Kathrin; Belic, Jelena; Jones, David T W; Tschida, Barbara; Moriarity, Branden; Largaespada, David; Roussel, Martine F; Korshunov, Andrey; Reifenberger, Guido; Pfister, Stefan M; Lichter, Peter; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Gronych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer. PMID:26067104

  6. Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling

    PubMed Central

    Zuckermann, Marc; Hovestadt, Volker; Knobbe-Thomsen, Christiane B.; Zapatka, Marc; Northcott, Paul A.; Schramm, Kathrin; Belic, Jelena; Jones, David T. W.; Tschida, Barbara; Moriarity, Branden; Largaespada, David; Roussel, Martine F.; Korshunov, Andrey; Reifenberger, Guido; Pfister, Stefan M.; Lichter, Peter; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Gronych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer. PMID:26067104

  7. Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Takebayashi; N Varsier; Y Kikuchi; K Wake; M Taki; S Watanabe; S Akiba; N Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma

  8. Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of brain tumours with radio frequency (RF) fields generated concerns about possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fieldsRisk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five

  9. On the Design of a Web-based Decision Support System for Brain Tumour Diagnosis using Distributed Agents

    E-print Network

    On the Design of a Web-based Decision Support System for Brain Tumour Diagnosis using Distributed containing a set of new cases, based on a compatibility score. 1 Introduction Brain tumours remain will deploy an agent-based architecture in order to provide a distributed diagnostic tool for brain tumours

  10. Endometrial stromal tumours revisited: an update based on the 2014 WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rola H; Rouzbahman, Marjan

    2015-05-01

    Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) are rare tumours of endometrial stromal origin that account for less than 2% of all uterine tumours. Recent cytogenetic and molecular advances in this area have improved our understanding of ESTs and helped refine their classification into more meaningful categories. Accordingly, the newly released 2014 WHO classification system recognises four categories: endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HGESS) and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS). At the molecular level, these tumours may demonstrate a relatively simple karyotype with a defining chromosomal rearrangement (as in the majority of ESNs, LGESSs and YWHAE-rearranged HGESS) or demonstrate complex cytogenetic aberrations lacking specific rearrangements (as in UUSs). Herein we provide an update on this topic aimed at the practicing pathologist. PMID:25595274

  11. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888, is used in combination with both TMZ and radiation. The results show that ABT-888 significantly enhances TMZ and radiation cell killing, regardless of the MGMT status. In summary, the findings of this research demonstrate that the use of particle therapy and PARP inhibitors are particularly promising and might improve the treatment outcome in patients with GBM.

  12. Postoperative chemotherapy without radiation in young children with malignant non-astrocytic brain tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les White; Heather Johnston; Robert Jones; Hedy Mameghan; Vim Nayanar; William McWhirter; Stuart Kellie; Keith Waters; Ian Toogood

    1993-01-01

    Young children with malignant brain tumours have particularly poor survival and manifest severe sequelae of radiation therapy. A multi-institutional pilot study of post-operative primary chemotherapy for children under 3 years with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) or ependymoma was initiated in 1987. The chemotherapy protocol comprised earboplatin, vincristine and the “eight drugs in 1 day” regimen. Radiation was recommended only if

  13. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. PMID:25910782

  14. Non-negative matrix factorisation methods for the spectral decomposition of MRS data from human brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In-vivo single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SV 1H-MRS), coupled with supervised pattern recognition (PR) methods, has been widely used in clinical studies of discrimination of brain tumour types and follow-up of patients bearing abnormal brain masses. SV 1H-MRS provides useful biochemical information about the metabolic state of tumours and can be performed at short (< 45 ms) or long (> 45 ms) echo time (TE), each with particular advantages. Short-TE spectra are more adequate for detecting lipids, while the long-TE provides a much flatter signal baseline in between peaks but also negative signals for metabolites such as lactate. Both, lipids and lactate, are respectively indicative of specific metabolic processes taking place. Ideally, the information provided by both TE should be of use for clinical purposes. In this study, we characterise the performance of a range of Non-negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) methods in two respects: first, to derive sources correlated with the mean spectra of known tissue types (tumours and normal tissue); second, taking the best performing NMF method for source separation, we compare its accuracy for class assignment when using the mixing matrix directly as a basis for classification, as against using the method for dimensionality reduction (DR). For this, we used SV 1H-MRS data with positive and negative peaks, from a widely tested SV 1H-MRS human brain tumour database. Results The results reported in this paper reveal the advantage of using a recently described variant of NMF, namely Convex-NMF, as an unsupervised method of source extraction from SV1H-MRS. Most of the sources extracted in our experiments closely correspond to the mean spectra of some of the analysed tumour types. This similarity allows accurate diagnostic predictions to be made both in fully unsupervised mode and using Convex-NMF as a DR step previous to standard supervised classification. The obtained results are comparable to, or more accurate than those obtained with supervised techniques. Conclusions The unsupervised properties of Convex-NMF place this approach one step ahead of classical label-requiring supervised methods for the discrimination of brain tumour types, as it accounts for their increasingly recognised molecular subtype heterogeneity. The application of Convex-NMF in computer assisted decision support systems is expected to facilitate further improvements in the uptake of MRS-derived information by clinicians. PMID:22401579

  15. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp T. Meyer; Laszlo Sturz; Mathias Schreckenberger; Uwe Spetzger; Georg F. Meyer; Keyvan S. Setani; Osama Sabri; Udalrich Buell

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal

  16. Diagnostic segregation of human brain tumours using Fourier-transform infrared and/or Raman spectroscopy coupled with discriminant analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Ketan; Heppenstall, Lara D.; Pang, Weiyi; Ashton, Katherine M.; Trevisan, Júlio; Patel, Imran I.; Llabjani, Valon; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Dawson, Timothy; Martin, Francis L.

    2013-01-01

    The most common initial treatment received by patients with a brain tumour is surgical removal of the growth. Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumours is to some extent subjective. Furthermore, currently available diagnostic imaging techniques to delineate the excision border during cytoreductive surgery lack the required spatial precision to aid surgeons. We set out to determine whether infrared (IR) and/or Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis could be applied to discriminate between normal brain tissue and different tumour types (meningioma, glioma and brain metastasis) based on the unique spectral “fingerprints” of their biochemical composition. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of normal brain and different brain tumours were de-waxed, mounted on low-E slides and desiccated before being analyzed using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed a clear segregation between normal and different tumour subtypes. Discrimination of tumour classes was also apparent with Raman spectroscopy. Further analysis of spectral data revealed changes in brain biochemical structure associated with different tumours. Decreased tentatively-assigned lipid-to-protein ratio was associated with increased tumour progression. Alteration in cholesterol esters-to-phenylalanine ratio was evident in grade IV glioma and metastatic tumours. The current study indicates that IR and/or Raman spectroscopy have the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of brain tumours and have potential for application in intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:24098310

  17. Brain tumor classification based on long echo proton MRS signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Lukas; Andy Devos; Johan A. K. Suykens; Leentje Vanhamme; F. A. Howe; Carles Majós; A. Moreno-torres; M. Van Der Graaf; Anne Rosemary Tate; Carles Arús; Sabine Van Huffel

    2004-01-01

    There has been a growing research interest in brain tumor classification based on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) signals. Four research centers within the EU funded INTERPRET project have acquired a significant number of long echo 1H MRS signals for brain tumor classification. In this paper, we present an objective comparison of several classification techniques applied to the discrimination

  18. Second harmonic imaging: a new ultrasound technique to assess human brain tumour perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, J; Mayfrank, L; Mull, M; Klotzsch, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Second harmonic imaging is a new ultrasound technique that allows evaluation of brain tissue perfusion after application of an ultrasound contrast agent. Objective: To evaluate the potential of this technique for the assessment of abnormal echo contrast characteristics of different brain tumours. Methods: 27 patients with brain tumours were studied. These were divided into four groups: gliomas, WHO grade III–IV (n = 6); meningiomas (n = 9); metastases (n = 5); and others (n = 7). Patients were examined by second harmonic imaging in a transverse axial insonation plane using the transtemporal approach. Following intravenous administration of 4 g (400 mg/ml) of a galactose based echo contrast agent, 62 time triggered images (one image per 2.5 seconds) were recorded and analysed off-line. Time–intensity curves of two regions of interest (tumour tissue and healthy brain tissue), including peak intensity (PI) (dB), time to peak intensity (TP) (s), and positive gradient (PG) (dB/s), as well as ratios of the peak intensities of the two regions of interest, were derived from the data and compared intraindividually and interindividually. Results: After administration of the contrast agent a marked enhancement of echo contrast was visible in the tumour tissue in all patients. Mean PI and PG were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in healthy brain parenchyma (11.8 v 5.1 dB and 0.69 v 0.16 dB/s; p < 0.001). TP did not differ significantly (37.1 v 50.2 s; p = 0.14). A tendency towards higher PI and PG as well as shorter TP was apparent in malignant gliomas. When comparing different tumour types, however, none of these variables reached significance, nor were there significant differences between malignant and benign tumours in general. Conclusions: Second harmonic imaging not only allows identification of brain tumours, but may also help in distinguishing between different tumour types. It gives additional and alternative information about tumour perfusion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical potential of this technique in investigating brain tumours—for example in follow up investigations of patients undergoing radiation or chemotherapy—especially in comparison with neuroradiological and neuropathological findings. PMID:12588918

  19. MRS water resonance frequency in childhood brain tumours: a novel potential biomarker of temperature and tumour environment

    PubMed Central

    Babourina-Brooks, Ben; Wilson, Martin; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Peet, Andrew C; Davies, Nigel P

    2014-01-01

    1H MRS thermometry has been investigated for brain trauma and hypothermia monitoring applications but has not been explored in brain tumours. The proton resonance frequency (PRF) of water is dependent on temperature but is also influenced by microenvironment factors, such as fast proton exchange with macromolecules, ionic concentration and magnetic susceptibility. 1H MRS has been utilized for brain tumour diagnostic and prognostic purposes in children; however, the water PRF measure may provide complementary information to further improve characterization. Water PRF values were investigated from a repository of MRS data acquired from childhood brain tumours and children with apparently normal brains. The cohort consisted of histologically proven glioma (22), medulloblastoma (19) and control groups (28, MRS in both the basal ganglia and parietal white matter regions). All data were acquired at 1.5 T using a short TE (30 ms) single voxel spectroscopy (PRESS) protocol. Water PRF values were calculated using methyl creatine and total choline. Spectral peak amplitude weighted averaging was used to improve the accuracy of the measurements. Mean PRF values were significantly larger for medulloblastoma compared with glioma, with a difference in the means of 0.0147 ppm (p < 0.05), while the mean PRF for glioma was significantly lower than for the healthy cohort, with a difference in the means of 0.0061 ppm (p < 0.05). This would suggest the apparent temperature of the glioma group was ?1.5 °C higher than the medulloblastomas and ?0.7 °C higher than a healthy brain. However, the PRF shift may not reflect a change in temperature, given that alterations in protein content, microstructure and ionic concentration contribute to PRF shifts. Measurement of these effects could also be used as a supplementary biomarker, and further investigation is required. This study has shown that the water PRF value has the potential to be used for characterizing childhood brain tumours, which has not been reported previously. © 2014 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25125325

  20. Combination therapy of rat brain tumours using localized interstitial hyperthermia and intra-arterial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Tanaka, R; Kakinuma, K; Takahashi, H; Motoyama, H

    2003-01-01

    Several investigators have reported that a high concentration of drugs in a tumour can be achieved using intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy. This treatment was highly effective, especially in brain tumours, but the actual therapeutic advantage is still unknown. There are also indications that human malignant gliomas can effectively be treated using interstitial hyperthermia. Therefore, a combined treatment of IA chemotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia should be very promising and this has been studied in a tumour model. Wistar rats with isotransplanted C(6) gliomas in the brain were treated with adriamycin (ADR, 1.0 mg/kg body weight) either infused via the carotid artery (i.a.) or via the tail vein (i.v.), with or without interstitial hyperthermia. Hyperthermia of the tumours was applied using a homemade radiofrequency antenna (RF-heating) and a heating device that maintained the tumour temperature above 40 degrees C. Concentration of adriamycin in tumours after treatment was measured using HPLC. The effectiveness of treatment was determined by the survival time of the animals and histopathological examinations. The highest uptake of adriamycin in the rat C(6) glioma was obtained when the animals were treated with hyperthermia and i.a. ADR infusion (p <0.01). These animals also showed significantly longer overall survival time (SF50 =46 days) in comparison to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The histological studies demonstrated a necroti c tumour; however, the surrounding normal brain tissue remained intact. Thus, a combination of IA chemotherapy with adriamycin and localized interstitial hyperthermia enhances considerably the efficacy of adriamycin and has a greater antitumour effect for malignant brain tumours. This method is suitable for clinical use, and may be a new strategy for treating gliomas not successfully treated today. PMID:12623642

  1. N -butyldeoxynojirimycin reduces growth and ganglioside content of experimental mouse brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ranes, M K; El-Abbadi, M; Manfredi, M G; Mukherjee, P; Platt, F M; Seyfried, T N

    2001-01-01

    Abnormalities in glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis have been implicated in the oncogenesis and malignancy of brain tumours. GSLs comprise the gangliosides and the neutral GSLs and are major components of the cell surface glycocalyx. N -butyldeoxynojirimycin (N B-DNJ) is an imino sugar that inhibits the glucosyltransferase catalysing the first step in GSL biosynthesis. The influence of N B-DNJ was studied on the growth and ganglioside composition of two 20-methylcholanthrene-induced experimental mouse brain tumours, EPEN and CT-2A, which were grown in vitro and in vivo. N B-DNJ (200??M) inhibited the proliferation of the EPEN and CT-2A cells by 50%, but did not reduce cell viability. The drug, administered in the diet (2400?mg kg?1) to adult syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, reduced the growth and ganglioside content of subcutaneous and intracerebral EPEN and CT-2A tumours by at least 50% compared to the untreated controls. N B-DNJ treatment also shifted the relative distribution of tumour gangliosides in accordance with the depletion of metabolic substrates. Side effects of N B-DNJ treatment were generally mild and included reductions in body and spleen weights and intestinal distension. We conclude that N B-DNJ may inhibit tumour growth through an effect on ganglioside biosynthesis and may be useful as a new chemotherapy for brain tumours. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11308262

  2. Adaptive multiclass classification for brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data sets and tangent space mapping (Barachant, Bonnet, Congedo, & Jutten, 2012) as a feature extractor, we demonstrate that MPMLDA can significantly outperform state-of-the-art multiclass static and adaptive methods. Furthermore, efficient learning rates can be achieved using data from different subjects. PMID:24684452

  3. In vivo MRI tracking of exogenous monocytes/macrophages targeting brain tumours in a rat model of glioma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 In vivo MRI tracking of exogenous monocytes/macrophages targeting brain tumours in a rat model and efficiently with large, green-fluorescent, micron-sized particles of iron-oxide (MPIO). Neither size nor. The labelled Mo/Ma were shown to target the brain tumours, a process that could be monitored non invasively

  4. Relative survival of patients with non-malignant central nervous system tumours: a descriptive study by the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry

    PubMed Central

    Woehrer, A; Hackl, M; Waldhör, T; Weis, S; Pichler, J; Olschowski, A; Buchroithner, J; Maier, H; Stockhammer, G; Thomé, C; Haybaeck, J; Payer, F; von Campe, G; Kiefer, A; Würtz, F; Vince, G H; Sedivy, R; Oberndorfer, S; Marhold, F; Bordihn, K; Stiglbauer, W; Gruber-Mösenbacher, U; Bauer, R; Feichtinger, J; Reiner-Concin, A; Grisold, W; Marosi, C; Preusser, M; Dieckmann, K; Slavc, I; Gatterbauer, B; Widhalm, G; Haberler, C; Hainfellner, J A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike malignant primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours outcome data on non-malignant CNS tumours are scarce. For patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2002 5-year relative survival of only 85.0% has been reported. We investigated this rate in a contemporary patient cohort to update information on survival. Methods: We followed a cohort of 3983 cases within the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry. All patients were newly diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 with a histologically confirmed non-malignant CNS tumour. Vital status, cause of death, and population life tables were obtained by 31 December 2011 to calculate relative survival. Results: Overall 5-year relative survival was 96.1% (95% CI 95.1–97.1%), being significantly lower in tumours of borderline (90.2%, 87.2–92.7%) than benign behaviour (97.4%, 96.3–98.3%). Benign tumour survival ranged from 86.8 for neurofibroma to 99.7% for Schwannoma; for borderline tumours survival rates varied from 83.2 for haemangiopericytoma to 98.4% for myxopapillary ependymoma. Cause of death was directly attributed to the CNS tumour in 39.6%, followed by other cancer (20.4%) and cardiovascular disease (15.8%). Conclusion: The overall excess mortality in patients with non-malignant CNS tumours is 5.5%, indicating a significant improvement in survival over the last decade. Still, the remaining adverse impact on survival underpins the importance of systematic registration of these tumours. PMID:24253501

  5. Paediatric brain tumours treated at a single, tertiary paediatric neurosurgical referral centre from 1999 to 2010 in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Mahesh; Chaseling, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    Paediatric brain tumours are the most common solid tumour of childhood and the most common cancer cause of death among children. A retrospective review of 313 histopathologically proven brain tumours over an 11-year period has been performed at the Children's Hospital Westmead, New South Wales, Australia, to determine proportions and locations of different tumours, age distribution, survival rates and usage of various treatment modalities. Pilocytic astrocytoma was the most common paediatric brain tumour (29%) followed by medulloblastoma (12%) and ependymoma (6%). Most tumours were histologically benign (59%), and 42% of tumours were located in the posterior fossa. The average age at diagnosis was 7.9 years. About 50% of children were treated with surgery alone, whereas the other 50% had surgery or biopsy plus adjuvant treatment. The overall one-year survival rate was 89% and the five-year survival rate was 80%. The five-year survival rates for pilocytic astrocytoma was 91%; medulloblastoma, 75%; ependymoma, 82%; and high grade glioma, 15%. Thus, a large proportion of paediatric brain tumours were histologically benign and were treated with surgery alone, but a subset of benign tumours required adjuvant treatment and were associated with mortality (25%). The overall survival rates were high and are improving, although for some tumours, such as high grade glioma, the outlook remains poor. PMID:22898201

  6. Classification of breast tumour using electrical impedance and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Al Amin, Abdullah; Parvin, Shahnaj; Kadir, M A; Tahmid, Tasmia; Alam, S Kaisar; Siddique-e Rabbani, K

    2014-06-01

    When a breast lump is detected through palpation, mammography or ultrasonography, the final test for characterization of the tumour, whether it is malignant or benign, is biopsy. This is invasive and carries hazards associated with any surgical procedures. The present work was undertaken to study the feasibility for such characterization using non-invasive electrical impedance measurements and machine learning techniques. Because of changes in cell morphology of malignant and benign tumours, changes are expected in impedance at a fixed frequency, and versus frequency of measurement. Tetrapolar impedance measurement (TPIM) using four electrodes at the corners of a square region of sides 4 cm was used for zone localization. Data of impedance in two orthogonal directions, measured at 5 and 200 kHz from 19 subjects, and their respective slopes with frequency were subjected to machine learning procedures through the use of feature plots. These patients had single or multiple tumours of various types in one or both breasts, and four of them had malignant tumours, as diagnosed by core biopsy. Although size and depth of the tumours are expected to affect the measurements, this preliminary work ignored these effects. Selecting 12 features from the above measurements, feature plots were drawn for the 19 patients, which displayed considerable overlap between malignant and benign cases. However, based on observed qualitative trend of the measured values, when all the feature values were divided by respective ages, the two types of tumours separated out reasonably well. Using K-NN classification method the results obtained are, positive prediction value: 60%, negative prediction value: 93%, sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 87% and efficacy: 84%, which are very good for such a test on a small sample size. Study on a larger sample is expected to give confidence in this technique, and further improvement of the technique may have the ability to replace biopsy. PMID:24844143

  7. Brain tumour development in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless cellular communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif G. Salford; Arne Brun; Bertil R. R. Persson

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) act as promoters late in the carcinogenesis process. To date, however, there is no convincing laboratory evidence that EMFs cause tumour promotion at non-thermal exposure levels. Therefore the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields were investigated in a rat brain glioma model. Some of the exposures correspond to electromagnetic fields used in

  8. Childhood brain tumour information on the Internet in the Chinese language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loretta Lau; Darren R. Hargrave; Ute Bartels; Carlos Esquembre; Eric Bouffet

    2006-01-01

    Background  Internet information, now available in many different languages, can become a major source of information for patients and families in their own mother tongue. Chinese represent one of most frequently spoken language in the world. The aims of this study were to critically appraise the quantity and quality of Internet health information in childhood brain tumour in the Chinese language

  9. Evaluation of lactate detection using selective multiple quantum coherence in phantoms and brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Harris, L M; Tunariu, N; Messiou, C; Hughes, J; Wallace, T; DeSouza, N M; Leach, M O; Payne, G S

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a product of glucose metabolism. In tumour tissues, which exhibit enhanced glycolytic metabolism, lactate signals may be elevated, making lactate a potential useful tumour biomarker. Methods of lactate quantitation are complicated because of overlap between the lactate methyl doublet CH3 resonance and a lipid resonance at 1.3 ppm. This study presents the use of a selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sequence (SelMQC-CSI), at 1.5?T, to better quantify lactate in the presence of lipids. Work performed on phantoms showed good lactate detection (49%) and lipid suppression (98%) efficiencies. To evaluate the method in the brain, the sequence was tested on a group of 23 patients with treated brain tumours, either glioma (N=20) or secondary metastases in the brain (N=3). Here it was proved to be of use in determining lactate concentrations in vivo. Lactate was clearly seen in SelMQC spectra of glioma, even in the presence of lipids, with high grade glioma (7.3 ± 1.9 mM, mean ± standard deviation) having higher concentrations than low grade glioma (1.9 ± 1.5 mM, p=0.048). Lactate was not seen in secondary metastases in the brain. SelMQC-CSI is shown to be a useful technique for measuring lactate in tumours whose signals are otherwise contaminated by lipid. PMID:25586623

  10. Radiobiological Response of Healthy and Tumour-Bearing Rat Brains To Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy concept that has been primarily developed for the treatment of malignant brain tumours. MRT uses high flux synchrotron x-rays delivered as an array of parallel microbeams in high doses of irradiation in fractions of seconds. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate the induction of bystander effects after normal and

  11. Hypopituitarism As a Consequence of Brain Tumours and Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken H. Darzy; Stephen M. Shalet

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary (h-p) axis is associated with a wide spectrum of subtle and frank abnormalities\\u000a in anterior pituitary hormones secretion. The frequency, rapidity of onset and the severity of these abnormalities correlate\\u000a with the total radiation dose delivered to the h-p axis, as well as the fraction size, younger age at irradiation, prior pituitary\\u000a compromise by tumour

  12. MicroRNA-based molecular classification of non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Tanic, M; Andrés, E; M Rodriguez-Pinilla, S; Marquez-Rodas, I; Cebollero-Presmanes, M; Fernandez, V; Osorio, A; Benítez, J; Martinez-Delgado, B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hereditary breast cancer comprises 5–10% of all breast cancers. Mutations in two high-risk susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, along with rare intermediate-risk genes and common low-penetrance alleles identified, altogether explain no more than 45% of the high-risk breast cancer families, although the majority of cases are unaccounted for and are designated as BRCAX tumours. Micro RNAs have called great attention for classification of different cancer types and have been implicated in a range of important biological processes and are deregulated in cancer pathogenesis. Methods: Here we have performed an exploratory hypothesis-generating study of miRNA expression profiles in a large series of 66 primary hereditary breast tumours by microarray analysis. Results: Unsupervised clustering analysis of miRNA molecular profiles revealed distinct subgroups of BRCAX tumours, ‘normal-like' BRCAX-A, ‘proliferative' BRCAX-B, ‘BRCA1/2-like' BRCAX-C and ‘undefined' BRCAX-D subgroup. These findings introduce a new insight in the biology of hereditary breast cancer, defining specific BRCAX subgroups, which could help in the search for novel susceptibility pathways in hereditary breast cancer. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that BRCAX hereditary breast tumours can be sub-classified into four previously unknown homogenous groups characterised by specific miRNA expression signatures and histopathological features. PMID:24104964

  13. Tissue Classification of Noisy MR Brain Images Using Constrained GMM

    E-print Network

    Goldberger, Jacob

    Tissue Classification of Noisy MR Brain Images Using Constrained GMM Amit Ruf1 , Hayit Greenspan1 of noisy, low contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. We use a mixture model composed of a large number of Gaussians, with each brain tissue represented by a large number of the Gaussian

  14. Expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in paediatric brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongwei; Owler, Brian K

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are water-channel proteins with roles in tumour cell migration, angiogenesis, cerebral oedema and cell-cell adhesion. We aimed to determine the expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in paediatric brain tumours. Twenty tumour bank specimens were subject to Western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the expression of AQP1 and 4. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the distribution of AQP1 and 4 expression. Medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, germinomas and higher grade gliomas did not express AQP1 and 4. Of the ependymomas, those in the posterior fossa all demonstrated markedly increased expression of AQP1 and 4. A supratentorial ependymoma demonstrated a moderate increase in AQP1 but not AQP4. Pilocytic astrocytomas demonstrated high levels of AQP1 and 4 but had a more variable pattern of staining. AQP1 and 4 have relevance to paediatric brain tumours and are worthy of further investigation in developing potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20965731

  15. Local Kernel for Brains Classification in Schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, U.; Rossato, E.; Murino, V.; Bellani, M.; Rambaldelli, G.; Tansella, M.; Brambilla, P.

    In this paper a novel framework for brain classification is proposed in the context of mental health research. A learning by example method is introduced by combining local measurements with non linear Support Vector Machine. Instead of considering a voxel-by-voxel comparison between patients and controls, we focus on landmark points which are characterized by local region descriptors, namely Scale Invariance Feature Transform (SIFT). Then, matching is obtained by introducing the local kernel for which the samples are represented by unordered set of features. Moreover, a new weighting approach is proposed to take into account the discriminative relevance of the detected groups of features. Experiments have been performed including a set of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 54 normal controls on which region of interest (ROI) have been manually traced by experts. Preliminary results on Dorso-lateral PreFrontal Cortex (DLPFC) region are promising since up to 75% of successful classification rate has been obtained with this technique and the performance has improved up to 85% when the subjects have been stratified by sex.

  16. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  17. [TNM classification of malignant tumours, VII edition 2009. Changes and practical effects on cancer epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Stefano; Patriarca, Silvia; Carbone, Antonino; Zanetti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The seventh edition of TNM classification of malignant tumours has been published by the International Union against Cancer in late 2009 and it is now available also in Italian language. This new edition introduces some major revisions and several updates of cancer staging rules. New criteria based on pathological details, biological assessment of lesions and new prognostic groupings have been established. Clinicians, pathologists, epidemiologists have now the chance to get familiar with those novelties, that are expected to be of great help in a moment like the present one, when strong evolutions occur in the strategies of diagnosis and of treatment of cancer. PMID:20852350

  18. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogalhas, F.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Lefebvre, F.; Palfi, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.; Ménard, L.

    2009-07-01

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The ?-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  19. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [ 18 F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Schreckenberger; Uwe Spetzger; Osama Sabri; Philipp T. Meyer; Thomas Zeggel; Michael Zimny; Joachim Gilsbach; Udalrich Buell

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical

  20. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Ohtani; Hideyuki Kurihara; Shogo Ishiuchi; Nobuhito Saito; Noboru Oriuchi; Tomio Inoue; Tomio Sasaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-11C-choline (11C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for

  1. Health professionals' perspectives on information provision for patients with brain tumours and their families.

    PubMed

    Langbecker, D; Janda, M; Yates, P

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of patients diagnosed with primary brain tumours report unmet information needs. Using concept mapping methodology, this study aimed to identify strategies for improving information provision, and to describe factors that health professionals understood to influence their provision of information to patients with brain tumours and their families. Concept mapping is a mixed-methods approach that uses statistical methods to represent participants' perceived relationships between elements as conceptual maps. These maps, and results of associated data collection and analyses, are used to extract concepts involved in information provision to these patients. Thirty health professionals working across a range of neuro-oncology roles and settings participated in the concept mapping process. Participants rated a care coordinator as the most important strategy for improving brain tumour care, with psychological support as a whole rated as the most important element of care. Five major themes were identified as facilitating information provision: health professionals' communication skills, style and attitudes; patients' needs and preferences; perceptions of patients' need for protection and initiative; rapport and continuity between patients and health professionals; and the nature of the healthcare system. Overall, health professionals conceptualised information provision as 'individualised', dependent on these interconnected personal and environmental factors. PMID:22989208

  2. Development and piloting of a brain tumour-specific question prompt list.

    PubMed

    Langbecker, D; Janda, M; Yates, P

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a question prompt list aimed at increasing question asking and reducing the unmet information needs of adults with primary brain tumours, and to pilot the question prompt list to determine its suitability for the intended population. Thematic analysis of existing resources was used to create a draft which was refined via interviews with 12 brain tumour patients and six relatives, readability testing and review by health professionals. A non-randomised before-after pilot study with 20 brain tumour patients was used to assess the acceptability and usefulness of the question prompt list, compared with a 'standard brochure', and the feasibility of evaluation strategies. The question prompt list developed covered seven main topics (diagnosis, prognosis, symptoms and changes, treatment, support, after treatment finishes and the health professional team). Pilot study participants provided with the question prompt list agreed that it was helpful (7/7), contained questions that were useful to them (7/7) and prompted them to ask their medical oncologist questions (5/7). The question prompt list is acceptable to patients and contains questions relevant to them. Research is now needed to assess its effectiveness in increasing question asking and reducing unmet information needs. PMID:22309311

  3. Internet-based interaction among brain tumour patients. Analysis of a medical mailing list.

    PubMed

    Mursch, K; Behnke-Mursch, J

    2003-01-01

    Patients and their care providers are increasingly turning to the internet for information. Being faced with this information of very heterogeneous quality, the physician would do well to be informed about the common internet information sources. We investigated the e-mails of a mailing list (or "support group") serving about 380 brain tumour patients and their care providers. The mails were obtained from an archive and grouped according to their topic. Within 6 months, 3,272 e-mails were distributed to every group member. Alternative treatments were the most frequently discussed topics (15 %). These discussions dealt with serious new strategies as well as dubious drugs and methods. A critical attitude towards "quacks" was common, but not the rule. More than 10 % of the mails dealt with debates about therapeutic strategy and about symptoms. The individual course of the participants' illness was often reported very frankly. Emotional support between members played another great role in the support group. Criticism of physicians was rare compared to recommendations of specific therapists (3 % vs. 4 %) and included lack of empathy or sensibility and poor communication between physicians. The brain tumour mailing list is a communication medium for brain tumour patients and their care providers, which distributes and reproduces information of heterogeneous quality. The physician faced with this information should be unbiased but cautious. PMID:12838475

  4. Auditory brain stem responses in the diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle tumours.

    PubMed

    Terkildsen, K; Huis in't Veld, F; Osterhammel, P

    1977-01-01

    There is a constant search for more reliable methods of diagnosing cerebellopontine angle tumours at an early stage. The auditory brain stem responses promise to be of use as such a method. In two patients with extracanalicular neurinomas we found a definitely abnormal brain stem response even though conventional tests produced a cochlear type of test pattern. In a third patient with a meningeoma we obtained a similar type of response. Here the conventional tests clearly pointed to the presence of retrocochlear disease. Characteristic findings are a broadening of the whole nerve action potential and a delay in the appearance of the Jewettv-FFP7 complex. PMID:304240

  5. A region-based segmentation of tumour from brain CT images using nonlinear support vector machine classifier.

    PubMed

    Nanthagopal, A Padma; Rajamony, R Sukanesh

    2012-07-01

    The proposed system provides new textural information for segmenting tumours, efficiently and accurately and with less computational time, from benign and malignant tumour images, especially in smaller dimensions of tumour regions of computed tomography (CT) images. Region-based segmentation of tumour from brain CT image data is an important but time-consuming task performed manually by medical experts. The objective of this work is to segment brain tumour from CT images using combined grey and texture features with new edge features and nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The selected optimal features are used to model and train the nonlinear SVM classifier to segment the tumour from computed tomography images and the segmentation accuracies are evaluated for each slice of the tumour image. The method is applied on real data of 80 benign, malignant tumour images. The results are compared with the radiologist labelled ground truth. Quantitative analysis between ground truth and the segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy and the overlap similarity measure dice metric. From the analysis and performance measures such as segmentation accuracy and dice metric, it is inferred that better segmentation accuracy and higher dice metric are achieved with the normalized cut segmentation method than with the fuzzy c-means clustering method. PMID:22621242

  6. Improved Cerebellar Tissue Classification on Magnetic Resonance Images of Brain

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sushmita; Tao, Guozhi; He, Renjie; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop and implement a method for improved cerebellar tissue classification on the magnetic resonance images of brain by automatically isolating the cerebellum prior to segmentation. Materials and Methods Dual fast spin echo (FSE) and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on eighteen normal volunteers on a 3 T Philips scanner. The cerebellum was isolated from rest of the brain by using a symmetric inverse consistent nonlinear registration of individual brain with the parcellated template. The cerebellum was then separated by masking the anatomical image with individual FLAIR images. Tissues in both the cerebellum and rest of the brain were separately classified using hidden Markov random field (HMRF), a parametric method, and then combined to obtain tissue classification of the whole brain. The proposed method for tissue classification on real magnetic resonance (MR) brain images was evaluated subjectively by two experts. The segmentation results on Brainweb images with varying noise and intensity nonuniformity levels were quantitatively compared with the ground truth by computing the Dice similarity indices. Results The proposed method has significantly improved the cerebellar tissue classification on all normal volunteers included in this study without compromising the classification in remaining part of the brain. The average similarity indices for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in the cerebellum are 89.81 (± 2.34) and 93.04 (± 2.41), demonstrating excellent performance of the proposed methodology. Conclusion The proposed method significantly improved tissue classification in the cerebellum. The GM was overestimated when segmentation was performed on the whole brain as a single object. PMID:19388122

  7. Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase and creatine kinase activity and isoenzymes in human brain tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Durany, N.; Joseph, J.; Cruz-Sánchez, F. F.; Carreras, J.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1, PGM), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.13, BPGP) and creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2, CK) activity and isoenzymes in various regions of adult human brain and in brain tumours (astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas and meningiomas) has been determined using electrophoresis. PGM and cytosolic CK exist in mammalian tissues as three isoenzymes that result from the homodimeric and heterodimeric combinations of two subunits [types M (muscle) and B (brain)] coded by separated genes. In addition, a dimeric form and an octameric form of mitochondrial CK exist in mammals. Type BB-PGM was the major PGM isoenzyme found in normal brain, although type MB-PGM and type MM-PGM were also detected. All brain tumours possessed lower PGM activity than normal brain, and meningiomas showed higher BPGP activity. In astrocytic tumours, the proportion of type MB- and type MM-PGM decreased, and in meningiomas these isoenzymes were not detected. Type BB-CK and mitochondrial CK were the only CK isoenzymes detected in normal brain. Astrocytomas possessed lower CK activity than anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas and, in addition, tended to possess lower CK content than normal brain. No qualitative changes of the normal CK isoenzyme pattern were observed in the tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9365161

  8. Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Honorio, J.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-14

    We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.

  9. Inference of brain pathway activities for Alzheimer's disease classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disorder that results in brain malfunctions. Resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have been successfully applied for quantifying brain activities of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Region-based approaches are widely utilized to classify patients from cognitively normal subjects (CN). Nevertheless, region-based approaches have a few limitations, reproducibility owing to selection of disease-specific brain regions, and heterogeneity of brain activities during disease progression. For coping with these issues, network-based approaches have been suggested in the field of molecular bioinformatics. In comparison with individual gene-based approaches, they acquired more accurate results in diverse disease classification, and reproducibility was confirmed by replication studies. In our work, we applied a similar methodology integrating brain pathway information into pathway activity inference, and permitting classification of both aMCI and AD patients based on pathway activities rather than single region activities. Results After aggregating the 59 brain pathways from literature, we estimated brain pathway activities by using exhaustive search algorithms between patients and cognitively normal subjects, and identified discriminatory pathways according to disease progression. We used three different data sets and each data set consists of two different groups. Our results show that the pathway-based approach (AUC = 0.89, 0.9, 0.75) outperformed the region-based approach (AUC = 0.69, 0.8, 0.68). Also, our approach provided enhanced diagnostic power achieving higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (pathway-based approach: accuracy = 83%; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 78%, region-based approach: accuracy = 74%; sensitivity = 78%; specificity = 76%). Conclusions We proposed a novel method inferring brain pathway activities for disease classification. Our approach shows better classification performance than region-based approach in four classification models. We expect that brain pathway-based approach would be helpful for precise classification of brain disorders, and provide new opportunities for uncovering disrupted brain pathways caused by disease. Moreover, discriminatory pathways between patients and cognitively normal subjects may facilitate the interpretation of functional alterations during disease progression. PMID:26044913

  10. Management of electrolyte and fluid disorders after brain surgery for pituitary/suprasellar tumours.

    PubMed

    Edate, Sujata; Albanese, Assunta

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in salt and water balances are relatively common in children after brain surgeries for suprasellar and pituitary tumours, presenting diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although hypernatraemia associated with central diabetes insipidus is commonly encountered, it is hyponatraemia (HN) that poses more of a diagnostic dilemma. The main differential diagnoses causing HN are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, marked by inappropriate retention of water, and cerebral salt wasting, characterized by polyuria and natriuresis. Diagnosis and management can be even more difficult when these conditions precede or coexist with each other. These diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas are discussed in detail in this review. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25677941

  11. Experiences of parents of children surviving brain tumour: a happy ending and a rough beginning.

    PubMed

    Norberg, A Lindahl; Steneby, S

    2009-07-01

    Despite a large number of studies reporting distress in parents after successfully completed cancer treatment of a child, few have explored the influence of current matters. The objective of this study was to explore parents' perceptions of post-treatment influence of childhood brain tumour. Semi-structured individual interviews were performed with the parents of seven children who had completed treatment for various types of brain tumour. Through inductive thematic analysis five key themes were derived, including 16 sub-themes. The key themes relate to: (1) survivor needs related to training and everyday life activities, where parents invested a large amount of time and commitment; (2) the everyday family life was restricted: family life in focus; (3) parenting role and routines had become more demanding; (4) for the parent as an individual daily routine as well as the view of life had changed; and (5) parental concerns and worries regarding the survivor's current and future well-being were amplified. Findings of the study suggest that the parents in the study struggle with the consequences of tangible strain, as well as existential challenges. Follow-up support should include updated information about the child's present state, and how it can be improved, as well as coaching when assisting and supporting the child. PMID:19490006

  12. Brain tumours and cigarette smoking: analysis of the INTERPHONE Canada case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the associations between cigarette smoking and glioma or meningioma. Our purpose is to provide further evidence on these possible associations. Methods We conducted a set of case–control studies in three Canadian cities, Montreal, Ottawa and Vancouver. The study included 166 subjects with glioma, 93 subjects with meningioma, and 648 population-based controls. A lifetime history of cigarette smoking was collected and various smoking indices were computed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) between smoking and each of the two types of brain tumours. Results Adjusted ORs between smoking and each type of brain tumour were not significantly elevated for all smokers combined or for smokers with over 15 pack-years ((packs / day) x years) accumulated. We tested for interactions between smoking and several sociodemographic variables; the interaction between smoking and education on glioma risk was significant, with smoking showing an elevated OR among subjects with lower education and an OR below unity among subjects with higher education. Conclusion Except for an unexplained and possibly artefactual excess risk in one population subgroup, we found little or no evidence of an association between smoking and either glioma or meningioma. PMID:24972852

  13. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube X-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based X-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board X-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 ?m measured directly from the histology (537 ?m if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

  14. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  15. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

  16. Characterizing brain connectivity using -radial nodes: application to autism classification

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    Characterizing brain connectivity using -radial nodes: application to autism classification Nagesh connectivity has been shown to be abnormal for example in regions like corpus callosum, in various autism stud schemes, and measures of connectivity. The nature of nodes and edges largely determines

  17. Susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes of brain tumour patients to in vitro radiation-induced DNA damage, a preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guruprasad Kalthur; Prem Kumar; Uma Devi; Sabir Ali; Ramya Upadhya; Sailaja Pillai; Anjali Rao

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The present investigation aimed to study the susceptibility of lymphocytes collected from brain tumour patients to radiation-induced\\u000a DNA damage under in vitro conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The peripheral lymphocytes collected from brain tumour patients were exposed to 2-Gy gamma radiation. Susceptibility of lymphocytes\\u000a to radiation-induced DNA damage and their repair ability was assessed by alkaline comet assay.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Lymphocytes of patients with benign and

  18. Brain MRI Tissue Classification Based on Local Markov Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Shattuck, David W.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain is proposed. The method is based on local image models where each models the image content in a subset of the image domain. With this local modeling approach, the assumption that tissue types have the same characteristics over the brain needs not to be evoked. This is important because tissue type characteristics, such as T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density, vary across the individual brain and the proposed method offers improved protection against intensity non-uniformity artifacts that can hamper automatic tissue classification methods in brain MRI. A framework in which local models for tissue intensities and Markov Random Field priors are combined into a global probabilistic image model is introduced. This global model will be an inhomogeneous Markov Random Field and it can be solved by standard algorithms such as iterative conditional modes. The division of the whole image domain into local brain regions possibly having different intensity statistics is realized via sub-volume probabilistic atlases. Finally, the parameters for the local intensity models are obtained without supervision by maximizing the weighted likelihood of a certain finite mixture model. For the maximization task, a novel genetic algorithm almost free of initialization dependency is applied. The algorithm is tested on both simulated and real brain MR images. The experiments confirm that the new method offers a useful improvement of the tissue classification accuracy when the basic tissue characteristics vary across the brain and the noise level of the images is reasonable. The method also offers better protection against intensity non-uniformity artifact than the corresponding method based on a global (whole image) modeling scheme. PMID:20110151

  19. Leukaemia, brain tumours and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: cohort study of Swiss railway employees

    PubMed Central

    Röösli, Martin; Lörtscher, Manfred; Egger, Matthias; Pfluger, Dominik; Schreier, Nadja; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Locher, Peter; Spoerri, Adrian; Minder, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF?MF) exposure and mortality from leukaemia and brain tumour in a cohort of Swiss railway workers. Methods 20?141 Swiss railway employees with 464?129 person?years of follow?up between 1972 and 2002 were studied. Mortality rates for leukaemia and brain tumour of highly exposed train drivers (21??T average annual exposure) were compared with medium and low exposed occupational groups (i.e. station masters with an average exposure of 1??T). In addition, individual cumulative exposure was calculated from on?site measurements and modelling of past exposures. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for leukaemia mortality of train drivers was 1.43 (95% CI 0.74 to 2.77) compared with station masters. For myeloid leukaemia the HR of train drivers was 4.74 (95% CI 1.04 to 21.60) and for Hodgkin's disease 3.29 (95% CI 0.69 to 15.63). Lymphoid leukaemia, non?Hodgkin's disease and brain tumour mortality were not associated with magnetic field exposure. Concordant results were obtained from analyses based on individual cumulative exposure. Conclusions Some evidence of an exposure–response association was found for myeloid leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease, but not for other haematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies and brain tumours. PMID:17525094

  20. Contacts with animals and humans as risk factors for adult brain tumours. An international case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ménégoz; J Little; M Colonna; A Arslan; S Preston-Martin; B Schlehofer; M Blettner; G. R Howe; P Ryan; G. G Giles; Y Rodvall; W. N Choi

    2002-01-01

    While numerous studies have addressed the possible role of farming and related exposures as risk factors for brain tumours in adults, few of them have examined the potential effect of exposure to farm animals or pets. In an international multicentre case–control study, we investigated whether residence on a farm, contact with animals, or working in occupations with a high degree

  1. Registration quality and descriptive epidemiology of childhood brain tumours in Scotland 1975-90.

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P. A.; Ironside, J. W.; Harkness, E. F.; Arango, J. C.; Doyle, D.; Black, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Children (0-14 years) with malignant brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumours (ICD9 191 and 192) were listed from the Scottish Cancer Registration Scheme for the years 1975-90. These cases formed the basis for validation and verification procedures aimed at providing a complete and accurate data set for epidemiological analyses. A variety of data sources were cross-checked to optimise ascertainment, and resulting from this 5.7% of validated cases were found on the cancer registry with diagnostic codes outside the ICD-9 range 191-192. A further 8.4% were newly registered cases. Analyses were conducted on the validated data set showing a significant temporal increase in incidence rates over the 16 year study period with an average annual percentage change of +2.6%. Large-scale geographical heterogeneity was also found, with a particularly high incidence in the Fife and Lothian areas and a low incidence in Grampian. Examination of associations with socioeconomic status, using the Carstairs deprivation index, revealed a rising trend in incidence strongly linked to areas with increasing levels of affluence. Our results suggest that for studies of childhood CNS tumours validation of cancer registry data is necessary and large-scale geographical variation and socioeconomic factors should be taken into account in any investigation of distribution in small geographical areas. PMID:7947107

  2. Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Saatman, Kathryn E.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Bullock, Ross; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Valadka, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials. PMID:18627252

  3. The brain MRI classification problem from wavelets perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendib, Mohamed M.; Merouani, Hayet F.; Diaba, Fatma

    2015-02-01

    Haar and Daubechies 4 (DB4) are the most used wavelets for brain MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) classification. The former is simple and fast to compute while the latter is more complex and offers a better resolution. This paper explores the potential of both of them in performing Normal versus Pathological discrimination on the one hand, and Multiclassification on the other hand. The Whole Brain Atlas is used as a validation database, and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm is employed as a learning approach. The achieved results are discussed and statistically compared.

  4. Primary malignant brain tumours, psychosocial distress and the intimate partner experience: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Sabo, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    From the time of diagnosis of a primary malignant brain tumour (PMBT) and throughout the illness trajectory, the patient and intimate partner face many psychosocial challenges ranging from fear and uncertainty to hope and loss (Fox & Lantz, 1998; Janda et al., 2007; Kvale, Murthy, Taylor, Lee, & Nabors, 2009). While many patients diagnosed with cancer may go on to live with cancer as a chronic illness, this may not be said of individuals diagnosed with a PMBT, in particular those diagnosed with a glioma, the most common form of brain tumour (Gupta & Sarin, 2002). Gliomas are associated with a short disease trajectory and multiple deficits (functional, cognitive and psychiatric). What makes the PMBT experience unique from other cancers is that the intimate partner must not only deal with the diagnosis of cancer in their spouse, but also the accompanying personality, functional and behavioural changes wrought by the disease, as well as grieve the loss of the person they once knew (Sherwood et al., 2004). These multi-dimensional deficits are thought to place the intimate partner, as caregiver, at greater risk for adverse psychosocial effects such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress (Goebel, von Harscher, & Mehdorn, 2011; Keir, Farland, Lipp, & Friedman, 2009). The following discussion will provide an overview of the extant literature on the experience of living with a PMBT from the intimate partner (spouse) perspective with a particular emphasis on how intimate partners cope. The intimate partner is considered to be the heterosexual or same-sex, married or common-law partner of the patient. Highlights from the psychotherapy practice of the author will be used to further strengthen the need for more research, education and enhanced practice to more effectively meet the unique needs of this under-researched and supported population. PMID:25638913

  5. Increasing rates of brain tumours in the Swedish national inpatient register and the causes of death register.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., "possibly", carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007-2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008-2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk. PMID:25854296

  6. Quantification and classification of high-resolution magic angle spinning data for brain tumor diagnosis

    E-print Network

    Quantification and classification of high-resolution magic angle spinning data for brain tumor protocol (preprocessing, processing and classification) for classifying brain tumors with proton high-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy might help for brain tumor diagnosis. Cheng et al. [1] demonstrated

  7. Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families.

    PubMed

    Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities. PMID:25265763

  8. Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation of SICE Matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjia; Zhou, Luping; Wang, Lei; Li, Wanqing

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering 1) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definiteness matrices, and 2) human brains share common patterns of connectivity across subjects. Therefore, we propose to employ manifold-based similarity measures and kernel-based PCA to extract principal connectivity components as a compact representation of brain network. Moreover, to cater for the requirement of both discrimination and interpretation in neuroimage analysis, we develop a novel preimage estimation algorithm to make the obtained connectivity components anatomically interpretable. To verify the efficacy of our method and gain insights into SICE-based brain networks, we conduct extensive experimental study on synthetic data and real rs-fMRI data from the ADNI dataset. Our method outperforms the comparable methods and improves the classification accuracy significantly. PMID:25667346

  9. Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, B K; Bowman, J D; Giles, G G; Hours, M; Krewski, D; McBride, M; Parent, M E; Sadetzki, S; Woodward, A; Brown, J; Chetrit, A; Figuerola, J; Hoffmann, C; Jarus-Hakak, A; Montestruq, L; Nadon, L; Richardson, L; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations of brain tumours with radio frequency (RF) fields from mobile phones. Methods Patients with brain tumour from the Australian, Canadian, French, Israeli and New Zealand components of the Interphone Study, whose tumours were localised by neuroradiologists, were analysed. Controls were matched on age, sex and region and allocated the ‘tumour location’ of their matched case. Analyses included 553 glioma and 676 meningioma cases and 1762 and 1911 controls, respectively. RF dose was estimated as total cumulative specific energy (TCSE; J/kg) absorbed at the tumour's estimated centre taking into account multiple RF exposure determinants. Results ORs with ever having been a regular mobile phone user were 0.93 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.18) for glioma and 0.80 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.96) for meningioma. ORs for glioma were below 1 in the first four quintiles of TCSE but above 1 in the highest quintile, 1.35 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.90). The OR increased with increasing TCSE 7+ years before diagnosis (p-trend 0.01; OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.47 in the highest quintile). A complementary analysis in which 44 glioma and 135 meningioma cases in the most exposed area of the brain were compared with gliomas and meningiomas located elsewhere in the brain showed increased ORs for tumours in the most exposed part of the brain in those with 10+ years of mobile phone use (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.94 for glioma). Patterns for meningioma were similar, but ORs were lower, many below 1.0. Conclusions There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made. PMID:21659469

  10. BRAIN AND COGNITION 10, 256-295 (1989) Patient Classification in Neuropsychological Research

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    1989-01-01

    BRAIN AND COGNITION 10, 256-295 (1989) Patient Classification in Neuropsychological Research ALFONSO CARAMAZZA AND WILLIAM BADECKER Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory, Cognitive Science Center neuropsychological research is motivated by the assumption that the analysis of impaired performance in brain

  11. Multiclass brain-computer interface classification by Riemannian geometry.

    PubMed

    Barachant, Alexandre; Bonnet, Stéphane; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new classification framework for brain-computer interface (BCI) based on motor imagery. This framework involves the concept of Riemannian geometry in the manifold of covariance matrices. The main idea is to use spatial covariance matrices as EEG signal descriptors and to rely on Riemannian geometry to directly classify these matrices using the topology of the manifold of symmetric and positive definite (SPD) matrices. This framework allows to extract the spatial information contained in EEG signals without using spatial filtering. Two methods are proposed and compared with a reference method [multiclass Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)] on the multiclass dataset IIa from the BCI Competition IV. The first method, named minimum distance to Riemannian mean (MDRM), is an implementation of the minimum distance to mean (MDM) classification algorithm using Riemannian distance and Riemannian mean. This simple method shows comparable results with the reference method. The second method, named tangent space LDA (TSLDA), maps the covariance matrices onto the Riemannian tangent space where matrices can be vectorized and treated as Euclidean objects. Then, a variable selection procedure is applied in order to decrease dimensionality and a classification by LDA is performed. This latter method outperforms the reference method increasing the mean classification accuracy from 65.1% to 70.2%. PMID:22010143

  12. Topology-preserving tissue classification of magnetic resonance brain images.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Dzung L

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a new framework for multiple object segmentation in medical images that respects the topological properties and relationships of structures as given by a template. The technique, known as topology-preserving, anatomy-driven segmentation (TOADS), combines advantages of statistical tissue classification, topology-preserving fast marching methods, and image registration to enforce object-level relationships with little constraint over the geometry. When applied to the problem of brain segmentation, it directly provides a cortical surface with spherical topology while segmenting the main cerebral structures. Validation on simulated and real images characterises the performance of the algorithm with regard to noise, inhomogeneities, and anatomical variations. PMID:17427736

  13. LINT, a Novel dL(3)mbt-Containing Complex, Represses Malignant Brain Tumour Signature Genes

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Karin; Mathieu, Eve-Lyne; Finkernagel, Florian; Reuter, L. Maximilian; Scharfe, Maren; Doehlemann, Gunther; Jarek, Michael; Brehm, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the l(3)mbt tumour suppressor result in overproliferation of Drosophila larval brains. Recently, the derepression of different gene classes in l(3)mbt mutants was shown to be causal for transformation. However, the molecular mechanisms of dL(3)mbt-mediated gene repression are not understood. Here, we identify LINT, the major dL(3)mbt complex of Drosophila. LINT has three core subunits—dL(3)mbt, dCoREST, and dLint-1—and is expressed in cell lines, embryos, and larval brain. Using genome-wide ChIP–Seq analysis, we show that dLint-1 binds close to the TSS of tumour-relevant target genes. Depletion of the LINT core subunits results in derepression of these genes. By contrast, histone deacetylase, histone methylase, and histone demethylase activities are not required to maintain repression. Our results support a direct role of LINT in the repression of brain tumour-relevant target genes by restricting promoter access. PMID:22570633

  14. Spiritual thoughts, coping and 'sense of coherence' in brain tumour patients and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Strang, S; Strang, P

    2001-03-01

    When a person is diagnosed with a life-threatening disease, existential questions are easily triggered. The aims of this study were to explore to what extent brain tumour patients and their next of kin were able to cope, understand and create meaning in their situation, to explore whether spirituality could be supportive and to analyse whether these concepts are related to Antonovsky's concept of sense of coherence. Using a purposive sampling technique, 20 patients and 16 of their next of kin took part in tape-recorded interviews. A content and context analysis was performed using a hermeneutic approach. We found that comprehensibility was to a large extent constructed by the patient's own thoughts and theories, despite an insecure situation. Manageability was achieved by active information-seeking strategies, by social support and by coping, including positive reinterpretation of the situation. Meaningfulness was central for quality of life and was created by close relations and faith, as well as by work. A crucial factor was whether the person had a 'fighting spirit' that motivated him or her to go on. As only three patients were believers, trust in God had generally been replaced by a belief and confidence in oneself, in science, in positive thinking and by closeness to nature. Sense of coherence as a concept can explain how exposed persons handle their situation. In its construction, sence of coherence integrates essential parts of the stress/coping model (comprehensibility, manageability) and of spirituality (meaning). PMID:11301663

  15. Effect of polyamine depletion on chromatin structure in U-87 MG human brain tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Basu, H S; Sturkenboom, M C; Delcros, J G; Csokan, P P; Szollosi, J; Feuerstein, B G; Marton, L J

    1992-01-01

    The chromatin structure of polyamine-depleted U-87 MG human brain tumour cells was studied by following the kinetics of digestion of cell nuclei by micrococcal nuclease and bovine pancreatic DNAase I. Cells growing in monolayers were treated with either alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), to deplete putrescine and spermidine, or N1,N14-bis(ethyl)homospermine (BE-4-4-4), to deplete putrescine, spermidine and spermine. BE-4-4-4 increased the initial rates of digestion and the magnitudes of limit digest by both enzymes; DFMO increased the limit digests without affecting initial digestion rates. Addition of 1 mM-putrescine 1 day after addition of DFMO reversed the effect of DFMO on limit digests. (Because polyamine uptake is low in cells treated with BE-4-4-4, and because putrescine does not reverse the growth-inhibitory effects of BE-4-4-4, reversal of the effects of BE-4-4-4 with putrescine was not attempted.) The increases in initial rates and limit digests did not result from changes in the lengths of nucleosomal or linker DNA, from blocks in cell-cycle progression, or from growth inhibition caused by DFMO or BE-4-4-4. Thus, because the limit digest is highest in cells with the lowest polyamine levels, it seems clear that the enhanced enzymic digestion of nuclei is caused by polyamine depletion and its possible effect on chromatin structure. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1554353

  16. Directed Progression Brain Networks in Alzheimer's Disease: Properties and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karl; Asif, Danial; Jutla, Inderjit; Liang, Michael; Wilson, Scott; Landsberg, Adam S.; Schuff, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces a new approach in brain connectomics aimed at characterizing the temporal spread in the brain of pathologies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main instrument is the development of “directed progression networks” (DPNets), wherein one constructs directed edges between nodes based on (weakly) inferred directions of the temporal spreading of the pathology. This stands in contrast to many previously studied brain networks where edges represent correlations, physical connections, or functional progressions. In addition, this is one of a few studies showing the value of using directed networks in the study of AD. This article focuses on the construction of DPNets for AD using longitudinal cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance imaging data. The network properties are then characterized, providing new insights into AD progression, as well as novel markers for differentiating normal cognition (NC) and AD at the group level. It also demonstrates the important role of nodal variations for network classification (i.e., the significance of standard deviations, not just mean values of nodal properties). Finally, the DPNets are utilized to classify subjects based on their global network measures using a variety of data-mining methodologies. In contrast to most brain networks, these DPNets do not show high clustering and small-world properties. PMID:24901258

  17. Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

  18. Transient mutism and speech disorders after posterior fossa surgery in children with brain tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kingma; J. J. A. Mooij; J. D. M. Metzemaekers; J. A. Leeuw

    1994-01-01

    Summary Four patients aged 5 to 9 years with large tumours located in the posterior fossa (PNET, ependymoma or astrocytoma) are presented. Patients received standard neuropsychological assessments, including speech evaluation, prior to surgery. Following tumour resection, these 4 children developed transient mutism or different types of speech and cognitive disorders, associated with behavioural disturbances.

  19. Essential problems in the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence for an association between mobile phone use and brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundi, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Due to the close proximity of a mobile phone to the head when placing a call, concerns have been raised that exposure from microwaves during mobile phone use may exert adverse health effects and, in particular, may increase the risk of brain tumours. In response to these concerns epidemiological studies have been conducted, most applying the case-control design. While epidemiology can provide decisive evidence for an association between an exposure and a disease fundamental problems arise if exposure is short compared to the natural history of the disease. For brain tumours latencies of decades have been implicated making special considerations about potential effects of exposures necessary that commence during an already growing tumour. It is shown that measures of disease risk like odds ratios and relative risks can under such circumstances not be interpreted as indicators of a long term effect on incidences in the exposed population. Besides this problem, the issues of a suitable exposure metric and the selection of endpoints are unresolved. It is shown that the solution of these problems affords knowledge about the mechanism of action by which exposure increases the risk of manifest disease.

  20. Automated Model-Based Tissue Classification of MR Images of the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Van Leemput; Frederik Maes; Dirk Vandermeulen; Paul Suetens

    1999-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for model- based tissue classification of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. The method interleaves classification with estimation of the model parameters, improving the classification at each iteration. The algorithm is able to segment single- and multi- spectral MR images, corrects for MR signal inhomogeneities, and incorporates contextual information by means of Markov

  1. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays

    PubMed Central

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  2. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  3. A Multi-Centre, Web-Accessible and Quality Control-Checked Database of in vivo MR Spectra of Brain Tumour Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarida Julià-Sapé; Dionisio Acosta; Mariola Mier; Carles Arùs; Des Watson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe an Internet-accessible database that contains validated in vivo MR spectra and clinical data of brain tumour\\u000a patients. Materials and methods: All data from patients entering the INTERPRET project (International Network for Pattern Recognition of Tumours Using Magnetic\\u000a Resonance, http:\\/\\/azizu.uab.es\\/INTERPRET) were stored in a web-accessible database (iDB) and selected using its query functionality. Criteria for selection were that

  4. Correlation of nodal mast cells with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour and a proposed classification system for the evaluation of node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, K M; Thamm, D H; Worley, D R; Kamstock, D A

    2014-11-01

    Lymph node metastasis in dogs with mast cell tumour has been reported as a negative prognostic indicator; however, no standardized histological criteria exist to define metastatic disease. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different histological patterns of node-associated mast cells correlate with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour. A secondary goal was to propose a criteria-defined classification system for histological evaluation of lymph node metastasis. The Colorado State University Diagnostic Medicine Center database was searched for cases of canine mast cell tumours with reported lymph node metastasis or evidence of node-associated mast cells. Additional cases were obtained from a clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node mapping and node extirpation in dogs with mast cell neoplasia. Forty-one cases were identified for inclusion in the study. Demographic data, treatment and clinical outcome were collected for each case. Lymph nodes were classified according to a novel classification system (HN0-HN3) based on the number of, distribution of, and architectural disruption by, nodal mast cells. The findings of this study indicate that characterization of nodal mast cells as proposed by this novel classification system correlates with, and is prognostic for, clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumours. PMID:25172053

  5. Novel molecular tumour classification using MALDI–mass spectrometry imaging of tissue micro-array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claude Djidja; Emmanuelle Claude; Marten F. Snel; Simona Francese; Peter Scriven; Vikki Carolan; Malcolm R. Clench

    2010-01-01

    The development of tissue micro-array (TMA) technologies provides insights into high-throughput analysis of proteomics patterns\\u000a from a large number of archived tumour samples. In the work reported here, matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionisation–ion\\u000a mobility separation–mass spectrometry (MALDI–IMS–MS) profiling and imaging methodology has been used to visualise the distribution\\u000a of several peptides and identify them directly from TMA sections after on-tissue tryptic digestion.

  6. Provincial Disparities of Growth Hormone Coverage for Young Adult Survivors of Paediatric Brain Tumours across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Haroon; Howard, Fuchsia; Morgan, Steven G.; Metzger, Daniel L.; Gill, Sabrina; Johnson, Michelle; Lo, Andrea C.; Goddard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adult survivors of paediatric brain tumours (PBTs) who have been treated with radiation therapy will likely be severely growth hormone–deficient when retested at the achievement of final height. Growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) is administered to treat growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Public drug coverage for GHRT falls under the responsibility of provincial governments across Canada. This study sought to determine the extent of public drug coverage and cost in each Canadian province for GHRT to treat GHD during adulthood for young adult survivors of PBTs. Methods: Data were collected from provincial government resources and drug formularies from 2012–2013 on the extent of coverage for GHRT based on a clinical case scenario representative of a young adult survivor of a PBT with childhood-onset radiation-induced GHD, the ingredient cost for GHRT and the applicable provincial public drug plan cost-sharing policies. A model was then created to simulate out-of-pocket costs incurred by a young adult male and a young adult female survivor of a PBT for one year of GHRT in each province with applicable cost-sharing arrangements and levels of low annual individual total income that best represent the majority of young adult survivors of PBTs. Out-of-pocket costs were expressed as a percentage of annual income. Comparisons were made between provinces descriptively, and variation among provinces was summarized statistically. Results: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador provide coverage for GHD during adulthood on a case-by-case basis, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island provide no coverage. The percentage of annual income to fund GHRT across the provinces without public coverage ranged from 14.4% to 25.5% for males and 21.5% to 38.3% for females, and with public coverage was 0.0% to 4.1% for males and 0.0% to 5.0% for females. Interpretation: There are considerable out-of-pocket costs and variation in coverage provided by provincial public drug plans to fund GHRT for young adult survivors of PBTs with GHD. The implementation of a national drug formulary could potentially prevent undue financial hardship and remove disparities resulting from variations in provincial drug plans. PMID:24726076

  7. Localisation of the sensorimotor cortex during surgery for brain tumours: feasibility and waveform patterns of somatosensory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Romstock, J; Fahlbusch, R; Ganslandt, O; Nimsky, C; Strauss, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Intraoperative localisation of the sensorimotor cortex using the phase reversal of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is an essential tool for surgery in and around the perirolandic gyri, but unsuccessful and perplexing results have been reported. This study examines the effect of tumour masses on the waveform characteristics and feasibility of SEP compared with functional neuronavigation and electrical motor cortex mapping. Methods: In 230 patients with tumours of the sensorimotor region the SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 was recorded from the exposed cortex using a subdural grid or strip electrode. In one subgroup of 80 patients functional neuronavigation was performed with motor and sensory magnetic source imaging and in one subgroup of 40 patients the motor cortex hand area was localised by electrical stimulation mapping. Results: The intraoperative SEP method was successful in 92% of all patients, it could be shown that the success rate rather depended on the location of the lesion than on preoperative neurological deficits. In 13% of the patients with postcentral tumours no N20-P20 phase reversal was recorded but characteristic polyphasic and high amplitude waves at 25 ms and later made the identification of the postcentral gyrus possible nevertheless. Electrical mapping of the motor cortex took up to 30 minutes until a clear result was obtained. It was successful in 37 patients, but failed in three patients with precentral and central lesions. Functional neuronavigation indicating the tumour margins and the motor and sensory evoked fields was possible in all patients. Conclusion: The SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 is a simple and reliable technique, but the success rate is much lower in large central and postcentral tumours. With the use of polyphasic late waveforms the sensorimotor cortex may be localised. By contrast with motor electrical mapping it is less time consuming. Functional neuronavigation is a desirable tool for both preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative use during surgery on perirolandic tumours, but compensation for brain shift, accuracy, and cost effectiveness are still a matter for discussion. PMID:11796773

  8. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.

    PubMed

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika; Wang, Zhaoming; Henriksson, Roger; Hallmans, Göran; Bondy, Melissa L; Johansen, Christoffer; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Ruder, Avima M; Carreón, Tania; Butler, Mary Ann; Inskip, Peter D; Purdue, Mark; Hsing, Ann W; Mechanic, Leah; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Yeager, Meredith; Linet, Martha; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2013-05-15

    Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours. PMID:23115063

  9. Neutron-capture therapy of brain tumours: neutron sources, neutron-capture drugs, biological tests and clinical perspectives in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Burian, J; Marek, M; Mares, V; Drahota, Z

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron sources, chemical compounds and clinical perspectives of the boron neutron-capture therapy of brain tumours. Special attention is paid to the physical characteristics and biological effectiveness of the epithermal neutron beam constructed at the LVR-15 nuclear reactor at Rez near Prague. PMID:9727499

  10. A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nievaart, V. A.; Moss, R. L.; Kloosterman, J. L.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; van Dam, H.

    2004-09-01

    The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the 10B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the 10B concentration, the RBE factors for 10B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour.

  11. Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns

    E-print Network

    Balc?, Serdar Kemal

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

  12. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [18F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Schreckenberger, M; Spetzger, U; Sabri, O; Meyer, P T; Zeggel, T; Zimny, M; Gilsbach, J; Buell, U

    2001-09-01

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical "gold standard". In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [18F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 micros) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [18F]FDG uptake of 20.5% +/- 5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2% +/- 2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by cortical stimulation yielded a 94% sensitivity and a 95% specificity for identification of motor-associated brain areas. In conclusion, the findings indicate that a relatively simple and clinically available [18F]FDG PET activation protocol enables a sufficiently precise assessment of the local relation between the intracranial tumour and the adjacent motor cortex areas and may facilitate the presurgical planning of tumour resection. PMID:11585300

  13. Comparative PET study using F-18 FET and F-18 FDG for the evaluation of patients with suspected brain tumour.

    PubMed

    Lau, Eddie W F; Drummond, Katharine J; Ware, Robert E; Drummond, Elizabeth; Hogg, Annette; Ryan, Gail; Grigg, Andrew; Callahan, Jason; Hicks, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this prospective pilot study in patients with suspected or known brain tumour was to establish the diagnostic value of O-(2-[(18)F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) when compared to fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Twenty-five FET PET and FDG PET scans were performed on 21 consecutive patients within 24 months. Final malignant pathology included 11 glioma (eight low-grade, three high grade), two lymphoma, one olfactory ganglioneuroblastoma, one anaplastic meningioma. Benign pathology included two encephalitis and one cortical dysplasia. Definitive pathology was not available in three patients. The accuracy of PET was determined by subsequent surgical histopathology in 12 and clinical/imaging course in nine patients. Median follow-up period was 20 months. FET sensitivity was 93%, specificity 100%, accuracy 96%, positive predictive value (PPV) 100% and negative predictive value (NPV) 91%. FDG sensitivity was 27%, specificity 90%, accuracy 52%, PPV 80% and NPV 45%. FET PET is more accurate than FDG PET for detecting malignant brain lesions, especially low-grade gliomas. PMID:20004582

  14. Automated segmentation and classification of multispectral magnetic resonance images of brain using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilburn E. Reddick; John O. Glass; Edwin N. Cook; T. David Elkin; Russell J. Deaton

    1997-01-01

    Presents a fully automated process for segmentation and classification of multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images. This hybrid neural network method uses a Kohonen self-organizing neural network for segmentation and a multilayer backpropagation neural network for classification. To separate different tissue types, this process uses the standard T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted MR images acquired in clinical examinations. Volumetric measurements of brain

  15. Determination of metabolite concentrations in human brain tumour biopsy samples using HR-MAS and ERETIC measurements.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bisbal, M Carmen; Monleon, Daniel; Assemat, Olivier; Piotto, Martial; Piquer, José; Llácer, José Luis; Celda, Bernardo

    2009-02-01

    Accurate determination of the concentration of the metabolites contained in intact human biopsies of 10 glioblastoma multiforme samples was achieved using one-dimensional (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR combined with ERETIC (electronic reference to in vivo concentrations) measurements. The amount of sample used ranged from 6.8 to 12.9 mg. Metabolite concentrations were measured in each sample using two methods: with DSS (2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate sodium salt) as an internal reference and with ERETIC as an external electronically generated reference. The ERETIC signal was shown to be highly reproducible and did not affect the spectral quality. The concentrations calculated by the ERETIC method in model solutions were shown to be independent of the salt concentration in the range typically found in biological samples (0-250 mM). The ERETIC method proved to be straightforward to use in tissues and much more robust than the internal standard method. The concentrations calculated using the internal DSS concentration were systematically found to be higher than those determined using the ERETIC technique. These results indicate a possible interaction of the DSS molecules with the biopsy sample. Moreover, variations in the sample preparation process, with possible loss of DSS solution, may hamper the quantification process, as happens in one of the ten samples analysed. In this study, the ERETIC method was validated on model solutions and used in brain tumour tissues. Calculated metabolite concentrations obtained with the ERETIC procedure matched the values determined in the same type of tumours by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methodologies. PMID:18833546

  16. Challenges relating to solid tumour brain metastases in clinical trials, part 1: patient population, response, and progression. A report from the RANO group.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Baumert, Brigitta G; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic outcomes for patients with brain metastases need to improve. A critical review of trials specifically addressing brain metastases shows key issues that could prevent acceptance of results by regulatory agencies, including enrolment of heterogeneous groups of patients and varying definitions of clinical endpoints. Considerations specific to disease, modality, and treatment are not consistently addressed. Additionally, the schedule of CNS imaging and consequences of detection of new or progressive brain metastases in trials mainly exploring the extra-CNS activity of systemic drugs are highly variable. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group is an independent, international, collaborative effort to improve the design of trials in patients with brain tumours. In this two-part series, we review the state of clinical trials of brain metastases and suggest a consensus recommendation for the development of criteria for future clinical trials. PMID:23993384

  17. Hierarchical Mixture of Classification Experts Uncovers Interactions between Brain Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bangpeng Yao; Dirk B. Walther; Diane M. Beck; Li Fei-Fei

    The human brain can be described as containing a number of functional regions. These regions, as well as the connections between them, play a key role in in- formation processing in the brain. However, most existing multi-voxel pattern analysis approaches either treat multiple regions as one large uniform region or several independent regions, ignoring the connections between them. In this

  18. Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to magnetic resonance images 

    E-print Network

    Kischell, Eric Robert

    1993-01-01

    ' (Member) A. D. Patton ( ead of epartment) August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Classification of Brain Compartments and Head Injury Lesions by Neural Networks Applied to Magnetic Resonance Images. (August 1993) Eric Robert... Kischell, B. S. , Northeastern University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Nasser Kehtarnavaz An automatic neural network-based approach was ap- plied to segment brain compartments and closed-head-injury lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images Two...

  19. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-03-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:25898432

  20. Brain Activity-Based Image Classification From Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Bigdely-Shamlo; Andrey Vankov; Rey R. Ramirez; Scott Makeig

    2008-01-01

    We report the design and performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific dynamic brain response signatures in high-density (128-channel) electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquired during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Image clips were selected from a broad area image and presented in rapid succession (12\\/s) in 4.1-s bursts.

  1. Primary central nervous system vasculitis mimicking brain tumour: case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Bin Qu; Sofia Khan; Hua Liu

    2009-01-01

    Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is a rare inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality.\\u000a We present a detailed history and clinical course of a patient with PCNSV along with a literature review. A 50-year-old Chinese\\u000a female presented with a 6-month history of mild to moderate headache and sudden onset of visual loss. Early computed tomography\\u000a of the brain

  2. Pattern Classification of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks: Identification of Informative Neuroimaging Markers for Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhang; Wei Cheng; ZhengGe Wang; ZhiQiang Zhang; WenLian Lu; GuangMing Lu; Jianfeng Feng

    2012-01-01

    The accurate prediction of general neuropsychiatric disorders, on an individual basis, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging task of great clinical significance. Despite the progress to chart the differences between the healthy controls and patients at the group level, the pattern classification of functional brain networks across individuals is still less developed. In this paper we

  3. Schizophrenia Classification Using Regions of Interest in Brain MRI D. S. Cheng1

    E-print Network

    Castellani, Umberto

    Schizophrenia Classification Using Regions of Interest in Brain MRI D. S. Cheng1 , M. Bicego1 , U by schizophrenia and other mental illnesses traditionally diagnosed by self-reports and behavioral observations encouraging agreements with previous medical studies in schizophrenia research. 1 Introduction Computational

  4. Improved Grading and Survival Prediction of human astrocytic brain tumours by artificial neural network analysis of gene expression microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Petalidis, Lawrence P.; Oulas, Anastasis; Backlund, Magnus; Wayland, Matthew T.; Liu, Lu; Plant, Karen; Happerfield, Lisa; Freeman, Tom C.; Poirazi, Panayiota; Collins, V. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Histopathological grading of astrocytic tumours based on current WHO criteria offers a valuable but simplified representation of oncological reality and is often insufficient to predict clinical outcome. In this study we report a new astrocytic tumour microarray gene expression dataset (n=65). We have used a simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to address grading of human astrocytic tumours, derive specific transcriptional signatures from histopathological subtypes of astrocytic tumours and asses whether these molecular signatures define survival prognostic subclasses. 59 classifier genes were identified and found to fall within three distinct functional classes namely angiogenesis, cell differentiation and lower grade astrocytic tumour discrimination. These gene classes were found to characterize three molecular tumour subtypes denoted ANGIO, INTER and LOWER. Grading of samples using these subtypes agreed with prior histopathological grading both for our dataset (96.15%) as well as an independent dataset. Six tumours were particularly challenging to diagnose histopathologically. We present an ANN grading for these samples, and offer an evidence-based interpretation of grading results using clinical metadata to substantiate findings. The prognostic value of the three identified tumour subtypes was found to outperform histopathological grading as well as tumour subtypes reported in other studies, indicating a high survival prognostic potential for the 59 gene classifiers. Finally, 11 gene classifiers that differentiate between primary and secondary glioblastomas were also identified. PMID:18445660

  5. Posterior cranial fossa tumours in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Chang; M. M. H. Teng; J. F. Lirng

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed clinical and CT findings in 133 posterior cranial fossa tumours in children. All had histological diagnosis, apart from 20 cases of brain stem glioma. The majority were intra-axial tumours, including 53 medulloblastomas (40%), 31 cerebellar astrocytomas (23%), 28 brain stem gliomas (21%), 14 ependymomas (11%), and single cases of ganglioglioma, haemangioblastoma and teratoma. Extra-axial tumours formed only 3%,

  6. Hierarchical Mixture of Classification Experts Uncovers Interactions between Brain Regions

    E-print Network

    Li, Fei-Fei

    processing in the brain. However, most existing multi-voxel pattern analysis approaches either treat multiple, 24, 18, 16]. In these multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) approaches, patterns of voxels the classifier of one region of interest (ROI) makes predictions based on not only its voxels but also

  7. Spatially Aggregated Multi-Class Pattern Classification in Functional MRI using Optimally Selected Functional Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Ackley, Elena S.; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Posse, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In previous works, boosting aggregation of classifier outputs from discrete brain areas has been demonstrated to reduce dimensionality, and improve the robustness and accuracy of fMRI classification. However, dimensionality reduction and classification of mixed activation patterns of multiple classes remain challenging. In the present study, the goals were (a) to reduce dimensionality by combining feature reduction at the voxel level and backward elimination of optimally aggregated classifiers at the region level, (b) to compare region selection for spatially aggregated classification using boosting and partial least squares regression methods and (c) to resolve mixed activation patterns using probabilistic prediction of individual tasks. Brain activation maps from interleaved visual, motor, auditory and cognitive tasks were segmented into 144 functional regions. Feature selection reduced the number of feature voxels by more than 50%, leaving 95 regions. The two aggregation approaches further reduced the number of regions to 30, resulting in more than 75% reduction of classification time and misclassification rates of less than 3%. Boosting and partial least squares (PLS) were compared to select the most discriminative and the most task correlated regions, respectively. Successful task prediction in mixed activation patterns was feasible within the first block of task activation in real time fMRI experiments. This methodology is suitable for sparsifying activation patterns in real-time fMRI and for neurofeedback from distributed networks of brain activation. PMID:22902471

  8. Classification of autism spectrum disorder using supervised learning of brain connectivity measures extracted from synchrostates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Wasifa; Das, Saptarshi; Oprescu, Ioana-Anastasia; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The paper investigates the presence of autism using the functional brain connectivity measures derived from electro-encephalogram (EEG) of children during face perception tasks. Approach. Phase synchronized patterns from 128-channel EEG signals are obtained for typical children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The phase synchronized states or synchrostates temporally switch amongst themselves as an underlying process for the completion of a particular cognitive task. We used 12 subjects in each group (ASD and typical) for analyzing their EEG while processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. The minimal and maximally occurring synchrostates for each subject are chosen for extraction of brain connectivity features, which are used for classification between these two groups of subjects. Among different supervised learning techniques, we here explored the discriminant analysis and support vector machine both with polynomial kernels for the classification task. Main results. The leave one out cross-validation of the classification algorithm gives 94.7% accuracy as the best performance with corresponding sensitivity and specificity values as 85.7% and 100% respectively. Significance. The proposed method gives high classification accuracies and outperforms other contemporary research results. The effectiveness of the proposed method for classification of autistic and typical children suggests the possibility of using it on a larger population to validate it for clinical practice.

  9. Adaptive classification on brain-computer interfaces using reinforcement signals.

    PubMed

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a probabilistic model that combines a classifier with an extra reinforcement signal (RS) encoding the probability of an erroneous feedback being delivered by the classifier. This representation computes the class probabilities given the task related features and the reinforcement signal. Using expectation maximization (EM) to estimate the parameter values under such a model shows that some existing adaptive classifiers are particular cases of such an EM algorithm. Further, we present a new algorithm for adaptive classification, which we call constrained means adaptive classifier, and show using EEG data and simulated RS that this classifier is able to significantly outperform state-of-the-art adaptive classifiers. PMID:22845827

  10. Classification of Alzheimer's disease using regional saliency maps from brain MR volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Andrea; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the complex alteration of patterns in brain anatomy that could indicate the presence or absence of the pathology. Currently, an effective approach that allows to interpret the disease in terms of global and local changes is not available in the clinical practice. In this paper, we propose an approach for classification of brain MR images, based on finding pathology-related patterns through the identification of regional structural changes. The approach combines a probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) technique, which allows to identify image regions through latent topics inferred from the brain MR slices, with a bottom-up Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) model, which calculates maps of relevant information per region. Regional saliency maps are finally combined into a single map on each slice, obtaining a master saliency map of each brain volume. The proposed approach includes a one-to-one comparison of the saliency maps which feeds a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, to group test subjects into normal or probable AD subjects. A set of 156 brain MR images from healthy (76) and pathological (80) subjects, splitted into a training set (10 non-demented and 10 demented subjects) and one testing set (136 subjects), was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Preliminary results show that the proposed method reaches a maximum classification accuracy of 87.21%.

  11. Imaging of sinonasal tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract More than 70 benign and malignant sinonasal tumours and tumour-like conditions have been described. However, sinonasal tumours are rare, and sinonasal cancers comprise only 3% of all head and neck cancers and 1% of all malignancies, with a peak incidence in the 5th to 7th decades and with a male preponderance. The early symptoms and imaging findings of sinonasal tumours are similar to rhinosinusitis with runny and stuffy nose, lacrimation and epistaxis and therefore neglected both by the patients and doctors. When late symptoms such as anosmia, visual disturbances, cranial neuropathy (Cn II, IV, V, VI) or facial swelling appear, the patient is referred to sinonasal endoscopy or imaging. At the time of correct diagnosis more than half of the tumours have reached an advanced stage with a poor prognostic outcome. Even if imaging is performed in the early stages, a radiologist inexperienced with sinonasal anatomy and tumour features may easily interpret early signs of a malignant tumour as rhinosinusitis or a lesion that does not require follow-up. This article presents the imaging findings in some of the most common benign and malignant sinonasal tumours, and the TNM classification and staging of sinonasal carcinomas. PMID:22571851

  12. Extreme Learning Machine-Based Classification of ADHD Using Brain Structural MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaolong; Lin, Pan; Zhang, Tongsheng; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective and accurate diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently of significant interest. ADHD has been associated with multiple cortical features from structural MRI data. However, most existing learning algorithms for ADHD identification contain obvious defects, such as time-consuming training, parameters selection, etc. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) Propose an ADHD classification model using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for automatic, efficient and objective clinical ADHD diagnosis. (2) Assess the computational efficiency and the effect of sample size on both ELM and support vector machine (SVM) methods and analyze which brain segments are involved in ADHD. Methods High-resolution three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 55 ADHD subjects and 55 healthy controls. Multiple brain measures (cortical thickness, etc.) were calculated using a fully automated procedure in the FreeSurfer software package. In total, 340 cortical features were automatically extracted from 68 brain segments with 5 basic cortical features. F-score and SFS methods were adopted to select the optimal features for ADHD classification. Both ELM and SVM were evaluated for classification accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results We achieved ADHD prediction accuracies of 90.18% for ELM using eleven combined features, 84.73% for SVM-Linear and 86.55% for SVM-RBF. Our results show that ELM has better computational efficiency and is more robust as sample size changes than is SVM for ADHD classification. The most pronounced differences between ADHD and healthy subjects were observed in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe and insular. Conclusion Our ELM-based algorithm for ADHD diagnosis performs considerably better than the traditional SVM algorithm. This result suggests that ELM may be used for the clinical diagnosis of ADHD and the investigation of different brain diseases. PMID:24260229

  13. Motor imagery classification by means of source analysis for brain computer interface applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Qin; Lei Ding; Bin He

    2004-01-01

    We report a pilot study of performing classification of motor imagery for brain-computer interface applications, by means of source analysis of scalp-recorded EEGs. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used as a spatio-temporal filter extracting signal components relevant to left or right motor imagery (MI) tasks. Source analysis methods including equivalent dipole analysis and cortical current density imaging were applied to

  14. Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards

    PubMed Central

    Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/) were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing. PMID:25685703

  15. Fast and accurate water content and T2* mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oros-Peusquens, A.-M.; Keil, F.; Langen, K. J.; Herzog, H.; Stoffels, G.; Weiss, C.; Shah, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue - obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time - amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2* values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 > min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use.

  16. Spatial cluster analysis of nanoscopically mapped serotonin receptors for classification of fixed brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sams, Michael; Silye, Rene; Göhring, Janett; Muresan, Leila; Schilcher, Kurt; Jacak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    We present a cluster spatial analysis method using nanoscopic dSTORM images to determine changes in protein cluster distributions within brain tissue. Such methods are suitable to investigate human brain tissue and will help to achieve a deeper understanding of brain disease along with aiding drug development. Human brain tissue samples are usually treated postmortem via standard fixation protocols, which are established in clinical laboratories. Therefore, our localization microscopy-based method was adapted to characterize protein density and protein cluster localization in samples fixed using different protocols followed by common fluorescent immunohistochemistry techniques. The localization microscopy allows nanoscopic mapping of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor groups within a two-dimensional image of a brain tissue slice. These nanoscopically mapped proteins can be confined to clusters by applying the proposed statistical spatial analysis. Selected features of such clusters were subsequently used to characterize and classify the tissue. Samples were obtained from different types of patients, fixed with different preparation methods, and finally stored in a human tissue bank. To verify the proposed method, samples of a cryopreserved healthy brain have been compared with epitope-retrieved and paraffin-fixed tissues. Furthermore, samples of healthy brain tissues were compared with data obtained from patients suffering from mental illnesses (e.g., major depressive disorder). Our work demonstrates the applicability of localization microscopy and image analysis methods for comparison and classification of human brain tissues at a nanoscopic level. Furthermore, the presented workflow marks a unique technological advance in the characterization of protein distributions in brain tissue sections.

  17. Brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell gamma knife: can FDG PET help to differentiate radionecrosis from tumour progression?

    PubMed

    Belohlávek, Otakar; Simonová, Gabriela; Kantorová, Iva; Novotný, Josef; Liscák, Roman

    2003-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell gamma knife promotes acute and chronic local changes in glucose metabolism. We have been able to find very few papers on Medline on the subject of assessment of metastases by 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) after SRS. The aim of this work was to specify the additional value of FDG PET, in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in differentiating SRS-induced radionecrosis from viable brain metastasis in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven metastases in 25 patients were treated by SRS. An average of 33 weeks later, all the patients underwent FDG PET. At the same time (SD=2 weeks) all the patients underwent MRI. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both FDG PET and MRI examinations were calculated with reference to clinical and radiological follow-up or biopsies. The additional value derived from use of FDG PET after MRI was assessed and progression-free survival rates were compared. The difference in progression-free survival rates between the negative and positive subgroups was significant ( P=0.0005) for MRI and even more so ( P<0.00001) for FDG PET. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 75% (6/8), 93.9% (46/49) and 91.2% (52/57) for FDG PET, and 100% (8/8), 65.3% (32/49) and 70.2% (40/57) for MRI. In the subgroup of patients with positive or non-diagnostic MRI, the probability of presence of a viable tumour was only 32% (8/25). This probability increased to 100% (5/5) when subsequent FDG PET was positive and decreased to 11.1% (2/18) when FDG PET was negative. The frequency of a viable neoplasm was significantly different ( P=0.001) in the FDG PET negative and positive subgroups. MRI and FDG PET both have an important predictive value for persistent viable metastases after treatment by SRS. Neither sensitive but non-specific MRI nor specific but insensitive FDG PET is reliable on its own. While FDG PET significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy in the subgroup of patients with positive and non-diagnostic MRI, it provided no additional value in the MRI-negative subgroup. PMID:12483415

  18. Abstract. Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however, molecular classification of

    E-print Network

    Blekas, Konstantinos

    Abstract. Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however, molecular classification of these tumors with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is limited- terization of brain tumors based on highly informative 2D MRS should enable us to type and prognose even

  19. Feature Extraction from Subband Brain Signals and Its Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, Manoj Kumar; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    This paper considers both the non-stationarity as well as independence/uncorrelated criteria along with the asymmetry ratio over the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and proposes a hybrid approach of the signal preprocessing methods before the feature extraction. A filter bank approach of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to exploit the non-stationary characteristics of the EEG signals and it decomposes the raw EEG signals into the subbands of different center frequencies called as rhythm. A post processing of the selected subband by the AMUSE algorithm (a second order statistics based ICA/BSS algorithm) provides the separating matrix for each class of the movement imagery. In the subband domain the orthogonality as well as orthonormality criteria over the whitening matrix and separating matrix do not come respectively. The human brain has an asymmetrical structure. It has been observed that the ratio between the norms of the left and right class separating matrices should be different for better discrimination between these two classes. The alpha/beta band asymmetry ratio between the separating matrices of the left and right classes will provide the condition to select an appropriate multiplier. So we modify the estimated separating matrix by an appropriate multiplier in order to get the required asymmetry and extend the AMUSE algorithm in the subband domain. The desired subband is further subjected to the updated separating matrix to extract subband sub-components from each class. The extracted subband sub-components sources are further subjected to the feature extraction (power spectral density) step followed by the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

  20. The significance of electron spin resonance of the ascorbic acid radical in freeze dried human brain tumours and oedematous or normal periphery.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, H. W.; Tannert, S.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectrum, attributed to the ascorbic acid (ascorbyl) radical and obtained by exposing freeze dried material to air, can not be used as proof for the occurrence of in vivo free radical reactions. Depending on the method of freeze drying, the content of blood or hemolyzed blood is the dominant factor in creating higher than normal ESR signals in brain or related tissue. These findings explain why the signal, though larger in many human brain tumours than in their surroundings, is not indicative of malignancy. No differences are seen between oedematous and normal tissue. The ascorbyl radical is definitely not stable in aqueous solution, which indicates that fresh tissue sections can also not be used to study in vivo radicals by ESR. PMID:3008800

  1. Diabetes and Growth of Tumour Transplants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beryl M A Davies

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable insulin occurred in transplants of a hamster and a mouse adrenal tumour. The hormone was measured by immunoassay. In hamster experiments, the weight of tumours grown in animals made mildly diabetic was five times less than those grown in controls. No insulin nor diabetic effect occurred in transplants of a mouse brain or stomach tumour.

  2. Brain tumor classification using the diffusion tensor image segmentation (D-SEG) technique

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy L.; Byrnes, Tiernan J.; Yang, Guang; Howe, Franklyn A.; Bell, B. Anthony; Barrick, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing demand for noninvasive brain tumor biomarkers to guide surgery and subsequent oncotherapy. We present a novel whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) segmentation (D-SEG) to delineate tumor volumes of interest (VOIs) for subsequent classification of tumor type. D-SEG uses isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of the diffusion tensor to segment regions with similar diffusion characteristics. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 95 patients with low- and high-grade glioma, metastases, and meningioma and from 29 healthy subjects. D-SEG uses k-means clustering of the 2D (p,q) space to generate segments with different isotropic and anisotropic diffusion characteristics. Results Our results are visualized using a novel RGB color scheme incorporating p, q and T2-weighted information within each segment. The volumetric contribution of each segment to gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid spaces was used to generate healthy tissue D-SEG spectra. Tumor VOIs were extracted using a semiautomated flood-filling technique and D-SEG spectra were computed within the VOI. Classification of tumor type using D-SEG spectra was performed using support vector machines. D-SEG was computationally fast and stable and delineated regions of healthy tissue from tumor and edema. D-SEG spectra were consistent for each tumor type, with constituent diffusion characteristics potentially reflecting regional differences in tissue microstructure. Support vector machines classified tumor type with an overall accuracy of 94.7%, providing better classification than previously reported. Conclusions D-SEG presents a user-friendly, semiautomated biomarker that may provide a valuable adjunct in noninvasive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25121771

  3. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with brain tumor: comparison of approaches used in the classification of impairment.

    PubMed

    Dwan, Toni Maree; Ownsworth, Tamara; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G; Shum, David H K

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to classifying neuropsychological impairment after brain tumor vary according to testing level (individual tests, domains, or global index) and source of reference (i.e., norms, controls, and pre-morbid functioning). This study aimed to compare rates of impairment according to different classification approaches. Participants were 44 individuals (57% female) with a primary brain tumor diagnosis (mean age?=?45.6?years) and 44 matched control participants (59% female, mean age?=?44.5?years). All participants completed a test battery that assesses pre-morbid IQ (Wechsler adult reading test), attention/processing speed (digit span, trail making test A), memory (Hopkins verbal learning test-revised, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure-recall), and executive function (trail making test B, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure copy, controlled oral word association test). Results indicated that across the different sources of reference, 86-93% of participants were classified as impaired at a test-specific level, 61-73% were classified as impaired at a domain-specific level, and 32-50% were classified as impaired at a global level. Rates of impairment did not significantly differ according to source of reference (p?>?0.05); however, at the individual participant level, classification based on estimated pre-morbid IQ was often inconsistent with classification based on the norms or controls. Participants with brain tumor performed significantly poorer than matched controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning, including executive function (p?=?0.001) and memory (p??0.05). These results highlight the need to examine individuals' performance across a multi-faceted neuropsychological test battery to avoid over- or under-estimation of impairment. PMID:25815271

  4. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Head, K W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. PMID:1086147

  5. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed. PMID:25041600

  6. Real-time fMRI using brain-state classification.

    PubMed

    LaConte, Stephen M; Peltier, Scott J; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2007-10-01

    We have implemented a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging system based on multivariate classification. This approach is distinctly different from spatially localized real-time implementations, since it does not require prior assumptions about functional localization and individual performance strategies, and has the ability to provide feedback based on intuitive translations of brain state rather than localized fluctuations. Thus this approach provides the capability for a new class of experimental designs in which real-time feedback control of the stimulus is possible-rather than using a fixed paradigm, experiments can adaptively evolve as subjects receive brain-state feedback. In this report, we describe our implementation and characterize its performance capabilities. We observed approximately 80% classification accuracy using whole brain, block-design, motor data. Within both left and right motor task conditions, important differences exist between the initial transient period produced by task switching (changing between rapid left or right index finger button presses) and the subsequent stable period during sustained activity. Further analysis revealed that very high accuracy is achievable during stable task periods, and that the responsiveness of the classifier to changes in task condition can be much faster than signal time-to-peak rates. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of this implementation with respect to behavioral task, suggesting that our results are applicable across a spectrum of cognitive domains. Beyond basic research, this technology can complement electroencephalography-based brain computer interface research, and has potential applications in the areas of biofeedback rehabilitation, lie detection, learning studies, virtual reality-based training, and enhanced conscious awareness. PMID:17133383

  7. Improved CSF classification and lesion detection in MR brain images with multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Yulian; Miron, Shmuel; Achiron, Anat; Greenspan, Hayit

    2007-03-01

    The study deals with the challenging task of automatic segmentation of MR brain images with multiple sclerosis lesions (MSL). Multi-Channel data is used, including "fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery" (fast FLAIR or FF), and statistical modeling tools are developed, in order to improve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification and to detect MSL. Two new concepts are proposed for use within an EM framework. The first concept is the integration of prior knowledge as it relates to tissue behavior in different MRI modalities, with special attention given to the FF modality. The second concept deals with running the algorithm on a subset of the input that is most likely to be noise- and artifact-free data. This enables a more reliable learning of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) parameters for brain tissue statistics. The proposed method focuses on the problematic CSF intensity distribution, which is a key to improved overall segmentation and lesion detection. A level-set based active contour stage is performed for lesion delineation, using gradient and shape properties combined with previously learned region intensity statistics. In the proposed scheme there is no need for preregistration of an atlas, a common characteristic in brain segmentation schemes. Experimental results on real data are presented.

  8. Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Nafe, R; Schlote, W; Schneider, B

    2005-02-01

    Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis). Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system. The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III. Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis. Morphometric parameters characterizing nuclear shape (shape factors, Fourier-amplitudes) showed the most prominent differences between the three groups of cases, followed by topometric parameters (number of neighbours per nucleus, distances between the nuclei). Less pronounced differences between the tumour grades were found for parameters characterizing nuclear size, nuclear texture and the Ki67-proliferation index. In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas. PMID:15634229

  9. In vivo PET evaluation in tumour-bearing rats of 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine as a new potential tracer for molecular imaging of brain and extra-cranial tumours in humans with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersemans, Ken; Bauwens, Matthias; Lahoutte, Tony; Bossuyt, Axel; Mertens, John

    2007-02-01

    The Na +-independent L-type LAT1 amino acid transport system for large and neutral amino acids has been shown to be expressed higher in tumour tissue relative to normal tissue and has been regarded as a key point for the development of new amino acid based tumour tracers for molecular imaging. We developed a new fluorinated phenylalanine analogue, 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine, considering that the spatial volume of FCH 3 is comparable with that of the iodine atom in 2-I- L-phenylalanine, of which we have proven that it is taken up excellently in tumours by the LAT1 system. The substrate molecule for radiolabeling, Boc-2-bromomethyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester, was prepared by radical bromination of Boc-2-methyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester. [ 18F -] for bromine exchange is performed within 3 min in conditions comparable to the [ 18F]FDG synthesis with a radiochemical yield of at least 85%. After deprotection and semi-preparative HPLC purification, the 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine is recovered n.c.a. (57%) with a high purity and 3.7 MBq were injected into R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing rats. Imaging was performed with a human PET camera from 5 to 45 min p.i. The tumour/background and tumour/blood ratios obtained from PET acquisition were at least 2.5. DUR values for the tumours were at least about 5. Furthermore, a small tumour implanted near a kidney could be well visualized completely separated from this kidney. Moreover in all tumours the "active" tumour tissue can clearly be differentiated from less active tumour tissue. This proves that 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine has a great potential as a new tracer for specific tumour diagnosis with PET.

  10. The grey zone between pure (neuro)endocrine and non-(neuro)endocrine tumours: a comment on concepts and classification of mixed exocrine–endocrine neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Volante; Guido Rindi; Mauro Papotti

    2006-01-01

    Terms such as “mixed endocrine–exocrine carcinoma” (MEEC) and “adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation” (ADC-NE)\\u000a identify tumours belonging to the spectrum of neoplasms with divergent exocrine and (neuro)endocrine differentiation. These\\u000a tumours display variable quantitative extent of the two components, potentially ranging from 1 to 99%, and variable structural\\u000a patterns, ranging from single scattered NE cells to a well-defined NE tumour cell

  11. CLASSIFICATION

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Kirby

    2009-09-23

    Students will learn about classification Go into the Carnivorous Plant site and find 5 facts about carnivorous plants and write them in your science journal. Carnivorous Plants Using the animal classification site, click on the animals shown and write information about 2 of them in your journal. animal classification Use the animal diversity web page and write down ...

  12. Comparison of Classification Methods for P300 Brain-Computer Interface on Disabled Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Manyakov, Nikolay V.; Chumerin, Nikolay; Combaz, Adrien; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on tests with a mind typing paradigm based on a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) on a group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, suffering from motor and speech disabilities. We investigate the achieved typing accuracy given the individual patient's disorder, and how it correlates with the type of classifier used. We considered 7 types of classifiers, linear as well as nonlinear ones, and found that, overall, one type of linear classifier yielded a higher classification accuracy. In addition to the selection of the classifier, we also suggest and discuss a number of recommendations to be considered when building a P300-based typing system for disabled subjects. PMID:21941530

  13. Assigning exposure to pesticides and solvents from self?reports collected by a computer assisted personal interview and expert assessment of job codes: the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, S J; Bolton, A; Parslow, R C; van Tongeren, M; Muir, K R; McKinney, P A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To compare assignment of occupational pesticide and solvent exposure using self?reported data collected by a computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) with exposure based on expert assessment of job codes. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a CAPI to collect individual occupational exposure data. Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 1495 participants were interviewed using a CAPI for a case?control study of adult brain tumours and acoustic neuromas. Two types of occupational data were collected: (1) a full history, including job title from which a job code was assigned from the Standard Occupational Classification; and (2) specific details on pesticide and solvent exposure reported by participants. Study members' experiences of using the CAPI were recorded and advantages and disadvantages summarised. Results Of 7192 jobs recorded, the prevalence of self?reported exposure was 1.3% for pesticides and 11.5% for solvents. Comparing this with exposure expertly assessed from job titles showed 53.6% and 45.8% concordance for pesticides and solvents respectively. Advantages of the CAPI include no data entry stage, automatic input validation, and a reduction in interviewer bias. Disadvantages include an adverse effect on study implementation as a consequence of resources required for programming and difficulties encountered with data management prior to analysis. Conclusions Different methods of exposure assessment derive different exposure levels for pesticide and solvent exposure at work. Agreement between self?reported and expert assessment of exposure was greater for pesticides compared to solvents. The advantages of using a CAPI for the collection of complex data outweigh the disadvantages for interviewers and data quality but using such a method requires extra resources at the study outset. PMID:16556747

  14. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Lawrence A; Richardson, Drew C; Richardson, Graham M; Furedy, John J

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the "brain fingerprinting" method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational affiliation. PMID:25565941

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury literature review and proposed changes to classification.

    PubMed

    Krainin, Benjamin M; Forsten, Robert D; Kotwal, Russ S; Lutz, Robert H; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) reportedly occurs in 8-22% of U.S. servicemembers who conduct combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The current definition for mTBI found in the medical literature, to include the Department of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Administration (VA) clinical practice guidelines is limited by the parameters of loss of consciousness, altered consciousness, or post-traumatic amnesia, and does not account for other constellations of potential symptoms. Although mTBI symptoms typically resolve within seven days, some servicemembers experience symptoms that continue for weeks, months, or years following an injury. Mild TBI is one of few disorders in medicine where a benign and misleading diagnostic classification is bestowed on patients at the time of injury, yet still can be associated with lifelong complications. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical literature over the past 20 years and proposes a new classification for TBI that addresses acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases, and includes neurocognitive, somatic, and psychological symptom presentation. PMID:22173595

  16. A toolbox for real-time subject-independent and subject-dependent classification of brain states from fMRI signals

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohit; Gupta, Nalin; Dalboni Da Rocha, Josue L.; Lee, Sangkyun; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2013-01-01

    There is a recent increase in the use of multivariate analysis and pattern classification in prediction and real-time feedback of brain states from functional imaging signals and mapping of spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. Here we present MANAS, a generalized software toolbox for performing online and offline classification of fMRI signals. MANAS has been developed using MATLAB, LIBSVM, and SVMlight packages to achieve a cross-platform environment. MANAS is targeted for neuroscience investigations and brain rehabilitation applications, based on neurofeedback and brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms. MANAS provides two different approaches for real-time classification: subject dependent and subject independent classification. In this article, we present the methodology of real-time subject dependent and subject independent pattern classification of fMRI signals; the MANAS software architecture and subsystems; and finally demonstrate the use of the system with experimental results. PMID:24151454

  17. MRI brain images healthy and pathological tissues classification with the aid of improved particle swarm optimization and neural network.

    PubMed

    Sheejakumari, V; Sankara Gomathi, B

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  18. Inspection time in patients with intracranial tumours before and after neurosurgery 

    E-print Network

    Scotland, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Many patients with brain tumours experience dysfunction in several cognitive domains. Given the limited survival times of the majority of patients with brain tumours, maintenance or improvement of quality ...

  19. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. M. Videtic; Chandana A. Reddy; Samuel T. Chao; Thomas W. Rice; David J. Adelstein; Gene H. Barnett; Tarek M. Mekhail; Michael A. Vogelbaum; John H. Suh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded

  20. Oncocytic tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Tallini

    1998-01-01

    Oncocytic tumours represent a distinctive set of lesions with distinctive granular cytoplasmic eosinophilia of the neoplastic\\u000a cells. These cells are called oncocytes because of the ”swollen” appearance they have as the result of a striking accumulation\\u000a of mitochondria. Although generally uncommon, oncocytic tumours are by no means rare and have been reported, with different\\u000a frequencies, in virtually every organ. A

  1. Multiclass classification of hemodynamic responses for performance improvement of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-06-01

    We improved the performance of a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based brain-computer interface based on relatively short task duration and multiclass classification. A custom-built eight-channel fNIRS system was used over the motor cortex areas in both hemispheres to measure the hemodynamic responses evoked by four different motor tasks (overt execution of arm lifting and knee extension for both sides) instead of finger tapping. The hemodynamic responses were classified using the naive Bayes classifier. Among the mean, max, slope, variance, and median of the signal amplitude and the time lag of the signal, several signal features are chosen to obtain highest classification accuracy. Ten runs of threefold cross-validation were conducted, which yielded classification accuracies of 87.1%±2.4% to 95.5%±2.4%, 77.5%±1.9% to 92.4%±3.2%, and 73.8%±3.5% to 91.5%±1.4% for the binary, ternary, and quaternary classifications, respectively. Eight seconds of task duration for obtaining sufficient quaternary classification accuracy was suggested. The bit transfer rate per minute (BPM) based on the quaternary classification accuracy was investigated. A BPM can be achieved from 2.81 to 5.40 bits/min. PMID:24967916

  2. Defining traumatic brain injury in children and youth using International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define traumatic brain injury among children and youth. This protocol is for a systematic review of the literature to explore the range of International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes that are used to define traumatic brain injury in this population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews will be systematically searched. Grey literature will be searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles will also be searched. Articles will be screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and all full-text articles that meet the predefined inclusion criteria will be included for analysis. The study selection process and reasons for exclusion at the full-text level will be presented using a PRISMA study flow diagram. Information on the data source of included studies, year and location of study, age of study population, range of incidence, and study purpose will be abstracted into a separate table and synthesized for analysis. All International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes will be listed in tables and the codes that are used to define concussion, acquired traumatic brain injury, head injury, or head trauma will be identified. Discussion The identification of the optimal International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. It also allows for comparisons across countries and studies. This protocol is for a review that identifies the range and most common diagnoses used to conduct surveillance for traumatic brain injury in children and youth. This is an important first step in reaching an appropriate definition using International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes and can inform future work on reaching consensus on the codes to define traumatic brain injury for this vulnerable population. PMID:24219843

  3. Validation of the RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification for small-cell lung cancer-only brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)]. E-mail: videtig@ccf.org; Adelstein, David J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mekhail, Tarek M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rice, Thomas W. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) developed a prognostic classification based on a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patient pretreatment characteristics from three completed brain metastases randomized trials. Clinical trials for patients with brain metastases generally exclude small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cases. We hypothesize that the RPA classes are valid in the setting of SCLC brain metastases. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 154 SCLC patients with brain metastases treated between April 1983 and May 2005 was performed. RPA criteria used for class assignment were Karnofsky performance status (KPS), primary tumor status (PT), presence of extracranial metastases (ED), and age. Results: Median survival was 4.9 months, with 4 patients (2.6%) alive at analysis. Median follow-up was 4.7 months (range, 0.3-40.3 months). Median age was 65 (range, 42-85 years). Median KPS was 70 (range, 40-100). Number of patients with controlled PT and no ED was 20 (13%) and with ED, 27 (18%); without controlled PT and ED, 34 (22%) and with ED, 73 (47%). RPA class distribution was: Class I: 8 (5%); Class II: 96 (62%); Class III: 51 (33%). Median survivals (in months) by RPA class were: Class I: 8.6; Class II: 4.2; Class III: 2.3 (p = 0.0023). Conclusions: Survivals for SCLC-only brain metastases replicate the results from the RTOG RPA classification. These classes are therefore valid for brain metastases from SCLC, support the inclusion of SCLC patients in future brain metastases trials, and may also serve as a basis for historical comparisons.

  4. Phyllodes tumours

    PubMed Central

    Parker, S; Harries, S

    2001-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial lesions that account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. With the non-operative management of fibroadenomas widely adopted, the importance of phyllodes tumours today lies in the need to differentiate them from other benign breast lesions. All breast lumps should be triple assessed and the diagnosis of a phyllodes tumour considered in women, particularly over the age of 35 years, who present with a rapidly growing "benign" breast lump. Treatment can be by either wide excision or mastectomy provided histologically clear specimen margins are ensured. Nodal metastases are rare and routine axillary dissection is not recommended. Few reliable clinical and histological prognostic factors have been identified. Local recurrence occurs in approximately 15% of patients and is more common after incomplete excision. It can usually be controlled by further surgery. Repeated local recurrence has been reported without the development of distant metastases or reduced survival. Approximately 20% of patients with malignant phyllodes tumours develop distant metastases. Long term survival with distant metastases is rare. The role of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal manipulation in both the adjuvant and palliative settings remain to be defined.???Keywords: benign breast disease; fibroadenoma; phyllodes tumour PMID:11423590

  5. Automated Classification to Predict the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease Using Whole-Brain Volumetry and DTI

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study proposes an automated diagnostic method to classify patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of degenerative etiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers. Methods Twenty-seven patients with subjective memory impairment (SMI), 18 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 27 patients with AD participated. MRI protocols included three dimensional brain structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the cortical thickness, subcortical volume and white matter integrity. Recursive feature elimination based on support vector machine (SVM) was conducted to determine the most relevant features for classifying abnormal regions and imaging parameters, and then a factor analysis for the top-ranked factors was performed. Subjects were classified using nonlinear SVM. Results Medial temporal regions in AD patients were dominantly detected with cortical thinning and volume atrophy compared with SMI and MCI patients. Damage to white matter integrity was also accredited with decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity (MD) across the three groups. The microscopic damage in the subcortical gray matter was reflected in increased MD. Classification accuracy between pairs of groups (SMI vs. MCI, MCI vs. AD, SMI vs. AD) and among all three groups were 84.4% (±13.8), 86.9% (±10.5), 96.3% (±4.6), and 70.5% (±11.5), respectively. Conclusion This proposed method may be a potential tool to diagnose AD pathology with the current clinical criteria. PMID:25670951

  6. Angiogenesis factors in gliomas: a new key to tumour therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Mentlein; Janka Held-Feindt

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is required for the growth and expansion of tumours. Gliomas, the most common brain tumours, are particularly highly vascularized and, therefore, serve as a model to elucidate the process of tumour angiogenesis and to investigate new anti-angiogenic therapies. This review describes the role of angiogenic factors in glioma angiogenesis and new strategies to

  7. The assessment of malignancy in endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bordi; T. D'Adda; S. Pizzi; P. Crafa; G. Rindi

    2002-01-01

    The recently released WHO classification of endocrine tumours provides a useful framework for assessment of malignancy of gastrointestinal endocrine neoplasms. This classification, based on a uniform scheme irrespective of the gastrointestinal region of tumour origin, comprises three main categories: (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumours that are further subdivided into those with benign and those with uncertain behaviour; (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas

  8. CLASSIFICATION

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ballew

    2010-10-17

    Project Overview: Classification is grouping similar objects together. When you go into a grocery store, you see fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen food, cereal, and pet suplies in different aisles. Imagine how difficult life would be if you went into a store, and the aisles were not labeled to tell you where to find the items! You don't have to be a scientist to use classification! You use classification when you group your IPOD music into different genres and when you divide your dark colored clothing from light colors to do laundry. You might even use it to sort Halloween candy into 4 groups: chocolate candy, hard candy, chewy candy, and gum. The science of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on evolutionary relationships and describes and names organisms with a two-part name: genus and species. Scientists use taxonomy to identify unknown organisms by using books called field guides or by using taxonomic keys (also called dichomotous keys). Project Objective: As a class,you will be previewing and answering some questions about some classification resources to learn how to use a dichotomous key, how to key a specimen, and to help you write your own dichotomous key for school items. Project: Get a sheet of notebook paper and pencil and refer to the websites to find the answers to the questions. One way to classify objects is to create a "tree" to group similar objects together.Open hierarchical classfication of objects to the second page and find the diagram of common household objects. See how all the ...

  9. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Modlin, Irvin M; Oberg, Kjell; Chung, Daniel C; Jensen, Robert T; de Herder, Wouter W; Thakker, Rajesh V; Caplin, Martyn; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Kaltsas, Greg A; Krenning, Eric P; Moss, Steven F; Nilsson, Ola; Rindi, Guido; Salazar, Ramon; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Sundin, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that cause distinct clinical syndromes, including carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Investigation and management should be highly individualised for a patient, taking into consideration the likely natural history of the tumour and general health of the patient. Management strategies include surgery for cure (which is achieved rarely) or for cytoreduction, radiological intervention (by chemoembolisation and radiofrequency ablation), chemotherapy, and somatostatin analogues to control symptoms that result from release of peptides and neuroamines. New biological agents and somatostatin-tagged radionuclides are under investigation. The complexity, heterogeneity, and rarity of GEP NETs have contributed to a paucity of relevant randomised trials and little or no survival increase over the past 30 years. To improve outcome from GEP NETs, a better understanding of their biology is needed, with emphasis on molecular genetics and disease modeling. More-reliable serum markers, better tumour localisation and identification of small lesions, and histological grading systems and classifications with prognostic application are needed. Comparison between treatments is currently very difficult. Progress is unlikely to occur without development of centers of excellence, with dedicated combined clinical teams to coordinate multicentre studies, maintain clinical and tissue databases, and refine molecularly targeted therapeutics. PMID:18177818

  10. Molecular classification of brain tumor biopsies using solid-state magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and robust classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Blekas, Konstantinos D.; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Astrakas, Loukas; Black, Peter M.; Tzika, A. Aria

    2008-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however, molecular classification of these tumors with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is limited because of the small number of metabolites detected. In vitro MRS provides highly informative biomarker profiles at higher fields, but also consumes the sample so that it is unavailable for subsequent analysis. In contrast, ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS conserves the sample but requires large samples and can pose technical challenges for producing accurate data, depending on the sample testing temperature. We developed a novel approach that combines a two-dimensional (2D), solid-state, HRMAS proton (1H) NMR method, TOBSY (total through-bond spectroscopy), which maximizes the advantages of HRMAS and a robust classification strategy. We used 2 mg of tissue at -8°C from each of 55 brain biopsies, and reliably detected 16 different molecules. We compared two classification strategies, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and a feed-forward neural network using the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm. We used the minimum redundancy/maximum relevance (MRMR) method as a powerful feature-selection scheme along with the SVM classifier. We also used the minimum redundancy/maximum relevance (MRMR) method as a powerful feature-selection scheme along with the SVM classifier. PMID:18949365

  11. Tumour Biology of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Grötzinger

    2004-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic tract (GEP NETs) represent a rare and heterogeneous group of tumours. Based on their ontogenetic origin, GEP NETs are classified into foregut, midgut and hindgut tumours. Although they have many features in common, their molecular backgrounds are obviously different. Elucidation of the key factors determining tumour biology has been hampered by the low incidence and

  12. Classification of Parkinsonian syndromes from FDG-PET brain data using decision trees with SSM/PCA features.

    PubMed

    Mudali, D; Teune, L K; Renken, R J; Leenders, K L; Roerdink, J B T M

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this study, the objective is to classify FDG-PET brain scans of subjects with Parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy) compared to healthy controls. The scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) method was applied to FDG-PET brain image data to obtain covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. The latter were used as features for supervised classification by the C4.5 decision tree method. Leave-one-out cross validation was applied to determine classifier performance. We carried out a comparison with other types of classifiers. The big advantage of decision tree classification is that the results are easy to understand by humans. A visual representation of decision trees strongly supports the interpretation process, which is very important in the context of medical diagnosis. Further improvements are suggested based on enlarging the number of the training data, enhancing the decision tree method by bagging, and adding additional features based on (f)MRI data. PMID:25918550

  13. FAST TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CT SLICE INDEXING VIA ANATOMICAL FEATURE CLASSIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    axial brain CT scan consists of multiple slices with different heights along the brain axial direction CT scan is divided into 6 height levels along the axial direction so that slices in each level share) diagnosis. One axial brain CT scan consists of multiple 2D slices of different heights along the axial

  14. Which method of posttraumatic stress disorder classification best predicts psychosocial function in children with traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed

    Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. PMID:20541906

  15. Classification accuracy of the test of memory malingering in traumatic brain injury: results of a known-groups analysis.

    PubMed

    Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Doane, Bridget M

    2006-10-01

    This study used a known-groups design to determine the classification accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996, 1997) in detecting cognitive malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-one of 161 TBI patients met Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. Twenty-two no-incentive memory disorder patients were also included. The original cutoffs (<45) for Trial 2 and Retention demonstrated excellent specificity (less than a 5% false positive error rate) and impressive sensitivity (greater than 45%). However, these cutoffs are actually conservative in the context of mild TBI. Over 90% of the non-MND mild TBI sample scored 48 or higher on the Retention Trial and none scored less than 46 while 60% of the MND patients claiming mild TBI were detected at those levels. Trial 1 also demonstrated excellent classification accuracy. Application of these data to clinical practice is discussed. PMID:16840243

  16. Prediction of central nervous system embryonal tumour outcome based on gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Pomeroy; Pablo Tamayo; Michelle Gaasenbeek; Lisa M. Sturla; Michael Angelo; Margaret E. McLaughlin; John Y. H. Kim; Liliana C. Goumnerova; Peter M. Black; Ching Lau; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; James M. Olson; Tom Curran; Cynthia Wetmore; Jaclyn A. Biegel; Tomaso Poggio; Shayan Mukherjee; Ryan Rifkin; Andrea Califano; Gustavo Stolovitzky; David N. Louis; Jill P. Mesirov; Eric S. Lander; Todd R. Golub

    2002-01-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours about which little is known biologically, and whose diagnosis, on the basis of morphologic appearance alone, is controversial. Medulloblastomas, for example, are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, but their pathogenesis is unknown, their relationship to other embryonal CNS tumours is debated, and patients'

  17. O -(2-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)- l -tyrosine and l -[methyl- 11 C]methionine uptake in brain tumours: initial results of a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang A. Weber; Hans-Jürgen Wester; Anca L. Grosu; Michael Herz; Brigitte Dzewas; Horst-Jürgen Feldmann; Michael Molls; Gerhard Stöcklin; Markus Schwaiger

    2000-01-01

    .   \\u000a O-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) is a recently described amino acid analogue that has shown high accumulation in animal tumours. The aim of\\u000a this study was to compare the uptake of FET with that of l-[methyl-11C]methionine (MET) in patients with suspected primary or recurrent intracerebral tumours. Sixteen consecutive patients with\\u000a intracerebral lesions were studied on the same day by positron emission

  18. Supervised classification of brain tissues through local multi-scale texture analysis by coupling DIR and FLAIR MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, Enea; Veronese, Elisa; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    The automatic segmentation of brain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) is usually performed on T1-weighted images, due to their high spatial resolution. T1w sequence, however, has some major downsides when brain lesions are present: the altered appearance of diseased tissues causes errors in tissues classification. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we employed two different MR sequences: fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and double inversion recovery (DIR). The former highlights both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), the latter highlights GM alone. We propose here a supervised classification scheme that does not require any anatomical a priori information to identify the 3 classes, "GM", "WM", and "background". Features are extracted by means of a local multi-scale texture analysis, computed for each pixel of the DIR and FLAIR sequences. The 9 textures considered are average, standard deviation, kurtosis, entropy, contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, and skewness, evaluated on a neighborhood of 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels. Hence, the total number of features associated to a pixel is 56 (9 textures x3 scales x2 sequences +2 original pixel values). The classifier employed is a Support Vector Machine with Radial Basis Function as kernel. From each of the 4 brain volumes evaluated, a DIR and a FLAIR slice have been selected and manually segmented by 2 expert neurologists, providing 1st and 2nd human reference observations which agree with an average accuracy of 99.03%. SVM performances have been assessed with a 4-fold cross-validation, yielding an average classification accuracy of 98.79%.

  19. Classification images reveal the information sensitivity of brain voxels in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fraser W; Muckli, Lars; Brennan, David; Pernet, Cyril; Smith, Marie L; Belin, Pascal; Gosselin, Frederic; Hadley, Donald M; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Schyns, Philippe G

    2008-05-01

    Reverse correlation methods have been widely used in neuroscience for many years and have recently been applied to study the sensitivity of human brain signals (EEG, MEG) to complex visual stimuli. Here we employ one such method, Bubbles (Gosselin, F., Schyns, P.G., 2001. Bubbles: A technique to reveal the use of information in recognition tasks. Vis. Res. 41, 2261-2271), in conjunction with fMRI in the context of a 3AFC facial expression categorization task. We highlight the regions of the brain showing significant sensitivity with respect to the critical visual information required to perform the categorization judgments. Moreover, we reveal the actual subset of visual information which modulates BOLD sensitivity within each such brain region. Finally, we show the potential which lies within analyzing brain function in terms of the information states of different brain regions. Thus, we can now analyse human brain function in terms of the specific visual information different brain regions process. PMID:18342542

  20. Tumours of the skin.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E; Frese, K

    1974-01-01

    Tumours occur more frequently in the skin than in any other part of the body. Epithelial tumours are described under the following headings: basal cell tumour, squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, sebaceous gland tumour, tumour of hepatoid glands, sweat gland tumour, mixed tumour of apocrine sweat glands, carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands, tumour of hair follicle, and intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma. Tumours of the melanogenic system are divided into benign melanoma and malignant melanoma, the latter being subdivided into the following types: epithelioid, spindle cell, epithelioid and spindle cell, dendritic, and whorled. PMID:4547652

  1. Adaptive, Nonparametric Markov Modeling for Unsupervised, MRI Brain-Tissue Classification

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    classification. It automatically tunes its important internal parameters based on the information content with image neighborhoods to produce an optimal classification. It automatically tunes its important internalIA) 22 January 2006 Preprint: Under review at Medical Image Analysis (MedIA) Journal, 2006 #12

  2. Feature and model selection with discriminatory visualization for diagnostic classification of brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Félix Fernando González-Navarro; Lluís A. Belanche-Muñoz; Enrique Romero; Alfredo Vellido; Margarida Julià-Sapé; Carles Arús

    2010-01-01

    Machine Learning (ML) and related methods have of late made significant contributions to solving multidisciplinary problems in the field of oncology diagnosis. Human brain tumor diagnosis, in particular, often relies on the use of non-invasive techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS). In this paper, MRS data of human brain tumors are analyzed in detail.The high dimensionality

  3. UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF WHOLE BRAIN fMRI DATA WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is predicted from his brain activity. KEY WORDS Machine Learning methods; Kohonen Self Organizing Maps; Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis; fMRI data analysis; Brain-reading 1. Introduction The key question in cognitive. Statistical analysis methods are then applied to identify voxels significantly more activated by a particular

  4. Outcome Classification of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using MRI Brain Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natacha Akshoomoff; Catherine Lord; Alan J. Lincoln; Rachel Y. Courchesne; Ruth A. Carper; Jeanne Townsend; Eric Courchesne

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome.

  5. Partial volume effect modeling for segmentation and tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tohka, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images are facilitated by the development of automated segmentation algorithms. A single image voxel may contain of several types of tissues due to the finite spatial resolution of the imaging device. This phenomenon, termed partial volume effect (PVE), complicates the segmentation process, and, due to the complexity of human brain anatomy, the PVE is an important factor for accurate brain structure quantification. Partial volume estimation refers to a generalized segmentation task where the amount of each tissue type within each voxel is solved. This review aims to provide a systematic, tutorial-like overview and categorization of methods for partial volume estimation in brain MRI. The review concentrates on the statistically based approaches for partial volume estimation and also explains differences to other, similar image segmentation approaches. PMID:25431640

  6. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: Proposals for the Revision of the TNM Stage Groupings in the Forthcoming (Seventh) Edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Goldstraw; John Crowley; Kari Chansky; Dorothy J. Giroux; Patti A. Groome; Ramon Rami-Porta; Pieter E. Postmus; Valerie Rusch; Leslie Sobin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors is due to be published early in 2009. In prepa- ration for this, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer established its Lung Cancer Staging Project in 1998. The recommendations of this committee for changes to the T, N, and M descriptors have been published. This report

  7. Classification of traumatic brain injury severity using informed data reduction in a series of binary classifier algorithms.

    PubMed

    Prichep, Leslie S; Jacquin, Arnaud; Filipenko, Julie; Dastidar, Samanwoy Ghosh; Zabele, Stephen; Vodencarevi?, Asmir; Rothman, Neil S

    2012-11-01

    Assessment of medical disorders is often aided by objective diagnostic tests which can lead to early intervention and appropriate treatment. In the case of brain dysfunction caused by head injury, there is an urgent need for quantitative evaluation methods to aid in acute triage of those subjects who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). Current clinical tools to detect mild TBI (mTBI/concussion) are limited to subjective reports of symptoms and short neurocognitive batteries, offering little objective evidence for clinical decisions; or computed tomography (CT) scans, with radiation-risk, that are most often negative in mTBI. This paper describes a novel methodology for the development of algorithms to provide multi-class classification in a substantial population of brain injured subjects, across a broad age range and representative subpopulations. The method is based on age-regressed quantitative features (linear and nonlinear) extracted from brain electrical activity recorded from a limited montage of scalp electrodes. These features are used as input to a unique "informed data reduction" method, maximizing confidence of prospective validation and minimizing over-fitting. A training set for supervised learning was used, including: "normal control," "concussed," and "structural injury/CT positive (CT+)." The classifier function separating CT+ from the other groups demonstrated a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 78%; the classifier separating "normal controls" from the other groups demonstrated a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 74%, suggesting high utility of such classifiers in acute clinical settings. The use of a sequence of classifiers where the desired risk can be stratified further supports clinical utility. PMID:22855231

  8. Application and comparison of classification algorithms for recognition of Alzheimer's disease in electrical brain activity (EEG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Lehmann; Thomas Koenig; Vesna Jelic; Leslie Prichep; Roy E. John; Lars-Olof Wahlund; Yadolah Dodge; Thomas Dierks

    2007-01-01

    The early detection of subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for effective appliance of treatment strategies. Here we explored the ability of a multitude of linear and non-linear classification algorithms to discriminate between the electroencephalograms (EEGs) of patients with varying degree of AD and their age-matched control subjects. Absolute and relative spectral power, distribution of spectral power, and

  9. Classification effects of real and imaginary movement selective attention tasks on a P300-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaris, Mathew; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on various electroencephalography methodologies that allow the user to convey their desired control to the machine. Common approaches include the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the P300 and modulation of the beta and mu rhythms. All of these methods have their benefits and drawbacks. In this paper, three different selective attention tasks were tested in conjunction with a P300-based protocol (i.e. the standard counting of target stimuli as well as the conduction of real and imaginary movements in sync with the target stimuli). The three tasks were performed by a total of 10 participants, with the majority (7 out of 10) of the participants having never before participated in imaginary movement BCI experiments. Channels and methods used were optimized for the P300 ERP and no sensory-motor rhythms were explicitly used. The classifier used was a simple Fisher's linear discriminant. Results were encouraging, showing that on average the imaginary movement achieved a P300 versus No-P300 classification accuracy of 84.53%. In comparison, mental counting, the standard selective attention task used in previous studies, achieved 78.9% and real movement 90.3%. Furthermore, multiple trial classification results were recorded and compared, with real movement reaching 99.5% accuracy after four trials (12.8 s), imaginary movement reaching 99.5% accuracy after five trials (16 s) and counting reaching 98.2% accuracy after ten trials (32 s).

  10. Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, current aspects and new perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marialuisa Appetecchia; Roberto Baldelli

    2010-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs) are rare tumours that present many clinical features. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that cause distinct clinical syndromes, including carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. In 2000 the WHO developed a new classification which gives a better description of the characteristics and biological behaviour of the tumour. Surgical

  11. Brain tissue classification based on DTI using an improved fuzzy C-means algorithm with spatial constraints.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ying; He, Lianghua; von Deneen, Karen M; Lu, Yue

    2013-11-01

    We present an effective method for brain tissue classification based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The method accounts for two main DTI segmentation obstacles: random noise and magnetic field inhomogeneities. In the proposed method, DTI parametric maps were used to resolve intensity inhomogeneities of brain tissue segmentation because they could provide complementary information for tissues and define accurate tissue maps. An improved fuzzy c-means with spatial constraints proposal was used to enhance the noise and artifact robustness of DTI segmentation. Fuzzy c-means clustering with spatial constraints (FCM_S) could effectively segment images corrupted by noise, outliers, and other imaging artifacts. Its effectiveness contributes not only to the introduction of fuzziness for belongingness of each pixel but also to the exploitation of spatial contextual information. We proposed an improved FCM_S applied on DTI parametric maps, which explores the mean and covariance of the feature spatial information for automated segmentation of DTI. The experiments on synthetic images and real-world datasets showed that our proposed algorithms, especially with new spatial constraints, were more effective. PMID:23891435

  12. Automatic segmentation of brain MR images using an adaptive balloon snake model with fuzzy classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Ting; Sheu, Tony W H; Chang, Herng-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Skull-stripping in magnetic resonance (MR) images is one of the most important preprocessing steps in medical image analysis. We propose a hybrid skull-stripping algorithm based on an adaptive balloon snake (ABS) model. The proposed framework consists of two phases: first, the fuzzy possibilistic c-means (FPCM) is used for pixel clustering, which provides a labeled image associated with a clean and clear brain boundary. At the second stage, a contour is initialized outside the brain surface based on the FPCM result and evolves under the guidance of an adaptive balloon snake model. The model is designed to drive the contour in the inward normal direction to capture the brain boundary. The entire volume is segmented from the center slice toward both ends slice by slice. Our ABS algorithm was applied to numerous brain MR image data sets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. Four similarity metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Experimental results indicated that our method produced accurate segmentation results with higher conformity scores. The effectiveness of the ABS algorithm makes it a promising and potential tool in a wide variety of skull-stripping applications and studies. PMID:23744446

  13. Tumour biology: Senescence in premalignant tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, Manuel; Gil, Jesús; Efeyan, Alejo; Guerra, Carmen; Schuhmacher, Alberto J.; Barradas, Marta; Benguría, Alberto; Zaballos, Angel; Flores, Juana M.; Barbacid, Mariano; Beach, David; Serrano, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence is a cellular response that may be crucial for protection against cancer development, but its investigation has so far been restricted to cultured cells that have been manipulated to overexpress an oncogene. Here we analyse tumours initiated by an endogenous oncogene, ras, and show that senescent cells exist in premalignant tumours but not in malignant ones. Senescence is therefore a defining feature of premalignant tumours that could prove valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

  14. Tumours of the lung.

    PubMed

    Stünzi, H; Head, K W; Nielsen, S W

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. PMID:4371738

  15. Gli and hedgehog in cancer: tumours, embryos and stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Sánchez; Nadia Dahmane; Ariel Ruiz i Altaba

    2002-01-01

    Do tumours arise from stem cells, or are they derived from more differentiated cells that, for some reason, begin to recapitulate developmental programmes? Inappropriate activation of the Sonic hedgehog–Gli signalling pathway occurs in several types of tumour, including those of the brain and the skin. Studies in these and other systems suggest that inappropriate function of the Gli transcription factors

  16. Characterization of a Raman spectroscopy probe system for intraoperative brain tissue classification

    PubMed Central

    Desroches, Joannie; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Lemieux-Leduc, Cédric; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Urmey, Kirk; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Marple, Eric; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization study is presented of a Raman spectroscopy system designed to maximize the volume of resected cancer tissue in glioma surgery based on in vivo molecular tissue characterization. It consists of a hand-held probe system measuring spectrally resolved inelastically scattered light interacting with tissue, designed and optimized for in vivo measurements. Factors such as linearity of the signal with integration time and laser power, and their impact on signal to noise ratio, are studied leading to optimal data acquisition parameters. The impact of ambient light sources in the operating room is assessed and recommendations made for optimal operating conditions. In vivo Raman spectra of normal brain, cancer and necrotic tissue were measured in 10 patients, demonstrating that real-time inelastic scattering measurements can distinguish necrosis from vital tissue (including tumor and normal brain tissue) with an accuracy of 87%, a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 89%.

  17. Multi-parametric Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Using Automatic Analysis of Quantitative MRI Scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin S. Aribisala; Christopher J. A. Cowie; Jiabao He; Joshua Wood; A. David Mendelow; Patrick Mitchell; Andrew M. Blamire

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is ranked as the fourth highest cause of death in the developed world. The majority of patients\\u000a sustain mild TBI, and a significant number suffer persistent neuropsychological problems. Conventional neuroimaging methods\\u000a (CT, MRI) do not reveal abnormalities consistent with the cognitive symptoms. Imaging methods offering prognostic information\\u000a in acutely injured patients are therefore required. Here we

  18. Classification of self-driven mental tasks from whole-brain activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Norberto Eiji; Ando, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    During wakefulness, a constant and continuous stream of complex stimuli and self-driven thoughts permeate the human mind. Here, eleven participants were asked to count down numbers and remember negative or positive autobiographical episodes of their personal lives, for 32 seconds at a time, during which they could freely engage in the execution of those tasks. We then examined the possibility of determining from a single whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scan which one of the two mental tasks each participant was performing at a given point in time. Linear support-vector machines were used to build within-participant classifiers and across-participants classifiers. The within-participant classifiers could correctly discriminate scans with an average accuracy as high as 82%, when using data from all individual voxels in the brain. These results demonstrate that it is possible to accurately classify self-driven mental tasks from whole-brain activity patterns recorded in a time interval as short as 2 seconds. PMID:24824899

  19. Classification of Self-Driven Mental Tasks from Whole-Brain Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, Norberto Eiji; Ando, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    During wakefulness, a constant and continuous stream of complex stimuli and self-driven thoughts permeate the human mind. Here, eleven participants were asked to count down numbers and remember negative or positive autobiographical episodes of their personal lives, for 32 seconds at a time, during which they could freely engage in the execution of those tasks. We then examined the possibility of determining from a single whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scan which one of the two mental tasks each participant was performing at a given point in time. Linear support-vector machines were used to build within-participant classifiers and across-participants classifiers. The within-participant classifiers could correctly discriminate scans with an average accuracy as high as 82%, when using data from all individual voxels in the brain. These results demonstrate that it is possible to accurately classify self-driven mental tasks from whole-brain activity patterns recorded in a time interval as short as 2 seconds. PMID:24824899

  20. Exceeding chance level by chance: The caveat of theoretical chance levels in brain signal classification and statistical assessment of decoding accuracy.

    PubMed

    Combrisson, Etienne; Jerbi, Karim

    2015-07-30

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly used in neuroscience to classify brain signals. Decoding performance is reflected by how much the classification results depart from the rate achieved by purely random classification. In a 2-class or 4-class classification problem, the chance levels are thus 50% or 25% respectively. However, such thresholds hold for an infinite number of data samples but not for small data sets. While this limitation is widely recognized in the machine learning field, it is unfortunately sometimes still overlooked or ignored in the emerging field of brain signal classification. Incidentally, this field is often faced with the difficulty of low sample size. In this study we demonstrate how applying signal classification to Gaussian random signals can yield decoding accuracies of up to 70% or higher in two-class decoding with small sample sets. Most importantly, we provide a thorough quantification of the severity and the parameters affecting this limitation using simulations in which we manipulate sample size, class number, cross-validation parameters (k-fold, leave-one-out and repetition number) and classifier type (Linear-Discriminant Analysis, Naïve Bayesian and Support Vector Machine). In addition to raising a red flag of caution, we illustrate the use of analytical and empirical solutions (binomial formula and permutation tests) that tackle the problem by providing statistical significance levels (p-values) for the decoding accuracy, taking sample size into account. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of our simulations and statistical tests on real brain data by assessing noise-level classifications in Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) baseline recordings. PMID:25596422

  1. Molecular mechanisms of brain tumor edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Papadopoulos; S. Saadoun; D. K. Binder; G. T. Manley; S. Krishna; A. S. Verkman

    2004-01-01

    Despite their diverse histological types, most brain tumours cause brain oedema, which is a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Brain tumour oedema occurs when plasma-like fluid enters the brain extracellular space through impaired capillary endothelial tight junctions in tumours. Under-expression of the tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-5 are key molecular abnormalities responsible for the increased permeability

  2. Brain Tumor Classification Using AFM in Combination with Data Mining Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huml, Marlene; Silye, René; Zauner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Although classification of astrocytic tumors is standardized by the WHO grading system, which is mainly based on microscopy-derived, histomorphological features, there is great interobserver variability. The main causes are thought to be the complexity of morphological details varying from tumor to tumor and from patient to patient, variations in the technical histopathological procedures like staining protocols, and finally the individual experience of the diagnosing pathologist. Thus, to raise astrocytoma grading to a more objective standard, this paper proposes a methodology based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) derived images made from histopathological samples in combination with data mining techniques. By comparing AFM images with corresponding light microscopy images of the same area, the progressive formation of cavities due to cell necrosis was identified as a typical morphological marker for a computer-assisted analysis. Using genetic programming as a tool for feature analysis, a best model was created that achieved 94.74% classification accuracy in distinguishing grade II tumors from grade IV ones. While utilizing modern image analysis techniques, AFM may become an important tool in astrocytic tumor diagnosis. By this way patients suffering from grade II tumors are identified unambiguously, having a less risk for malignant transformation. They would benefit from early adjuvant therapies. PMID:24062997

  3. Evidence for label-retaining tumour-initiating cells in human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Harding, Angus; Cato, Kathleen; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Rahman, Maryam; Azari, Hassan; Olson, Sarah; Gabrielli, Brian; Osborne, Geoffrey; Vescovi, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Individual tumour cells display diverse functional behaviours in terms of proliferation rate, cell–cell interactions, metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. Moreover, sequencing studies have demonstrated surprising levels of genetic diversity between individual patient tumours of the same type. Tumour heterogeneity presents a significant therapeutic challenge as diverse cell types within a tumour can respond differently to therapies, and inter-patient heterogeneity may prevent the development of general treatments for cancer. One strategy that may help overcome tumour heterogeneity is the identification of tumour sub-populations that drive specific disease pathologies for the development of therapies targeting these clinically relevant sub-populations. Here, we have identified a dye-retaining brain tumour population that displays all the hallmarks of a tumour-initiating sub-population. Using a limiting dilution transplantation assay in immunocompromised mice, label-retaining brain tumour cells display elevated tumour-initiation properties relative to the bulk population. Importantly, tumours generated from these label-retaining cells exhibit all the pathological features of the primary disease. Together, these findings confirm dye-retaining brain tumour cells exhibit tumour-initiation ability and are therefore viable targets for the development of therapeutics targeting this sub-population. PMID:21515906

  4. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M., E-mail: videtig@ccf.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Samuel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Brain Tumor and NeuroOncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rice, Thomas W. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Adelstein, David J. [Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Brain Tumor and NeuroOncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mekhail, Tarek M. [Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Brain Tumor and NeuroOncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Brain Tumor and NeuroOncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  5. Paediatric intra-axial posterior fossa tumours: pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Rasalkar, Darshana D; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Cheng, Frankie W T; Li, C K

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric brain tumours commonly arise in the posterior cranial fossa. Early diagnosis is often challenging due to initial non-specific clinical symptoms, especially in very young children. The typical MR features of tumours in this region including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, juvenile pilocytic subtype of cerebellar astrocytoma, brain stem glioma and atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumour are illustrated. Diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient values combined with signal characteristics on conventional MR sequences can usually differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumours. Prompt diagnosis is crucial as total surgical resection, which is only possible in localised disease, improves prognosis. A practical MR flow chart is introduced for differentiating different types of posterior cranial fossa tumours, which might be useful in clinical practice. PMID:22977284

  6. Molecular and metabolic pattern classification for detection of brain glioma progression

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farzin; Boada, Fernando E.; Lieberman, Frank S.; Davis, Denise K.; Mountz, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to differentiate between brain tumor progression and radiation therapy induced necrosis is critical for appropriate patient management. In order to improve the differential diagnosis, we combined fluorine-18 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) and histological data to develop a multi-parametric machine-learning model. Methods: We enrolled twelve post-therapy patients with grade 2 and 3 gliomas that were suspicious of tumor progression. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET and 1 H MRS. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the tumors and reference regions were obtained. Multiple 2D maps of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) of the tumors were generated. A support vector machine (SVM) learning model was established to take imaging biomarkers and histological data as input vectors. A combination of clinical follow-up and multiple sequential MRI studies served as the basis for assessing the clinical outcome. All vector combinations were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and cross validation. The optimal cutoff value of individual parameters was calculated using Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots. Results: The SVM and ROC analyses both demonstrated that SUVmax of the lesion was the most significant single diagnostic parameter (75% accuracy) followed by Cho concentration (67% accuracy). SVM analysis of all paired parameters showed SUVmax and Cho concentration in combination could achieve 83% accuracy. SUVmax of the lesion paired with SUVmax of the white matter as well as the tumor Cho paired with the tumor Cr both showed 83% accuracy. These were the most significant paired diagnostic parameters of either modality. Combining all four parameters did not improve the results. However, addition of two more parameters, Cho and Cr of brain parenchyma contralateral to the tumor, increased the accuracy to 92%. Conclusion: This study suggests that SVM models may improve detection of glioma progression more accurately than single parametric imaging methods. Research support: National Cancer Institute, Cancer Center Support Grant Supplement Award, Imaging Response Assessment Teams. PMID:24321226

  7. New frontiers for astrocytic tumours.

    PubMed

    Nano, Rosanna; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio; Paolini, Alessandro; Pasi, Francesca; Corbella, Franco; DI Liberto, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumour, remains an unsolved clinical problem. A great deal of work has been done in an effort to understand the biology and genetics of glioblastoma multiforme, but clinically effective treatments remain elusive. It is well known that malignant gliomas develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In this review we evaluated the literature data regarding therapeutic progress for the treatment of astrocytic tumours, focusing our attention on new frontiers for glioblastoma. The research studies performed in in vitro and in vivo models show that the application of hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is safe and could be a promising tool in the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Our efforts are focused towards new fields of research, for example nanomedicine and the study of the uptake and cytotoxic effects of magnetic nanoparticles. The improvement of the quality of life of patients, by increasing their survival rate is the best result to be pursued, since these tumours are considered as ineradicable. PMID:22753735

  8. The tumour suppressor L(3)mbt inhibits neuroepithelial proliferation and acts on insulator elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance Richter; Katarzyna Oktaba; Jonas Steinmann; Jürg Müller; Juergen A. Knoblich

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila, defects in asymmetric cell division often result in the formation of stem-cell-derived tumours. Here, we show that very similar terminal brain tumour phenotypes arise through a fundamentally different mechanism. We demonstrate that brain tumours in l(3)mbt mutants originate from overproliferation of neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobes caused by derepression of target genes in the Salvador–Warts–Hippo (SWH) pathway.

  9. Diffusion MRI: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the normal brain and a classification of brain disorders based on ADC values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Sener

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging, dependent on motion of water molecules, provides information regarding tissue integrity. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the normal brain parenchyma, and those in a variety of lesions were studied by echo-planar diffusion MRI in 310 cases. Brain disorders were classified based on their ADC values, taking the ADC values of the normal brain white matter as the

  10. Classification of cDNA array genes that have a highly significant discriminative power due to their unique distribution in four brain regions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong; Tong, Weida; Shi, Leming; Jakab, Robert L; Bowyer, John F

    2004-10-01

    Novel statistical methods were used to distinguish functionally distinct brain regions using their cDNA array gene expression profiles, and it was found that one of four specific factors is often associated with the most regionally discriminative genes. The gene expression profiles for the substantia nigra (SN), striatum (STR), parietal cortex (PC), and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PLCo) brain regions were determined from each brain region. An F-test identified 339 genes of the 1185 array genes as having a P < or = 0.01 and applied a gene ranking and selection method based on Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) to obtain 59 of the most discriminative genes. Their discriminative power was validated in three steps. The most convincing step showed their ability to correctly predict the brain regional classifications for 18 "test" gene expression sets obtained from the four regions. A two-way Hierarchical Cluster Analysis organized the 59 genes in six clusters according to their expression differences in the brain regions. Expression patterns in the SN and STR regions greatly differed from each other and the PC and PLCo. The closer similarity in the gene expression patterns of the PC and PLCo was probably due to their functional similarity. The important factors in determining differences in the regional gene expression profiles in six clusters were (1) regional myelin/oligodendrocyte levels, (2) resident neuron types, (3) neurotransmitter innervation profiles, and (4) Ca++-dependent signaling and second messenger systems. PMID:15585124

  11. Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wolthers, O; Cameron, F; Scheimberg, I; Honour, J; Hindmarsh, P; Savage, M; Stanhope, R; Brook, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours are rare in children and the determination of their malignant potential can be difficult.?OBJECTIVES—To assess the presentation, histology, and clinical behaviour of these tumours.?SETTING—Two tertiary referral centres. ?Study design—Retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with an androgen secreting adrenocortical tumour between 1976 and 1996.?PATIENTS—Twenty three girls and seven boys aged 0-14 years.?RESULTS—Pubic hair was observed in all children, clitoromegaly or growth of the phallus in 23 children, acceleration of linear growth in 22 children, and advanced bone age (> 1.5 years) in 18 children. Hypersecretion of androgens was detected by assessment of serum androgen concentrations alone in four patients and by 24 hour urine steroid excretion profiles in 22 patients. All 16 tumours measuring < 5 cm in diameter were benign. Of the tumours measuring 5-9 cm, three were malignant and seven were benign, whereas all four tumours > 10 cm were malignant. Histological slides were available for reassessment in 25 children. Although mitoses and necrosis were more characteristic of tumours with malignant behaviour, no exclusive histological features of malignancy were seen.?CONCLUSION—Histological criteria for malignancy are not reliable, whereas tumour size is important in assessing malignant potential.?? PMID:10325758

  12. Adrenomedullin and tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Larráyoz, Ignacio M; Martínez-Herrero, Sonia; García-Sanmartín, Josune; Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Martínez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a regulatory peptide whose involvement in tumour progression is becoming more relevant with recent studies. AM is produced and secreted by the tumour cells but also by numerous stromal cells including macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Most cancer patients present high levels of circulating AM and in some cases these higher levels correlate with a worst prognosis. In some cases it has been shown that the high AM levels return to normal following surgical removal of the tumour, thus indicating the tumour as the source of this excessive production of AM. Expression of this peptide is a good investment for the tumour cell since AM acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor, prevents apoptosis-mediated cell death, increases tumour cell motility and metastasis, induces angiogenesis, and blocks immunosurveillance by inhibiting the immune system. In addition, AM expression gets rapidly activated by hypoxia through a HIF-1? mediated mechanism, thus characterizing AM as a major survival factor for tumour cells. Accordingly, a number of studies have shown that inhibition of this peptide or its receptors results in a significant reduction in tumour progression. In conclusion, AM is a great target for drug development and new drugs interfering with this system are being developed. PMID:25475159

  13. Monitoring tumour response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Husband

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring response to treatment of tumours is an increasingly important aspect of cancer radiology for several reasons. Firstly, the incidence of cancer is increasing and, furthermore, there have been major advances in treatment which have resulted in a larger number of patients surviving with treated tumours. Equally important is that there have been enormous advances in imaging over the past

  14. DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase is phosphorylated by two distinct and novel protein kinases in human brain tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mullapudi, S R; Ali-Osman, F; Shou, J; Srivenugopal, K S

    2000-01-01

    We showed recently that human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), an important target for improving cancer chemotherapy, is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation inhibits its activity [Srivenugopal, Mullapudi, Shou, Hazra and Ali-Osman (2000) Cancer Res. 60, 282-287]. In the present study we characterized the cellular kinases that phosphorylate AGT in the human medulloblastoma cell line HBT228. Crude cell extracts used Mg(2+) more efficiently than Mn(2+) for phosphorylating human recombinant AGT (rAGT) protein. Both [gamma-(32)P]ATP and [gamma-(32)P]GTP served as phosphate donors, with the former being twice as efficient. Specific components known to activate protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent kinases did not stimulate the phosphorylation of rAGT. Phosphoaminoacid analysis after reaction in vitro with ATP or GTP showed that AGT was modified at the same amino acids (serine, threonine and tyrosine) as in intact HBT228 cells. Although some of these properties pointed to casein kinase II as a candidate enzyme, known inhibitors and activators of casein kinase II did not affect rAGT phosphorylation. Fractionation of the cell extracts on poly(Glu/Tyr)-Sepharose resulted in the adsorption of an AGT kinase that modified the tyrosine residues and the exclusion of a fraction that phosphorylated AGT on serine and threonine residues. In-gel kinase assays after SDS/PAGE and non-denaturing PAGE revealed the presence of two AGT kinases of 75 and 130 kDa in HBT228 cells. The partly purified tyrosine kinase, identified as the 130 kDa enzyme by the same assays, was strongly inhibited by tyrphostin 25 but not by genestein. The tyrosine kinase used ATP or GTP to phosphorylate the AGT protein; this reaction inhibited the DNA repair activity of AGT. Evidence that the kinases might physically associate with AGT in cells was also provided. These results demonstrate that two novel cellular protein kinases, a tyrosine kinase and a serine/threonine kinase, both capable of using GTP as a donor, phosphorylate the AGT protein and affect its function. The new kinases might serve as potential targets for strengthening the biochemical modulation of AGT in human tumours. PMID:11023825

  15. Tumours of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    von Sandersleben, J; Hänichen, T

    1974-01-01

    The epithelial tumours of the thyroid are divided into benign, malignant, and C-cell categories. The malignant tumours are described under the following names: follicular carcinoma, solid and solid-follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. The malignant mesenchymal tumours are described as fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. There are also coexistent tumours and carcinosarcomas. PMID:4547654

  16. Borderline or malignant ovarian tumour? A case report of decision making with morphometry.

    PubMed Central

    Baak, J P; Van der Ley, G

    1984-01-01

    A young woman presented with bilateral ovarian tumours. Multiple sections of each tumour were shown to many pathologists for consultation; some considered the tumours to be borderline, whereas others thought that one or both of them was malignant. Morphometry showed that the numerical classification probabilities for borderline tumour were 0.78 for the left ovarian tumour and 0.85 in the right. The lesions were therefore regarded as borderline tumours and no additional chemotherapy was given. Three years after the second operation the patient is alive and well without clinical or biochemical evidence of recurrence. Most patients with borderline tumours who die from the disease do so in the first two years after the operation. This young patient was prevented from severe overtreatment by the application of morphometry, illustrating its use in this area of diagnostic gynaecopathology. Images PMID:6490950

  17. Disrupting tumour blood vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chryso Kanthou; Bruce C. Baguley; Gillian M. Tozer

    2005-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) cause a pronounced shutdown in blood flow to solid tumours, resulting in extensive tumour-cell necrosis, while they leave the blood flow in normal tissues relatively intact. The largest group of VDAs is the tubulin-binding combretastatins, several of which are now being tested in clinical trials. DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid) — one of a structurally distinct group of

  18. Improvement of classification accuracy in a phase-tagged steady-state visual evoked potential-based brain computer interface using multiclass support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain computer interface (BCI) is an emerging technology for paralyzed patients to communicate with external environments. Among current BCIs, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI has drawn great attention due to its characteristics of easy preparation, high information transfer rate (ITR), high accuracy, and low cost. However, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are electrophysiological responses reflecting the underlying neural activities which are dependent upon subject’s physiological states (e.g., emotion, attention, etc.) and usually variant among different individuals. The development of classification approaches to account for each individual’s difference in SSVEP is needed but was seldom reported. Methods This paper presents a multiclass support vector machine (SVM)-based classification approach for gaze-target detections in a phase-tagged SSVEP-based BCI. In the training steps, the amplitude and phase features of SSVEP from off-line recordings were used to train a multiclass SVM for each subject. In the on-line application study, effective epochs which contained sufficient SSVEP information of gaze targets were first determined using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, and the amplitude and phase features of effective epochs were subsequently inputted to the multiclass SVM to recognize user’s gaze targets. Results The on-line performance using the proposed approach has achieved high accuracy (89.88?±?4.76%), fast responding time (effective epoch length?=?1.13?±?0.02 s), and the information transfer rate (ITR) was 50.91?±?8.70 bits/min. Conclusions The multiclass SVM-based classification approach has been successfully implemented to improve the classification accuracy in a phase-tagged SSVEP-based BCI. The present study has shown the multiclass SVM can be effectively adapted to each subject’s SSVEPs to discriminate SSVEP phase information from gazing at different gazed targets. PMID:23692974

  19. The determinants of tumour immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Blankenstein, Thomas; Coulie, Pierre G.; Gilboa, Eli; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Many standard and targeted therapies, as well as radiotherapy, have been shown to induce an anti-tumour immune response, and immunotherapies rely on modulating the host immune system to induce an anti-tumour immune response. However, the immune response to such therapies is often reliant on the immunogenicity of a tumour. Tumour immunogenicity varies greatly between cancers of the same type in different individuals and between different types of cancer. So, what do we know about tumour immunogenicity and how might we therapeutically improve tumour immunogenicity? We asked four leading cancer immunologists around the world for their opinions on this important issue. PMID:22378190

  20. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Warmuth-Metz; J. Krauss; L. Solymosi

    2004-01-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural

  1. Tumour induced osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Masood, Muhammad Qamar; Ram, Nanik; Ali, Syed Ahsan

    2015-02-01

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome usually presenting with bone pain, fracture of bones and muscle weakness. It is caused by high serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF- 23), which is a hormone-regulating phosphate, and vitamin D. FGF-23 is secreted by several tumours, especially benign mesenchymal tumours which are very small and difficult to locate. There is a significant delay from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of this entity dueto occult nature of this disease. We present a case of young male who presented with long history of progressively worsening muscular pain and weakness, rendering the patient confined to bed. Our aim of presenting this patient as a case report is to make physicians realise that any patient with unexplained muscular weakness and pain must undergo workup for TIO, including serum phosphate measurement, as this is a rare but potentially curable disease. PMID:25842564

  2. Intra-tumoural microvessel density in human solid tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Hasan; R Byers; G C Jayson

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade assessment of angiogenesis has emerged as a potentially useful biological prognostic and predictive factor in human solid tumours. With the development of highly specific endothelial markers that can be assessed in histological archival specimens, several quantitative studies have been performed in various solid tumours. The majority of published studies have shown a positive correlation between intra-tumoural

  3. Tumour-educated macrophages promote tumour progression and metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Pollard

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from clinical and experimental studies indicates that macrophages promote solid-tumour progression and metastasis. Macrophages are educated by the tumour microenvironment, so that they adopt a trophic role that facilitates angiogenesis, matrix breakdown and tumour-cell motility — all of which are elements of the metastatic process. During an inflammatory response, macrophages also produce many compounds — ranging from mutagenic oxygen

  4. Classification accuracy of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III modifier indices in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Aguerrevere, Luis E; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Ord, Jonathan S

    2011-06-01

    The present study used criterion groups validation to determine the ability of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) modifier indices to detect malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with TBI who met criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) were compared to those who showed no indications of malingering. Data were collected from 108 TBI patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Base rate (BR) scores were used for MCMI-III modifier indices: Disclosure, Desirability, and Debasement. Malingering classification was based on the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for MND. TBI patients were placed in one of three groups: MND (n = 55), not-MND (n = 26), or Indeterminate (n = 26).The not-MND group had lower modifier index scores than the MND group. At scores associated with a 4% false-positive (FP) error rate, sensitivity was 47% for Disclosure, 51% for Desirability, and 55% for Debasement. Examination of joint classification analysis demonstrated 54% sensitivity at cutoffs associated with 0% FP error rate. Results suggested that scores from all MCMI-III modifier indices are useful for identifying intentional symptom exaggeration in TBI. Debasement was the most sensitive of the three indices. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21424973

  5. Craniopharyngioma and epidermoid tumour in same child: a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Neha; Parihar, Anit; Singh, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of histologically different primary brain tumours is rare, and its preoperative diagnosis is still challenging. The explanations for the simultaneous occurrence of different primary intracranial tumours in the absence of phacomatoses or prior radiation exposure are at present hypothetical, and these tumours could be simply coincidental. Herein, we report a case of a boy presenting with features of raised intracranial pressure and right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. Brain MRI revealed two different neoplastic pathologies at different sites: an intrasellar and suprasellar craniopharyngioma and a right cerebello-pontine angle epidermoid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of a craniopharyngioma coexisting with an epidermoid, in the same individual. PMID:23737578

  6. Diverse effects of hypothermia therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury based on the computed tomography classification of the traumatic coma data bank.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Kaneko, Tadashi; Oda, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Susumu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2015-03-01

    A multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with severe traumatic brain injury who received therapeutic hypothermia or fever control was performed from 2002 to 2008 in Japan (BHYPO). There was no difference in the therapeutic effect on traumatic brain injury between the two groups. The efficacy of hypothermia treatment and the objective of the treatment were reexamined based on a secondary analysis of the BHYPO trial in 135 patients (88 treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 47 with fever control). This analysis was performed to examine clinical outcomes according to the CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank on admission. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and mortality at 6 months after injury. Good recovery and moderate disability were defined as favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes in young patients (?50 years old) with evacuated mass lesions significantly increased from 33.3% with fever control to 77.8% with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients with diffuse injury III who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia, however, had significantly higher mortality than patients treated with fever control. It was difficult to control intracranial pressure with hypothermia for patients with diffuse injury III, but hypothermia was effective for young patients with an evacuated mass lesion. PMID:25233298

  7. Adaptive Classification for Brain Computer Interfaces Julie Blumberg, Jorn Rickert, Stephan Waldert, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ad Aertsen, Carsten Mehring

    E-print Network

    Waldert, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ad Aertsen, Carsten Mehring Abstract-- In this paper we evaluate and feedback, e.g. real vs. imagined actions, · variability of the recording caused by drying gel or micro movements of the electrodes, · plasticity of the brain, due to experience with the task, · modulation

  8. Effect of feature extraction for brain tumor classification based on short echo time 1H MR spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Luts; J. B. Poullet; J. M. Garcia-Gomez; A. Heerschap; M. Robles; J. A. Suykens; S. van Huffel

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effect of feature extraction methods prior to automated pattern recognition based on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for brain tumor diagnosis. Since individual inspection of spectra is time-consuming and requires specific spectroscopic expertise, the introduction of clinical decision support systems (DSSs) is expected to strongly promote the clinical use of MRS. This study focuses on the feature

  9. Management of extracolonic tumours in patients with Lynch syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan J Koornstra; Marian JE Mourits; Rolf H Sijmons; Annemarie M Leliveld; Harry Hollema; Jan H Kleibeuker

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, or Lynch syndrome, is responsible for 2-3% of all colorectal cancers. Lynch syndrome is also associated with a high risk of extracolonic cancers, including endometrial, stomach, small bowel, pancreas, biliary tract, ovary, urinary tract, brain, and skin cancer. In this Review, we discuss the risks, surveillance tests, and guidelines for the management of extracolonic tumours associated

  10. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingmei Li; Keith Humphreys; Louise Eriksson; Kamila Czene; Jianjun Liu; Per Hall

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its\\u000a influence on tumour characteristics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control\\u000a study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from\\u000a a

  11. Bridging low-level features and high-level semantics via fMRI brain imaging for video classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xintao Hu; Fan Deng; Kaiming Li; Tuo Zhang; Hanbo Chen; Xi Jiang; Jinglei Lv; Dajiang Zhu; Carlos Faraco; Degang Zhang; Arsham Mesbah; Junwei Han; Xiansheng Hua; Li Xie; Stephen Miller; Lei Guo; Tianming Liu

    2010-01-01

    The multimedia content analysis community has made significant effort to bridge the gap between low-level features and high-level semantics perceived by human cognitive systems such as real-world objects and concepts. In the two fields of multimedia analysis and brain imaging, both topics of low-level features and high level semantics are extensively studied. For instance, in the multimedia analysis field, many

  12. Pancreatic endocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Tamburrano, G; Paoloni, A; Pietrobono, D; D'Amico, E; Durante, C; Baldelli, R

    1999-10-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrine neoplasms are rare tumours that have been classified by the peptides they secrete and the resulting clinical syndromes. The incidence of these tumours is estimated to be less than 1-1.5 cases/100,000 of the general population. These gastrointestinal endocrine cells are characterized by similar cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics, contain amines and they are capable of uptake of amine precursors to amines or peptides. The function of these cells is the neuroendocrine regulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms including vasomotor tone as well as carbohydrate, calcium and electrolyte metabolism. Each amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cell normally synthesizes, stores and secretes its single amine or polypeptide and is responsive to its environment for stimulation or suppression in the related clinical syndrome. PMID:10604112

  13. PUTTING TUMOURS IN CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new ‘organ’ that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. PMID:11900251

  14. An unusual intracranial tumour presenting in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, I F; Skelton, V

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented in late pregnancy with deteriorating neurological status due to an intracranial capillary haemangioma causing mass effect and raised intracranial pressure. She became confused and uncooperative leading to practical difficulties in performing adequate radiological imaging. Decision regarding timing of delivery and craniotomy was not straightforward and required discussion between the neurosurgeon, obstetrician and anaesthetist based on assessment of fetal maturity and the need to perform a craniotomy to excise what was initially thought to be a meningioma. Caesarean section was performed under general anaesthesia. The tumour was resected three weeks later. Management of obstetric patients with brain tumours is complex, requiring knowledge of the physiological effects of pregnancy on tumour size and labour on intracranial pressure. Both of these may influence the choice of labour analgesia or anaesthesia for caesarean section. Anaesthetists must be aware of the difficulties of radiological imaging during pregnancy, particularly in confused patients. The conflicting requirements of general anaesthesia for craniotomy and caesarean section should be considered. PMID:17126003

  15. Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions in Brain MR Images Using Spatially Constrained Possibilistic Fuzzy C-Means Classification.

    PubMed

    Khotanlou, Hassan; Afrasiabi, Mahlagha

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology for the segmentation of brain MS lesions in MRI volumes using a new clustering algorithm named SCPFCM. SCPFCM uses membership, typicality and spatial information to cluster each voxel. The proposed method relies on an initial segmentation of MS lesions in T1-w and T2-w images by applying SCPFCM algorithm, and the T1 image is then used as a mask and is compared with T2 image. The proposed method was applied to 10 clinical MRI datasets. The results obtained on different types of lesions have been evaluated by comparison with manual segmentations. PMID:22606670

  16. Electrode replacement does not affect classification accuracy in dual-session use of a passive brain-computer interface for assessing cognitive workload.

    PubMed

    Estepp, Justin R; Christensen, James C

    2015-01-01

    The passive brain-computer interface (pBCI) framework has been shown to be a very promising construct for assessing cognitive and affective state in both individuals and teams. There is a growing body of work that focuses on solving the challenges of transitioning pBCI systems from the research laboratory environment to practical, everyday use. An interesting issue is what impact methodological variability may have on the ability to reliably identify (neuro)physiological patterns that are useful for state assessment. This work aimed at quantifying the effects of methodological variability in a pBCI design for detecting changes in cognitive workload. Specific focus was directed toward the effects of replacing electrodes over dual sessions (thus inducing changes in placement, electromechanical properties, and/or impedance between the electrode and skin surface) on the accuracy of several machine learning approaches in a binary classification problem. In investigating these methodological variables, it was determined that the removal and replacement of the electrode suite between sessions does not impact the accuracy of a number of learning approaches when trained on one session and tested on a second. This finding was confirmed by comparing to a control group for which the electrode suite was not replaced between sessions. This result suggests that sensors (both neurological and peripheral) may be removed and replaced over the course of many interactions with a pBCI system without affecting its performance. Future work on multi-session and multi-day pBCI system use should seek to replicate this (lack of) effect between sessions in other tasks, temporal time courses, and data analytic approaches while also focusing on non-stationarity and variable classification performance due to intrinsic factors. PMID:25805963

  17. Electrode replacement does not affect classification accuracy in dual-session use of a passive brain-computer interface for assessing cognitive workload

    PubMed Central

    Estepp, Justin R.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The passive brain-computer interface (pBCI) framework has been shown to be a very promising construct for assessing cognitive and affective state in both individuals and teams. There is a growing body of work that focuses on solving the challenges of transitioning pBCI systems from the research laboratory environment to practical, everyday use. An interesting issue is what impact methodological variability may have on the ability to reliably identify (neuro)physiological patterns that are useful for state assessment. This work aimed at quantifying the effects of methodological variability in a pBCI design for detecting changes in cognitive workload. Specific focus was directed toward the effects of replacing electrodes over dual sessions (thus inducing changes in placement, electromechanical properties, and/or impedance between the electrode and skin surface) on the accuracy of several machine learning approaches in a binary classification problem. In investigating these methodological variables, it was determined that the removal and replacement of the electrode suite between sessions does not impact the accuracy of a number of learning approaches when trained on one session and tested on a second. This finding was confirmed by comparing to a control group for which the electrode suite was not replaced between sessions. This result suggests that sensors (both neurological and peripheral) may be removed and replaced over the course of many interactions with a pBCI system without affecting its performance. Future work on multi-session and multi-day pBCI system use should seek to replicate this (lack of) effect between sessions in other tasks, temporal time courses, and data analytic approaches while also focusing on non-stationarity and variable classification performance due to intrinsic factors. PMID:25805963

  18. [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].

    PubMed

    Agha, A; Iesalnieks, I; Glockzin, G; Schlitt, H J

    2010-06-01

    Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours. The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon. Currently, the lateral laparoscopic and the dorsal retroperitoneoscopic approaches are most frequently used. Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6 cm. In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases. Each surgeon should choose the most familiar access. The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent. The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally. PMID:20549586

  19. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé J. Brisse; Daniel Orbach; Jerzy Klijanienko

    2010-01-01

    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue\\u000a masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours,\\u000a accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a\\u000a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be

  20. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost. PMID:24020629

  1. VEGF targets the tumour cell

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:24263190

  2. The ‘Pantie’ Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Kanokrungsee, Silada; Vachiramon, Vasanop; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of radiation-associated angiosarcoma. A 67-year-old Thai woman was diagnosed with endometrium carcinoma stage IC and was treated with surgery and radiations. Ten years later, she presented with a gradually enlarging mass on the pubic area, in the shape of a pair of panties. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed angiosarcoma. The diagnosis was radiation-associated angiosarcoma. She was treated with chemotherapy due to unresectable tumour. The chemotherapy was started with paclitaxel 70 mg/m2 every 2 weeks. After completing the fifth cycle of paclitaxel, the lesion was markedly decreased in size and the symptoms previously described were also completely resolved. PMID:25566052

  3. The prognostic significance of tumour cell proliferation in squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Sarbia, M.; Bittinger, F.; Porschen, R.; Dutkowski, P.; Torzewski, M.; Willers, R.; Gabbert, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour samples from 150 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus were investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody MIB-1, which recognises proliferating cells. Using light microscopy, the number of MIB-1-positive tumour cells was counted in the areas with the highest proliferative activity. The MIB-1 index was determined as the proportion of MIB-1-positive and MIB-1-negative tumour cells. A considerable variation of the MIB-1 indices was found between the different tumours with a minimum of 6% and a maximum of 95% (median, 33%). The MIB-1 index correlated significantly with the mitotic activity in the tumour tissue (r = 0.33; P = 0.0001) and with the proportion of apoptotic tumour cells (r = 0.25; P = 0.0017). No significant correlation was found between the MIB-1 index and various other prognostic parameters including pT classification, pN classification, tumour grade, blood vessel invasion and lymphatic vessel invasion. In the univariate survival analysis no significant difference was found between tumours with low (< or = 33%) and high MIB-1 index (> 33%) 5-year survival rate: low MIB-1 index, 19.2%; high MIB-1 index, 22.2%). In a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis only the parameters lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0001), pT classification (P = 0.0034) and pN classification (P = 0.0256), but not the MIB-1 index, could be verified as independent prognostic variables. In conclusion, evaluation of the MIB-1 index does not provide prognostic information for oesophageal cancer patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:8855967

  4. The tumour suppressor L(3)mbt inhibits neuroepithelial proliferation and acts on insulator elements.

    PubMed

    Richter, Constance; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Steinmann, Jonas; Müller, Jürg; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2011-09-01

    In Drosophila, defects in asymmetric cell division often result in the formation of stem-cell-derived tumours. Here, we show that very similar terminal brain tumour phenotypes arise through a fundamentally different mechanism. We demonstrate that brain tumours in l(3)mbt mutants originate from overproliferation of neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobes caused by derepression of target genes in the Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway. We use ChIP-sequencing to identify L(3)mbt binding sites and show that L(3)mbt binds to chromatin insulator elements. Mutating l(3)mbt or inhibiting expression of the insulator protein gene mod(mdg4) results in upregulation of SWH pathway reporters. As l(3)mbt tumours are rescued by mutations in bantam or yorkie or by overexpression of Expanded, the deregulation of SWH pathway target genes is an essential step in brain tumour formation. Therefore, very different primary defects result in the formation of brain tumours, which behave quite similarly in their advanced stages. PMID:21857667

  5. [Fractionated stereotactic irradiation of skull-base related tumours].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Farkas, Róbert; Mangel, László; Kovács, Péter; Sebestyén, Zsolt; Dóczi, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    The prognosis of the treatment of brain tumours depends on two main factors: biological nature and localisation of the neoplasm. Requirements of oncologic surgery can be met only partially if at all in neurological surgery of brain tumours. Resectability depends primarily on localisation of the neoplasms. The leading principle is preservation of fine neural structures, minimising morbidity from tissue resection with the goal of maximal tumour resection. As nervous structures and the target volume do not move in the intracranial space, large radiation doses unusual in traditional radiotherapy can be given either in one or in fractionated sessions to small targets (point-radiation) and a well-controlled radiation necrosis of the pathological tissue can be achieved. Management principles of treatment of skull-base related tumours are very similar due to high risks of functional morbidity evoked by surgical injury to the cranial nerves, brainstem structures, vessels of the Willis circle and those of the substantia perforata anterior and posterior, etc. Such tumours are neoplasms arising from the skull base, those infiltrating the cavernous sinuses, invasive pituitary tumours, those arising from the glomus jugulare, or located within the cerebello-pontine angle, etc. This manuscript intends to illustrate and prove the hypothesis by means of 4 cases that fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) is an important part of treatment armamentarium in the latter cases, as it is capable of exploiting both the advantages of traditional fractionated irradiation and that of the high conformality and selectivity of radiosurgery. It is capable of administering appropriate quantity of total target dose with a lower than limit dose on surrounding structures. The presentation proves that fSRT can be planned already in the phase of surgical indication as a "microsurgery-assisted radiotherapy". PMID:24353990

  6. Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

  7. Non-adenomatous pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Karavitaki, Niki; Wass, John A H

    2009-10-01

    Apart from pituitary adenomas, a number of tumours may arise from within the sella presenting a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge at a multidisciplinary specialist level. This article focus on the most commonly diagnosed non-adenomatous pituitary tumours (craniopharyngiomas, Rathke's cleft cysts and meningiomas) and provides data on their pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19945029

  8. Tumours of the eye and adnexa.

    PubMed

    Kircher, C H; Garner, F M; Robinson, F R

    1974-01-01

    Most types of epithelial tumour of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and cornea occur in all species; the most common type occurring in any species is bovine squamous cell carcinoma. Iridociliary epithelial tumours and malignant melanomas are the most important intraocular tumours. The histological features of the tumours are described under the following main headings: epithelial tumours of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and cornea; mesenchymal tumours (extraocular, optic nerve and nerve sheath, and uveal tract); neuroectodermal tumours; and melanogenic tumours of the eyelids and conjunctiva and of the uveal tract. PMID:4547651

  9. Benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions in men.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P J

    1986-01-01

    In a consecutive medicolegal necropsy series benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions occurred in 52% of the 95 men aged 35-69 years. The incidence increased with age, mainly due to small bile duct tumours (n = 26; mean age 56.7 years; p less than 0.01; mean size 1.3 mm). The next most common tumours were cavernous hemangiomas (n = 19; mean age 53.9 years; mean size 5.2 mm) that were not related to age. Focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3; mean size 8.0 mm) tended to occur in a younger age group (mean age 40.3 years; p less than 0.001). Multiple bile duct tumours were present in 46% and hemangiomas in 50% of the men studied. Liver cell adenoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis were incidental findings (one case of each). Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was associated with the consumption of alcohol and a total dose of 21.5 g of testosterone. These results indicate that benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions are not rare in men but may remain undetected because of their small size. Images PMID:3950039

  10. [MRI of rectal stromal tumour].

    PubMed

    Dam, Claus; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2012-06-25

    A 39-year-old man was referred to hospital with a rectal tumour and underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy and diagnostic imaging. The tumour had immunohistochemical characteristics for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The differential diagnosis of GIST to adenocarcinoma is important to be aware of for the rectal multidisciplinary team. On suspicion of GIST, patients should be referred to a sarcoma centre. The diagnosis of rectal GIST can be suggested on MRI by the presence of a well-defined heterogeneously large mass with a necrotic center associated with a prominent extra-luminal component and hyperechoic appearance on ultrasound. PMID:22735120

  11. Dendritic cells: Making progress with tumour regression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott N Byrne; Gary M Halliday

    2002-01-01

    Due to their potent ability to activate the immune system, dendritic cells (DC) are showing promise as potential adjuvants for tumour immunotherapy of cancer patients. However, little is known about the effect tumour cells can have on DC function. Indeed, the discovery of different DC subsets with different immunological functions indicates that the relationship between tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating DC

  12. Cellular automata models of tumour natural shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Lev; Hoekstra, Alfons; Sloot, Peter

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present three dimensional cellular automata models for tumour growth, with a focus on the tumour’s natural shrinkage caused by the removal of the dead cells’ mortal remains. The significance of this phenomenon for the resulting volume of the in silico tumour is shown. Two algorithms are presented, one using the chain shifting approach for tumour expansion and shrinkage and another improving the performance of the chain shifting approach. Simulations are validated against the experimental results.

  13. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé J. Brisse; Anne M. Smets; Sue C. Kaste; Catherine M. Owens

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very\\u000a diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour,\\u000a particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe,\\u000a the International Society of

  14. Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Leal, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David A; Lau, Ching C

    2014-07-10

    Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumours that are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographical and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically five- to eightfold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries, with peak incidence near the time of puberty. About half of the tumours are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3-4:1 overall, but is even higher for tumours located in the pineal region. Owing to the scarcity of tumour specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signalling pathway frequently mutated in more than 50% of IGCTs, including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gains of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional co-repressor and tumour suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, which codes for a histone demethylase and is a coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway. PMID:24896186

  15. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Obenauf, Anna C; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S; Massagué, Joan

    2015-04-16

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed human and mouse melanoma and human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The tumour-promoting secretome of melanoma cells treated with the kinase inhibitor vemurafenib is driven by downregulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of several signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and the PI(3)K/AKT/mTOR intracellular signalling pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant human melanoma, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  16. Subtype Classification of Hepatocellular Adenoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Charles Balabaud; Jessica Zucman-Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are rare benign tumours occurring mainly in women under oral contraceptives. HCA bleed frequently and transform rarely into hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of genes recurrently mutated in HCA and good genotype\\/phenotype correlations provided the basis of a pathomolecular classification of different HCA subgroups, characterized using immunohistochemical markers. HNF1A-mutated HCA: Biallelic-inactivating mutations of HNF1A gene are identified in 35–40%

  17. Choice of tumour markers in patients with neuroendocrine tumours is dependent on the histological grade. A marker study of Chromogranin A, Neuron specific enolase, Progastrin-releasing peptide and cytokeratin fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catharina M. Korse; Babs G. Taal; Andrew Vincent; Marie-Louise F. van Velthuysen; Paul Baas; Johanna C. G. M. Buning-Kager; Theodora C. Linders; Johannes M. G. Bonfrer

    BackgroundChromogranin A (CgA) is the most important tumour marker for well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). This study investigated whether the markers progastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) and cytokeratin fragments (CKfr) CK8, CK18 and CK19 (MonoTotal®) can be of additional value to the histological classification and help predict survival in these patients.

  18. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  19. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  20. Congenital gingival granular cell tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P J; Kirkland, P; Schafler, K; Moss, A L

    1996-01-01

    Congenital gingival granular cell tumours are rare lesions which have only occasionally been reported in the UK. Clinical features are of a benign lesion which occurs almost exclusively in newborn, Caucasian females and the anterior maxilla is the commonest site. Treatment consists of local excision and is curative.The terminology concerning this condition has been rather confused because of uncertainty regarding the histogenesis of these tumours and the similar histological appearance to adults granular cell myoblastoma occurring at other intraoral sites. The exact histogenesis of these tumours remains unsolved and they may be hamartomata. We describe a new case occurring within the UK, which illustrates many of the common clinical features of the condition, with an accompanying literature review. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8709088

  1. Spinal cord tumours: advances in genetics and their implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zadnik, Patricia L.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Burger, Peter C.; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Tumours of the spinal cord, although rare, are associated with high morbidity. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for patients with this disease, and offers the best chance for cure. Such surgical procedures, however, carry substantial risks such as worsening of neurological deficit, paralysis and death. New therapeutic avenues for spinal cord tumours are needed, but genetic studies of the molecular mechanisms governing tumourigenesis in the spinal cord are limited by the scarcity of high-quality human tumour samples. Many spinal cord tumours have intracranial counterparts that have been extensively studied, but emerging data show that the tumours are genetically and biologically distinct. The differences between brain and spine tumours make extrapolation of data from one to the other difficult. In this Review, we describe the demographics, genetics and current treatment approaches for the most commonly encountered spinal cord tumours—namely, ependymomas, astrocytomas, haemangioblastomas and meningiomas. We highlight advances in understanding of the biological basis of these lesions, and explain how the latest progress in genetics and beyond are being translated to improve patient care. PMID:23528542

  2. Fluorescence-guided surgical sampling of glioblastoma identifies phenotypically distinct tumour-initiating cell populations in the tumour mass and margin

    PubMed Central

    Piccirillo, S G M; Dietz, S; Madhu, B; Griffiths, J; Price, S J; Collins, V P; Watts, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquiring clinically annotated, spatially stratified tissue samples from human glioblastoma (GBM) is compromised by haemorrhage, brain shift and subjective identification of ‘normal' brain. We tested the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence to objective tissue sampling and to derive tumour-initiating cells (TICs) from mass and margin. Methods: The 5-ALA was administered to 30 GBM patients. Samples were taken from the non-fluorescent necrotic core, fluorescent tumour mass and non-fluorescent margin. We compared the efficiency of isolating TICs from these areas in 5-ALA versus control patients. HRMAS 1H NMR was used to reveal metabolic alterations due to 5-ALA. We then characterised TICs for self-renewal in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Results: The derivation of TICs was not compromised by 5-ALA and the metabolic profile was similar between tumours from 5-ALA patients and controls. The TICs from the fluorescent mass were self-renewing in vitro and tumour-forming in vivo, whereas TICs from non-fluorescent margin did not self-renew in vitro but did form tumours in vivo. Conclusion: Our data show that 5-ALA does not compromise the derivation of TICs. It also reveals that the margin contains TICs, which are phenotypically different from those isolated from the corresponding mass. PMID:22722315

  3. Brown tumour of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Nair, Preeti P; Gharote, Harshkant P; Thomas, Shaji; Guruprasad, R; Singh, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Brown tumours are classic bony lesions that arise as a result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. They are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteolysis and peritrabecular fibrosis, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. Facial skeleton is involved in about 2% of all cases of which the mandible is frequently affected. A 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with osteomalacia and brown tumour in posterior mandible as the sign of secondary hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency is presented. PMID:22669885

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Benjamin Michael; Desai, Ankit; Singh, Seema; Seddon, Beatrice; Khan, Farrukh

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) in pregnancy is rare. There have been only three previously reported cases, all of which have been diagnosed on postoperative histology. The authors present the first case of a preoperatively diagnosed GIST arising in a 31-year-old pregnant woman. With a suspected diagnosis, the patient was managed through a combined obstetric and upper gastrointestinal multidisciplinary team meeting, resulting in planned early caesarean section and surgical removal of the tumour. This case emphasises the fact that early and effective multidisciplinary discussion allows for proper treatment planning and more informed patient decisions. PMID:22689595

  5. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Hampe, J F; Misdorp, W

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed "complex" when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the "simple" type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term "carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour" was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. PMID:4371737

  6. Multiphase modelling of desmoplastic tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Psiuk-Maksymowicz, K

    2013-07-21

    It is well-known that the microenvironment of solid tumours is a significant component of the processes of tumour growth and invasion. Interactions between tumour cells and stromal components play a crucial role in tumour progression as well as suppression. We describe a mathematical model of tumour growth within a host tissue which takes into account both cell-extracellular matrix interactions and tissue compression effects. This multiphase model consisting of three coupled partial differential equations captures the dynamics of tumour progression, particularly of a desmoplastic tumour (i.e. a tumour rich in fibrous connective tissue). The model is analysed in terms of stability in a spatially homogenous case. Computer simulations agree with the biological picture of the disease and may help to understand the process leading to the pathology. PMID:23507339

  7. Multifocal intrathoracic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in children.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Shailesh M; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Solanki, Ravi S; Shetty, Gurucharan S

    2012-06-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour is the most common benign pulmonary tumour in childhood; however it is seldom diagnosed radiologically. We report three cases of biopsy-proven inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour that presented as large aggressive intrathoracic masses mimicking a malignant process. Two cases also had multifocal areas of origin. The possibility of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour should be considered in a child presenting with a large aggressive pleuropulmonary mass lesion even with multifocal origin. PMID:22411437

  8. Contribution of platelets to tumour metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie J. Gay; Brunhilde Felding-Habermann

    2011-01-01

    Extensive experimental evidence shows that platelets support tumour metastasis. The activation of platelets and the coagulation system have a crucial role in the progression of cancer. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard tumour cells from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting the establishment of secondary lesions. These contributions of platelets to tumour cell survival and spread

  9. Tumour stem cells and drug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tito Fojo; Susan Bates; Michael Dean

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of tumorigenic stem cells to haematopoietic cancers has been established for some time, and cells possessing stem-cell properties have been described in several solid tumours. Although chemotherapy kills most cells in a tumour, it is believed to leave tumour stem cells behind, which might be an important mechanism of resistance. For example, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters

  10. Prognostic criteria in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano La Rosa; C. Capella; F. Sessa; C. Riva; B. E. Leone; C. Klersy; G. Rindi; E. Solcia

    1996-01-01

    To identify prognostic subgroups among nonfunctioning (nonsyndromic) pancreatic endocrine tumours, a series of 61 tumours were analysed systematically for macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistochemical variables potentially predictive of malignancy. High-grade nuclear atypia, elevated mitotic rate and multifocal necrosis allowed us to separate 5 poorly differentiated carcinomas from 56 well differentiated tumours. Among the latter, 29 well-differentiated carcinomas showing gross local invasion

  11. Tumours of the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Fankhauser, R.; Luginbühl, H.; McGrath, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the nervous system of animals are not as rare as has been commonly believed. In dogs, especially the brachycephalic breeds, these tumours occur as frequently as in man. The tumours are grouped according to tissue of origin as follows: nerve cells, neuroepithelium, glia, peripheral nerves and nerve sheaths, meninges and vessels, the pineal and pituitary glands, and the craniopharyngeal duct. Tumours of the glia are relatively common and are divided into the following types: astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, glioblastoma, spongioblastoma, medulloblastoma, and unclassified gliomas. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38 PMID:4371739

  12. Polyarthritis associated with testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Rajni; Bhattacharya, S K

    2008-01-01

    Rarely rheumatological features may dominate and is the cause of missed or delayed diagnosis of a malignant lesion. A case is presented wherein the patient with embryonal type of testicular tumour masqueraded with symmetrical polyarthritis with small joint involvement. p53 antigen was detected in testicular tissue. Such an example is indeed unreported in literature to the best of our knowledge. PMID:18472503

  13. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Lennart; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer. PMID:17034627

  14. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Results Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Conclusions Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency. PMID:21679472

  15. Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of clavicle

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Akshay; Kapoor, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of the clavicle are very rare, and little literature is available regarding their characteristics and outcome. We studied the clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and outcome of management of patients with primary tumours of the clavicle presenting to us from 1996–2005. Twelve cases of primary tumours of the clavicle presented during the above period. Seven patients were treated with partial or complete claviculectomy, and no reconstruction was done. These seven patients were evaluated for functional results with AMSTS scoring. Eight patients out of twelve had a primary malignant bone tumour, four of these being Ewing’s sarcoma. No particular predilection of location of the tumour within the clavicle was seen. Functional and oncological results of claviculectomy were good. The distribution of types of tumours in the clavicle is quite different from long-bone tumours. No reconstruction is required following partial or total claviculectomy. PMID:17583813

  16. Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of clavicle.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Sudhir; Tiwari, Akshay; Kapoor, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of the clavicle are very rare, and little literature is available regarding their characteristics and outcome. We studied the clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and outcome of management of patients with primary tumours of the clavicle presenting to us from 1996-2005. Twelve cases of primary tumours of the clavicle presented during the above period. Seven patients were treated with partial or complete claviculectomy, and no reconstruction was done. These seven patients were evaluated for functional results with AMSTS scoring. Eight patients out of twelve had a primary malignant bone tumour, four of these being Ewing's sarcoma. No particular predilection of location of the tumour within the clavicle was seen. Functional and oncological results of claviculectomy were good. The distribution of types of tumours in the clavicle is quite different from long-bone tumours. No reconstruction is required following partial or total claviculectomy. PMID:17583813

  17. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C; Pfister, Stefan M; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer. PMID:24892285

  18. Skin adnexal neoplasms—part 2: An approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands

    PubMed Central

    Obaidat, Nidal A; Alsaad, Khaled O; Ghazarian, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Tumours of cutaneous sweat glands are uncommon, with a wide histological spectrum, complex classification and many different terms often used to describe the same tumour. Furthermore, many eccrine/apocrine lesions coexist within hamartomas or within lesions with composite/mixed differentiation. In addition to the eccrine and apocrine glands, two other skin sweat glands have recently been described: the apoeccrine and the mammary?like glands of the anogenital area. In this review (the second of two articles on skin adnexal neoplasms), common as well as important benign and malignant lesions of cutaneous sweat glands are described, and a summary for differentiating primary adnexal neoplasms from metastatic carcinoma is outlined, striving to maintain a common and acceptable terminology in this complex subject. Composite/mixed adnexal tumours are also discussed briefly. PMID:16882695

  19. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    PubMed Central

    de Kraker, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. PMID:20432020

  20. Spectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available objects detected. Various classification schemes such as the MK, HD, and the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan systems are defined, including examples of indexing differences. Details delineating the separations between classifications are discussed with reference to the information content in spectral and in photometric classification schemes. The parameters usually used for classification include the temperature, luminosity, reddening, binarity, rotation, magnetic field, and elemental abundance or composition. The inclusion of recently discovered extended wavelength characteristics in nominal classifications is outlined, together with techniques involved in automated classification.

  1. Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiping Zou

    2006-01-01

    Tumours express a range of antigens, including self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are crucial for maintaining T-cell tolerance to self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are thought to dampen T-cell immunity to tumour-associated antigens and to be the main obstacle tempering successful immunotherapy and active vaccination. In this Review, I consider the nature and characteristics of regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment

  2. Significance of the Tumour Microenvironment in Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Horsman; Dietmar W. Siemann

    The growth and development of solid tumours require that they develop a functional vascular supply. But, inadequecies of this\\u000a primitive and chaotic tumour neo-vasculature result in development of oxygen deprived areas. Hypoxic cells existing in this\\u000a environment are resistant to radiation therapy. Numerous approaches have been developed to deal with this hypoxia-induced\\u000a radioresistance. These include increasing oxygen delivery to tumours,

  3. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  4. Embryonal neural tumours and cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Inge Johnsen; Per Kogner; Ami Albihn; Marie Arsenian Henriksson

    2009-01-01

    Medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma are malignant embryonal childhood tumours of the central and peripheral nervous systems,\\u000a respectively, which often show poor clinical prognosis due to resistance to current chemotherapy. Both these tumours have\\u000a deficient apoptotic machineries adopted from their respective progenitor cells. This review focuses on the specific background\\u000a for tumour development, and highlights biological pathways that present potential targets for

  5. Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of clavicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhir Kapoor; Akshay Tiwari; Saurabh Kapoor

    2008-01-01

    Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of the clavicle are very rare, and little literature is available regarding their characteristics\\u000a and outcome. We studied the clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and outcome of management of patients\\u000a with primary tumours of the clavicle presenting to us from 1996–2005. Twelve cases of primary tumours of the clavicle presented\\u000a during the above period. Seven

  6. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Smets; Jan de Kraker

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent\\u000a type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an\\u000a important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The\\u000a outcome of WT after therapy is excellent

  7. [National network of paediatric central nervous system tumours reviewing by the Groupe d'Étude de Neuropathologie Oncologique Pediatrique (GENOP)].

    PubMed

    Meyronet, David; Silva, Karen; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Godfraind, Catherine; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Miquel, Catherine; Varlet, Pascale; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Salamon, Anne-Isabelle-Bertozzi; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jouvet, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Diagnosis of paediatric tumours of the central nervous system is often difficult because WHO classification criteria are mainly defined for adults tumours and do not always apply to their paediatric counterparts. These tumours are rare (400 cases/year among more than 50 pathological subtypes per year in France). Pathological diagnosis may be a challenge for a general pathologist with a too low number of paediatric cases in his recruitment. Hence, a reference group of paediatric neuropathologists was formed (GENOP) on the behalf of the comité "Tumeurs Cérébrales" de la Société Française de lutte contre les Cancers de l'Enfant. This network is supported by the Institut National du Cancer (INCa). GENOP aim is to structure a centralised review of paediatric central nervous system tumours in order to harmonise neuropathological diagnosis at the national level and enhance patients care. Cases assessed during the last 3 years led GENOP to better identify tumours subtypes for which there is a diagnostic challenge. A set of immunohistochemical or molecular specialised techniques was developed, leading to an increased diagnostic accuracy. It allowed a better distinction between diffuse and circumscribed glioma, a better recognition of glioneuronal differentiation and a better subtyping of embryonal tumours such as medulloblastomas. Inter-observer agreement varied according to the tumour subtypes. PMID:24630640

  8. Training for planning tumour resection: augmented reality and human factors.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S H; Chen, Elvis C S; Khan, Ali R; Peters, Terry M; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Planning surgical interventions is a complex task, demanding a high degree of perceptual, cognitive, and sensorimotor skills to reduce intra- and post-operative complications. This process requires spatial reasoning to coordinate between the preoperatively acquired medical images and patient reference frames. In the case of neurosurgical interventions, traditional approaches to planning tend to focus on providing a means for visualizing medical images, but rarely support transformation between different spatial reference frames. Thus, surgeons often rely on their previous experience and intuition as their sole guide is to perform mental transformation. In case of junior residents, this may lead to longer operation times or increased chance of error under additional cognitive demands. In this paper, we introduce a mixed augmented-/virtual-reality system to facilitate training for planning a common neurosurgical procedure, brain tumour resection. The proposed system is designed and evaluated with human factors explicitly in mind, alleviating the difficulty of mental transformation. Our results indicate that, compared to conventional planning environments, the proposed system greatly improves the nonclinicians' performance, independent of the sensorimotor tasks performed ( ). Furthermore, the use of the proposed system by clinicians resulted in a significant reduction in time to perform clinically relevant tasks ( ). These results demonstrate the role of mixed-reality systems in assisting residents to develop necessary spatial reasoning skills needed for planning brain tumour resection, improving patient outcomes. PMID:25546854

  9. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6?h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060??g/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  10. A proposed angiographic classification of intracranial arteriovenous fistulae and malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Houdart; Y. P. Gobin; A. Casasco; A. Aymard; D. Herbreteau; J. J. Merland

    1993-01-01

    We propose an angioarchitectural classification of intracranial vascular lesions as arteriovenous, arteriolovenous and arteriolovenulous fistulae. In order to validate this classification, 99 intracranial arteriovenous lesions were reviewed in 98 patients. Arteriolovenulous fistulae included 39 isolated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and 1 AVM associated with a giant arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Arteriovenous fistulae included 8 giant AVFs of the brain, 6 vein

  11. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6?months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; ?-catenin, CHOP, C/EBP? and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and ?-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBP? and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26059599

  12. Targeted therapies in solid tumours: pinpointing the tumour's Achilles heel.

    PubMed

    Kornek, Gabriela; Selzer, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    It is now exactly 100 years ago (1908) that Paul Ehrlich, who is regarded as the inventor of the concept of targeted therapy, received the Nobel Prize for Medicine. His initial perception leading to this theory was derived from observations that certain substances are capable of selectively staining either tissues or microorganisms. These observations culminated in the discovery of the inorganic mercury compound arsphenamine (Salvarsan) by Sahachiro Hata in the laboratory of Paul Ehrlich. Salvarsan might be regarded as the first effective "targeted" treatment for syphilis at that time. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex), an anti-estrogen, which was introduced in the early 1970s, was one of the first rationally designed targeted anti-tumour drugs. Since the 1970s a dramatic development of new molecular technologies occurred, culminating, for example, into the Human Genome Project and the public availability of various gene and protein databases, such as the Cancer Genome Anatomy Program established by the National Cancer Institute. Genomics, proteomics, structural genomics, transcriptomics, and high-throughput screening technologies for identification of targeted drugs are now available, which were almost unimaginable only a few years ago. Over 500 kinases are known of which about 250 have been cloned and are available to directly evaluate the activity of novel drug candidates. These technologies in conjunction with bio-informatic and chemical tools allow us to design novel molecules, and consequently tailor drug therapy to specific targets within tumours. PMID:19149613

  13. Keratin 19 marks poor differentiation and a more aggressive behaviour in canine and human hepatocellular tumours

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The expression of Keratin 19 (K19) was reported in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). K19 positive HCCs are associated with an increased malignancy compared to K19 negative HCCs. No suitable mouse models exist for this subtype of HCC, nor is the incidence of K19 expression in hepatocellular neoplasia in model animals known. Therefore, we compared the occurrence and tumour behaviour of K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias in dog and man. Results The expression of hepatocellular differentiation (HepPar-1), biliary/progenitor cell (K7, K19), and malignancy (glypican-3) markers was semi-quantitatively assessed by immunohistochemistry. The histological grade of tumour differentiation was determined according to a modified classification of Edmondson and Steiner; the staging included intrahepatic, lymph node or distant metastases. Four of the 34 canine hepatocellular neoplasias showed K19 positivity (12%), of which two co-expressed K7. K19 positive tumours did not express HepPar-1, despite the histological evidence of a hepatocellular origin. Like in human HCC, all K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias were glypican-3 positive and histologically poorly differentiated and revealed intra- or extrahepatic metastases whereas K19 negative hepatocellular neoplasias did not. Conclusions K19 positive hepatocellular neoplasias are highly comparable to man and occur in 12% of canine hepatocellular tumours and are associated with a poorly differentiated histology and aggressive tumour behaviour. PMID:20167095

  14. Why are epididymal tumours so rare?

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ching-Hei; Wang, Kai; Cooper, Trevor G

    2012-01-01

    Epididymal tumour incidence is at most 0.03% of all male cancers. It is an enigma why the human epididymis does not often succumb to cancer, when it expresses markers of stem and cancer cells, and constitutively expresses oncogenes, pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic factors that allow tumour cells to escape immunosurveillance in cancer-prone tissues. The privileged position of the human epididymis in evading tumourigenicity is reflected in transgenic mouse models in which induction of tumours in other organs is not accompanied by epididymal neoplasia. The epididymis appears to: (i) prevent tumour initiation (it probably lacks stem cells and has strong anti-oxidative mechanisms, active tumour suppressors and inactive oncogene products); (ii) foster tumour monitoring and destruction (by strong immuno-surveillance and -eradication, and cellular senescence); (iii) avert proliferation and angiogenesis (with persistent tight junctions, the presence of anti-angiogenic factors and misplaced pro-angiogenic factors), which together (iv) promote dormancy and restrict dividing cells to hyperplasia. Epididymal cells may be rendered non-responsive to oncogenic stimuli by the constitutive expression of factors generally inducible in tumours, and resistant to the normal epididymal environment, which mimics that of a tumour niche promoting tumour growth. The threshold for tumour initiation may thus be higher in the epididymis than in other organs. Several anti-tumour mechanisms are those that maintain spermatozoa quiescent and immunologically silent, so the low incidence of cancer in the epididymis may be a consequence of its role in sperm maturation and storage. Understanding these mechanisms may throw light on cancer prevention and therapy in general. PMID:22522502

  15. GEOMETRIC INVARIANTS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF CORTICAL SULCI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica K. Hurdal; Juan B. Gutierrez; Christian Laing; Aaron D. Kline; Deborah A. Smith

    We have developed a computational method based on a fam- ily of geometric measures for the purpose of classification and identification of families of sulcal curves from human brain surfaces. Topologically correct cortical surfaces of the hu- man brain were extracted from magnetic resonance images. Polygonal curves representing sulcal curves were then gener- ated on each surface. Geometric measures including

  16. Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification and Graded Prognostic Assessment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastasis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cai-xing; Li, Tao; Zheng, Xiao; Cai, Ju-fen; Meng, Xu-li; Yang, Hong-jian; Wang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess prognostic factors and validate the effectiveness of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes and graded prognostic assessment (GPA) in 290 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis (BM). Methods From Jan 2008 to Dec 2009, the clinical data of 290 NSCLC cases with BM treated with multiple modalities including brain irradiation, systemic chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in two institutes were analyzed. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. The differences of survival rates in subgroups were assayed using log-rank test. Multivariate Cox’s regression method was used to analyze the impact of prognostic factors on survival. Two prognostic indexes models (RPA and GPA) were validated respectively. Results All patients were followed up for 1-44 months, the median survival time after brain irradiation and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 14 (12.3-15.8) months. 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates in the whole group were 56.0%, 28.3%, and 12.0%, respectively. The survival curves of subgroups, stratified by both RPA and GPA, were significantly different (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis as RPA and GPA entered Cox’s regression model, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 70, adenocarcinoma subtype, longer administration of TKIs remained their prognostic significance, RPA classes and GPA also appeared in the prognostic model. Conclusion KPS ?70, adenocarcinoma subtype, longer treatment of molecular targeted drug, and RPA classes and GPA are the independent prognostic factors affecting the survival rates of NSCLC patients with BM. PMID:23467694

  17. Bromocriptine in management of large pituitary tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Wass; J Williams; M Charlesworth; D P Kingsley; A M Halliday; I Doniach; L H Rees; W I McDonald; G M Besser

    1982-01-01

    Bromocriptine has an accepted place in the management of small pituitary tumours that secrete either prolactin or growth hormone. The treatment of large tumours with extrasellar extensions is more difficult, however: though surgery is the standard treatment, it is often unsuccessful in returning excessive hormone secretion to normal and may cause hypopituitarism. A prospective trial was undertaken to assess the

  18. Effects of bromocriptine on pituitary tumour size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M McGregor; M F Scanlon; R Hall; K Hall

    1979-01-01

    In a prospective study designed to assess the influence of bromocriptine on pituitary tumour size 12 patients with pituitary tumours, eight of whom had suprasellar extensions, were treated for three months with 20 mg of bromocriptine daily after a gradual increase to this dose. The group comprised eight women and four men, five with prolactin-secreting adenomas, four with acromegaly, two

  19. Metastatic tumours of the parotid gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Malata; I. G. Camilleri; N. R. McLean; T. A. Piggoat; J. V. Soames

    1998-01-01

    Twenty patients (12 men and 8 women, median age 69 years) with metastatic tumours in the parotid gland who presented over a 12-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Preoperative investigations included fine needle aspiration cytology (n = 11) and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n = 14).Most tumours originated from the head and neck region, the two main types

  20. Postchemoembolisation syndrome – tumour necrosis or hepatocyte injury?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J Wigmore; D N Redhead; B N J Thomson; E J Currie; R W Parks; K K Madhavan; O J Garden

    2003-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolisation of liver tumours is typically followed by elevated body temperature and liver transaminase enzymes. This has often been considered to indicate successful embolisation. The present study questions whether this syndrome reflects damage to tumour cells or to the normal hepatic tissue. The responses to 256 embolisations undertaken in 145 patients subdivided into those with hepatocyte-derived (primary hepatocellular carcinoma)

  1. CT/MRI of neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Reznek, Rodney H

    2006-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are often thought to be rare and rather recherché cancers which are of little concern to the general physician, surgeon or radiologist because of their rarity and esoteric nature. In fact, while relatively uncommon, the total group of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours incorporates the spectrum of all types of carcinoids, incuding bronchial carcinoids, and the whole gamut of islet-cell tumours. Some of these may present as functioning tumours, with a plethora of hormonal secretions and concomitant clinical syndromes, and GEPs in general have an incidence around 30 per million population per year. This means that in the whole European Union, for example, there will be in the region of 12000 new patients every year presenting with one or another manifestation of these tumours. Furthermore, the comparatively long survival of many of these patients, compared to more common adenocarcinomas or epithelial tumours, implies that the point prevalence is also not inconsiderable. However, it is undoubtedly true that these tumours can be difficult to identify, especially in their early stages, and it is then that radiological investigation becomes of paramount importance. Having taken into account all these considerations, most investigators would initiate investigation of a suspected or biochemically proven islet-cell tumour with cross-sectional imaging—either CT or MRI. This will clearly identify the larger lesions, allow assessment of the entire abdomen, and provide valuable information on the presence of hepatic metastates. PMID:17114072

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in pituitary tumours1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, I E; Keene, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of CSF rhinorrhoea due to pituitary tumours are reported and the literature reviewed. The treatment of choice appears to be trans-sphenoidal exploration of the pituitary fossa with insertion of a free muscle graft followed by radiotherapy. The probability of the tumour being a prolactin-secreting adenoma is discussed. PMID:7017123

  3. Primary pulmonary tumours of neurogenic origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Roviaro; M Montorsi; F Varoli; R Binda; A Cecchetto

    1983-01-01

    Primary intrapulmonary neurogenic tumours are extremely rare. In a series of 1664 patients with pulmonary neoplasms observed during 1967-80 only four such tumours were identified (0.2%). All four patients underwent surgical excision. The histological diagnosis was benign neurilemmoma in three cases and malignant schwannoma in the fourth. The patients with neurilemmoma are alive and well four to 12 years after

  4. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours.

    PubMed

    Ince, Tan A; Sousa, Aurea D; Jones, Michelle A; Harrell, J Chuck; Agoston, Elin S; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T; Merritt, Melissa A; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Crum, Christopher P; Brugge, Joan S; Mills, Gordon B

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  5. Malignant tumours of the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu P; Sasi, Kiran; Pallapati, Samuel CR; Mathew, Anil; Sreekanth, R; Thomas, Meera

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours are rare in the hand and wrist. The clinical presentation may be similar to that of a benign lesion and a high index of suspicion is necessary so that such lesions are not missed by the treating surgeon. Out of a total of 657 tumours/tumour-like lesions of the hand and wrist seen in a tertiary referral centre in a 10-year period, a total of 39 tumours were identified as malignant (5.9%) and of which majority had origin from the skin (53.8%). The management of these tumours is primarily surgical. Limb salvage surgery may be applied when appropriate, though eradication of disease should be the primary goal rather than preservation of function. A multimodal approach is necessary for appropriate management including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:22022044

  6. Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumour of Breast

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32?cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10?kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence. PMID:25548696

  7. Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.

    2012-03-01

    Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities and guarantee a high safety for both therapies, FNT and BNCT.

  8. Molecular response of 4T1-induced mouse mammary tumours and healthy tissues to zinc treatment.

    PubMed

    Sztalmachova, Marketa; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Polanska, Hana; Holubova, Monika; Balvan, Jan; Hudcova, Kristyna; Knopfova, Lucia; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Masarik, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer patients negative for the nuclear oestrogen receptor ? have a particularly poor prognosis. Therefore, the 4T1 cell line (considered as a triple-negative model) was chosen to induce malignancy in mice. The aim of the present study was to assess if zinc ions, provided in excess, may significantly modify the process of mammary oncogenesis. Zn(II) ions were chosen because of their documented antitumour effects. Zn(II) is also known to induce the expression of metallothioneins (MT) and glutathion (GSH). A total dose of zinc sulphate per one gram of mouse weight used in the experiment was 0.15 mg. We studied the expression of MT1, MT2, TP53 and MTF-1 genes and also examined the effect of the tumour on antioxidant capacity. Tumour-free mice had significantly higher expression levels of the studied genes (p<0.003). Significant differences were also revealed in the gene expression between the tissues (p<0.001). The highest expression levels were observed in the liver. As compared to brain, lung and liver, significantly lower concentrations of MT protein were found in the primary tumour; an inverse trend was observed in the concentration of Zinc(II). In non-tumour mice, the amount of hepatic hydrosulphuryl groups significantly increased by the exposure to Zn(II), but the animals with tumour induction showed no similar trend. The primary tumour size of zinc-treated animals was 20% smaller (p=0.002); however, no significant effect on metastasis progression due to the zinc treatment was discovered. In conclusion, Zn(II) itself may mute the growth of primary breast tumours especially at their early stages. PMID:25672434

  9. Structure and function of ETAA16: a novel cell surface antigen in Ewing's tumours.

    PubMed

    Borowski, A; Dirksen, U; Lixin, L; Shi, R L; Göbel, U; Schneider, E M

    2006-04-01

    Immunoscreening of an Ewing's family of tumour (EFT)-derived cDNA library using formerly described EFT-specific antibodies led to the isolation of a 3.5 kb cDNA, named Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 16 (ETAA16). The ETAA16 cDNA shows no homology to any functionally characterised human gene. Only a bovine cDNA expressed in bovine testis and hepatocytes is functionally characterised as it encodes for a junction plaque associated protein and showed a homology of 69.9% at amino acid level to ETAA16. The human cDNA encodes for a 926 amino acid tumour antigen with a calculated molecular weight of 103 kDa. The epitope of the ETAA16-specific antibody, Ak16, covers the central region of the protein which is part of an extra cellular domain. The human ETAA16 gene locus has been assigned to chromosome 2p13-15 by FISH analyses and is confirmed by the human genome sequencing project. As demonstrated by flow cytometry, the cell surface expression of ETAA16 antigen is restricted to ET cell lines and not expressed on other small blue round cell tumours or other kind of tumour. RT-PCR analysis revealed a high expression of ETAA16 in brain, liver and kidney while lung and heart were negative. Immunohistochemistry showed an intracellular expression of ETAA16 in different kind of non-Ewing tumour tissues. These results suggest that ETAA16 may function as a tumour-specific cell surface antigen in EFTs. PMID:16003559

  10. p53 protein overexpression identifies a group of central primitive neuroectodermal tumours with poor prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jaros, E.; Lunec, J.; Perry, R. H.; Kelly, P. J.; Pearson, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET's) or medulloblastomas are common primary brain tumours of childhood. Current treatment protocols achieve 50-60% cures. However, it has proved difficult to develop better treatment for the remaining patients because prognostic factors are not established. We have investigated the prognostic value of p53 protein expression in 87 PNET's using immunohistochemistry with DO-7 and CM-1 antibodies on biopsy paraffin sections. Eight patients (9%) had intensely reactive tumour cell nuclei, and a significantly reduced survival (P = 0.002); only one survives and this with a recurrent tumour 50 months following diagnosis. Sixty eight per cent of patients had faintly reactive tumour cell nuclei, a reduced survival up to 4 years but a long term survival not significantly different (P = 0.41) from 23% of patients with p53 negative PNET's; the 10 year survival rates were 37% and 40%, respectively. Males had a reduced survival (P = 0.04) with a 2-fold relative risk of death compared to females. Multivariate analysis showed that intense overexpression of p53 protein identifies a group of PNET patients with a 7-fold relative risk of death compared to all other cases, irrespective of sex. This marked difference suggests the involvement of p53 in the pathogenesis of PNET's which have a particularly poor response to treatment, and should help to develop new therapies for this group of patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8398711

  11. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, A; Powell, M; Williams, R; Hindmarsh, P; Brook, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 29 January 1997? OBJECTIVES—Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for the excision of pituitary microadenomas in adults. This study was carried out to establish the long term efficacy and safety of TSS in children.?STUDY DESIGN—A 14 year retrospective analysis was carried out on 23 children (16 boys and seven girls), all less than 18 years of age, who had undergone TSS at our centre.?RESULTS—Twenty nine transsphenoidal surgical procedures were carried out. The most common diagnosis was an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma (14 (61%) patients). The median length of follow up was 8.0 years (range 0.3-14.0 years). Eighteen (78%) patients were cured after the first procedure. No death was related to the operation. The most common postoperative complication was diabetes insipidus, which was transient in most patients. Other complications were headaches in two patients and cerebrospinal fluid leaks in two patients. De novo endocrine deficiencies after TSS in children were as follows: three (14%) patients developed panhypopituitarism, eight (73%) developed growth hormone insufficiency, three (14%) developed secondary hypothyroidism, and four (21%) developed gonadotrophin deficiency. Permanent ACTH deficiency occurred in five (24%) patients, though all patients received postoperative glucocorticoid treatment until dynamic pituitary tests were performed three months after TSS.?CONCLUSIONS—TSS in children is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours, provided it is performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise. Surgical complications are minimal. Postoperative endocrine deficit is considerable, but is only permanent in a small proportion of patients.?? • Transsphenoidal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours in children • Transsphenoidal surgery should be performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise • Surgical complications of transsphenoidal surgery are minimal and endocrine deficit is permanent in only a small proportion of patients PMID:9196353

  12. Bromocriptine in management of large pituitary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Wass, J A; Williams, J; Charlesworth, M; Kingsley, D P; Halliday, A M; Doniach, I; Rees, L H; McDonald, W I; Besser, G M

    1982-01-01

    Bromocriptine has an accepted place in the management of small pituitary tumours that secrete either prolactin or growth hormone. The treatment of large tumours with extrasellar extensions is more difficult, however: though surgery is the standard treatment, it is often unsuccessful in returning excessive hormone secretion to normal and may cause hypopituitarism. A prospective trial was undertaken to assess the frequency with which changes in pituitary function and size of large tumours occurs. Nineteen patients were studied before and during treatment with bromocriptine (7.5 to 60 ml/day) for three to 22 months, using contrast radiology and a detailed assessment of pituitary function. Eighteen patients had hyperprolactinaemia and two of these also had raised concentrations of growth hormones; one patient had an apparently non-functioning tumour. In 12 patients (63%) tumour size decreased with bromocriptine and no tumour enlarged. Nine patients had visual-field defects, which improved in seven, becoming normal in five. Pituitary function improved in nine patients (47%) becoming entirely normal in three. Bromocriptine should be the treatment of choice in patients with large pituitary tumours with extrasellar extensions, provided close supervision is maintained. PMID:6805756

  13. Spectral classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jaschek

    1982-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available

  14. What are the most important determinants of tumour

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    immune processes in the primary tumour-bearing host. However, sporadic immunogenic tumours (which that are specific for the trans- plantation rejection antigen, which can induce life-long protection by prophylactic dysfunction was observed in mice bearing immunogenic tumours but not in those bearing non-immunogenic tumours

  15. Tumour–induced immune modulation of sentinel lymph nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Rong Huang; Jonathan Lee; Eijun Itakura; Stanley P. L. Leong; Richard Essner; Alistair J. Cochran

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), being the first nodes to receive lymph from a primary tumour and the preferential site of initial tumour metastases, are intensively exposed to the bioactive products of tumour cells and other associated cells. This makes them ideal for studies of the factors that determine selective tissue susceptibility to metastases. We postulate that tumour-induced immune modulation of

  16. Pten in stromal fibroblasts suppresses mammary epithelial tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Trimboli; Carmen Z. Cantemir-Stone; Fu Li; Julie A. Wallace; Anand Merchant; Nicholas Creasap; John C. Thompson; Enrico Caserta; Hui Wang; Jean-Leon Chong; Shan Naidu; Guo Wei; Sudarshana M. Sharma; Julie A. Stephens; Soledad A. Fernandez; Metin N. Gurcan; Michael B. Weinstein; Sanford H. Barsky; Lisa Yee; Thomas J. Rosol; Paul C. Stromberg; Michael L. Robinson; Francois Pepin; Michael Hallett; Morag Park; Michael C. Ostrowski; Gustavo Leone

    2009-01-01

    The tumour stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumours. However, signalling between stromal and tumour cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant transformation of mammary epithelial tumours. This was associated

  17. Primary liver tumours in children in Victoria: incidence and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. L. Clift; Peter E. Campbell; Jane P. Matthews; Kally Yuen

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence and pathology of liver tumours in children in the State of Victoria from 1955 to 1987. Seventy-four cases were found and are believed to represent all liver tumours in the State during that time. There were 29 benign and 45 malignant tumours. The benign tumours comprised 13 haemangiomas, 12 mesenchymal hamartomas, and 4 epithelial lesions.

  18. Acute abdomen secondary to torsion of Krukenberg tumour.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Seema; Memon, Shaneela; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2011-08-01

    Krukenberg tumour is a rare clinical entity. We report an unusual case of acute abdomen due to right sided adnexal torsion in a 23 year old nulliparous girl with bilateral Krukenberg tumour and primary gastric carcinoma. Possibility of Krukenberg tumour should always be kept in mind while managing ovarian tumours. PMID:22356011

  19. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  20. Health-related quality of life in survivors of tumours of the central nervous system in childhood--a preference-based approach to measurement in a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barr, R D; Simpson, T; Whitton, A; Rush, B; Furlong, W; Feeny, D H

    1999-02-01

    There is an evident need to measure the comprehensive burden of morbidity experienced by survivors of brain tumours in childhood. To this end, a questionnaire based on the Health Utilities Index mark 2 (HUI2) and mark 3 (HUI3) systems was completed independently for a cohort of such children by their parents, by a nurse, by physicians and by a selected group of the children themselves. Each of the HUI2 and HUI3 systems consists of a multi-attribute health status classification scheme linked to a preference function which provides utility scores for levels within single attributes (domains of health) and for global health states. All eligible families (n = 44) participated. Even cognitively impaired children of at least 9.5 years of age could complete the questionnaire. The greatest burden of morbidity, occurring in two-thirds of children, was in the attribute of cognition. Surprisingly, almost one-third of children experienced pain. Global health status was lowest in children who underwent radiotherapy before the age of 5 years and the corresponding utility scores were related inversely to the volume irradiated. Children with demonstrable disease had lower scores than those in whom disease was not evident. There was a high level of agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.5) on formal assessment of inter-rater reliability for global health-related quality of life utility scores. The usefulness of measures of health status and health-related quality of life, in children surviving brain tumours, has been demonstrated by this study. PMID:10448267

  1. Stromal Claudin14-Heterozygosity, but Not Deletion, Increases Tumour Blood Leakage without Affecting Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Marianne; Reynolds, Louise E.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Lees, Delphine M.; Parsons, Maddy; Elia, George; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of endothelial cell-cell junctions is vital for the control of blood vessel leakage and is known to be important in the growth and maturation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis. Here we have investigated the role of a tight junction molecule, Claudin14, in tumour blood vessel leakage, angiogenesis and tumour growth. Using syngeneic tumour models our results showed that genetic ablation of Claudin14 was not sufficient to affect tumour blood vessel morphology or function. However, and surprisingly, Claudin14-heterozygous mice displayed several blood vessel-related phenotypes including: disruption of ZO-1-positive cell-cell junctions in tumour blood vessels; abnormal distribution of basement membrane laminin around tumour blood vessels; increased intratumoural leakage and decreased intratumoural hypoxia. Additionally, although total numbers of tumour blood vessels were increased in Claudin14-heterozygous mice, and in VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis ex vivo, the number of lumenated vessels was not changed between genotypes and this correlated with no difference in syngeneic tumour growth between wild-type, Claudin14-heterozygous and Claudin14-null mice. Lastly, Claudin14-heterozygosity, but not complete deficiency, also enhanced endothelial cell proliferation significantly. These data establish a new role for Claudin14 in the regulation of tumour blood vessel integrity and angiogenesis that is evident only after the partial loss of this molecule in Claudin14-heterozyous mice but not in Claudin14-null mice. PMID:23675413

  2. [Application of tumour markers in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Keuren, Jeffrey F W; Thomas, Chris M G; Bonfrèr, J M G Hans; Sweep, C G J Fred; Boonstra, Joke G

    2009-01-01

    Usefully requesting and applying serum tumour markers in diagnosis and treatment can be difficult. It should be noted that tumour markers are used for varying purposes: screening, diagnosis, staging and prognostic evaluation, detection of recurrence and treatment monitoring. Due to the poor sensitivity and specificity of current tumour markers, most are not suitable for screening an asymptomatic population. Further, the benefits of an improved prognosis by early detection should be weighed against a poorer quality of life and the cost of substantial over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Serum tumour markers are particularly applicable in treatment monitoring and detection of recurrence. Sometimes they can be used to support the diagnostic process and give useful prognostic information. PMID:19857306

  3. Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

  4. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions.

  5. Musculoskeletal deformities following treatment of Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, J. H.; Gluck, G.; Gledhill, R. B.; Chevalier, L.

    1978-01-01

    Wilms' tumour is one of the most common neoplasms of infancy and childhood. Current treatment regimens result in a cure rate of about 80% for localized tumours but may also cause musculoskeletal deformities. Assessment of 21 patients previously treated for Wilms' tumour showed that all had flank atrophy on the treated side. Radiologic abnormalities included asymmetry of vertebral bodies, vertebral end-plate irregularities, scoliosis, kyphosis, platyspondyly and hypoplasia of the ilium. Although the vertebral changes following radiotherapy for Wilms' tumour are present from an early age and the potential is great for an increase in spinal deformity with growth, few spinal curves progress past 20 degree. Since one cannot predict which curves will progress, all such patients need careful orthopedic follow-up until skeletal maturity is achieved. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 PMID:210920

  6. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  7. Exploiting tumour hypoxia in cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Wilson; J. Martin Brown

    2004-01-01

    Solid tumours contain regions at very low oxygen concentrations (hypoxia), often surrounding areas of necrosis. The cells in these hypoxic regions are resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the existence of hypoxia and necrosis also provides an opportunity for tumour-selective therapy, including prodrugs activated by hypoxia, hypoxia-specific gene therapy, targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription factor, and recombinant anaerobic

  8. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: imaging findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Han; M.-J. Kim; H.-K. Yoon; Jin Young Chung; Kyuchul Choeh

    2001-01-01

    Background. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney (RTK) is a rare tumour, but it is the most aggressive malignant neoplasm of the kidney in children.\\u000a Objective. To analyse the radiological findings of RTK in children. Materials and methods. The clinical and radiological findings in seven children (age range 6 months to 4.7 years; median 18 months) with pathologically\\u000a proven RTK were

  9. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumours with PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix M. Mottaghy; Sven N. Reske

    2006-01-01

    Several pathophysiological attributes of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) can be addressed by specific radiolabelled probes. This\\u000a paper provides an overview on the different radiopharmaceuticals that have been developed for Positron Emission Tomography\\u000a (PET) of neuroendocrine tumours. A review of the literature on 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG), biogenic amine precursors, somatostatin\\u000a analogues and hormone syntheses markers is presented. Due to the highly specific tracers

  10. Wilms’ tumour: a complex enigma to decipher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María José Robles-Frías; Michele Biscuola; María Ángeles Castilla; María Ángeles López-García; Felicia Sánchez-Gallego; José Palacios

    2008-01-01

    Wilms’ tumour (WT) is the most common solid tumour of childhood. The molecular signalling pathways determining the origin\\u000a and behaviour of WT are very complex and several genes in several loci may participate. This review tries to briefly compile\\u000a recent works on the histology and on the molecular alterations that promote the genesis, development and behaviour of WT.\\u000a Some molecular

  11. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy for recurrent or persistent tumours.

    PubMed

    Lam, K; Astrahan, M; Langholz, B; Jepson, J; Cohen, D; Luxton, G; Petrovich, Z

    1988-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1986, 31 sites in 27 patients with biopsy proven tumours were treated with a combination of interstitial microwave hyperthermia (HT) and iridium 192 implants (RT). The 31 sites treated included fifteen (48 per cent) head and neck, six (20 per cent) breast, four (13 per cent) vagina and cervix, and six (20 per cent) others. All patients had prior surgery, RT, or chemotherapy. Of the 31 sites treated, 19 (61 per cent) had complete response (CR) with no recurrence in the volume treated. Additionally, eight patients remained free of tumour from 3 to 24 months. Partial response (PR) was seen in 11 (36 per cent) sites while one (3 per cent) had lesser degree tumour regression. Tumour control rate correlated well with the dose of radiation, p = 0.02, and tumour volume, p = 0.02, but not with thermal dose. Treatment complications of significance occurred in one (3 per cent) site, which developed soft tissue necrosis. This study again has demonstrated the effectiveness of RT-HT combination in treatment of recurrent tumours. PMID:3385222

  12. Renal and adrenal tumours in children

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child. Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2–4 years). Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older. Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5?cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise. The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented. Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour. PMID:17339140

  13. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

  14. The association between renal tumour scoring system components and complications of partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Desantis, Darren; Lavallée, Luke T.; Witiuk, Kelsey; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kamal, Fadi; Fergusson, Dean; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Breau, Rodney H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the associations between 3 renal tumour scoring systems and their components with perioperative complications of partial nephrectomy. Methods: A consecutive cohort of partial nephrectomy patients was analyzed. Patient characteristics were abstracted from medical records. PADUA scores (preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classification), RENAL (radius exophyic/endophytic nearness anterior/posterior location scoring) nephrometry scores, and Centrality index (C-index) were determined from preoperative axial images by 2 independent reviewers. Cases were evaluated for postoperative complications up to 30 days after surgery. Pre-specified complication definitions were used for 33 potential medical and surgical complications. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between overall scores, individual components, and complications were determined using log binomial regression. Results: In total, 118 patients were included in the study. Of these, 36 (30.5%) surgical complications occurred in 27 (22.9%) patients. Fourteen (11.9%) were Clavien grade ?3. Overall PADUA score was significantly associated with surgical and overall complications after adjusting for potential confounders. Among all components of the 3 scoring systems, only tumour diameter and exophytic/endophytic nature of the tumour were significantly associated with complications after adjusting for the other components of the respective scoring system (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Renal tumour scoring systems may help predict the risk of complications after partial nephrectomy. Further refinement of current systems is required. A first step would be to include only components that are significantly associated with complications. PMID:25737754

  15. Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nekarda, H; Geß, C; Stark, M; Mueller, J D; Fink, U; Schenck, U; Siewert, J R

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Laurèn and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with > 72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027338

  16. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  17. The tumour is not enough or is it? Problems and new concepts in the surgery of cerebral metastases.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Marcel A; Dibué, Maxine; Santacroce, Antonio; Zella, Samis Ma; Niemann, Lena; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral metastases are the most frequent cerebral tumours. Surgery of cerebral metastases plays an indispensible role in a multimodal therapy concept. Conventional white-light, microscopy assisted microsurgical and circumferential stripping of cerebral metastases is neurosurgical standard therapy, but is associated with an extraordinarily high recurrence rate of more than 50% without subsequent whole-brain radiotherapy. Therefore, neurosurgical standard therapy fails to achieve local tumour control in many patients. The present conceptual paper focuses on this issue and discusses the possible causes of the high recurrence rates such as intraoperative dissemination of tumour cells or the lack of sharp delimitation of metastases from the surrounding brain tissue resulting in incomplete resections. Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy reduces the risk of local and distant recurrences, but is associated with a well-documented impairment of neurocognitive function. New surgical strategies, such as supramarginal or fluorescence-guided resection, address the possibility of infiltrating tumour parts to achieve more complete resection of cerebral metastases. Supramarginal resection was shown to significantly reduce the risk of a local recurrence and prolongs two-year survival rates. Furthermore, radiosurgery in combination with surgery represents a promising approach. PMID:23653671

  18. The tumour is not enough or is it? Problems and new concepts in the surgery of cerebral metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Marcel A; Dibué, Maxine; Santacroce, Antonio; Zella, Samis MA; Niemann, Lena; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Rapp, Marion; Sabel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral metastases are the most frequent cerebral tumours. Surgery of cerebral metastases plays an indispensible role in a multimodal therapy concept. Conventional white-light, microscopy assisted microsurgical and circumferential stripping of cerebral metastases is neurosurgical standard therapy, but is associated with an extraordinarily high recurrence rate of more than 50% without subsequent whole-brain radiotherapy. Therefore, neurosurgical standard therapy fails to achieve local tumour control in many patients. The present conceptual paper focuses on this issue and discusses the possible causes of the high recurrence rates such as intraoperative dissemination of tumour cells or the lack of sharp delimitation of metastases from the surrounding brain tissue resulting in incomplete resections. Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy reduces the risk of local and distant recurrences, but is associated with a well-documented impairment of neurocognitive function. New surgical strategies, such as supramarginal or fluorescence-guided resection, address the possibility of infiltrating tumour parts to achieve more complete resection of cerebral metastases. Supramarginal resection was shown to significantly reduce the risk of a local recurrence and prolongs two-year survival rates. Furthermore, radiosurgery in combination with surgery represents a promising approach. PMID:23653671

  19. Mineral Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

  20. Technetium99m sestamibi brain single-photon emission tomography for detection of recurrent gliomas after radiation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Soler; P. Beauchesne; K. Maatougui; T. Schmitt; F. G. Barral; D. Michel; F. Dubois; J. Brunon

    1998-01-01

    .   Technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI), an alternative radiopharmaceutical for myocardial perfusion imaging, has also been proposed\\u000a for use as an imaging agent for various tumours, including breast cancer, lung cancer, lymphomas, melanomas and brain tumours.\\u000a After routine radiation therapy, deteriorating clinical status or treatment failure may be due to either radiation-induced\\u000a changes or recurrent tumour. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

  1. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour of the brain in a patient with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Iyad; Carey, Martyn; Trotter, Simon; Kunst, Heinke

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumours (MSP) are benign lesions characterised by local proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes caused by mycobacterial infections. Cerebral MSP due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) infection is rare, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as a brain tumour. We present a case with underlying sarcoidosis and known pulmonary MAI infection presenting with partial seizures and headaches. Imaging of the brain revealed a solitary extra axial tumour within the right temporal area. Biopsy of the tumour showed evidence of MPS due to MAI infection. Prolonged treatment with antituberculous therapy showed complete resolution of the cerebral lesion. PMID:26153278

  2. Critical transitions in a game theoretic model of tumour metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kianercy, Ardeshir; Veltri, Robert; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2014-08-01

    Tumour proliferation is promoted by an intratumoral metabolic symbiosis in which lactate from stromal cells fuels energy generation in the oxygenated domain of the tumour. Furthermore, empirical data show that tumour cells adopt an intermediate metabolic state between lactate respiration and glycolysis. This study models the metabolic symbiosis in the tumour through the formalism of evolutionary game theory. Our game model of metabolic symbiosis in cancer considers two types of tumour cells, hypoxic and oxygenated, while glucose and lactate are considered as the two main sources of energy within the tumour. The model confirms the presence of multiple intermediate stable states and hybrid energy strategies in the tumour. It predicts that nonlinear interaction between two subpopulations leads to tumour metabolic critical transitions and that tumours can obtain different intermediate states between glycolysis and respiration which can be regulated by the genomic mutation rate. The model can apply in the epithelial-stromal metabolic decoupling therapy. PMID:25097747

  3. Multivariate examination of brain abnormality using both structural and functional MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Fan; Hengyi Rao; Hallam Hurt; Joan Giannetta; Marc Korczykowski; David Shera; Brian B. Avants; James C. Gee; Jiongjiong Wang; Dinggang Shen

    2007-01-01

    A multivariate classification approach has been presented to examine the brain abnormalities, i.e., due to prenatal cocaine exposure, using both structural and functional brain images. First, a regional statistical feature extraction scheme was adopted to capture discriminative features from voxel-wise morphometric and functional representations of brain images, in order to reduce the dimensionality of the features used for classification, as

  4. Role of stereotactic biopsy in multifocal brain lesions: considerations on 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed Central

    Franzini, A; Leocata, F; Giorgi, C; Allegranza, A; Servello, D; Broggi, G

    1994-01-01

    One hundred patients affected by multifocal brain lesions were investigated by serial stereotactic biopsy. Systemic diseases and primary neoplasms elsewhere were previously ruled out. The histological diagnosis obtained in this series comprises malignant gliomas in 37% of patients; primary non-Hodgkin's brain lymphoma in 15%; metastatic brain tumours in 15% (no evidence of the primary tumour at the time of stereotactic surgery); low grade gliomas in 12%; infective diseases in 10% (including brain abscesses and multifocal viral encephalitis); and ischaemic lesions in 6%. In addition, two patients with germinomas, two with primitive neuroepithelial tumours, two with multiple telangiectases, and one with a teratoma were also included in this series. Histological findings obtained by stereotactic procedures guided the choice of treatment, avoiding the risks of blind treatments. Indications and future perspectives for stereotactic surgery in multifocal brain lesions are discussed with emphasis on advances in diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Images PMID:8057120

  5. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, John W.; Bennett, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Jackson, J. W., and Bennett, M. H. (1973).Thorax, 28, 788-793. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis. A man of 37 had an iodized talc pleurodesis carried out for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. There was no history of industrial exposure to asbestos. Two years later he presented with pain in the right chest and radiographs at that time showed some localized pleural thickening at the site of the thoracoscopy cannulation for introduction of talc. A provisional diagnosis of talc granuloma, chemical abscess or tumour was made and exploratory thoracotomy revealed a tumour involving the chest wall, lung, and pleura which, on histological examination, showed adenocarcinoma of varying degrees of differentiation and in some parts also presenting a more squamoid appearance. Numerous doubly refractile talc particles were intimately associated with the tumour and fibrous tissue. Shortly after excision the patient developed evidence of systemic dissemination of the disease and died four months later. The possibility of this tumour being induced by the talc is discussed. A brief review is made of the various forms of talc used in surgery over the past 40 years and attention is drawn to the significance of the proportion of asbestos mineral which is present in talc as mined in various parts of the world. We do not consider that this is a case of mesothelioma of the pleura. Images PMID:4787992

  6. Mast cells, angiogenesis, and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in tumours was described by Ehrlich in his doctoral thesis. Since this early account, ample evidence has been provided highlighting participation of MCs to the inflammatory reaction that occurs in many clinical and experimental tumour settings. MCs are bone marrow-derived tissue-homing leukocytes that are endowed with a panoply of releasable mediators and surface receptors. These cells actively take part to innate and acquired immune reactions as well as to a series of fundamental functions such as angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tissue remodelling. The involvement of MCs in tumour development is debated. Although some evidence suggests that MCs can promote tumourigenesis and tumour progression, there are some clinical sets as well as experimental tumour models in which MCs seem to have functions that favour the host. One of the major issues linking MCs to cancer is the ability of these cells to release potent pro-angiogenic factors. This review will focus on the most recent acquisitions about this intriguing field of research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mast cells in inflammation. PMID:21130163

  7. Tumour scanning with indium-111 dihaematoporphyrin ether.

    PubMed Central

    Quastel, M. R.; Richter, A. M.; Levy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Photofrin II (dihaematoporphyrin ether/ester, DHE) was labelled with indium-111 and its biodistribution in tumour bearing mice compared with that of 111In chloride. The uptake and clearance of 111In labelled DHE differed markedly from that of indium-111 chloride in that the former was not taken up by the tissues as much as the latter. Scintillation scanning with a gamma-camera showed marked uptake of both 111In agents at the site of the tumour, but a much lower tissue background (excluding the abdominal organs) for the mice given 111In DHE. Tumour:muscle ratios of dissected tissues were 2-3 times higher in 111In DHE treated animals as compared to the uptake of 111In chloride. There was a distinct difference in the pattern of distribution of the two 111In preparations in the tissues. The major accumulation of 111In chloride was in the kidneys, whereas the highest uptake of 111In DHE was in the liver, the organ in which unlabelled porphyrins accumulate. Extraction and testing of materials from tumours of 111In DHE treated animals indicated that most of the tumour extractable 111In had remained associated with the porphyrin in vivo up to 4 days after injection. Images Figure 1 PMID:2147858

  8. Neuroendocrine tumours: cracking the epigenetic code.

    PubMed

    Karpathakis, A; Dibra, H; Thirlwell, C

    2013-06-01

    The field of epigenetics has evolved rapidly over recent years providing insight into the tumorigenesis of many solid and haematological malignancies. Determination of epigenetic modifications in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) development is imperative if we are to improve our understanding of the biology of this heterogenous group of tumours. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation at RASSF1A are frequent findings in NETs of all origins and may be associated with worse prognosis. MicroRNA signatures and histone modifications have been identified which can differentiate subtypes of NET and distinguish NET from adenocarcinoma in cases of diagnostic uncertainty. Historically, candidate gene-driven approaches have yielded limited insight into the epigenetics of NET. Recent progress has been facilitated by development of high-throughput tools including second-generation sequencing and arrays for analysis of the 'epigenome' of tumour and normal tissue, permitting unbiased approaches such as exome sequencing that identified mutations of chromatin-remodelling genes ATRX/DAXX in 44% of pancreatic NETs. Epigenetic changes are reversible and therefore represent an attractive therapeutic target; to date, clinical outcomes of epigenetic therapies in solid tumours have been disappointing; however, in vitro studies on NETs are promising and further clinical trials are required to determine utility of this class of novel agents. In this review, we perform a comprehensive evaluation of epigenetic changes found in NETs to date, including rare NETs such as phaeochromocytoma and adrenocortical tumours. We suggest priorities for future research and discuss potential clinical applications and novel therapies. PMID:23429748

  9. MHC class I antigens and tumour-infiltrating leucocytes in laryngeal cancer: long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, F.; Redondo, M.; Delgado, M.; Garrido, F.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.

    1996-01-01

    Alteration in MHC class I expression may be used by cancer cells to avoid immune destruction. Much experimental evidence supports this idea, although survival studies are very scarce. To investigate whether the presence or absence of HLA-A, -B and -C antigens in laryngeal carcinoma influences survival, a series of 60 primary laryngeal tumours treated surgically and normal tissues were evaluated in frozen sections for the expression of MHC class I antigens and tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD1, CD20 and CD16), using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP, technique. Long-term follow-up from the patients is available, ranging from 6 to 10 years. Thirteen tumours presented total HLA-ABC loss, five selective losses of HLA-A antigens and one absence of HLA-B antigens. Total losses were statistically associated with several clinical and pathological parameters, but there were no differences regarding tumour-infiltrating leucocytes. After conducting a prospective study, only T and N staging and scoring according to Glanz's malignancy classification were found to be independently related to patients' outcome. From our data, we conclude that neither complete loss of HLA class I antigens nor tumour-infiltrating leucocytes appear to influence survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. PMID:8956796

  10. Peripheral nerve tumours: 30-year experience in the surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Mazurek, Piotr; Koszewicz, Magdalena; Zió?kowski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve tumours are relatively rare type of soft tissue tumours. The aim of this work is to present our experience with surgical treatment of this type of lesions. Clinical material consists of 94 patients (56 females, 38 males), in whom 101 tumours deriving from peripheral nervous system were removed. The patients underwent surgical treatment between 1983 and 2012. Tumours occurred mainly in the upper extremity (72 tumours), less often in the lower extremity (25 tumours). Lesions developed in major peripheral nerves (51 tumours) and small nerve branches (50 tumours). The most common symptoms reported before surgery included presence of tumour mass (100 %), positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign (95.6 %) and paraesthesia (93.4 %). Less often sensory deficit (89.1 %) and pain (71.7 %) were observed. Motor deficit was the least common manifestation (41.3 %). Benign tumours prevailed in presented material (94 tumours). In 7 cases, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) was identified. As a result of surgical treatment in the group of tumours deriving from major peripheral nerves, in 87.8 % of the patients, pain relief was achieved; in 84 %, Hoffmann-Tinel sign was negative; and in 79 %, paraesthesia resolved. Sensory function improvement was observed in 51.2 % of the patients while motor function improved in 26.3 % of the patients. None of the patients experienced tumour relapse. In the group of tumours deriving from small nerve branches, 47 patients had no signs of tumour recurrence. One female patient diagnosed with MPNST suffered a relapse. Obtaining satisfactory results of peripheral nerve tumour treatment requires both careful differential diagnosis and well thought-out strategy at every stage of therapeutic management. PMID:25727458

  11. Incidence, histopathologic analysis and distribution of tumours of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this large collective and meticulous study of primary bone tumours and tumourous lesions of the hand was to enhance the knowledge about findings of traumatological radiographs and improve differential diagnosis. Methods This retrospective study reviewed data collected from 1976 until 2006 in our Bone Tumour Registry. The following data was documented: age, sex, radiological investigations, tumour location, histopathological features including type and dignity of the tumour, and diagnosis. Results The retrospective analysis yielded 631 patients with a mean age of 35.9?±?19.2 years. The majority of primary hand tumours were found in the phalanges (69.7%) followed by 24.7% in metacarpals and 5.6% in the carpals. Only 10.6% of all cases were malignant. The major lesion type was cartilage derived at 69.1%, followed by bone cysts 11.3% and osteogenic tumours 8.7%. The dominant tissue type found in phalanges and metacarpals was of cartilage origin. Osteogenic tumours were predominant in carpal bones. Enchondroma was the most commonly detected tumour in the hand (47.1%). Conclusions All primary skeletal tumours can be found in the hand and are most often of cartilage origin followed by bone cysts and osteogenic tumours. This study furthermore raises awareness about uncommon or rare tumours and helps clinicians to establish proper differential diagnosis, as the majority of detected tumours of the hand are asymptomatic and accidental findings on radiographs. PMID:24885007

  12. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  13. Presentation and management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Mongan, A M; Malik, V; Rowley, S; Claxton, Z; Muldoon, C; O'Toole, D; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

    2013-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumour of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to present the experience of a single centre. A prospective GIST database from 1997 to 2011 in a tertiary referral centre wa reviewed. 78 patients (36 male/42 female) with a median age of 66 (range 10-93) were diagnosed with GIST during this period. Surgery was the primary treatment for 70 patients (90%); 19 (24%) resections were laparoscopic. Nineteen patients (24%) received Imatinib therapy. At a median follow up of 3 years, 10 patients (15%) had recurrence. Five-year survival was 89%. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Minimally invasive approaches may be carried out with high cure rates. This study highlights the changing presentation and treatment approach, as well as the excellent outcomes achievable for GIST tumours. PMID:23909154

  14. Anti-tumour strategies aiming to target tumour-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoqiang; Mo, Chunfen; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a predominant population of inflammatory cells that present in solid tumours. TAMs are mostly characterized as alternatively activated M2-like macrophages and are known to orchestrate nearly all stages of tumour progression. Experimental investigations indicate that TAMs contribute to drug-resistance and radio-protective effects, and clinical evidence shows that an elevated number of TAMs and their M2 profile are correlated with therapy failure and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Recently, many studies on TAM-targeted strategies have made significant progress and some pilot works have achieved encouraging results. Among these, connections between some anti-tumour drugs and their influence on TAMs have been suggested. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in TAM-targeted strategies for tumour therapy. Based on the proposed mechanisms, those strategies are grouped into four categories: (i) inhibiting macrophage recruitment; (ii) suppressing TAM survival; (iii) enhancing M1-like tumoricidal activity of TAMs; (iv) blocking M2-like tumour-promoting activity of TAMs. It is desired that further attention be drawn to this research field and more effort be made to promote TAM-targeted tumour therapy. PMID:23113570

  15. An Electron Microscope Study of Mitochondrial DNA in Spontaneous Human Tumours and Chemically Induced Animal Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. M.; Fox, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    MtDNA was extracted by a phenol method from transplanted and primary DAB induced hepatomata in male Wistar rats, normal rat liver, spontaneous human tumours (2 Wilm's tumours, one neuroblastoma and one adrenal carcinoma), as well as 2 specimens of normal human kidney, BNU induced “leukaemias” in mice and CHO fibroblasts in monolayer culture. The proportion of monomers, catenated dimers and oligomers, open dimers and small circles was determined by electron microscopy of the fractions comprising lower and middle DNA bands in a CsCl-EthBr gradient. Tumours were compared where possible with their normal tissue of origin. Open dimers were found in 2 Wilm's tumours and their attached “normal-looking” kidney tissue but not in normal, non-malignant kidney or any other tissue studied. In Wilm's tumours, the occurrence of open dimers is far from being an all-or-none phenomenon. Malignancy produced little change in the relative proportions of catenated dimers and oligomers in the tissues studied. Small circles were found associated with mtDNA from every tissue. Tumour mtDNA was not more heterogeneous in length than monomers from the corresponding normal tissue, neither was the mean length of tumour mtDNA significantly different from its corresponding normal mtDNA. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:4368398

  16. Investigating citrullinated proteins in tumour cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conversion of arginine into citrulline, termed citrullination, has important consequences for the structure and function of proteins. Studies have found PADI4, an enzyme performing citrullination, to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumours and have shown that PADI4 participates in the process of tumorigenesis. However, as citrullinated proteins have not been systematically investigated in tumours, the present study aimed to identify novel citrullinated proteins in tumours by 2-D western blotting (2-D WB). Methods Two identical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were prepared using extracts from ECA, H292, HeLa, HEPG2, Lovo, MCF-7, PANC-1, SGC, and SKOV3 tumour cell lines. The expression profiles on a 2-DE gel were trans-blotted to PVDF membranes, and the blots were then probed with an anti-citrulline antibody. By comparing the 2-DE profile with the parallel 2-D WB profile at a global level, protein spots with immuno-signals were collected from the second 2-DE gel and identified using mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation was used to verify the expression and citrullination of the targeted proteins in tumour cell lines. Results 2-D WB and mass spectrometry identified citrullinated ?-enolase (ENO1), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), keratin 8 (KRT8), tubulin beta (TUBB), T cell receptor chain and vimentin in these cell lines. Immunoprecipitation analyses verified the expression and citrullination of ENO1, HSP60, KRT8, and TUBB in the total protein lysates of the tumour cell lines. Conclusions The citrullination of these proteins suggests a new mechanism in the tumorigenic process. PMID:24099319

  17. Classification Fun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shubinski, Carol

    2012-06-11

    Taxonomic information shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. In this lesson plan, students will classify organisms by kingdom and apply their own understanding of classification to identify organisms. The students should already have an understanding of the basics of the five kindoms and the seven categories of classification. The document includes a pre-test on the topic to gauge student understanding and two classroom activities. The activity is intended for sixth grade students, and should take three to four class periods to complete.

  18. Metastasising pituitary neuroendocrinal tumour with peptide secretion.

    PubMed

    Harinarayan, C V; Reddy, K

    2004-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented with prolactin-secreting invasive pituitary macroadenoma, which was partially excised with right pterional craniotomy. Post-operative computerized tomography revealed persistence of the tumour and hence he was started on oral bromocriptine therapy. His therapeutic compliance was poor. Seven years later he presented with further increase in size of the pituitary macroadenoma with hepatic and gastric metastasis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy of the metastatic lesions and immunohistochemical staining diagnosed it as a neuroendocrinal tumour with peptide secretion. He was initially treated with oral bromocriptine alone and later along with octreotide. PMID:15633727

  19. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

  20. Thoracic Wall Reconstruction in Advanced Breast Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, A.; Harati, K.; Goertz, O.; Hirsch, T.; Behr, B.; Lehnhardt, M.; Kolbenschlag, J.

    2014-01-01

    In advanced mammary tumours, extensive resections, sometimes involving sections of the thoracic wall, are often necessary. Plastic surgery reconstruction procedures offer sufficient opportunities to cover even large thoracic wall defects. Pedicled flaps from the torso but also free flap-plasties enable, through secure defect closure, the removal of large, ulcerated, painful or bleeding tumours with moderate donor site morbidity. The impact of thoracic wall resection on the respiratory mechanism can be easily compensated for and patients? quality of life in the palliative stage of disease can often be improved. PMID:24976636

  1. Mediastinal gossypiboma simulating a malignant tumour.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Gossypiboma or textiloma are two terms used to describe any cotton matrix such as gauze pads left behind during an operation in the body cavities. They may lead to infections or abscess formations, or may mimic malignant tumours. Here, we present a woman with a history of a previous operation on her thorax who became symptomatic 25 years after the operation because of retained surgical gauzes covered by fibrinous materials with adhesions to the left lung. The cotton matrix had developed into a gossypiboma mimicking a mediastinal tumour. PMID:22786789

  2. Mediastinal gossypiboma simulating a malignant tumour

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Gossypiboma or textiloma are two terms used to describe any cotton matrix such as gauze pads left behind during an operation in the body cavities. They may lead to infections or abscess formations, or may mimic malignant tumours. Here, we present a woman with a history of a previous operation on her thorax who became symptomatic 25 years after the operation because of retained surgical gauzes covered by fibrinous materials with adhesions to the left lung. The cotton matrix had developed into a gossypiboma mimicking a mediastinal tumour. PMID:22786789

  3. Brain components

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  4. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...

  5. Cutaneous location of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Nathalia; Fraitag, Sylvie; Miquel, Catherine; Salomon, Laurent J; Bourdeaut, Franck; Bodemer, Christine; Roujeau, Thomas; Zerah, Michel; Hadj-Rabia, Smail

    2014-07-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour is a rare and highly malignant tumour of the posterior fossae nervous system that occurs in children especially in the first few years of life. Cutaneous location is not previously reported. A newborn boy was referred for both aqueductal stenosis detected antenatally and skin tags mimicking hamartoma. The cerebral tumour increased in size during a few months leading to both skin and cerebral biopsies. Integrase Interactor-1 (INI-1) immunostaining and tumoural and leukocytes INI-1 gene sequencing confirmed the atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour nature of the cerebral tumour. INI-1 immunostaining in skin biopsy confirmed the dermal location of rhabdoid tumour. Thus, unusual cutaneous lesions may be part of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour. The loss of Integrase INI-1 on immunohistochemical staining is characteristic. PMID:24284868

  6. Intravenous chelated gadolinium as a contrast agent in NMR imaging of cerebral tumours.

    PubMed

    Carr, D H; Brown, J; Bydder, G M; Weinmann, H J; Speck, U; Thomas, D J; Young, I R

    1984-03-01

    NMR imaging was performed on 12 patients with cerebral tumour before and after administration of intravenous gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) (0.1 mmol/kg). Contrast enhancement was seen in all cases. Ring enhancement was most frequent (7 cases) but central, linear, patchy, and diffuse enhancement were also seen with both inversion-recovery and spin-echo sequences. The degree of enhancement was greater than that seen with X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 8 cases, equal to it in 3 cases, and less in 1 case. NMR distinguished between tumour and peritumoral oedema to the same extent as did CT. No side-effects were encountered and there was no significant change in urea, creatinine and electrolytes, liver function tests, blood coagulation, or urine testing after administration of gadolinium-DTPA. Gadolinium-DTPA is likely to be of considerable value in NMR imaging of the brain. PMID:6142210

  7. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  8. pH distributions in spontaneous and isotransplanted rat tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kallinowski, F.; Vaupel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous mammary tumours of the rat with various degrees of malignancy exhibit similar tissue pH distributions. The mean pH (+/- s.d.) of dysplasia is 7.05 +/- 0.20. In benign tumours the mean pH is 6.95 +/- 0.19 and in malignant tumours it is 6.94 +/- 0.19. In contrast, tumours with the same degree of malignancy but different histologies show different pH distributions. Benign tumours with a higher percentage of fibrous tissue exhibit less acidic pH values than those with larger portions of epithelial cells (delta pH = 0.38 pH units). The pH distribution in the benign tumours is independent of the tumour wet weight up to stages of very advanced growth. In the malignant tumours, a trend towards more acidic pH values is observed as the tumour mass enlarges. However, in tissue areas within a malignant tumour with gross, long-established necrosis the pH distribution is shifted towards more alkaline pH values. The pH distributions in spontaneous rat tumours are not significantly different from those obtained in isotransplanted Yoshida sarcomas (6.87 +/- 0.21). In the Yoshida sarcomas, mean pH values do not correlate with tumour size. However, a pH gradient from the rim to the centre of the tumours is found which coincides with the development of small, disseminated necroses in the tumour centre. It is concluded that pathology-related variations of tumour pH may be more important than the mode of tumour origin or the degree of malignancy. PMID:3179183

  9. Results of laminectomy in spinal cord compression due to tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1978-01-01

    Summary In the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Groningen 67 patients were admitted during 8 years with a diagnosis of spinal cord compression by a tumour. Fifthy-three patients had an epidural tumour mass and 14 an intradural tumour. Of the epidural tumour patients became ambulatory, 20 (37.7%) while in the intradural group 78.5% of the patients were improved.

  10. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    PubMed

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system. PMID:25500538

  11. Morphological approach to tumours of the testis and paratestis

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Most neoplastic scrotal masses ultimately prove to be germ cell tumours and are recognisable with routine haematoxylin and eosin?stained sections. The differential diagnosis may be focused, even before reviewing histological sections, by knowledge of patient age, medical history, tumour site (testicular vs paratesticular) and gross findings. Some cases may prove to be diagnostically challenging, including rare tumours, a common tumour with an unusual pattern, a metastatic tumour, or a neoplasm with features that mimic another tumour. Several morphological patterns are seen with some frequency and these generate recurring sets of differential diagnostic considerations. These common patterns include testicular tumours with a predominant diffuse arrangement of cells with pale to clear cytoplasm, tumours with a glandular/tubular pattern, tumours with a microcystic pattern and tumours composed of oxyphilic cells. Intratubular proliferations of atypical cells, paratesticular glandular and/or papillary tumours, or tumours with spindle cell morphology can also be challenging to diagnose correctly. In some problematic cases, immunohistochemical staining may be useful to resolve these differential diagnoses. PMID:17307866

  12. TUMOUR IMMUNOLOGY Keeping virus-driven lymphomas in check

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    cleared by the immune system, but it can persist in some cells for life. Under conditions for the NK cell receptor NKG2D. Indeed, treatment of tumour-bearing mice with an NKG2D­Fc fusion protein, consequently, effector immune cells cannot gain access to the tumour. In this study, the authors treated tumour-bearing

  13. Treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Kaltsas; D Papadogias; P Makras; A B Grossman

    2005-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that frequently express cell membrane-specific peptide receptors, such as somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), and of which gastroenteropancreatic (GEP), carcinoid and pancreatic islet cell tumours exhibit the highest expression of SSTRs. Radiolabelled receptor-binding somatostatin analogues (octreotide and lanreotide) act as vehicles to guide radioactivity to tissues expressing SSTRs, and can thus be used

  14. Current and Potential Role of Thermoradiotherapy for Solid Tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hehr; P. Wust; M. Bamberg; W. Budach

    2003-01-01

    SummaryThe disappointing results for inoperable, locally advanced or recurrent solid tumours of the uterine cervix, rectum, chest wall, liver and deep seated, high-risk sarcomas after conventional radiotherapy alone necessitate the search for improved treatments. A benefit from simultaneous radiochemotherapy with regard to local tumour control and survival has been shown for a rising number of tumour entities. Radiofrequency hyperthermia is

  15. Controversies and advances in the management of Wilms’ tumour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Pritchard-Jones

    2002-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the success stories of paediatric oncology with long term survival approaching 90% in localised disease and over 70% for metastatic disease. Although appearing relatively simple compared to other cancer treatment regimens, successful treatment of Wilms tumour requires meticulous attention to correct staging of the tumour and good communication between the paediatric surgeon, pathologist and oncologist.

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour growth in Nude mice Julie to tumours in Nude mice. Methods: HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells and L50 statin-resistant derivatives were injected subcutaneously into Nude mice and tumour growth was recorded. At the end of the experiment

  17. In vivo evaluation of intracellular drug-nanocarriers infused into intracranial tumours by convection-enhanced delivery: distribution and radiosensitisation efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Vinchon-Petit; Delphine Jarnet; Archibald Paillard; Jean-Pierre Benoit; Emmanuel Garcion; Philippe Menei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the interest of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for the administration\\u000a of a nanocarrier-based radiosensitizing chemotherapy in the rat brain. Pursuing on newly developed lipid nanocapsules (LNC)\\u000a that can be internalised within brain tumour cells, we studied their intracerebral distribution when labelled with fluorescent\\u000a Nile red (NR). As paclitaxel (Px) represents an interesting

  18. The role of MR imaging in the diagnostic characterisation of appendicular bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Alyas; S. L. James; A. M. Davies; A. Saifuddin

    2007-01-01

    MRI has an established role in the local staging of primary bone tumours. However, as the majority of tumours have non-specific\\u000a appearances on MRI, the diagnosis is usually established on the basis of clinical history, plain film findings and biopsy.\\u000a This article reviews the value of MRI in the further characterisation of appendicular bone tumours and tumour-like lesions,\\u000a with particular

  19. The coming of age of tumour immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Ada

    1999-01-01

    Compared with the earlier incidence of acute infectious diseases, the introduction of vaccines has been one of the major public health success achievements. In contrast, vaccine development to control some persisting infections such as HIV remains a major challenge. There are many similarities with this task and that of controlling tumours by immunotherapy. Generating CTL responses by using pulsed dendritic

  20. Pulmonary tumour microembolism clinically mimicking alveolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A W I Lo; G M K Tse; W C W Chu; A B W Chan

    2003-01-01

    A 56 year old man with previously unsuspected recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus presented with dyspnoea. Bronchoscopy and computed tomography suggested bronchopneumonic changes with an infectious cause. He suffered a rapidly deteriorating course and died despite active treatment, including antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. Necropsy revealed a florid pulmonary tumour microembolism mimicking alveolitis. No bronchopneumonia was seen. The

  1. Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumours: Indolent but Not Benign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara De Dosso; Emilio Bajetta; Giuseppe Procopio; Diego Cortinovis; Roberto Buzzoni; Laura Catena; Marco Platania; Elena Verzoni

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs). Results: At diagnosis,

  2. Complications of radiofrequency coagulation of liver tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mulier; P. Mulier; Y. Ni; Y. Miao; B. Dupas; G. Marchal; I. De Wever; L. Michel

    2002-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency coagulation (RFC) is being promoted as a novel technique with a low morbidity rate in the treatment of liver tumours. The purpose of this study was to assess critically the complication rates of RFC in centres with both large and limited initial experience, and to establish causes and possible means of prevention and treatment. Methods: This is an

  3. Tumours of the eyelid: ambulatory surgery treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira Elena-Sorando; C. Vázquez-Galeano; N. Galeano-Ricaño; P. Mart??nez-Seijas; J. Azúa-Romeo; G. Cimorra-Moreno

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To analyse the peculiar surgical features of the eyelid and the nature of those tumoural lesions located in the eyelid and its surrounding area, treated as a Day-Surgery procedure in a Plastic Surgery Department. Methods: A retrospective review of 107 patients with periocular lesions surgically treated in our hospital in 2002 by Ambulatory Surgery. Conclusions: In our hospital, the

  4. Canine oral mucosal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J W; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L; Berlato, D; Murphy, S; Grant, I A

    2013-11-11

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common cutaneous tumours of dogs, however rarely they can arise from the oral mucosa. This subset of MCT is reported to demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course than those tumours on the haired skin and the authors hypothesised that dogs with oral, mucosal MCT would have a high incidence of local lymph node metastasis at presentation and that this would be a negative prognostic factor. An additional hypothesis was that mitotic index (MI) would be prognostic. This retrospective study examines 33 dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa. The results suggest that oral mucosal MCTs in the dog have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (55%) which results in a poor prognosis. MI and nodal metastasis is highly prognostic. Loco-regional progression is common in these patients and dogs with adequate local control of their tumour had an improved outcome. Despite a more aggressive clinical course, treatment can result in protracted survivals, even when metastasis is present. PMID:24215587

  5. Tumour immunologyCrosstalk between cancer and immune cells: role of STAT3 in the tumour microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Kortylewski; Drew Pardoll; Hua Yu

    2007-01-01

    Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signalling pathways, is constitutively activated both in tumour cells and in immune cells in the

  6. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13682514

  7. Unravelling mechanisms of p53-mediated tumour suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bieging, Kathryn T.; Mello, Stephano Spano; Attardi, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    p53 is a crucial tumour suppressor that responds to diverse stress signals by orchestrating specific cellular responses, including transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, which are all processes associated with tumour suppression. However, recent studies have challenged the relative importance of these canonical cellular responses for p53-mediated tumour suppression and have highlighted roles for p53 in modulating other cellular processes, including metabolism, stem cell maintenance, invasion and metastasis, as well as communication within the tumour microenvironment. In this Opinion article, we discuss the roles of classical p53 functions, as well as emerging p53-regulated processes, in tumour suppression. PMID:24739573

  8. Intracapillary HbO2 saturations in murine tumours and human tumour xenografts measured by cryospectrophotometry: relationship to tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, E. K.; Fenton, B. M.; Sutherland, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Frequency distributions for intracapillary HbO2 saturation were determined for two murine tumour lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) using a cryospectrophotometric method. The aim was to search for possible relationships between HbO2 saturation status and tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumour pH was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Hypoxic fractions were determined from cell survival curves for tumours irradiated in vivo and assayed in vitro. Tumours in the volume range 100-4000 mm3 were studied and the majority of the vessels were found to have HbO2 saturations below 10%. The volume-dependence of the HbO2 frequency distributions differed significantly among the four tumour lines; HbO2 saturation status decreased with increasing tumour volume for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was independent of tumour volume for the OWI line. The data indicated that the rate of decrease in HbO2 saturation status during tumour growth was related to the rate of development of necrosis. The volume-dependence of tumour pH was very similar to that of the HbO2 saturation status for all tumour lines. Significant correlations were therefore found between HbO2 saturation status and tumour pH, both within tumour lines and across the four tumour lines, reflecting that the volume-dependence of both parameters probably was a compulsory consequence of reduced oxygen supply conditions during tumour growth. Hypoxic fraction increased during tumour growth for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was volume-independent for the OWI line, suggesting a relationship between HbO2 saturation status and hypoxic fraction within tumour lines. However, there was no correlation between these two parameters across the four tumour lines, indicating that the hypoxic fraction of a tumour is not determined only by the oxygen supply conditions; other parameters may also be important, e.g. oxygen diffusivity, rate of oxygen consumption and cell survival time under hypoxic stress. PMID:3395554

  9. Mesenteric fibromatosis with intestinal involvement mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, Marek; Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska, Bogna; Slodkowski, Maciej; Cebulski, Wlodzimierz; Gornicka, Barbara; Krasnodebski, Ireneusz W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mesenteric fibromatosis or intra-abdominal desmoid tumour is a rare proliferative disease affecting the mesentery. It is a locally aggressive tumour that lacks metastatic potential, but the local recurrence is common. Mesenteric fibromatosis with the intestinal involvement can be easily confused with other primary gastrointestinal tumours, especially with that of the mesenchymal origin. Case report We report a case of a 44-year-old female who presented with an abdominal mass that radiologically and pathologically mimicked a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Conclusions The diagnosis of mesenteric fibromatosis should always be considered in the case of mesenchymal tumours apparently originating from the bowel wall that diffusely infiltrate the mesentery. PMID:22933936

  10. Microsatellite Instability Use in Mismatch Repair Gene Sequence Variant Classification

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Bryony A.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR) can cause MMR deficiency and increased susceptibility to colorectal and endometrial cancer. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the defining molecular signature of MMR deficiency. The clinical classification of identified MMR gene sequence variants has a direct impact on the management of patients and their families. For a significant proportion of cases sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance (also known as unclassified variants) are identified, constituting a challenge for genetic counselling and clinical management of families. The effect on protein function of these variants is difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of MSI in tumours can aid in determining the pathogenicity of associated unclassified MMR gene variants. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account when using MSI for variant interpretation. The use of MSI and other tumour characteristics in MMR gene sequence variant classification will be explored in this review. PMID:25831438

  11. Triangle Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-29

    This geometry lesson from Illuminations presents the Triangle Classification problem. Students will attempt to classify the triangles formed in a plane when a randomly selected point is connected to the endpoints of a given line segment. Students should have access to a computer with internet access for the lesson. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

  12. Effect of radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in patients operated on for low grade astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruehlmeier, M; Roelcke, U; Amsler, B; Schubert, K; Hausmann, O; von Ammon, K; Radu, E; Gratzl, O; Landmann, C; Leenders, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of postoperative radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) of operated patients with low grade astrocytomas.?METHODS—PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was used to measure absolute CMRGlu in patients with fibrillary astrocytoma (WHO II) of the frontal lobe, who did (n=7) or did not (n=12) receive radiotherapy subsequent to first debulking tumour resection. In addition, statistical parametric mapping (SPM95) was applied to assess the pattern of relative CMRGlu associated with the frontal tumour. Data were compared with 12 healthy controls.?RESULTS—A global reduction of absolute CMRGlu was found when either patients with or without radiotherapy were compared with controls (ROI analysis). Brain areas of relative CMRGlu reduction were found in the brain ipsilateral and contralateral to the tumour, comparing both patient groups with controls by SPM ("tumour diaschisis effect"). Superimposed, absolute CMRGlu in the contralateral frontal, parietal, occipital cortex as well as in the white matter was on average 17% lower in patients receiving radiotherapy than in patients who did not.?CONCLUSIONS—The data discriminate a tumour effect from a radiotherapy effect, and support the view of adverse effects of radiotherapy on brain not directly involved by tumour.?? PMID:10209180

  13. Disparate responses of tumour vessels to angiotensin II: tumour volume-dependent effects on perfusion and oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thews, O; Kelleher, D K; Vaupel, P

    2000-01-01

    Perfusion and oxygenation of experimental tumours were studied during angiotensin II (AT II) administration whereby the rate of the continuous AT II infusion was chosen to increase the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) by 50–70 mmHg. In subcutaneous DS- sarcomas the red blood cell (RBC) flux was assessed using the laser Doppler technique and the mean tumour oxygen partial pressure (p O 2) was measured polarographically using O 2-sensitive catheter and needle electrodes. Changes in RBC flux with increasing MABP depended mainly on tumour size. In small tumours, RBC flux decreased with rising MABP whereas in larger tumours RBC flux increased parallel to the MABP. As a result of these volume-dependent effects on tumour blood flow, the impact of AT II on tumour p O 2 was also mainly tumour volume-related. In small tumours oxygenation decreased with increasing MABP during AT II infusion, whereas in large tumours a positive relationship between blood pressure and O 2 status was found. This disparate behaviour might be the result of the co-existence of two functionally distinct populations of tumour vessels. In small tumours, perfusion decreases presumably due to vasoconstriction of pre-existing host vessels feeding the tumour. In larger malignancies, newly formed tumour vessels predominate and seem not to have this vasoresponsive capability (lack of smooth muscle cells and/or AT receptors), resulting in an improvement of perfusion which is not tumour-related per se, but is due to the increased perfusion pressure. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901375

  14. HLA-dependent tumour development: a role for tumour associate macrophages?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    HLA abnormalities on tumour cells for immune escape have been widely described. In addition, cellular components of the tumour microenvironment, in particular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and alternatively activated M2 tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), are involved in tumour promotion, progression, angiogenesis and suppression of anti-tumour immunity. However, the role of HLA in these activities is poorly understood. This review details MHC class I characteristics and describes MHC class I receptors functions. This analysis established the basis for a reflection about the crosstalk among the tumour cells, the TAMs and the cells mediating an immune response. The tumour cells and TAMs exploit MHC class I molecules to modulate the surrounding immune cells. HLA A, B, C and G molecules down-regulate the macrophage myeloid activation through the interaction with the inhibitory LILRB receptors. HLA A, B, C are able to engage inhibitory KIR receptors negatively regulating the Natural Killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes function while HLA-G induces the secretion of pro-angiogenic cytokines and chemokine thanks to an activator KIR receptor expressed by a minority of peripheral NK cells. The open conformer of classical MHC-I is able to interact with LILRA receptors described as being associated to the Th2-type cytokine response, triggering a condition for the M2 like TAM polarization. In addition, HLA-E antigens on the surface of the TAMs bind the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A expressed by a subset of NK cells and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes protecting from the cytolysis. Furthermore MHC class II expression by antigen presenting cells is finely regulated by factors provided with immunological capacities. Tumour-associated macrophages show an epigenetically controlled down-regulation of the MHC class II expression induced by the decoy receptor DcR3, a member of the TNFR, which further enhances the M2-like polarization. BAT3, a positive regulator of MHC class II expression in normal macrophages, seems to be secreted by TAMs, consequently lacking its intracellular function, it looks like acting as an immunosuppressive factor. In conclusion HLA could cover a considerable role in tumour-development orchestrated by tumour-associated macrophages. PMID:24093459

  15. Constraint Classification for Multiclass Classification and Ranking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sariel Har-peled; Dan Roth; Dav Zimak

    2002-01-01

    The constraint classification framework captures many flavors of mul- ticlass classification including winner-take-all multiclass classification, multilabel classification and ranking. We present a meta-algorithm for learning in this framework that learns via a single linear classifier in high dimension. We discuss distribution independent as well as margin-based generalization bounds and present empirical and theoretical evidence showing that constraint classification benefits over

  16. Skull base tumours Part II. Central skull base tumours and intrinsic tumours of the bony skull base.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-06-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base. PMID:18472241

  17. Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced neuronal loss is mediated by microglial phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Neniskyte, Urte; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2014-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, expressed in many brain pathologies and associated with neuronal loss. We show here that addition of TNF-? to neuronal–glial co-cultures increases microglial proliferation and phagocytosis, and results in neuronal loss that is prevented by eliminating microglia. Blocking microglial phagocytosis by inhibiting phagocytic vitronectin and P2Y6 receptors, or genetically removing opsonin MFG-E8, prevented TNF-? induced loss of live neurons. Thus TNF-? appears to induce neuronal loss via microglial activation and phagocytosis of neurons, causing neuronal death by phagoptosis. PMID:24911209

  18. Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced neuronal loss is mediated by microglial phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Neniskyte, Urte; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C

    2014-08-25

    Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, expressed in many brain pathologies and associated with neuronal loss. We show here that addition of TNF-? to neuronal-glial co-cultures increases microglial proliferation and phagocytosis, and results in neuronal loss that is prevented by eliminating microglia. Blocking microglial phagocytosis by inhibiting phagocytic vitronectin and P2Y6 receptors, or genetically removing opsonin MFG-E8, prevented TNF-? induced loss of live neurons. Thus TNF-? appears to induce neuronal loss via microglial activation and phagocytosis of neurons, causing neuronal death by phagoptosis. PMID:24911209

  19. Synthesis and biological characterisation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, novel and high selectivity ?2 radiotracers, for tumour imaging properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sigma2 (?2) receptors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines and in tumours. Two novel selective 18F-phthalimido ?2 ligands, 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, were prepared and characterised for their potential tumour imaging properties. Methods Preparation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353 was achieved via nucleophilic substitution of their respective nitro precursors. In vitro studies including radioreceptor binding assays in the rat brain membrane and cell uptake studies in the A375 cell line were performed. In vivo studies were carried out in mice bearing A375 tumours including positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, biodistribution, blocking and metabolite studies. Results In vitro studies showed that SIG343 and SIG353 displayed excellent affinity and selectivity for ?2 receptors (Ki(?2)?=?8 and 3 nM, ?2:?1?=?200- and 110-fold, respectively). The ?2 selectivity of 18F-SIG343 was further confirmed by blocking studies in A375 cells, however, not noted for 18F-SIG353. Biodistribution studies showed that both radiotracers had similar characteristics including moderately high tumour uptake (4%ID/g to 5%ID/g); low bone uptake (3%ID/g to 4%ID/g); and high tumour-to-muscle uptake ratios (four- to sevenfold) up to 120 min. Although radiotracer uptake in organs known to express ? receptors was significantly blocked by pre-injection of competing ? ligands, the blocking effect was not observed in the tumour. PET imaging studies indicated major radioactive localisation in the chest cavity for both ligands, with approximately 1%ID/g uptake in the tumour at 120 min. Metabolite studies showed that the original radiotracers remained unchanged 65% to 80% in the tumour up to 120 min. Conclusions The lead ligands showed promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. However, PET imaging indicated low tumour-to-background ratios. Furthermore, we were unable to demonstrate that uptake in the A375 tumour was ?2-specific. 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG343 do not display ideal properties for imaging the ?2 receptor in the A375 tumour model. However, since the radiotracers show promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics, longer scans using appropriate half-life isotopes and alternative tumour models will be carried out in future studies to fully validate the imaging characteristics of these radiotracers. PMID:24330526

  20. Verification of genes differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tumours: a study of potential tumour suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Thorell, Kaisa; Bergman, Annika; Carén, Helena; Nilsson, Staffan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Abel, Frida

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most striking features of the childhood malignancy neuroblastoma (NB) is its clinical heterogeneity. Although there is a great need for better clinical and biological markers to distinguish between tumours with different severity and to improve treatment, no clear-cut prognostic factors have been found. Also, no major NB tumour suppressor genes have been identified. Methods In this study we performed expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) on primary NB tumours divided into two groups, of favourable and unfavourable outcome respectively. Candidate genes were selected on basis of lower expression in unfavourable tumour types compared to favourables in our microarray expression analysis. Selected genes were studied in two steps: (1) using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) targeting 89 genes on a set of 12 NB tumour samples, and (2) 12 genes were selected from the TLDA analysis for verification using individual TaqMan assays in a new set of 13 NB tumour samples. Results By TLDA analysis, 81 out of 87 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between groups, of which 14 have previously been reported as having an altered gene expression in NB. In the second verification round, seven out of 12 transcripts showed significantly lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours, ATBF1, CACNA2D3, CNTNAP2, FUSIP1, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B. The gene that showed the highest fold change in the TLDA analysis, POU4F2, was investigated for epigenetic changes (CpG methylation) and mutations in order to explore the cause of the differential expression. Moreover, the fragile site gene CNTNAP2 that showed the largest fold change in verification group 2 was investigated for structural aberrations by copy number analysis. However, the analyses of POU4F2 and CNTNAP2 showed no genetic alterations that could explain a lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours. Conclusion Through two steps of verification, seven transcripts were found to significantly discriminate between favourable and unfavourable NB tumours. Four of the transcripts, CACNA2D3, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B, have been observed in previous microarray studies, and are in this study independently verified. Our results suggest these transcripts to be markers of malignancy, which could have a potential usefulness in the clinic. PMID:19686582

  1. Tumour-targeted nanomedicines: principles and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. G. M. Lammers; W. E. Hennink; G. Storm

    2008-01-01

    Drug targeting systems are nanometre-sized carrier materials designed for improving the biodistribution of systemically applied (chemo)therapeutics. Various different tumour-targeted nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, and clear evidence is currently available for substantial improvement of the therapeutic index of anticancer agents. Here, we briefly summarise the most important targeting systems and strategies, and discuss recent advances and future directions

  2. The phenotype of gut endocrine tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Rindi; A Ubiali; V Villanacci

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine tumours of gut and pancreas tract are rare entities originating from cells of the diffuse endocrine system. The endocrine phenotype is assessed by the expression of general and specific endocrine markers. General endocrine markers associate to organelles like large dense core vesicles (e.g. chromogranin A) and small synaptic-like vesicles (e.g. synaptophysin), or to the cytosol, like neuron specific enolase

  3. Radiological appearance of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour.

    PubMed

    Rasalkar, Darshana D; Chu, Winnie C W; To, Ka-fai; Cheng, Frankie W T; Li, C K

    2010-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) is a distinct entity with variable clinical presentation and therapeutic options. We present three paediatric cases of IMFT, originated from the lung, bladder and ovary respectively. All lesions were heterogeneous, with mixed solid/cystic components and infiltrative pattern, and were interpreted as aggressive malignant neoplasms initially due to their bizarre imaging appearance. The definitive diagnosis was derived from characteristic histopathological features. PMID:20127845

  4. An Unusual Location of Neuroendocrine Tumour: Primary Hepatic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Art??, A. Tar?k; ?enol, Serkan; ?im?ek, Bengü Çobano?lu

    2015-01-01

    Although neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of primary hepatic origin are extremely rare, most of NETs present with liver metastasis. When a NET is found in the liver, it must be treated to exclude metastasis from extrahepatic primary sites. The patient was a 38-year-old female. Abdominal ultrasound showed an 8?cm tumour in liver during a routine examination. Liver biopsy was done. The tumour was first considered a metastatic hepatic tumour on histopathological examination. No clues to the origin of a primary tumour were found. Upper and lower endoscopy of the GI tract and chest CT were performed to search for a primary tumour and were negative for any tumour. One month later, more extensive areas of the tumour were seen on histopathological examination of second liver biopsy with the same morphologic characteristics as the first biopsy. Immunohistochemically, there was positive staining for synaptophysin, CD 56, and S-100 in the tumour cells. These findings suggested the diagnosis of NET. The diagnosis of primary liver NET was considered in a multidisciplinary meeting. Then, left hepatectomy was performed. The final pathologic diagnosis of the tumour in the resected liver specimen was Grade II NET. The patient was doing well at postoperative 28-month follow-up.

  5. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins. PMID:19968734

  6. Tumour suppressors--a fly's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, J E; Korenjak, M; Brehm, A

    2003-07-01

    For a century, the little fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has taught generations of geneticists about how genes control the development of a multicellular organism. More recently, Drosophila has begun to contribute more directly towards our understanding of human disease [Bernards A, Hariharan IK. Of flies and men-studying human disease in Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2001, 11, 274-278]. It is capable of doing this because it shares many disease-related genes with us. For example, the Drosophila genome sequencing project has revealed that two thirds of the genes implicated in human cancers have a counterpart in the fly genome [Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, et al. The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 2000, 287, 2185-2195, Fortini ME, Skupski MP, Boguski MS, Hariharan IK. A survey of human disease gene counterparts in the Drosophila genome. J Cell Biol 2000, 150, F23-30]. In particular, the fly has homologues of the Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and of p53, two prototypical tumour suppressors which are inactivated in the majority of human tumours. Here, we will compare the fly's tumour suppressors with their human counterparts and we will review recent advances in our understanding of how these factors function in the fly. PMID:12826037

  7. Anthrax toxin: structures, functions and tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihui; Schubert, Rebecca L; Bugge, Thomas H; Leppla, Stephen H

    2003-08-01

    Anthrax toxin, the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, consists of three polypeptides: protective antigen (PrAg), lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). To intoxicate mammalian cells, PrAg binds to its cellular receptors and is subsequently activated via proteolysis, yielding a carboxyl-terminal fragment which coordinately assembles to form heptamers that bind and translocate LF and EF into the cytosol to exert their cytotoxic effects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years towards the characterisation of the structure and function of anthrax toxin, and this has greatly facilitated rational drug design of antianthrax agents. There is also emerging evidence that toxins can be manipulated for cancer therapy. LF can efficiently inactivate several mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) via cleavage of their amino-terminal sequences. Consequently, antitumour effects of wild type lethal toxin were observed after treatment of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent tumours such as human melanomas. Modification of the toxin's proteolytic activation site limits its cytotoxicity to certain cell types and creates a versatile method of treatment. One approach that has successfully achieved specific tumour targeting is the alteration of the furin cleavage of PrAg so that it is not activated by furin, but, alternatively, by proteases that are highly expressed by tumour tissues, including matrix metalloproteases and urokinase. PMID:12880383

  8. Chemical analysis of multicellular tumour spheroids.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, L E; Harrison, D J; Campbell, C J

    2015-06-21

    Conventional two dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture has been considered the 'gold standard' technique for in vitro cellular experiments. However, the need for a model that better mimics the three dimensional (3D) architecture of tissue in vivo has led to the development of Multicellular Tumour Spheroids (MTS) as a 3D tissue culture model. To some extent MTS mimic the environment of in vivo tumours where, for example, oxygen and nutrient gradients develop, protein expression changes and cells form a spherical structure with regions of proliferation, senescence and necrosis. This review focuses on the development of techniques for chemical analysis of MTS as a tool for understanding in vivo tumours and a platform for more effective drug and therapy discovery. While traditional monolayer techniques can be translated to 3D models, these often fail to provide the desired spatial resolution and z-penetration for live cell imaging. More recently developed techniques for overcoming these problems will be discussed with particular reference to advances in instrument technology for achieving the increased spatial resolution and imaging depth required. PMID:25923379

  9. Cell metabolism, tumour diagnosis and multispectral FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, A.; Hauser, C.; Lorenz, S.; Mosch, S.; Rotte, S.; Kessler, M.; Kalinina, S.

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence guided diagnosis of tumour tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results are interfering with the outcome. Discrimination between tumour and inflammation could be therefore difficult. Improvement of fluorescence diagnosis through observation of cell metabolism could be the solution, which needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. However, a complex combination of fluorophores give rise to the emission signal. Also in PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) different photosensitizer metabolites contribute to the fluorescence signal. Therefore, the fluorescence decay in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. The discussion will focus on the detection of NADH, FAD and 5-ALA induced porphyrins. With respect to NADH and FAD the discrimination between protein bound and free coenzyme was investigated with multispectral FLIM in normal oral keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells from different origin. The redox ratio, which can be correlated with the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD changed depending on the state of the cells. Most of the investigations were done in monolayer cell cultures. However, in order to get information from a more realistic in vivo situation additionally the chorioallantoismembrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs was used where tumour cells or biopsies were allowed to grow. The results of theses measurements will be discussed as well.

  10. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  11. Shuffled Graph Classification: Theory and Connectome Applications

    E-print Network

    Vogelstein, Joshua T

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the extent to which shuffling vertex labels can hinder classification performance, and for which random graph models one might expect this shuffling to be impactful. Via theory we demonstrate a collection of results. Specifically, if one "shuffles" the graphs prior to classification, the vertex label information is irretrievably lost, which can degrade classification performance (and often does). A specific graph-invariant classifier is shown to be Bayes optimal. Moreover, this classifier may be induced by training data consistently and efficiently. Unfortunately, both computational and sample size burdens make this "plugin" classifier impractical. A graph-matched Frobenius norm k nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier, however, is also universally consistent as the number of training samples goes to infinity, and is computationally tractable. Finally, we apply this approach to a connectome classification problem (a connectome is brain-graph where vertices correspond to (collections of...

  12. Tumour cells engineered to secrete interleukin-15 augment anti-tumour immune responses in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hazama, S; Noma, T; Wang, F; Iizuka, N; Ogura, Y; Yoshimura, K; Inoguchi, E; Hakozaki, M; Hirose, K; Suzuki, T; Oka, M

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of interleukin-15 (IL-15) gene transfer into tumour cells on the host's anti-tumour response. In BALB/c mice IL-15 producing Meth-A cells (Meth-A/IL-15) underwent complete rejection, in a response characterized by massive infiltration of CD4+ T-cells and neutrophils. In contrast, Meth-A cells transfected with vector alone (Meth-A/Neo) grew rapidly. Moreover, rechallenged parental cells also were rejected in association with CD8+ T-cell infiltration. However, in nude mice there was no drastic difference between Meth-A/IL-15 and Meth-A/Neo cells. These results demonstrate that IL-15-secreting tumour cells can stimulate local and systemic T-cell-dependent immunity and therefore may have a potential role in cancer therapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10424745

  13. Brain Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

  14. Brain Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brains parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

  15. Brain Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  16. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  17. Lysyl oxidase-like-2 promotes tumour angiogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in angiogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Marshall, Derek; Voloshin, Tali; Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Spangler, Rhyannon; Kessler, Ofra; Ghermazien, Haben; Brekhman, Vera; Suss-Toby, Edith; Adam, Dan; Shaked, Yuval; Smith, Victoria; Neufeld, Gera

    2013-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagen, plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis. We found that administration of the LOXL2-neutralizing antibody AB0023 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays and suppressed recruitment of angiogenesis promoting bone marrow cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 expression or inhibition of LOXL2 using AB0023 reduced the migration and network-forming ability of endothelial cells, suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis results from a direct effect on endothelial cells. To examine the effects of AB0023 on tumour angiogenesis, AB0023 was administered to mice bearing tumours derived from SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. AB0023 treatment significantly reduced the microvascular density in these tumours but did not inhibit tumour growth. However, treatment of mice bearing SKOV-3-derived tumours with AB0023 also promoted increased coverage of tumour vessels with pericytes and reduced tumour hypoxia, providing evidence that anti-LOXL2 therapy results in the normalization of tumour blood vessels. In agreement with these data, treatment of mice bearing LLC-derived tumours with AB0023 improved the perfusion of the tumour-associated vessels as determined by ultrasonography. Improved perfusion and normalization of tumour vessels after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents were previously found to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumours and to result in an enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficiency. Indeed, treatment with AB0023 significantly enhanced the anti-tumourigenic effects of taxol. Our results suggest that inhibition of LOXL2 may prove beneficial for the treatment of angiogenic tumours. PMID:23828904

  18. Selective activation of p53-mediated tumour suppression in high-grade tumours

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Melissa R.; Karnezis, Anthony; Garcia, Daniel; Madriles, Francesc; Kortlever, Roderik M.; Rostker, Fanya; Brown-Swigart, Lamorna; Pham, David M.; Seo, Youngho; Evan, Gerard I.; Martins, Carla P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with an overall 5-year survival rate of only 10–15% 1. Deregulation of the Ras pathway is a frequent hallmark of NSCLC, often through mutations that directly activate Kras 2. p53 is also frequently inactivated in NSCLC and, since oncogenic Ras can be a potent trigger of p53 3, it seems likely that oncogenic Ras signalling plays a major and persistent part in driving the selection against p53. Hence, pharmacological restoration of p53 is an appealing therapeutic strategy for treating this disease 4. Here, we model the likely therapeutic impact of p53 restoration in a spontaneously evolving mouse model of NSCLC initiated by sporadic oncogenic activation of endogenous Kras 5. Surprisingly, p53 restoration failed to induce significant regression of established tumours although it did result in a significant decrease in the relative proportion of tumours classed as high grade. This is due to selective activation of p53 only in the more aggressive tumour cells within each tumour. Such selective activation of p53 correlates with marked up regulation in Ras signal intensity and induction of the oncogenic signalling sensor p19ARF 6. Our data indicate that p53-mediated tumour suppression is triggered only when oncogenic Ras signal flux exceeds a critical threshold. Importantly, the failure of low-level oncogenic Kras to engage p53 reveals inherent limits in the capacity of p53 to restrain early tumour evolution and to the efficacy of therapeutic p53 restoration to eradicate cancers. PMID:21107427

  19. Reduced expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma signifies tumour progression and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001-2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175) and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p < 0.001), perineural growth (p = 0.027), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016), vascular invasion (p = 0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-5.25) and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67-4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10-3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high tumour-specific pIgR expression signifies a more favourable tumour phenotype and that low expression independently predicts a shorter survival in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. The mechanistic basis for the putative tumour suppressing properties of pIgR in these cancers merits further study. PMID:25397670

  20. HHV-8 is not associated with follicular dendritic cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Nayler, S J; Taylor, L; Cooper, K

    1998-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell tumours are rare malignancies derived from the follicular dendritic cells of lymphoid follicles. These tumours have been associated with Epstein-Barr virus infections and with the hyaline vascular subtype of Castleman's disease. Because many examples of Castleman's disease have been associated with Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (HHV-8), this study uses polymerase chain reaction technology to examine five cases of follicular dendritic cell tumours for HHV-8. One of these cases had previously been documented to arise from pre-existing Castleman's disease. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any of the follicular dendritic cell tumours examined, or in the original case of Castleman's disease. These findings suggest that HHV-8 plays no role in the aetiology of follicular dendritic cell tumours and the cause of this tumour remains obscure. PMID:9850342

  1. Novel surgical management of a laryngeal granular cell tumour.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Charlotte Jane; Allen, John Lee Y; Powell, Harry; Sandhu, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare benign tumour occurring, most commonly, in the head and neck. Multiple tumours occur in 5-16% of patients. These tumours are chemo-radio-resistant and have high recurrence rates despite their benign histopathological features. Traditional management, depending on access, involves total tumour resection with wide margins due to the high rates of recurrence with incomplete resection. We present a patient with two synchronous GCTs of their upper airway: in the larynx and the trachea. Complete excision of the supraglottic lesion would have rendered the patient's larynx incompetent. Therefore, after multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion, and following a discussion with the patient regarding the risks and benefits, a novel surgical management approach was agreed. Subtotal CO2 laser excision of the upper GCT was performed enabling functional organ preservation. A subsequent procedure was required when the patient became symptomatic due to tumour recurrence. PMID:26150630

  2. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Puja; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Nath, Devajit; Bhasker, Suman; Chander, Subhash; Bakhshi, Sameer; Singh, Chirom Amit

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:24744936

  3. [Granular cell tumour of the breast. A diagnosis to consider].

    PubMed

    Escudero Esteban, R; Gómez Benítez, S; del Estad Cabello, G; Yáñez Fernández, P

    2014-01-01

    The granular cell tumour is a very rare tumour which originates in the Schwann cells, and is generally benign. It is usually located in the head and neck, and its appearance in the breast is uncommon. Although it is rare tumour, granular cell tumours of the breast have a higher prevalence than previously recognised. This tumour usually imitates breast cancer due to its clinical and imaging data, with its diagnosis being by histopathology. The treatment is a wide local excision, and its prognosis is good with a low recurrence rate. We present two cases of granular tumours of the breast in post-menopausal women that simulated a breast carcinoma in the ultrasound and mammography. The first was detected in the breast cancer screening program, and the second during follow up of an invasive ductal carcinoma. PMID:22325669

  4. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  5. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  6. Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian M. Tozer; Simon M. Ameer-Beg; Jennifer Baker; Paul R. Barber; Sally A. Hill; Richard J. Hodgkiss; Rosalind Locke; Vivien E. Prise; Ian Wilson; Borivoj Vojnovic

    2005-01-01

    The blood supply of solid tumours affects the outcome of treatment via its influence on the microenvironment of tumour cells and drug delivery. In addition, tumour blood vessels are an important target for cancer therapy. Intravital microscopy of tumours growing in ‘window chambers’ in animal models provides a means of directly investigating tumour angiogenesis and vascular response to treatment, in

  7. Mixed tumour of salivary gland type of the male breast.

    PubMed

    Simha, M R; Doctor, V M; Udwadia, T E

    1992-03-01

    Benign breast tumours with a mixed cartilaginous and epithelial component are distinctly rare as evident from the literature. A case of Mixed Tumour of the breast presenting pre-operatively as a hard mass in a 65 year old male is reported. Histologically, it was composed of a mixture of benign cartilage, myoepithelial cells, tubules and a myxoid stroma in fat. A brief review of cartilage bearing lesions and mixed tumour in the mammary region is discussed. PMID:1328037

  8. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darshana D. Rasalkar; Winnie C. W. Chu; Frankie W. T. Cheng; Sze Ki Hui; Siu Cheung Ling; Chi Kong Li

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma)\\u000a and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly\\u000a carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological\\u000a group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only

  9. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    PubMed Central

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis. PMID:23813511

  10. Photodynamic therapy of tumours and other diseases using porphyrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Spikes; Giulio Jori

    1987-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with porphyrins and red light (620–630 nm) is finding increasing clinical application for both\\u000a the eradication of relatively small tumours and the palliation of inoperable or obstructive tumours. PDT also shows some promise\\u000a for the sterilization of the tumour bed after surgical removal of neoplastic masses. Several porphyrins have been found to\\u000a be accumulated and retained by

  11. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  12. Tumour-suppressor activity of H19 RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Hao; Taria Crenshaw; Thomas Moulton; Elizabeth Newcomb; Benjamin Tycko

    1993-01-01

    LOSS of heterozygosity in certain human embryonal tumours implicates a tumour-suppressor gene at chromosome 11p15.5 and selective loss of maternal alleles suggests that this gene is paternally imprinted1-4. The human HI9 gene maps to 11p1S.5, is expressed in differentiating fetal cells5-11 and is paternally imprinted12-16. We report here that two embryonal tumour cell lines, RD and G401, showed growth retardation

  13. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  14. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Angelina J.; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Kisker, Oliver; Flynn, Evelyn; Underwood, Anne; Condron, Rosemary; Hogg, Philip J.

    2000-12-01

    Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. New blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is critical for tumour expansion and metastasis. Here we show that the plasmin reductase isolated from conditioned medium of fibrosarcoma cells is the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase. Recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase had the same specific activity as the fibrosarcoma-derived protein. Plasma of mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours contained several-fold more phosphoglycerate kinase, as compared with mice without tumours. Administration of phosphoglycerate kinase to tumour-bearing mice caused an increase in plasma levels of angiostatin, and a decrease in tumour vascularity and rate of tumour growth. Our findings indicate that phosphoglycerate kinase not only functions in glycolysis but is secreted by tumour cells and participates in the angiogenic process as a disulphide reductase.

  15. Tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation changes that occur in cancer often lead to the expression of tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens. In breast cancer, these antigens are usually associated with a poor prognosis and a reduced overall survival. Cellular models have shown the implication of these antigens in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and tumour growth. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of glycosylation changes (structures, biosynthesis and occurrence) in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumours, and the consequences on disease progression and aggressiveness. The therapeutic strategies attempted to target tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens in breast cancer are also discussed. PMID:20550729

  16. Mathematical modelling of tumour response in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. A.; Gregory, W. M.; Bowman, A.; Leonard, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Although breast cancer is perceived to be relatively chemosensitive, cytotoxic drug therapy only leads to cure in the adjuvant setting. In advanced disease, primary resistance and inadequate cell kill may be important in determining the lack of a durable response to cytotoxics, but for an individual patient's tumour there is no consistent way of determining the importance of these two factors. An adaptation of Skipper's log cell kill model of tumour response to chemotherapy was applied to serial tumour measurements of 46 locally advanced primary breast carcinomas undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Assuming a log-normal distribution of errors in the clinically measured volumes, the model produced, for each tumour separately, in vivo estimates of proportional cell kill, initial resistance and tumour doubling times during therapy. After 4 weeks' treatment, these data could then be used to predict subsequent tumour volumes with good accuracy. In addition, for the 13 tumours that became operable after the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there was a significant association between the final volume as predicted by the model and the final pathological volume (P < 0.05). This approach could be usefully employed to determine those tumours that are primarily resistant to the treatment regimen, permitting changes of therapy to more effective drugs at a time when the tumour is clinically responding but destined to progress. PMID:8645588

  17. Gynandroblastoma: a rare ovarian tumour with an unusual clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Shanthala, P R; Saldhana, Prema; Upadhyaya, Krishnaraj

    2014-02-01

    Gynandroblastoma is a rare ovarian mixed sex cord stromal tumour with very few cases reported in literature. These tumours are considered to be potentially malignant. Here a case of gynandroblastoma occurring in a 30-year female is reported who gave history of irregular menstrual bleeding and pain abdomen, there were no signs of virilisation. Computed tomography scan showed a left adnexal mixed density pelvic mass suggesting malignant ovarian tumour. Histological study revealed, the tumour was composed of mixed sex cord elements with predominantly intermediate differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell component and a second adult type granulosa cell component. PMID:25935975

  18. Pten in stromal fibroblasts suppresses mammary epithelial tumours.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Anthony J; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Li, Fu; Wallace, Julie A; Merchant, Anand; Creasap, Nicholas; Thompson, John C; Caserta, Enrico; Wang, Hui; Chong, Jean-Leon; Naidu, Shan; Wei, Guo; Sharma, Sudarshana M; Stephens, Julie A; Fernandez, Soledad A; Gurcan, Metin N; Weinstein, Michael B; Barsky, Sanford H; Yee, Lisa; Rosol, Thomas J; Stromberg, Paul C; Robinson, Michael L; Pepin, Francois; Hallett, Michael; Park, Morag; Ostrowski, Michael C; Leone, Gustavo

    2009-10-22

    The tumour stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumours. However, signalling between stromal and tumour cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant transformation of mammary epithelial tumours. This was associated with the massive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), innate immune cell infiltration and increased angiogenesis. Loss of Pten in stromal fibroblasts led to increased expression, phosphorylation (T72) and recruitment of Ets2 to target promoters known to be involved in these processes. Remarkably, Ets2 inactivation in Pten stroma-deleted tumours ameliorated disruption of the tumour microenvironment and was sufficient to decrease tumour growth and progression. Global gene expression profiling of mammary stromal cells identified a Pten-specific signature that was highly represented in the tumour stroma of patients with breast cancer. These findings identify the Pten-Ets2 axis as a critical stroma-specific signalling pathway that suppresses mammary epithelial tumours. PMID:19847259

  19. Hypoxia signalling in cancer and approaches to enforce tumour regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouysségur, Jacques; Dayan, Frédéric; Mazure, Nathalie M.

    2006-05-01

    Tumour cells emerge as a result of genetic alteration of signal circuitries promoting cell growth and survival, whereas their expansion relies on nutrient supply. Oxygen limitation is central in controlling neovascularization, glucose metabolism, survival and tumour spread. This pleiotropic action is orchestrated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is a master transcriptional factor in nutrient stress signalling. Understanding the role of HIF in intracellular pH (pHi) regulation, metabolism, cell invasion, autophagy and cell death is crucial for developing novel anticancer therapies. There are new approaches to enforce necrotic cell death and tumour regression by targeting tumour metabolism and pHi-control systems.

  20. Management of endocrine disease: pituitary tumour apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Inder, Warrick; Karavitaki, Niki; Wass, John A H

    2015-05-01

    Pituitary tumour apoplexy (PA) is a rare clinical syndrome that occurs as a result of acute haemorrhage and/or infarction within a frequently undiagnosed pituitary tumour. The sudden enlargement of the pituitary mass undergoing PA is responsible for a wide range of acute symptoms/signs (severe headache, visual loss, diplopia, hypopituitarism, impaired consciousness) which, together with the radiological evidence of a pituitary lesion, establish the diagnosis. The optimal care of PA requires involvement of a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, neurosurgeon, neuroophthalmologist and the management strategy that depends on the clinical manifestations, as well as the presence of co-morbidities. Prompt surgical decompression is initially indicated in cases with severe or progressive impairment of the visual acuity or the visual fields or with altered mental state and leads to visual and neurological recovery in most of the patients. The patients with mild, stable clinical picture (including those with isolated ocular palsies) can be managed conservatively (support of fluid and electrolyte balance and stress doses of steroids in most cases) with favourable visual and neurological outcome. Frequent reassessment is mandatory because the clinical course can be unpredictable; if progression of symptoms occurs, later elective surgery is indicated and is beneficial, especially in terms of visual outcome. The endocrinological outcome is less favourable, irrespective of the treatment option, with many patients remaining on long-term replacement therapy. Despite the above guidelines, clear proof of optimal outcomes in the form of randomised controlled trials is lacking. Regrowth of the pituitary tumour years after a PA episode is possible and patients require long-term surveillance. PMID:25452466

  1. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of paranasal sinuses with fatal outcome: reactive lesion or tumour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Gale; N Zidar; J Podboj; M Volavs?ek; B Luzar

    2003-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) are clinicopathologically distinctive but biologically controversial entities, which have been described in the lungs, abdomen, retroperitoneum, and extremities, but rarely affect the head and neck region. IMT usually follows a benign clinical course after radical excision, but invasive, locally recurrent, and metastatic forms of abdominal and mediastinal IMT have also been described. This report describes a

  2. Cell competition may function either as tumour-suppressing or as tumour-stimulating factor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Arias, L; Saavedra, V; Morata, G

    2014-08-28

    Drosophila endocytosis-defective cells develop tumour overgrowths in the imaginal discs. We have analysed the tumorigenic potential of cells mutant for Rab5, a gene involved in endocytosis. We found that while a compartment entirely made by Rab5 mutant cells can grow indefinitely, clones of Rab5 cells surrounded by normal cells are eliminated by cell competition. However, when a group of about 400 cells are simultaneously made mutant for Rab5, they form an overgrowing tumour: mutant cells in the periphery are eliminated, but those inside survive and continue proliferating because they are beyond the range of cell competition. These results identify group protection as a mechanism to evade the tumour-suppressing function of cell competition in Drosophila. Furthermore, we find that the growth of the tumour depends to a large extent on the presence of apoptosis inside the tumour: cells doubly mutant for Rab5 and the proapoptotic gene dronc do not form overgrowing tumours. These results suggest that the apoptosis caused by cell competition acts as a tumour-stimulating factor, bringing about high levels of Jun N-terminal kinase and subsequently Wg/Dpp signalling and high proliferation levels in the growing tumour. We conclude that under these circumstances cell competition facilitates the progression of the tumour, thus reversing its normal antitumour role. PMID:24096487

  3. Computational modelling of microwave tumour ablations.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jason; Wang, Peng; Brace, Christopher L

    2013-06-01

    Microwave tissue heating is being increasingly utilised in several medical applications, including focal tumour ablation, cardiac ablation, haemostasis and resection assistance. Computational modelling of microwave ablations is a precise and repeatable technique that can assist with microwave system design, treatment planning and procedural analysis. Advances in coupling temperature and water content to electrical and thermal properties, along with tissue contraction, have led to increasingly accurate computational models. Developments in experimental validation have led to broader acceptability and applicability of these newer models. This review will discuss the basic theory, current trends and future direction of computational modelling of microwave ablations. PMID:23738698

  4. Omental inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet; Bagga, Rashmi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) is a relatively uncommon neoplasm with unpredictable malignant potential known to occur anywhere in the body. IMFT involving the omentum is a very rare entity with less than 15 cases reported so far. We report a case of omental IMFT in a 15-year-old girl who presented with multiple peritoneal masses on imaging and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. In addition to its uncommon location, its presentation as multiple masses is extremely uncommon. This uncommon presentation as multifocal masses needs to be distinguished from other causes of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:21435987

  5. Coincidental aneurysms with tumours of pituitary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, J; Kendall, B

    1978-01-01

    Angiographic studies on 150 pituitary adenomas and 33 craniopharyngiomas presenting for surgical treatment are reviewed. Eleven incidental silent aneurysms (four arising from the intracavernous and four from the supraclinoid carotid artery, and three from the anterior cerebral artery complex) are shown. Intracavernous aneurysms were also present in two acromegalic patients who had been treated previously with yttrium implantation. Although encasement of vessels by these tumours is unusual, the relevance of vascular abnormalities to surgical treatment is sufficient to justify routine magnification angiography. Images PMID:712374

  6. Omental inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Manphool; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet; Bagga, Rashmi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) is a relatively uncommon neoplasm with unpredictable malignant potential known to occur anywhere in the body. IMFT involving the omentum is a very rare entity with less than 15 cases reported so far. We report a case of omental IMFT in a 15-year-old girl who presented with multiple peritoneal masses on imaging and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. In addition to its uncommon location, its presentation as multiple masses is extremely uncommon. This uncommon presentation as multifocal masses needs to be distinguished from other causes of peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:21435987

  7. Imaging Tumour Hypoxia with Positron Emission Tomography

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Ian N.; Manavaki, Roido; Blower, Philip J.; West, Catharine; Williams, Kaye J.; Harris, Adrian L.; Domarkas, Juozas; Lord, Simon; Baldry, Claire; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2014-12-16

    response to chemotherapy have also been obtained with Cu–ATSM in lung (Dehdashti et al, 2003) and head–and–neck tumours (Minagawa et al, 2011), and 18F– FAZA in lung cancer (Trinkaus et al, 2013). Radiotherapy planning In oncology, there is interest... . IF was funded by CRUK and is also supported by the Chief Scientific Office. ALH is supported by CRUK and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation. RM is funded by NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. The authors would also like to thank Professors Tim...

  8. Lung tumours segmentation on CT using sparse field active model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Joseph; Wilson, Laura; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) manual segmentation of lung tumours is observer-dependent and time consuming, which are major limitations for use in clinical trials. In this paper we present a semi-automated 3D segmentation method, which is more time-efficient and less operator dependent than manual segmentation. We developed a semi-automated algorithm to segment lung tumours on chest computed tomography (CT) images using shape constrained multi-thresholding (SCMT) and sparse field active model (SFAM) techniques. For each 2D slice of CT tumour image, an initial contour was generated using SCMT. This initial contour was then deformed using SFAM. Seven energies were utilized in the SFAM technique to control the deformation namely: global region, local region, curvature, edge information, smoothness, anchor, and partial volume. The proposed algorithm was tested with 70 CT tumour slices (19 well-defined tumours (WD) located centrally in the lung parenchyma without significant vasculature and 51 vascularized or juxtapleural tumours (VJ)). Our results showed that the initial contour generated by the SCMT technique was sufficient to segment the well-defined (WD) tumours without any deformation. However, the deformation using SFAM was required to segment vascularized or juxtapleural (VJ) tumours. The results of the proposed segmentation algorithm were evaluated by comparing them to manual segmentation using the dice coefficient (DC). The average DC was 96.3+/-1.1% and 95.2+/-1.6% for WD and VJ tumour images respectively. The average DC obtained for the entire data set was 95.5+/-1.6%, which shows that the proposed algorithm can accurately segment lung tumours and can be utilized for monitoring tumours response to treatment.

  9. Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nader; Woo, Mark; Alameldin, Mona; MacDonald, Kyle; Goneau, Lee W.; Cadieux, Peter; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, known for its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. OTA has been linked to several genitourinary pathologies, including Balkan nephropathy and genitourinary malignancies. We examine OTA levels in serum samples and tumour specimens collected from patients with renal and testicular tumours. Methods: Frozen samples were obtained from the Ontario Tumour Bank. Serum specimens, along with renal and testicular tumour biopsies, were included in this study. Normal tissue from the negative surgical margins of each tumour served as a control. OTA levels in serum was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while OTA detection in tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We included specimens collected from 56 patients (36 men and 20 women). Histopathology of the 52 renal tumours included 31 (60%) conventional type renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 5 (10%) chromophobe RCC, 5 (10%) papillary RCC, 1 (2%) oncocytoma and 10 (19%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). The 4 testicular tumours included 1 seminomatous (25%) germ cell tumour and 3 (75%) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. OTA was detected in the serum of renal tumour patients, with a range from 0.004 to 0.25 ng/mL (mean: 0.07 and median 0.06 ng/mL). There was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours. Conclusions: The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low. No OTA was detected in the tissue samples. PMID:24578744

  10. Automatic Bayesian Classification of Healthy Controls, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia Using Intrinsic Connectivity Maps From fMRI Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan I. Arribas; Vince D. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for supervised, automatic, and reliable classification of healthy controls, patients with bipolar disorder, and patients with schizophrenia using brain imaging data. The method uses four supervised classification learning machines trained with a stochastic gradient learning rule based on the minimization of Kullback-Leibler divergence and an optimal model complexity search through posterior probability estimation. Prior to classification,

  11. Volumetric assessment of lymph node metastases in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Basilio-de-Leo, Carlos I.; Villeda-Sandoval, Christian I.; Culebro-García, Carolina; Rodríguez-Covarrubias, Francisco; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate volumetry and RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) as methodologies for response after chemotherapy for non-seminomatous germ cell tumour with retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of non-seminomatous testicular tumours and concurrent retroperitoneal lymph node metastases, which received chemotherapy and had computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Volumetric analysis and RECIST criteria were used to calculate response rates. We included a new category (favourable response) for patients with response rates between <100% and >70%. We calculated the correlation between volumetric and RECIST criteria with histological and clinical variables. Results: In total, 18 patients met the inclusion criteria. Histopathologic analysis of orchiectomy showed teratoma in 55.5% of patients, and those without teratoma had predominantly embryonal carcinoma. The mean baseline volume of retroperitoneal metastases was 447 cc, the mean post-chemotherapy volume was 33.6 cc, and the response rate was 62.6%. According to RECIST criteria, the mean baseline diameter was 4.93 cm, the mean post-chemotherapy diameter was 2.39 cm, and the response rate was 42.4%. Large post-chemotherapy residual masses correlated in both classifications with teratoma. The response rate was associated with the need for surgical treatment and the volumetric classification correlated with the need for lymphadenectomy. Conclusions: This study evaluated volumetry as a way to measure clinical response in lymph node metastases of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Volumetric analysis is the next step in the evaluation of response rate; its accuracy remains to be determined. Teratoma had greater residual masses and our classification correlated with the need for lymphadenectomy.

  12. Endothelial FAK is required for tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tavora, Bernardo; Batista, Silvia; Reynolds, Louise E; Jadeja, Shalini; Robinson, Stephen; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Hart, Ian; Fruttiger, Marcus; Parsons, Maddy; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a fundamental role in integrin and growth factor mediated signalling and is an important player in cell migration and proliferation, processes vital for angiogenesis. However, the role of FAK in adult pathological angiogenesis is unknown. We have generated endothelial-specific tamoxifen-inducible FAK knockout mice by crossing FAK-floxed (FAKfl/fl) mice with the platelet derived growth factor b (Pdgfb)-iCreER mice. Tamoxifen-treatment of Pdgfb-iCreER;FAKfl/fl mice results in FAK deletion in adult endothelial cells (ECs) without any adverse effects. Importantly however, endothelial FAK-deletion in adult mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced tumour angiogenesis. Furthermore, in in vivo angiogenic assays FAK deletion impairs vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovascularization. In addition, in vitro deletion of FAK in ECs resulted in reduced VEGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and correlating reduced cellular proliferation as well as increased cell death. Our data suggest that FAK is required for adult pathological angiogenesis and validates FAK as a possible target for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:21154724

  13. Blood vessel hyperpermeability and pathophysiology in human tumour xenograft models of breast cancer: a comparison of ectopic and orthotopic tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human tumour xenografts in immune compromised mice are widely used as cancer models because they are easy to reproduce and simple to use in a variety of pre-clinical assessments. Developments in nanomedicine have led to the use of tumour xenografts in testing nanoscale delivery devices, such as nanoparticles and polymer-drug conjugates, for targeting and efficacy via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. For these results to be meaningful, the hyperpermeable vasculature and reduced lymphatic drainage associated with tumour pathophysiology must be replicated in the model. In pre-clinical breast cancer xenograft models, cells are commonly introduced via injection either orthotopically (mammary fat pad, MFP) or ectopically (subcutaneous, SC), and the organ environment experienced by the tumour cells has been shown to influence their behaviour. Methods To evaluate xenograft models of breast cancer in the context of EPR, both orthotopic MFP and ectopic SC injections of MDA-MB-231-H2N cells were given to NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. Animals with matched tumours in two size categories were tested by injection of a high molecular weight dextran as a model nanocarrier. Tumours were collected and sectioned to assess dextran accumulation compared to liver tissue as a positive control. To understand the cellular basis of these observations, tumour sections were also immunostained for endothelial cells, basement membranes, pericytes, and lymphatic vessels. Results SC tumours required longer development times to become size matched to MFP tumours, and also presented wide size variability and ulcerated skin lesions 6 weeks after cell injection. The 3 week MFP tumour model demonstrated greater dextran accumulation than the size matched 5 week SC tumour model (for P?tumour model 3 weeks after cell injection. Both the MFP and SC tumours showed evidence of insufficient lymphatic drainage, as many fluid-filled and collagen IV-lined spaces were observed, which likely contain excess interstitial fluid. Conclusions Dextran accumulation and immunostaining results suggest that small MFP tumours best replicate the vascular permeability required to observe the EPR effect in vivo. A more predictable growth profile and the absence of ulcerated skin lesions further point to the MFP model as a strong choice for long term treatment studies that initiate after a target tumour size has been reached. PMID:23217114

  14. Treatment of Neuroendocrine GEP Tumours with Somatostatin Analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Arnold; B. Simon; M. Wied

    2000-01-01

    Background: Somatostatin and its long-acting analogues are effective in symptom control in patients with functionally active neuroendocrine GEP tumours. Several in vitro and in vivo reports suggest that they are also able to control tumour growth. Methods: Critical review of published data on the effect of long-acting somatostatin analogues on symptom and growth control in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine GEP

  15. VEGF and the quest for tumour angiogenesis factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napoleone Ferrara

    2002-01-01

    The ability of tumours to induce new blood-vessel formation has been a major focus of cancer research over the past few decades, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is now known to be central to this process. The quest for VEGF and other factors that promote tumour angiogenesis was initiated many decades ago, and a long and complicated path has

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumours: Principles and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maralyn R. Druce; Val Lewington; Ashley B. Grossman

    2010-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a group of neoplasms with variable clinical behaviour. Their growth and spread is often very slow and initially asymptomatic, and thus they are often metastatic at the time of diagnosis and incurable by surgery. An exciting therapeutic strategy for cytoreduction, both for stabilisation of tumour growth and inhibition of hormone production, is the use of targeted radionuclide

  17. Prostate cancer as a model for tumour immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Drake

    2010-01-01

    Advances in basic immunology have led to an improved understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumours, generating renewed interest in approaches that aim to treat cancer immunologically. As clinical and preclinical studies of tumour immunotherapy illustrate several immunological principles, a review of these data is broadly instructive and is particularly timely now that several agents are beginning

  18. Skin neoplasia in small animals 2. Common feline tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Murphy

    2006-01-01

    SKIN cancer is very common in cats, the skin being the second most reported site of malignancy after lymphoid tissue. Unlike dogs, skin tumours in the cat are more likely to be malignant than benign; most benign tumours seen in dogs, such as lipomas, pilomatricomas and papillomas, are rare in cats. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and apocrine gland adenocarcinoma are similarly

  19. Tumour-released exosomes and their implications in cancer immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Iero; R Valenti; V Huber; P Filipazzi; G Parmiani; S Fais; L Rivoltini

    2008-01-01

    Tumour cells release vesicular structures, defined as microvesicles or exosomes, carrying a large array of proteins from their originating cell. The expression of antigenic molecules recognized by T cells has originally suggested a role for these organelles as a cell-free antigen source for anticancer vaccines. However, recent evidence shows that tumour exosomes may also exert a broad array of detrimental

  20. Hypoxia signalling in cancer and approaches to enforce tumour regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Pouysségur; Frédéric Dayan; Nathalie M. Mazure

    2006-01-01

    Tumour cells emerge as a result of genetic alteration of signal circuitries promoting cell growth and survival, whereas their expansion relies on nutrient supply. Oxygen limitation is central in controlling neovascularization, glucose metabolism, survival and tumour spread. This pleiotropic action is orchestrated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which is a master transcriptional factor in nutrient stress signalling. Understanding the role of

  1. Insulin secretion by a transplantable rat islet cell tumour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Sopwith; J. C. Hutton; S. P. Naber; W. L. Chick; C. N. Hales

    1981-01-01

    Summary  Investigation of the subcellular and molecular components of insulin secretion has been made difficult by the small quantities of material available. The recent development of a transplantable rat islet cell tumour of high insulin content and state of differentiation suggested a system more amenable to analysis. To validate the tumour as a model of secretion we have studied its release

  2. Neuroectodermal tumours in the cerebellum in two sisters

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Myfanwy; Adams, J. Hume; Doyle, David

    1977-01-01

    Two sisters, one 5 years and the other 2 years old, with intrinsic tumours of the cerebellum are reported. One of the tumours was interpreted as being a ganglioneuroma with neuroblastomatous change. The other was a desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Images PMID:599365

  3. Evolution of tumours and the impact of molecular oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Klein; Eva Klein

    1985-01-01

    It is generally accepted that tumours arise through the accumulation of several changes affecting the control of cell growth. Recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to define some of these changes in molecular terms and to trace the steps by which certain tumours evolve.

  4. [Benign tumours of the female breast (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Papolczy, A; Göblyös, P; Vörös, A

    1981-01-01

    In a period of 25 years 289 women suffering from benign tumours of the breast were seen at our Dept. This number comes up to a percentage of 20.5 of all female patients treated in this time for diseases of the mamma. Pathology, symptoms, treatment and prognosis of benign tumours of the female breast are dealt with. PMID:6266177

  5. Wilms' tumour gene 1 (WT1) in human neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Keilholz; H. D. Menssen; A. Gaiger; A. Menke; Y. Oji; Y. Oka; C. Scheibenbogen; H. Stauss; E. van Thiel; H. Sugiyama

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factor Wilms' tumour gene 1 (WT1) is important as a prognostic marker as well as in the detection and monitoring of minimal residual disease in leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Evidence has accumulated over the past decade to show that WT1 is a key molecule for tumour proliferation in a large number of human neoplasms most prominent in acute

  6. New approaches for imaging tumour responses to treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Brindle

    2008-01-01

    Tumour responses to treatment are still largely assessed from imaging measurements of reductions in tumour size. However, this can take several weeks to become manifest and in some cases may not occur at all, despite a positive response to treatment. There has been considerable interest, therefore, in non-invasive techniques for imaging tissue function that can give early evidence of response.

  7. Calcium in tumour metastasis: new roles for known actors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Skryma; Yaroslav Shuba; Natalia Prevarskaya

    2011-01-01

    In most cases, metastasis, not the primary tumour per se, is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. In order to effectively escape the tumour, enter the circulation and establish secondary growth in distant organs cancer cells must develop an enhanced propensity to migrate. The ubiquitous second messenger Ca2+ is a crucial regulator of cell migration. Recently, a number

  8. The role of tumour microenvironment in gastric cancer angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Marek; Harabin-S?owi?ska, Marzena; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. More than 95% of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas originating from the glandular epithelium of the stomach lining. Unfortunately, a large number of patients are diagnosed when the tumour is at unresectable stage. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanisms involved in gastric cancer pathogenesis. One of them is angiogenesis, which means the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. This process is dependent on interactions between the tumour and surrounding stromal cells which create the tumour microenvironment. Moreover, both tumour and stromal cells release a wide array of angiogenic factors that have an influence on endothelial cell recruitment and thus affect the process of angiogenesis. In this paper we discuss the role of tumour microenvironment in gastric cancer angiogenesis. PMID:25653726

  9. Brain Week!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

    2005-05-01

    This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  10. Tumour hypoxia determines the potential of combining mTOR and autophagy inhibitors to treat mammary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Seront, E; Boidot, R; Bouzin, C; Karroum, O; Jordan, B F; Gallez, B; Machiels, J-P; Feron, O

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia can activate autophagy, a self-digest adaptive process that maintains cell turnover. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are used to treat cancer but also stimulate autophagy. Methods: Human mammary cancer cells and derived xenografts were used to examine whether hypoxia could exacerbate autophagy-mediated resistance to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Results: Rapamycin exerted potent antitumour effects in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary tumours through a marked inhibition of angiogenesis, but the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) failed to further sensitise tumours to mTOR inhibition. Rapamycin treatment actually led to tumour reoxygenation, thereby preventing the development of autophagy. Chloroquine alone, however, blocked the growth of MCF-7 tumours and in vitro blunted the hypoxia-induced component of autophagy in these cells. Finally, when initiating CQ treatment in large, hypoxic tumours, a robust antitumour effect could be observed, which also further increased the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin. Conclusion: The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin significantly contributes to tumour growth inhibition and normalisation of the tumour vasculature through potent antiangiogenic effects. The resulting reduction in hypoxia accounts for a lack of sensitisation by the autophagy inhibitor CQ, except if the tumours are already at an advanced stage, and thus largely hypoxic at the initiation of the combination of rapamycin and CQ treatment. PMID:24157830

  11. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C.; Chan, April S.; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Chapman, Paul B.; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Greenfield, Jeffrey P.; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-01-01

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive ‘macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGF?, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGF? levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:25924227

  12. Interfering with stem cell-specific gatekeeper functions controls tumour initiation and malignant progression of skin tumours

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Monika; Reuter, Karen; Brylka, Heike; Kraus, Andreas; Schettina, Peter; Niemann, Catherin

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cancer constitutes a major clinical challenge and molecular mechanisms underlying the process of tumour initiation are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that hair follicle bulge stem cells (SCs) give rise to well-differentiated sebaceous tumours and show that SCs are not only crucial in tumour initiation, but are also involved in tumour plasticity and heterogeneity. Our findings reveal that SC-specific expression of mutant Lef1, which mimics mutations found in human sebaceous tumours, drives sebaceous tumour formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that mutant Lef1 abolishes p53 activity in SCs. Intriguingly, mutant Lef1 induces DNA damage and interferes with SC-specific gatekeeper functions normally protecting against accumulations of DNA lesions and cell loss. Thus, normal control of SC proliferation is disrupted by mutant Lef1, thereby allowing uncontrolled propagation of tumour-initiating SCs. Collectively, these findings identify underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumour-initiating events in tissue SCs providing a potential target for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25608467

  13. The relevance of the Siewert classification in the era of multimodal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Nathan J; Noble, Fergus; Bailey, Ian S; Kelly, Jamie J; Byrne, James P; Underwood, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Siewert classification has been used to plan treatment for tumours of the gastro-oesophageal junction since its proposal in the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to assess its continued relevance by evaluating whether there were differences in the biology and clinical characteristics of adenocarcinomas by Siewert type, in a contemporary cohort of patients, in whom the majority had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A prospective database was reviewed for all patients who underwent resection from 2005 to 2011 and analysed with regard to Siewert classification determined from the pathological specimen, treatment and clincopathological outcomes. Results Two hundred and sixteen patients underwent oesophagogastric resection: 133 for type I, 51 for type II and 33 for type III tumours. 135 Patients (62.5%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with no difference between groups. There were no significant differences in age, sex, pT stage, pN stage, pM stage, ASA, or inpatient complications between patients with adenocarcinoma based on their Siewert classification. There was a significant increase in maximum tumour diameter (P?=?0.023), perineural invasion (P?=?0.021) and vascular invasion (P?=?0.020), associated with more distal tumours (Type III?>?Type II?>?Type I). Median overall survival was significantly shorter for more distal tumours (Type I: 4.96 years vs. Type II: 3.3 years vs. Type III: 2.64 years; P?=?0.04). The surgical approach did not influence survival. Conclusion In the era of multi-modal treatment pathological Siewert tumour type is of prognostic value, as patients with Type III disease are likely to have larger and more aggressive tumours that lead to worse outcomes. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014;109:202–207. PMID:24243140

  14. Phthalocyanine-mediated Photodynamic Treatment of Tumoural and Non-tumoural cell lines.

    PubMed

    Manisova, Barbora; Binder, Svatopluk; Malina, Lukas; Jiravova, Jana; Langova, Katerina; Kolarova, Hana

    2015-07-01

    This study deals with the use of cationic far-red absorbing photosensitizers (?max ~740 nm) from the group of the phthalocyanines, in photodynamic therapy. The photosensitizers differed in their central atom, bearing either hydrogen, zinc or magnesium. These photosensitizers were tested in vitro on the tumour cell line HeLa (cervical cancer) and non-tumour cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast). The following tests were performed: measurement of reactive oxygen species production, viability testing, Comet assay and cell type detection (apoptotic, necrotic and living cells). The best results were achieved with zinc derivative at relatively low half-maximum inhibitory concentration (0.04 ?M) and a total radiation dose of 15 J cm(-2). PMID:26124341

  15. Malignant salivary gland tumours of the head and neck region: a single institutions review

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Kolude, Bamidele; Adeyemi, Bukola Folasade

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant salivary gland tumours (MSGTs) comprise about 3% of all head and neck cancers; they demonstrate an unpredictable clinical course. The purpose of this study is to review MSGTs seen at a tertiary Health centre, and compare findings with those of previous studies. Methods The records of the Department of Oral Pathology and the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital Ibadan were reviewed over a 19 year period and lesions diagnosed as MSGTs according to 2005 WHO histological classification were analysed for age, gender and site using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results MSGTs were more common in males (55.2%) than females (44.8%). The mean age of was 47.9 (±17.0) years and peak age was the fifth decade. The parotid gland was the commonest site with 62 (28.1%) cases. The palate was the commonest intraoral site with 61(27.6%). The nose with 19 (8.6%) was the commonest minor extra-oral site. Conclusion The findings were essentially similar to reports from Europe and America. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma was the most common MSGT in this series. A high proportion of salivary gland tumours in sublingual gland were malignant. The reason(s) for high proportion of MSGTs in sublingual glands requires further investigation.

  16. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Zengel; Diana Ramp; Brigitte Mack; Stefan Zahler; Alexander Berghaus; Bernd Muehlenweg; Olivier Gires; Suna Schmitz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of

  17. Fractal characterization of brain lesions in CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhari, Rajnish K.; Trivedi, Rashmi; Munshi, Prabhat; Sahni, Kamal [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); J.K. Cancer Institute, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur (India)

    2005-12-15

    Fractal Dimension (FD) is a parameter used widely for classification, analysis, and pattern recognition of images. In this work we explore the quantification of CT (computed tomography) lesions of the brain by using fractal theory. Five brain lesions, which are portions of CT images of diseased brains, are used for the study. These lesions exhibit self-similarity over a chosen range of scales, and are broadly characterized by their fractal dimensions.

  18. Decoding brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongha Lee; Changwon Jang; Hae-Jeong Park

    2011-01-01

    Most leading research in basic and clinical neuroscience has been carried out by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),\\u000a which detects the blood oxygenation level dependent signals associated with neural activities. Among new fMRI applications,\\u000a brain decoding is an emerging research area, which infers mental states from fMRI signals. Brain decoding using fMRI includes\\u000a classification, identification, and reconstruction of brain states.

  19. Design considerations for tumour-targeted nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Liu, Fangbing; Nasr, Khaled; Misra, Preeti; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid nanoparticles are potentially useful in biomedicine, but to avoid non-specific background fluorescence and long-term toxicity, they need to be cleared from the body within a reasonable timescale. Previously, we have shown that rigid spherical nanoparticles such as quantum dots can be cleared by the kidneys if they have a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 5.5 nm and a zwitterionic surface charge. Here, we show that quantum dots functionalized with high-affinity small-molecule ligands that target tumours can also be cleared by the kidneys if their hydrodynamic diameter is less than this value, which sets an upper limit of 5-10 ligands per quantum dot for renal clearance. Animal models of prostate cancer and melanoma show receptor-specific imaging and renal clearance within 4 h post-injection. This study suggests a set of design rules for the clinical translation of targeted nanoparticles that can be eliminated through the kidneys.

  20. Gossypiboma/textiloma mimicking as tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Atay, Musa; Ahmad, Issam Cheikh; Bilgin, Mehmet; Kocakoc, Ercan

    2014-06-01

    A surgical sponge accidentally left in a surgical wound, called a textiloma or gossypiboma, is underreported in literature due to medicolegal consequences. Abdominal textiloma may be asymptomatic or present serious gastrointestinal complications such as bowel obstruction, perforation or fistula formation because of misdiagnosis. It may mimic abscess formation in early stage or soft-tissue masses in chronic stage. If there is an intraabdominal abscess resistant to catheter drainage in the postoperative period or an intraabdominal soft tissue mass with a history of previous surgery, textiloma should be included in the differential diagnosis. Whirl-like spongiform pattern especially on CT, well-defined border and fibrous capsule especially on MRI can help in the diagnosis of textiloma. We describe a case of intraabdominal textiloma mimicking abscess and soft tissue tumour on CT and MRI examination. PMID:25252498

  1. Tumour necrosis factor-? in nasal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ganbo, T.; Nakazawa, T.; Nakajima, T.; Ko, J.; Goto, R.; Murakami, Y.; Misui, K.

    1995-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by radio-immunoassay to evaluate TNF-? in nasal allergy. There was no significant difference either between the mean concentrations of TNF-? in nasal secretions from the patients with perennial nasal allergy and those of normal subjects, or between the TNF-? and ECP concentrations. However, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed a specific increase of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in allergic nasal mucosa after allergen challenge in vitro. These findings suggest a possibility that T cell-derived IFN-? up-regulates macrophages to elaborate TNF-?, which may play a role in amplifying allergic inflammation in the nose through the cytokine network. PMID:18475667

  2. Unifying framework for multimodal brain MRI segmentation based on Hidden Markov Chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Bricq; Christophe Collet; Jean-Paul Armspach

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of 3D medical imaging, accurate segmentation of multimodal brain MR images is of interest for many brain disorders. However, due to several factors such as noise, imaging artifacts, intrinsic tissue variation and partial volume effects, tissue classification remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a unifying framework for unsupervised segmentation of multimodal brain MR images

  3. Metabolic responses to tumour disease and progression: tumour-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Cravo, M L; Glória, L M; Claro, I

    2000-12-01

    The progressive nutritional deterioration frequently found in cancer patients, is often referred to as cancer cachexia. In contrast to starvation, where it is possible to reverse the body composition changes by the provision of extra calories, in cancer cachexia this reversal is not observed, suggesting that anorexia alone is unlikely to be responsible for this wasting syndrome. Over the past decades a number of studies have focused on the possible mediators which may be responsible for metabolic abnormalities observed in cancer patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been strongly implicated, but evidence supporting such a direct role is lacking. Recently, exciting work regarding molecules produced by tumour cells, and which may induce lipolysis and proteolysis, has been published. There is also evidence that increased metabolism of host resources may provide substrates which might promote tumour growth. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and arachidonic acid, are able to promote tumour cell growth either by directly stimulating mitosis or by inhibiting apoptosis. Even more interesting is the discovery of antagonists of these catabolic factors such as eicosapentanoic acid for the lipolytic factor, which may play a role in the treatment of these patients in the near future. PMID:11104599

  4. Introducing Mr. Mud--children's perceptions of the brain.

    PubMed

    vanKoot, B J

    1990-12-01

    Children's media and language are full of references to the head and brain. The Scarecrow from the classic movie "The Wizard of Oz" is but one example. With these influences, how in actuality do children perceive their brain and its function? How does the child's perception of his brain impact the course of his hospitalization in terms of socialization to the hospital, anxiety and preoperative teaching needs? In this paper, case studies will be presented which illustrate the assessment and incorporation of school-age children's perceptions of the brain in the planning of individualized approaches to nursing care. Developmentally appropriate strategies which facilitate a positive health experience for the child newly diagnosed with a brain tumour will be described. Further implications for nursing practice and research will be discussed. PMID:2265132

  5. Benign and malignant mixed tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P. W.; Briggs, J. C.; Seal, R. M. E.; Storring, F. K.

    1972-01-01

    Ten patients are presented with tumours complying with the criteria established by the World Health Organization for `mixed tumours of the lung'. A slowly growing intrabronchial neoplasm indistinguishable from a pleomorphic adenoma (mixed salivary tumour) and a peripheral circumscribed tumour with most of the features of a chondromatous hamartoma were considered benign. Of eight malignant neoplasms two were regarded as `pulmonary blastomas', one with a benign epithelial tubular component and the other with cytological evidence of malignancy in the tubular epithelium; in both, the stroma was `embryonic' and pleomorphic. Three tumours were considered carcinosarcomas with a mainly epidermoid epithelial component and a pleomorphic spindle-cell connective tissue component. In the remaining three tumours the malignant epithelial component showed mixed, viz., epidermoid, tubular, and a variety of undifferentiated appearances, while the `stroma' exhibited features seen in both blastomas and carcinosarcomas. These three neoplasms were considered `transitional'. The spectrum of appearances encountered constitutes, in our opinion, a serious objection to the thesis that peripheral pulmonary blastomas and carcinosarcomas are distinct entities with a separate histogenesis. Exceptions were found to `blastomas' being peripheral and carcinosarcomas being central growths. A case is made for reclassification of the benign and malignant neoplasms included in the WHO group IX `mixed tumours of the lung'. Images PMID:4345984

  6. Photodynamic therapy for malignant tumours of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed Central

    Abulafi, A M; Allardice, J T; Williams, N S; van Someren, N; Swain, C P; Ainley, C

    1995-01-01

    Ten patients with ampullary carcinoma, not suitable for surgery, were treated with endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) to evaluate the feasibility and safety of treatment. Patients received 4 mg kg-1 of haematoporphyrin derivative intravenously. Two days later, a duodenoscopy was performed and red (630 nm) light delivered to the tumour at fixed energy densities of 50 J or 200 J cm-1 per application, depending on the type of optical fibre used. The tumours were treated by three or four light applications at each session. Treatment was repeated up to five times at intervals of three to six months. The sole complication of PDT was moderate skin photosensitivity, which occurred in three patients. Tumour size was assessed at four to eight weekly intervals. In the absence of macroscopic tumour, biopsy specimens were taken. In three patients with small tumours confined to the ampulla, remission was obtained for periods ranging from eight to 12 months. In a further four patients with small tumours bulk was greatly reduced. There was little response in three patients with extensive duodenal involvement. Therefore PDT for ampullary carcinoma is both feasible and safe, and with refinement may prove curative for small tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7615273

  7. A novel charged trinuclear platinum complex effective against cisplatin-resistant tumours: hypersensitivity of p53-mutant human tumour xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G; Perego, P; Polizzi, D; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Caserini, C; Manzotti, C; Giuliani, F C; Pezzoni, G; Tognella, S; Spinelli, S; Farrell, N; Zunino, F

    1999-01-01

    Multinuclear platinum compounds were rationally designed to bind to DNA in a different manner from that of cisplatin and its mononuclear analogues. A triplatinum compound of the series (BBR 3464) was selected for preclinical development, since, in spite of its charged nature, it was very potent as cytotoxic agent and effective against cisplatin-resistant tumour cells. Anti-tumour efficacy studies were performed in a panel of human tumour xenografts refractory or poorly responsive to cisplatin. The novel platinum compound exhibited efficacy in all tested tumours and an impressive efficacy (including complete tumour regressions) was displayed in two lung carcinoma models, CaLu-3 and POCS. Surprisingly, BBR 3464 showed a superior activity against p53-mutant tumours as compared to those carrying the wild-type gene. The involvement of p53 in tumour response was investigated in an osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS, which is null for p53 and is highly sensitive to BBR 3464, and in the same cells following introduction of the wild-type p53 gene. Thus the pattern of cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumour cells with a different p53 gene status. The results showed that the transfer of functional p53 resulted in a marked (tenfold) reduction of cellular chemosensitivity to the multinuclear platinum complex but in a moderate sensitization to cisplatin. In addition, in contrast to cisplatin, the triplatinum complex was very effective as an inducer of apoptosis in a lung carcinoma cell line carrying mutant p53. The peculiar pattern of anti-tumour activity of the triplatinum complex and its ability to induce p53-independent cell death may have relevant pharmacological implications, since p53, a critical protein involved in DNA repair and induction of apoptosis by conventional DNA-damaging agents, is defective in several human tumours. We suggest that the peculiar DNA binding properties of the triplatinum complex may contribute to the striking profile of anti-tumour efficacy. Taken together, the available information supports that anti-tumour activity of the novel compound is mediated by a mechanism different from that of conventional platinum complexes, and compounds of this series could represent a new class of promising anti-tumour agents. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471039

  8. A novel charged trinuclear platinum complex effective against cisplatin-resistant tumours: hypersensitivity of p53-mutant human tumour xenografts.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, G; Perego, P; Polizzi, D; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Caserini, C; Manzotti, C; Giuliani, F C; Pezzoni, G; Tognella, S; Spinelli, S; Farrell, N; Zunino, F

    1999-08-01

    Multinuclear platinum compounds were rationally designed to bind to DNA in a different manner from that of cisplatin and its mononuclear analogues. A triplatinum compound of the series (BBR 3464) was selected for preclinical development, since, in spite of its charged nature, it was very potent as cytotoxic agent and effective against cisplatin-resistant tumour cells. Anti-tumour efficacy studies were performed in a panel of human tumour xenografts refractory or poorly responsive to cisplatin. The novel platinum compound exhibited efficacy in all tested tumours and an impressive efficacy (including complete tumour regressions) was displayed in two lung carcinoma models, CaLu-3 and POCS. Surprisingly, BBR 3464 showed a superior activity against p53-mutant tumours as compared to those carrying the wild-type gene. The involvement of p53 in tumour response was investigated in an osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS, which is null for p53 and is highly sensitive to BBR 3464, and in the same cells following introduction of the wild-type p53 gene. Thus the pattern of cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumour cells with a different p53 gene status. The results showed that the transfer of functional p53 resulted in a marked (tenfold) reduction of cellular chemosensitivity to the multinuclear platinum complex but in a moderate sensitization to cisplatin. In addition, in contrast to cisplatin, the triplatinum complex was very effective as an inducer of apoptosis in a lung carcinoma cell line carrying mutant p53. The peculiar pattern of anti-tumour activity of the triplatinum complex and its ability to induce p53-independent cell death may have relevant pharmacological implications, since p53, a critical protein involved in DNA repair and induction of apoptosis by conventional DNA-damaging agents, is defective in several human tumours. We suggest that the peculiar DNA binding properties of the triplatinum complex may contribute to the striking profile of anti-tumour efficacy. Taken together, the available information supports that anti-tumour activity of the novel compound is mediated by a mechanism different from that of conventional platinum complexes, and compounds of this series could represent a new class of promising anti-tumour agents. PMID:10471039

  9. Radiation treatment dose optimisation using Poisson tumour control probability parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, G. A.; Ebert, M. A.; Holloway, L.; Kuncic, Z.; Baldock, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the Poisson tumour control probability (TCP) ?37 and D37 parameters of a uniformly irradiated numerical tumour model using changes in tumour burden as a surrogate for treatment response information. An optimum dose Di for a tumour sub-volume element Vi is described that maximizes TCP as a function of fixed tumour integral dose ?. TCP was calculated for spatially-varying clonogen density for a total 108 cells and radiosensitivity ? with mean radiosensitivity in the range 0.4 - 1.0 Gy-1. A bivariate normal distribution is used to describe the radiosensitivity ? and the linear term of the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell kill governed the changes in the regional tumour burden within sub-volumes Vi. The optimum dose distribution, Di, for Vi is obtained as a function of fixed tumour integral dose ?. For a uniform dose delivery and for TCP = 37%, ?37 and D37 are described by the effective radiosensitivity ?eff and the effective clonogen number N0,eff, respectively. ?eff is equivalent to differential dose changes in the number of clonogenic cells (tumour burden). The ?37 values were found to be inversely correlated with variance of the probability density function of the ? distribution. For the biologically optimum dose distribution, ?37 was found to converge to the theoretical maximum limit and D37 was found to reduce relative to that obtained for the uniform dose case. The TCP parameters ?37 and D37 could thus be useful in optimising individual radiation treatment doses even when tumour heterogeneity is taken into account.

  10. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, M E; Byrne, H M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model. Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. PMID:23032218

  11. Localized interleukin-12 delivery for immunotherapy of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Louis Z; Xu, Yixin; E Nelles, Megan; Furlonger, Caren; Wang, James CM; Di Grappa, Marco A; Khokha, Rama; Medin, Jeffrey A; Paige, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 is the key cytokine in the initiation of a Th1 response and has shown promise as an anti-cancer agent; however, clinical trials involving IL-12 have been unsuccessful due to toxic side-effects. To address this issue, lentiviral vectors were used to transduce tumour cell lines that were injected as an autologous tumour cell vaccine. The focus of the current study was to test the efficacy of this approach in a solid tumour model. SCCVII cells that were transduced to produce IL-12 at different concentrations were then isolated. Subcutaneous injection of parental SCCVII cells results in tumour development, while a mixture of IL-12-producing and non-producing cells results in tumour clearance. Interestingly, when comparing mice injected a mixture of SCCVII and either high IL-12-producing tumour cells or low IL-12-producing tumour cells, we observed that mixtures containing small amounts of high producing cells lead to tumour clearance, whereas mixtures containing large amounts of low producing cells fail to elicit protection, despite the production of equal amounts of total IL-12 in both mixtures. Furthermore, immunizing mice with IL-12-producing cells leads to the establishment of both local and systemic immunity against challenge with SCCVII. Using depletion antibodies, it was shown that both CD4+ and CD8+ cells are crucial for therapy. Lastly, we have established cell clones of other solid tumour cell lines (RM-1, LLC1 and moto1.1) that produce IL-12. Our results show that the delivery of IL-12 by cancer cells is an effective route for immune activation. PMID:24251770

  12. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  13. A novel androgen-regulated isoform of the TSC2 tumour suppressor gene increases cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Rajan, Prabhakar; Laferty, Nicholas P.; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Jackson, Robert M.; Robson, Craig N.; Leung, Hing Y.; Elliott, David J.

    2014-01-01

    TSC2 (Tuberous sclerosis complex 2) is an important tumour suppressor gene, mutations within which are linked to the development of tuberous sclerosis and implicated in multiple tumour types. TSC2 protein complexes with TSC1 and blocks the ability of the Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) GTPase to activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), a crucial signal transducer which regulates protein synthesis and cell growth. Here, we report the characterisation of a novel isoform of TSC2 which is under direct control of the ligand-activated androgen receptor. TSC2 isoform A (TSC2A) is derived from an internal androgen-regulated alternative promoter and encodes a 508-amino acid cytoplasmic protein corresponding to the C-terminal region of full-length TSC2, lacking the interaction domain for TSC1 and containing an incomplete interaction domain required for Rheb inactivation. Expression of TSC2A is induced in response to androgens and full-length TSC2 is co-ordinately down-regulated, indicating an androgen-driven switch in TSC2 protein isoforms. In contrast to the well-characterised suppressive efect on cell proliferation of full-length TSC2 protein, both LNCaP and HEK293 cells over-expressing TSC2 isoform A proliferate more rapidly (measured by MTT assays) and have increased levels of cells in S-phase (measured by both Edu staining and FACS analysis). Our work indicates, for the first time, a novel role for this well-known tumour suppressor gene, which encodes an activator of cell proliferation in response to androgen stimulation. PMID:24318044

  14. An exceptional minute tumour incidentally found in a renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buob, David; Copin, Marie-Christine; Perez, Thierry; Hachulla, Eric; Hazzan, Marc; Leroy, Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Pathological analysis of renal biopsies performed to investigate a nephrological disease may exceptionally reveal incidental tumours, in addition to expected glomerular, tubulointerstitial or vascular pathology. We present the first case to date of a minute angiomyolipoma (AML), found incidentally in a renal biopsy specimen, performed in the assessment of proteinuria. AML is an uncommon kidney tumour, composed of a variable proportion of adipose tissue, spindle and epithelioid smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for a definitive diagnosis, showing a specific perivascular epithelioid differentiation. The diagnosis of renal AML justifies the search for tuberous sclerosis-associated tumours. PMID:21324975

  15. Cutaneous mast cell tumour within a lipoma in a boxer.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Szász, Attila Marcell; Kulka, Janina; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Rusvai, Miklós; Németh, Tibor; Gálfi, Péter

    2009-06-01

    This report describes a case of a canine cutaneous grade I mast cell tumour which developed within a lipoma in the right axillar region of an 8-year-old male Boxer. Immunohistologically, the neoplastic mast cells were positive for serotonin, CD45 vimentin and p53, and negative for lysozyme, CD3 and CD79a expression. The proliferation index of the mast cell tumour based on the Ki-67 antigen was 6.1%. Between the benign neoplastic lipocytes and mastocytoma tumour cells intratumoural microvessels were detected by immunohistochemical staining using CD31 and claudin-5 as markers for vascular endothelium. PMID:19584039

  16. Studying the emergence of invasiveness in tumours using game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basanta, D.; Hatzikirou, H.; Deutsch, A.

    2008-06-01

    Tumour cells have to acquire a number of capabilities if a neoplasm is to become a cancer. One of these key capabilities is increased motility which is needed for invasion of other tissues and metastasis. This paper presents a qualitative mathematical model based on game theory and computer simulations using cellular automata. With this model we study the circumstances under which mutations that confer increased motility to cells can spread through a tumour made of rapidly proliferating cells. The analysis suggests therapies that could help prevent the progression towards malignancy and invasiveness of benign tumours.

  17. Cytokines play a key role in communication between mesenchymal stem cells and brain cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Motaln, Helena; Turnsek, Tamara Lah

    2015-01-01

    Numerous small molecules including cytokines primarily associated with immune response have been shown to play a role in normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and tumour cells' communication. One characteristic that distinguishes MSC from fibroblast and other cells of mesenchymal origin is their pro-tumour migratory behaviour. Recognizing the cytokines as key players of the MSC/tumour cell cross-talk and understanding their intracellular signalling, should lead to a development of more efficient anti-tumour therapies. Those are urgently needed for improving the treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) that are suffering from most aggressive and incurable type of brain tumours. So far, the "cytokine signalling interference" approach, employing genetically modified MSCs and GBM cells in animal xenograft models pointed to the mechanisms underlying tumour - directed migration and immunomodulatory role of MSCs. There, MSC's effects on tumour growth were shown to vary substantially, and to depend on the type of the cells and the animal model used. This review is focusing on the cytokines produced by MSCs and their involvement in proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis and immune cell infiltration. Recently, targeted therapies have emerged as a promising modality for GBM treatment. New approaches, combining these with MSCs as cellular vectors for modulating cytokines and cytokine receptors' signalling in GBM may thus prove more efficient at inhibiting glioma progression. PMID:25642990

  18. Deafness due to bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours in a case of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Kempermann; H P Neumann; R Scheremet; B Volk; W Mann; J Gilsbach; R Laszig

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral endolymphatic sac tumours is reported. In a patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, tumour growth in the right cerebellopontine angle caused deafness. The tumour was removed and classified as a metastasis from a thyroid carcinoma. However, on thyroidectomy no primary neoplasm could be found. Eight years later a similar tumour was operated on in the left petrosal

  19. Oscillatory dynamics in a model of vascular tumour growth - implications for chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IJ Stamper; PK Maini; HM Byrne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigations of solid tumours suggest that vessel occlusion may occur when increased pressure from the tumour mass is exerted on the vessel walls. Since immature vessels are frequently found in tumours and may be particularly sensitive, such occlusion may impair tumour blood flow and have a negative impact on therapeutic outcome. In order to study the effects that occlusion

  20. Structured Multimedia Document Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification