Science.gov

Sample records for brain tumour classification

  1. Brain tumour classification and abnormality detection using neuro-fuzzy technique and Otsu thresholding.

    PubMed

    Renjith, Arokia; Manjula, P; Mohan Kumar, P

    2015-11-01

    Brain tumour is one of the main causes for an increase in transience among children and adults. This paper proposes an improved method based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain image classification and image segmentation approach. Automated classification is encouraged by the need of high accuracy when dealing with a human life. The detection of the brain tumour is a challenging problem, due to high diversity in tumour appearance and ambiguous tumour boundaries. MRI images are chosen for detection of brain tumours, as they are used in soft tissue determinations. First of all, image pre-processing is used to enhance the image quality. Second, dual-tree complex wavelet transform multi-scale decomposition is used to analyse texture of an image. Feature extraction extracts features from an image using gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Then, the Neuro-Fuzzy technique is used to classify the stages of brain tumour as benign, malignant or normal based on texture features. Finally, tumour location is detected using Otsu thresholding. The classifier performance is evaluated based on classification accuracies. The simulated results show that the proposed classifier provides better accuracy than previous method. PMID:26493726

  2. Three-dimensional textural features of conventional MRI improve diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitits, Theodoros N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D TA) of conventional MR images for the classification of childhood brain tumours in a quantitative manner. The dataset comprised pre-contrast T1 - and T2-weighted MRI series obtained from 48 children diagnosed with brain tumours (medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma). 3D and 2D TA were carried out on the images using first-, second- and higher order statistical methods. Six supervised classification algorithms were trained with the most influential 3D and 2D textural features, and their performances in the classification of tumour types, using the two feature sets, were compared. Model validation was carried out using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach, as well as stratified 10-fold cross-validation, in order to provide additional reassurance. McNemar's test was used to test the statistical significance of any improvements demonstrated by 3D-trained classifiers. Supervised learning models trained with 3D textural features showed improved classification performances to those trained with conventional 2D features. For instance, a neural network classifier showed 12% improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and 19% in overall classification accuracy. These improvements were statistically significant for four of the tested classifiers, as per McNemar's tests. This study shows that 3D textural features extracted from conventional T1 - and T2-weighted images can improve the diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours. Long-term benefits of accurate, yet non-invasive, diagnostic aids include a reduction in surgical procedures, improvement in surgical and therapy planning, and support of discussions with patients' families. It remains necessary, however, to extend the analysis to a multicentre cohort in order to assess the scalability of the techniques used. PMID:26256809

  3. 3D Texture Analysis of Heterogeneous MRI Data for Diagnostic Classification of Childhood Brain Tumours.

    PubMed

    Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Rodriguez, Daniel; Auer, Dorothee P; Clark, Chris A; Grundy, Richard G; Jaspan, Tim; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumours are the most frequently occuring solid tumours affecting childhood, representing 27% of all cancers. The most common posterior fossa tumours are medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma. Texture Analysis (TA) of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) aims to represent pixel distributions, intensities and dependencies using mathematically defined features. Such features could potentially provide quantifiable information that is beyond the human vision capabilities, and hence be used to supplement qualitative assessments conducted by radiologists. The primary aim of this study was to carry out a multicentre investigation on the efficacy of 3D TA for diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours, using conventional MRI images. The data used had been acquired at three different hospitals and consisted of pre-contrast T1 and T2-weighted MRI series, obtained from 121 children diagnosed with medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma. Using 3D textural features, based on first, second and higher order statistical methods, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach. An essential outcome of this study is that 3D TA demonstrated a good overall performance, when used on data acquired from a number of centres and using scanners made by different manufacturers and at different magnetic field strengths. PMID:26152942

  4. The use of multivariate MR imaging intensities versus metabolic data from MR spectroscopic imaging for brain tumour classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devos, A.; Simonetti, A. W.; van der Graaf, M.; Lukas, L.; Suykens, J. A. K.; Vanhamme, L.; Buydens, L. M. C.; Heerschap, A.; Van Huffel, S.

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the value of information from both magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to automated discrimination of brain tumours. The influence of imaging intensities and metabolic data was tested by comparing the use of MR spectra from MRSI, MR imaging intensities, peak integration values obtained from the MR spectra and a combination of the latter two. Three classification techniques were objectively compared: linear discriminant analysis, least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) with a linear kernel as linear techniques and LS-SVM with radial basis function kernel as a nonlinear technique. Classifiers were evaluated over 100 stratified random splittings of the dataset into training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used as a global performance measure on test data. In general, all techniques obtained a high performance when using peak integration values with or without MR imaging intensities. For example for low- versus high-grade tumours, low- versus high-grade gliomas and gliomas versus meningiomas, the mean test AUC was higher than 0.91, 0.94, and 0.99, respectively, when both MR imaging intensities and peak integration values were used. The use of metabolic data from MRSI significantly improved automated classification of brain tumour types compared to the use of MR imaging intensities solely.

  5. Brain tumour mimics and chameleons.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David; Rees, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    The timely diagnosis of a brain tumour is crucial to optimising outcome in a group of patients with limited survival. Several common neurological conditions mimic brain tumours, causing concern to patient and physician until the correct diagnosis becomes clear. In addition, atypical presentations of brain tumours may cause diagnostic confusion, acting as chameleons and delaying correct workup and treatment. This review focuses on the important mimics and chameleons encountered in clinical practice, aiming to illustrate the wide range of clinical neurology encountered in this specialty and to provide guidance on reaching the correct diagnosis. PMID:24058173

  6. A multiresolution clinical decision support system based on fractal model design for classification of histological brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Al-Kadi, Omar S

    2015-04-01

    Tissue texture is known to exhibit a heterogeneous or non-stationary nature; therefore using a single resolution approach for optimum classification might not suffice. A clinical decision support system that exploits the subbands' textural fractal characteristics for best bases selection of meningioma brain histopathological image classification is proposed. Each subband is analysed using its fractal dimension instead of energy, which has the advantage of being less sensitive to image intensity and abrupt changes in tissue texture. The most significant subband that best identifies texture discontinuities will be chosen for further decomposition, and its fractal characteristics would represent the optimal feature vector for classification. The performance was tested using the support vector machine (SVM), Bayesian and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) classifiers and a leave-one-patient-out method was employed for validation. Our method outperformed the classical energy based selection approaches, achieving for SVM, Bayesian and kNN classifiers an overall classification accuracy of 94.12%, 92.50% and 79.70%, as compared to 86.31%, 83.19% and 51.63% for the co-occurrence matrix, and 76.01%, 73.50% and 50.69% for the energy texture signatures; respectively. These results indicate the potential usefulness as a decision support system that could complement radiologists' diagnostic capability to discriminate higher order statistical textural information; for which it would be otherwise difficult via ordinary human vision. PMID:24962336

  7. [Fourth edition of WHO classification tumours of soft tissue].

    PubMed

    Karanian, Marie; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumours was published in 2013, 11years after the previous edition. This new classification includes several changes: newly included sections (gastrointestinal stromal tumors…), newly recognized entities (pseudomiogenic haemangioendothelioma, haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour…), and new genetic and molecular data leading to better understanding and definition of tumours, and are useful as diagnostic tools. This brief review summarizes changes in this new edition of the WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue. PMID:25532684

  8. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  9. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  10. Brain tumours in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Trung, le X; Long, le X; Tu, N; Long, N T; Nga, N T; Son, T V; Bich, D N; Hoa, N T

    1998-10-01

    A series of 65 intracranial tumours operated on, and followed by, the same surgical team during 7 years is presented as a retrospective analysis (1987-1994). Among these patients, only 38 had a diagnosis based upon computed tomography (CT) scan because it was not until 1991 that the first CT scanner was set up in Ho Chi Minh City. Many patients were drowsy or comatose prior to operation due to lack of specialists' intervention or tardy diagnosis and evacuation from remote provincial hospitals. All operations were satisfactory despite the lack of many essential instruments. The histological diagnosis followed the classification proposed by Zulch KJ.(1) Intratumoural calcification has in no case been seen on X-rays or on histological specimens. Operative mortality rate was nil. Although not all the patients with malignant tumours could be followed up, the data available concerning their survival time and the quality of life seems similar to that observed in other reports. PMID:18639066

  11. Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Matthias; Jung, Erik; Sahm, Felix; Solecki, Gergely; Venkataramani, Varun; Blaes, Jonas; Weil, Sophie; Horstmann, Heinz; Wiestler, Benedikt; Syed, Mustafa; Huang, Lulu; Ratliff, Miriam; Karimian Jazi, Kianush; Kurz, Felix T; Schmenger, Torsten; Lemke, Dieter; Gömmel, Miriam; Pauli, Martin; Liao, Yunxiang; Häring, Peter; Pusch, Stefan; Herl, Verena; Steinhäuser, Christian; Krunic, Damir; Jarahian, Mostafa; Miletic, Hrvoje; Berghoff, Anna S; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kalamakis, Georgios; Garaschuk, Olga; Preusser, Matthias; Weiss, Samuel; Liu, Haikun; Heiland, Sabine; Platten, Michael; Huber, Peter E; Kuner, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Winkler, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair. Moreover, the microtube-connected astrocytoma cells, but not those remaining unconnected throughout tumour progression, were protected from cell death inflicted by radiotherapy. The neuronal growth-associated protein 43 was important for microtube formation and function, and drove microtube-dependent tumour cell invasion, proliferation, interconnection, and radioresistance. Oligodendroglial brain tumours were deficient in this mechanism. In summary, astrocytomas can develop functional multicellular network structures. Disconnection of astrocytoma cells by targeting their tumour microtubes emerges as a new principle to reduce the treatment resistance of this disease. PMID:26536111

  12. Automated EEG signal analysis for identification of epilepsy seizures and brain tumour.

    PubMed

    Sharanreddy, M; Kulkarni, P K

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) is a clinical test which records neuro-electrical activities generated by brain structures. EEG test results used to monitor brain diseases such as epilepsy seizure, brain tumours, toxic encephalopathies infections and cerebrovascular disorders. Due to the extreme variation in the EEG morphologies, manual analysis of the EEG signal is laborious, time consuming and requires skilled interpreters, who by the nature of the task are prone to subjective judegment and error. Further, manual analysis of the EEG results often fails to detect and uncover subtle features. This paper proposes an automated EEG analysis method by combining digital signal processing and neural network techniques, which will remove error and subjectivity associated with manual analysis and identifies the existence of epilepsy seizure and brain tumour diseases. The system uses multi-wavelet transform for feature extraction in which an input EEG signal is decomposed in a sub-signal. Irregularities and unpredictable fluctuations present in the decomposed signal are measured using approximate entropy. A feed-forward neural network is used to classify the EEG signal as a normal, epilepsy or brain tumour signal. The proposed technique is implemented and tested on data of 500 EEG signals for each disease. Results are promising, with classification accuracy of 98% for normal, 93% for epilepsy and 87% for brain tumour. Along with classification, the paper also highlights the EEG abnormalities associated with brain tumour and epilepsy seizure. PMID:24116656

  13. Combined texture feature analysis of segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour CT slices.

    PubMed

    Padma, A; Sukanesh, R

    2013-01-01

    A computer software system is designed for the segmentation and classification of benign from malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography (CT) images. This paper presents a method to find and select both the dominant run length and co-occurrence texture features of region of interest (ROI) of the tumour region of each slice to be segmented by Fuzzy c means clustering (FCM) and evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based classifiers in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices. Two hundred and six tumour confirmed CT slices are considered in this study. A total of 17 texture features are extracted by a feature extraction procedure, and six features are selected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This study constructed the SVM-based classifier with the selected features and by comparing the segmentation results with the experienced radiologist labelled ground truth (target). Quantitative analysis between ground truth and segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy, segmentation error and overlap similarity measures such as the Jaccard index. The classification performance of the SVM-based classifier with the same selected features is also evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation method. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices efficiently and accurately with less computational time. The experimental results showed that the proposed system is able to achieve the highest segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by jaccard index and sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23094909

  14. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Thusyanth; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs), are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools. PMID:26064134

  15. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to plan surgical resections of brain tumours 

    E-print Network

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof Jacek

    2013-07-02

    Brain tumours, even though rare, are one of the deadliest types of cancer. The five year survival rate for the most malignant type of brain tumours is below 5%. Modern medicine provides many options for treating brain ...

  16. [Chronic secondary hypoparathyroidism and pseudo-brain tumour (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sollberg, G

    1975-10-24

    A 31-year-old man developed chronic secondary hypoparathyroidism after removal of goitre. Asymmetric cerebral oedema occured and a classical picture of pseudo-brain tumour with severe cerebral involvement developed which regressed merely on administration of calcium ions. The patient has remained well for over a year on dihydrotachysterol maintenance. PMID:1175470

  17. Current approaches to the treatment of metastatic brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Arbiser, Jack; Zelnak, Amelia; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Shim, Hyunsuk; Robin, Adam M.; Kalkanis, Steven N.; Whitsett, Timothy G.; Salhia, Bodour; Tran, Nhan L.; Ryken, Timothy; Moore, Michael K.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic tumours involving the brain overshadow primary brain neoplasms in frequency and are an important complication in the overall management of many cancers. Importantly, advances are being made in understanding the molecular biology underlying the initial development and eventual proliferation of brain metastases. Surgery and radiation remain the cornerstones of the therapy for symptomatic lesions; however, image-based guidance is improving surgical technique to maximize the preservation of normal tissue, while more sophisticated approaches to radiation therapy are being used to minimize the long-standing concerns over the toxicity of whole-brain radiation protocols used in the past. Furthermore, the burgeoning knowledge of tumour biology has facilitated the entry of systemically administered therapies into the clinic. Responses to these targeted interventions have ranged from substantial toxicity with no control of disease to periods of useful tumour control with no decrement in performance status of the treated individual. This experience enables recognition of the limits of targeted therapy, but has also informed methods to optimize this approach. This Review focuses on the clinically relevant molecular biology of brain metastases, and summarizes the current applications of these data to imaging, surgery, radiation therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. PMID:24569448

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid-derived circulating tumour DNA better represents the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma.

    PubMed

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Mayor, Regina; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Weigelt, Britta; Martínez-Ricarte, Francisco; Torrejon, Davis; Oliveira, Mafalda; Arias, Alexandra; Raventos, Carolina; Tang, Jiabin; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Martínez-Sáez, Elena; Lois, Sergio; Marín, Oscar; de la Cruz, Xavier; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Towers, Russel; Vivancos, Ana; Peg, Vicente; Cajal, Santiago Ramon Y; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi; González-Cao, María; Tabernero, Josep; Felip, Enriqueta; Sahuquillo, Joan; Berger, Michael F; Cortes, Javier; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Seoane, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma has been shown to be informative of the genomic alterations present in tumours and has been used to monitor tumour progression and response to treatments. However, patients with brain tumours do not present with or present with low amounts of ctDNA in plasma precluding the genomic characterization of brain cancer through plasma ctDNA. Here we show that ctDNA derived from central nervous system tumours is more abundantly present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma. Massively parallel sequencing of CSF ctDNA more comprehensively characterizes the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma, allowing the identification of actionable brain tumour somatic mutations. We show that CSF ctDNA levels longitudinally fluctuate in time and follow the changes in brain tumour burden providing biomarkers to monitor brain malignancies. Moreover, CSF ctDNA is shown to facilitate and complement the diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:26554728

  19. Clinical update: recognising brain tumours early in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Debono, Rachel; Walker, David

    2013-04-01

    Brain tumour accounts for a quarter of all childhood cancers and is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in children. Initial symptoms can be misleading and is often misinterpreted as being caused by a less serious childhood illness. Available statistics show that it takes almost three times longer for the brain tumour in children to get diagnosed in the United Kingdom in comparison to other developed countries. Head Smart campaign was launched in the UK in 2011 with an aim to decrease the time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis; initial results have been highly encouraging. Community practitioners play an important role in not only identifying symptoms (by following Head Smart symptom card) and selecting patients for reassurance, review or early referral but also by providing valuable support to the family post diagnosis in the community. PMID:23646820

  20. Brain tumours in Sweden 1996: care and costs

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, P; Lycke, J; Strang, P; Tornqvist, H; Ekbom, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Brain tumours cause considerable concern due to a high mortality and there are increasing efforts to provide adequate care, sometimes outside hospitals. Health care utilisation, direct costs of care, and the indirect social cost of morbidity and early mortality caused by brain tumours in Sweden in the year 1996 was analysed.?METHODS—Quantification of ambulatory care, care in hospital, long term and palliative/terminal care, drug consumption, temporary as well as long term morbidity, and mortality from comprehensive national data sources. Direct costs were calculated using 1996charges. Indirect costs were calculated by sex and age specific salaries. A sensitivity analysis considered the impact of alternative estimates of each item.?RESULTS—Indirect costs were 75% of the total and were caused mainly by early mortality. Direct costs were predominantly for care in hospital, long term care, and home health care. Among direct costs, astrocytomas III-IV and meningiomas accounted for 42% and 30% respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—The cost of illness from brain tumours reflects the characteristics of these malignancies. Despite their low incidence rate, the economic impact caused by high mortality among young persons is a predominant trait. Costs of acute hospital care and also long term care and home care are considerable.?? PMID:11080235

  1. Mortality following a brain tumour diagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Scott; Hassan, Ahmad; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Brus, Ole; Hussein, Oula; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Fall, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Objectives As brain tumours and their treatment may theoretically have a poorer prognosis in inflammatory central nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), all-cause mortality following a brain tumour diagnosis was compared between patients with and without MS. The potential role of age at tumour diagnosis was also examined. Setting Hospital inpatients in Sweden with assessment of mortality in hospital or following discharge. Participants Swedish national registers identified 20?543 patients with an MS diagnosis (1969–2005) and they were matched individually to produce a comparison cohort of 204?163 members of the general population without MS. Everyone with a primary brain tumour diagnosis was selected for this study: 111 with MS and 907 without MS. Primary and secondary outcome measures 5-year mortality risk following brain tumour diagnosis and age at brain tumour diagnosis. Results A non-statistically significant lower mortality risk among patients with MS (lower for those with tumours of high-grade and uncertain-grade malignancy and no notable difference for low-grade tumours) produced an unadjusted HR (and 95% CI) of 0.75 (0.56 to 1.02). After adjustment for age at diagnosis, grade of malignancy, sex, region of residence and socioeconomic index, the HR is 0.91 (0.67–1.24). The change in estimate was largely due to adjustment for age at brain tumour diagnosis, as patients with MS were on average 4.7?years younger at brain tumour diagnosis than those in the comparison cohort (p<0.001). Conclusions Younger age at tumour diagnosis may contribute to mortality reduction in those with high-grade and uncertain-grade brain tumours. Survival following a brain tumour is not worse in patients with MS; even after age at brain tumour diagnosis and grade of malignancy are taken into account. PMID:24220114

  2. NANOTECHNOLOGY - NEW TRENDS IN THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMOURS.

    PubMed

    Kr?pa, Petr; ?ehák, Svatopluk; Diaz-Garcia, Daniel; Filip, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    High grade gliomas are some of the deadliest human tumours. Conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have only a limited effect. Nowadays, resection is the common treatment of choice and although new approaches, such as perioperative magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy have been developed, the survival rate of diagnosed patients is still very low. The inefficacy of conventional methods has led to the development of new strategies and the significant progress of nanotechnology in recent years. These platforms can be used either as novel imaging tools or to improve anticancer drug delivery into tumours while minimizing its distribution and toxicity in healthy tissues. Amongst the new nanotechnology platforms used for delivery into the brain tissue are: polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, superparamagnetic nanoparticles and nucleic acid based nanoparticles (DNA, RNA interference [RNAi] and antisense oligonucleotides [ASO]). These nanoparticles have been applied in the delivery of small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules - proteins, peptides and genes. The unique properties of these nanoparticles, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and ability to modify their surface with tissue recognition ligands and antibodies, improve their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. All of the above mentioned characteristics make of nanoplatforms a very suitable tool for its use in targeted, personalized medicine, where they could possibly carry large doses of therapeutic agents specifically into malignant cells while avoiding healthy cells. This review poses new possibilities in the large field of nanotechnology with special interest in the treatment of high grade brain tumours. PMID:25938897

  3. Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling.

    PubMed

    Zuckermann, Marc; Hovestadt, Volker; Knobbe-Thomsen, Christiane B; Zapatka, Marc; Northcott, Paul A; Schramm, Kathrin; Belic, Jelena; Jones, David T W; Tschida, Barbara; Moriarity, Branden; Largaespada, David; Roussel, Martine F; Korshunov, Andrey; Reifenberger, Guido; Pfister, Stefan M; Lichter, Peter; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Gronych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer. PMID:26067104

  4. Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling

    PubMed Central

    Zuckermann, Marc; Hovestadt, Volker; Knobbe-Thomsen, Christiane B.; Zapatka, Marc; Northcott, Paul A.; Schramm, Kathrin; Belic, Jelena; Jones, David T. W.; Tschida, Barbara; Moriarity, Branden; Largaespada, David; Roussel, Martine F.; Korshunov, Andrey; Reifenberger, Guido; Pfister, Stefan M.; Lichter, Peter; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Gronych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer. PMID:26067104

  5. Brain tumour and infiltrations dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy combined with 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sâmia F; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a dosimetric investigation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy for brain tumour control. The study was conducted through computational simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and discrete voxel model of a human head, in which a hypothetical brain tumour was incorporated. A boron concentration ratio of 1:5 for healthy-tissue: tumour was considered. Absorbed and biologically weighted dose rates and neutron fluency in the voxel model were evaluated. The absorbed dose rate results were exported to SISCODES software, which generates the isodose surfaces on the brain. Analyses were performed to clarify the relevance of boron concentrations in occult infiltrations far from the target tumour, with boron concentration ratios of 1:1 up to 1:50 for healthy-tissue:infiltrations and healthy-tissue:tumour. The average biologically weighted dose rates at tumour area exceed up to 40 times the surrounding healthy tissue dose rates. In addition, the biologically weighted dose rates from boron have the main contribution at the infiltrations, especially far from primary tumour. In conclusion, BNCT combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy is an alternative technique for brain tumour treatment because it intensifies dose deposition at the tumour and at infiltrations, sparing healthy brain tissue. PMID:21705767

  6. MRS water resonance frequency in childhood brain tumours: a novel potential biomarker of temperature and tumour environment.

    PubMed

    Babourina-Brooks, Ben; Wilson, Martin; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Peet, Andrew C; Davies, Nigel P

    2014-10-01

    (1)H MRS thermometry has been investigated for brain trauma and hypothermia monitoring applications but has not been explored in brain tumours. The proton resonance frequency (PRF) of water is dependent on temperature but is also influenced by microenvironment factors, such as fast proton exchange with macromolecules, ionic concentration and magnetic susceptibility. (1)H MRS has been utilized for brain tumour diagnostic and prognostic purposes in children; however, the water PRF measure may provide complementary information to further improve characterization. Water PRF values were investigated from a repository of MRS data acquired from childhood brain tumours and children with apparently normal brains. The cohort consisted of histologically proven glioma (22), medulloblastoma (19) and control groups (28, MRS in both the basal ganglia and parietal white matter regions). All data were acquired at 1.5?T using a short TE (30?ms) single voxel spectroscopy (PRESS) protocol. Water PRF values were calculated using methyl creatine and total choline. Spectral peak amplitude weighted averaging was used to improve the accuracy of the measurements. Mean PRF values were significantly larger for medulloblastoma compared with glioma, with a difference in the means of 0.0147?ppm (p?brain. However, the PRF shift may not reflect a change in temperature, given that alterations in protein content, microstructure and ionic concentration contribute to PRF shifts. Measurement of these effects could also be used as a supplementary biomarker, and further investigation is required. This study has shown that the water PRF value has the potential to be used for characterizing childhood brain tumours, which has not been reported previously. PMID:25125325

  7. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888, is used in combination with both TMZ and radiation. The results show that ABT-888 significantly enhances TMZ and radiation cell killing, regardless of the MGMT status. In summary, the findings of this research demonstrate that the use of particle therapy and PARP inhibitors are particularly promising and might improve the treatment outcome in patients with GBM.

  8. Genomics and Metabolomics Research for Brain Tumour Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    by DNA microarrays. The first result presents the improvement in brain tumour diagnosis by combining Long Meningiomas using single-labeling cDNA-based microarrays was studied as proof of principle, and the discrim- ination of the tumour types. 1 H MRS, MRI, in-vitro Spectroscopy (HR-MAS), DNA microarrays

  9. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. PMID:25910782

  10. Seizure prophylaxis for brain tumour patients. Brief review and guide for family physicians.

    PubMed

    Agbi, C B; Bernstein, M

    1993-05-01

    Brain tumours are relatively uncommon, but family physicians are sometimes confronted with the somewhat unnerving task of carrying on the day-to-day management of these patients. The authors examine some of the problems encountered in preventing seizures among brain tumour patients. Using illustrative clinical cases and a review of the relevant literature, guidelines are provided for the institution, maintenance, and in some cases discontinuation of seizure prophylaxis for this group of patients. PMID:8499795

  11. Classification on Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Classification on Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dimensionality, Sample Size, Subject magnetic resonance imaging. We propose a synthetic model for the systematic study of as- pects generalization ac- curacy. 1 Introduction Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become one of the meth

  12. Local Kernel for brains classification in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Castellani, Umberto

    Local Kernel for brains classification in Schizophrenia U. Castellani1 , E. Rossato1 , V. Murino1 of features. Experiments have been performed including a set of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 54 normal by schizophrenia. A ROI-based method is proposed by introducing a machine learning [4] approach to classify healthy

  13. Mutation analysis of the p73 gene in nonastrocytic brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, M E; Bello, M J; Gonzalez-Gomez, P; Lomas, J; Arjona, D; Campos, J M de; Kusak, M E; Sarasa, J L; Isla, A; Rey, J A

    2001-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) involving the distal chromosome 1p36region occurs frequently in nonastrocytic brain tumours, but the tumour suppressor gene targeted by this deletion is unknown. p73is a novel gene that has high sequence homology and similar gene structure to thep53 gene; it has been mapped to 1p36, and may thus represent a candidate for this tumour suppressor gene. To determine whether p73is involved in nonastrocytic brain tumour development, we analysed 65 tumour samples including 26 oligodendrogliomas, 4 ependymomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 10 meningiomas, 2 meningeal haemangiopericytomas, 2 neurofibrosarcomas, 3 primary lymphomas, 8 schwannomas and 5 metastatic tumours to the brain, for p73 alterations. Characterization of allelic loss at 1p36–p35 showed LOH in about 50% of cases, primarily involving oligodendroglial tumours (22 of 26 cases analysed; 85%) and meningiomas (4 of 10; 40%). PCR-SSCP and direct DNA sequencing of exons 2 to 14 of p73 revealed a missense mutation in one primary lymphoma: a G-to-A transition, with Glu291Lys change. 8 additional cases displayed no tumour-specific alterations, as 3 distinct polymorphic changes were identified: a double polymorphic change of exon 5 was found in one ependymoma and both samples derived from an oligodendroglioma, as follows: a G-to-A transition with no change in Pro 146, and a C-to-T variation with no change in Asn 204: a delG at exon 3/+12 position was identified in 4 samples corresponding to 2 oligodendrogliomas, 1 ependymoma and 1 meningioma, and a C-to-T change at exon 2/+10 position was present in a metastatic tumour. Although both LOH at 1p36 and p73 sequence changes were evidenced in 4 cases, it is difficult to establish a causal role of the p73 variations and nonastrocytic brain tumours development. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461077

  14. Hierarchical probabilistic Gabor and MRF segmentation of brain tumours in MRI volumes.

    PubMed

    Subbanna, Nagesh K; Precup, Doina; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automated hierarchical probabilistic framework for segmenting brain tumours from multispectral human brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) using multiwindow Gabor filters and an adapted Markov Random Field (MRF) framework. In the first stage, a customised Gabor decomposition is developed, based on the combined-space characteristics of the two classes (tumour and non-tumour) in multispectral brain MRIs in order to optimally separate tumour (including edema) from healthy brain tissues. A Bayesian framework then provides a coarse probabilistic texture-based segmentation of tumours (including edema) whose boundaries are then refined at the voxel level through a modified MRF framework that carefully separates the edema from the main tumour. This customised MRF is not only built on the voxel intensities and class labels as in traditional MRFs, but also models the intensity differences between neighbouring voxels in the likelihood model, along with employing a prior based on local tissue class transition probabilities. The second inference stage is shown to resolve local inhomogeneities and impose a smoothing constraint, while also maintaining the appropriate boundaries as supported by the local intensity difference observations. The method was trained and tested on the publicly available MICCAI 2012 Brain Tumour Segmentation Challenge (BRATS) Database [1] on both synthetic and clinical volumes (low grade and high grade tumours). Our method performs well compared to state-of-the-art techniques, outperforming the results of the top methods in cases of clinical high grade and low grade tumour core segmentation by 40% and 45% respectively. PMID:24505735

  15. Random Forest Classification for Training a Brain Computer Interface (BCI)

    E-print Network

    Freitas, Nando de

    Random Forest Classification for Training a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Abstract1 Brain brain activity. Most3 existing BCIs detect specific mental activity in a so-called synchronous4 paradigm extraction7 followed by a classification scheme to detect intentions from the brain8 signal. In this paper

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade

    PubMed Central

    Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N.; Amini, Rose-Marie; Kärjä, Vesa; Pietiläinen, Timo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi M.; Sundström, Christer; Hesselager, Göran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Ståhl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

  17. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    PubMed

    Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N; Amini, Rose-Marie; Kärjä, Vesa; Pietiläinen, Timo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi M; Sundström, Christer; Hesselager, Göran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Ståhl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

  18. Diagnostic segregation of human brain tumours using Fourier-transform infrared and/or Raman spectroscopy coupled with discriminant analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Ketan; Heppenstall, Lara D.; Pang, Weiyi; Ashton, Katherine M.; Trevisan, Júlio; Patel, Imran I.; Llabjani, Valon; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Dawson, Timothy; Martin, Francis L.

    2013-01-01

    The most common initial treatment received by patients with a brain tumour is surgical removal of the growth. Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumours is to some extent subjective. Furthermore, currently available diagnostic imaging techniques to delineate the excision border during cytoreductive surgery lack the required spatial precision to aid surgeons. We set out to determine whether infrared (IR) and/or Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis could be applied to discriminate between normal brain tissue and different tumour types (meningioma, glioma and brain metastasis) based on the unique spectral “fingerprints” of their biochemical composition. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of normal brain and different brain tumours were de-waxed, mounted on low-E slides and desiccated before being analyzed using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed a clear segregation between normal and different tumour subtypes. Discrimination of tumour classes was also apparent with Raman spectroscopy. Further analysis of spectral data revealed changes in brain biochemical structure associated with different tumours. Decreased tentatively-assigned lipid-to-protein ratio was associated with increased tumour progression. Alteration in cholesterol esters-to-phenylalanine ratio was evident in grade IV glioma and metastatic tumours. The current study indicates that IR and/or Raman spectroscopy have the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of brain tumours and have potential for application in intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:24098310

  19. Seizure prophylaxis for brain tumour patients. Brief review and guide for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Agbi, C. B.; Bernstein, M.

    1993-01-01

    Brain tumours are relatively uncommon, but family physicians are sometimes confronted with the somewhat unnerving task of carrying on the day-to-day management of these patients. The authors examine some of the problems encountered in preventing seizures among brain tumour patients. Using illustrative clinical cases and a review of the relevant literature, guidelines are provided for the institution, maintenance, and in some cases discontinuation of seizure prophylaxis for this group of patients. Images Figures 1-2 Figures 3-4 PMID:8499795

  20. Evaluation of lactate detection using selective multiple quantum coherence in phantoms and brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L M; Tunariu, N; Messiou, C; Hughes, J; Wallace, T; DeSouza, N M; Leach, M O; Payne, G S

    2015-01-01

    Lactate is a product of glucose metabolism. In tumour tissues, which exhibit enhanced glycolytic metabolism, lactate signals may be elevated, making lactate a potential useful tumour biomarker. Methods of lactate quantitation are complicated because of overlap between the lactate methyl doublet CH3 resonance and a lipid resonance at 1.3 ppm. This study presents the use of a selective homonuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer sequence (SelMQC-CSI), at 1.5 T, to better quantify lactate in the presence of lipids. Work performed on phantoms showed good lactate detection (49%) and lipid suppression (98%) efficiencies. To evaluate the method in the brain, the sequence was tested on a group of 23 patients with treated brain tumours, either glioma (N = 20) or secondary metastases in the brain (N = 3). Here it was proved to be of use in determining lactate concentrations in vivo. Lactate was clearly seen in SelMQC spectra of glioma, even in the presence of lipids, with high grade glioma (7.3 ± 1.9 mM, mean ± standard deviation) having higher concentrations than low grade glioma (1.9 ± 1.5 mM, p = 0.048). Lactate was not seen in secondary metastases in the brain. SelMQC-CSI is shown to be a useful technique for measuring lactate in tumours whose signals are otherwise contaminated by lipid. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25586623

  1. Automatic brain tumour detection and neovasculature assessment with multiseries MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Szwarc, Pawel; Kawa, Jacek; Rudzki, Marcin; Pietka, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel multi-stage automatic method for brain tumour detection and neovasculature assessment is presented. First, the brain symmetry is exploited to register the magnetic resonance (MR) series analysed. Then, the intracranial structures are found and the region of interest (ROI) is constrained within them to tumour and peritumoural areas using the Fluid Light Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) series. Next, the contrast-enhanced lesions are detected on the basis of T1-weighted (T1W) differential images before and after contrast medium administration. Finally, their vascularisation is assessed based on the Regional Cerebral Blood Volume (RCBV) perfusion maps. The relative RCBV (rRCBV) map is calculated in relation to a healthy white matter, also found automatically, and visualised on the analysed series. Three main types of brain tumours, i.e. HG gliomas, metastases and meningiomas have been subjected to the analysis. The results of contrast enhanced lesions detection have been compared with manual delineations performed independently by two experts, yielding 64.84% sensitivity, 99.89% specificity and 71.83% Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) for twenty analysed studies of subjects with brain tumours diagnosed. PMID:26183648

  2. X-ray fluorescence study of the concentration of selected trace and minor elements in human brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Geraki, Kalotina; Lankosz, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Neoplastic and healthy brain tissues were analysed to discern the changes in the spatial distribution and overall concentration of elements using micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. High-resolution distribution maps of minor and trace elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn made it possible to distinguish between homogeneous cancerous tissue and areas where some structures could be identified, such as blood vessels and calcifications. Concentrations of the elements in the selected homogeneous areas of brain tissue were compared between tumours with various malignancy grades and with the controls. The study showed a decrease in the average concentration of Fe, P, S and Ca in tissues with high grades of malignancy as compared to the control group, whereas the concentration of Zn in these tissues was increased. The changes in the concentration were found to be correlated with the tumour malignancy grade. The efficacy of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between various types of cancer based on the concentrations of studied elements was confirmed by multivariate discriminant analysis. Our analysis showed that the most important elements for tissue classification are Cu, K, Fe, Ca, and Zn. This method made it possible to correctly classify histopathological types in 99.93% of the cases used to build the model and in as much as 99.16% of new cases.

  3. Radiosensitisation of U87MG brain tumours by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Miqueli, A; Rolff, J; Lemm, M; Fichtner, I; Perez, R; Montero, E

    2009-01-01

    As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be a radiation response modulator, HER inhibitors are regarded to act as potential radiosensitisers. Our study examined the role of nimotuzumab and cetuximab both, the two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to EGFR, as radiosensitisers in a murine glioma model in vivo. Co-administration of both the antibodies with radiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG, resulting in a significant delay of subcutaneous (s.c.) tumour growth. Furthermore, the addition of antibodies to the radiation decreased brain tumour sizes and is inhibited by 40–80% the increased tumour cell invasion provoked by radiotherapy, although promoted tumour cell apoptosis. Whereas nimotuzumab led to a reduction in the size of tumour blood vessels and proliferating cells in s.c. tumours, cetuximab had no significant antiangiogenic nor antiproliferative activity. In contrast, cetuximab induced a more marked inhibition of EGFR downstream signalling compared with nimotuzumab. Moreover, both antibodies reduced the total number of radioresistant CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These results were encouraging, and showed the superiority of combined treatment of mAbs to EGFR and radiation over each single therapy against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), confirming the role of these drugs as radiosensitisers in human GBM. In addition, we first showed the ability of mAb specifics against EGFR to target radioresistant glioma CSC, supporting the potential use in patients. PMID:19293809

  4. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  5. Plumbagin alters telomere dynamics, induces DNA damage and cell death in human brain tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Aik Kia; Sameni, Safoura; Venkatesan, Shriram; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Hande, M Prakash

    2015-11-01

    Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, followed by suppression of the colony forming ability of the brain tumour cells. These effects were substantiated by upregulation of PTEN, TNFRSF1A and downregulation of E2F1 genes, along with a drop in MDM2, cyclin B1, survivin and BCL2 protein expression. Plumbagin induced elevated levels of caspase-3/7 activity as well. For the first time, we show here that plumbagin inhibits telomerase in brain tumour cells and results in telomere shortening following chronic long-term treatment. This observation implies considerable cytotoxicity of plumbagin towards cancer cells with higher telomerase activity. Collectively, our findings suggest plumbagin as a potential chemotherapeutic phytochemical in brain tumour treatment modalities. PMID:26520377

  6. Local Kernel for Brains Classification in Schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, U.; Rossato, E.; Murino, V.; Bellani, M.; Rambaldelli, G.; Tansella, M.; Brambilla, P.

    In this paper a novel framework for brain classification is proposed in the context of mental health research. A learning by example method is introduced by combining local measurements with non linear Support Vector Machine. Instead of considering a voxel-by-voxel comparison between patients and controls, we focus on landmark points which are characterized by local region descriptors, namely Scale Invariance Feature Transform (SIFT). Then, matching is obtained by introducing the local kernel for which the samples are represented by unordered set of features. Moreover, a new weighting approach is proposed to take into account the discriminative relevance of the detected groups of features. Experiments have been performed including a set of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 54 normal controls on which region of interest (ROI) have been manually traced by experts. Preliminary results on Dorso-lateral PreFrontal Cortex (DLPFC) region are promising since up to 75% of successful classification rate has been obtained with this technique and the performance has improved up to 85% when the subjects have been stratified by sex.

  7. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ? 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ? 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  8. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery.

    PubMed

    Bogalhas, F; Charon, Y; Duval, M-A; Lefebvre, F; Palfi, S; Pinot, L; Siebert, R; Ménard, L

    2009-07-21

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for (18)F was 1.1 cps kBq(-1) ml(-1) for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq(-1) ml(-1) for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The gamma-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery. PMID:19556688

  9. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogalhas, F.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Lefebvre, F.; Palfi, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.; Ménard, L.

    2009-07-01

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The ?-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  10. Radiobiological and Magnetic Resonance Studies of Combined Radiation and Cisplatin Therapy in the 9l Rat Brain Tumour Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, David E.

    1993-01-01

    The prognosis for adult patients with primary malignant brain tumours is poor. Radiation therapy is a standard adjutant to surgery in the treatment of these patients, but is rarely curative. The extreme radio-resistance of primary malignant brain tumours is due in part to their enhanced capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage. The chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin has been shown to inhibit repair of radiation damage. Therefore combined cisplatin and radiation therapy could be a key to enhanced therapeutic gain in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumours. In this project, the 9L rat brain tumour model was used to investigate combined radiation and cisplatin treatments. In vitro experiments showed the 9L cell line to be highly radioresistant and, like human malignant brain tumour cells, to have a high capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage. These cells were found to be moderately resistant to the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In vitro exposure to cisplatin at clinically relevant concentrations caused inhibition of potentially lethal damage repair, with the amount of inhibition depending on cisplatin dose and treatment sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor the effects of combined radiation and cisplatin treatments of implanted intracranial 9L tumours in rats. A new technique for implanting experimental tumours was developed which resulted in more uniform tumour growth, and methods for radiation and cisplatin treatment of experimental intracranial tumours were developed and evaluated. Non-invasive measurements of tumour size using MRI were found to correlate well with measurements made from histological sections. Intraperitoneal administration of gadolinium contrast agent immediately before T1-weighted MRI was shown to be the most accurate and reliable method for MRI measurement of intracranial tumour size. The capability of MRI to provide early indications of radiation injury to normal brain tissue was evaluated in the rat, and MRI changes were found to occur on average 130 days following partial brain irradiation. Combined radiation and cisplatin treatments of intracranial 9L tumours did not result in tumour regression observable by MRI, despite histopathological evidence of increased tumour necrosis compared with radiation or cisplatin treatments alone.

  11. Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell; Hardell, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma) associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary. PMID:22182218

  12. CT-guided computer-assisted stereotactic resection of brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Melikian, A G; Kazarnovskaya, M I; Stock, A V; Golanov, A V; Ignatov, S M; Lobanov, S A

    1994-01-01

    A computer-assisted technique was developed for CT-guided stereotactic microsurgical resection of small intracerebral lesions. An original stereotactic retractor was developed to work with the Riechert-Mundinger's equipment for precise localisation, safe exposure and microsurgical removal of these tumours. A software-program was developed to work on an ordinary IBM-compatible PC/AT. It assisted the procedure from treatment planning till the end, including tumour excision, and provided computerized support for the removal of pathological tissues within the CT-defined boundaries of the lesion. 6 patients, harbouring supratentorial intracerebral lesions underwent surgery using this technique. 2 of them suffered from brain metastases, in 1 patient a cavernous angioma was removed, 2 patients had glial tumours, and in the last patient only radiation necrotic tissue was found to be the cause of ring-enhanced lesion, which had been suspected to be a recurrent glioma. Their largest dimensions varied between 18 and 30 mm and the age of the patients ranged from 15 to 52 years. In 2 cases the lesions were localised deeply in the region of basal ganglia and thalamus. In the remaining patients the tumours were rather superficial, infiltrating subcortical white-matter close to the central sulci. There was no mortality nor significant morbidity following the procedure, the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) cumulative scores being either unchanged (in 3), or improved (in 3 patients). Current state and modern concepts in image-guided open stereotactic methodology is discussed. PMID:7754835

  13. Combined therapies of antithrombotics and antioxidants delay in silico brain tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Alicia; Durán-Prado, Mario; Calvo, Gabriel F; Alcaín, Francisco J; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis A; Pérez-García, Víctor M

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent type of primary brain tumour, is a rapidly evolving and spatially heterogeneous high-grade astrocytoma that presents areas of necrosis, hypercellularity and microvascular hyperplasia. The aberrant vasculature leads to hypoxic areas and results in an increase in oxidative stress, selecting for more invasive tumour cell phenotypes. In our study, we assay in silico different therapeutic approaches which combine antithrombotics (ATs), antioxidants and standard radiotherapy (RT). To do so, we have developed a biocomputational model of GBM that incorporates the spatio-temporal interplay among two glioma cell phenotypes corresponding to oxygenated and hypoxic cells, a necrotic core and the local vasculature whose response evolves with tumour progression. Our numerical simulations predict that suitable combinations of ATs and antioxidants may diminish, in a synergistic way, oxidative stress and the subsequent hypoxic response. This novel therapeutical strategy, with potentially low or no toxicity, might reduce tumour invasion and further sensitize GBM to conventional RT or other cytotoxic agents, hopefully increasing median patient overall survival time. PMID:24562299

  14. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case-control study with incidence data.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The first case-control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study) has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case-control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case-control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted. PMID:22607537

  15. VIPARnd - GeVero® tool in planning of TPS scheduled brain tumour radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Rybka, Krzysztof; Biega?ski, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, VIPARnd - GeVero® tool is presented for the first time in an application to a brain tumour radiotherapy. Whereas usefulness of VIPARnd polymer gel in various radiotherapy techniques has recently been confirmed, GeVero® software for calculation of MRI polymer gel data and comparison with TPS dose distribution simulation is now examined. The results demonstrate satisfactory agreement between polymer gel dosimetry-MRI and TPS dose distributions and prove helpfulness of the software and VIPARnd polymer gel in radiotherapy dosimetry. It is also believed that the software facilitates data processing and therefore should be of further support in po-gel dosimetry studies.

  16. Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Honorio, J.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-14

    We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.

  17. No evidence for germline PTEN mutations in families with breast and brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Laugé, A; Lefebvre, C; Laurent-Puig, P; Caux, V; Gad, S; Eng, C; Longy, M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    1999-06-21

    Germline mutations of the PTEN gene are involved in Cowden disease, a genetic condition associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Further somatic PTEN mutations have been found in glioblastomas and to a lesser extent in meningiomas. Therefore, PTEN germline mutations were searched for in a series of 20 unrelated women with breast cancer who also had a personal or familial breast-brain tumour history. Inclusion criteria were 1. family history of breast cancer; 2. absence of germline BRCA1 and p53 mutation; and 3. at least one case of brain tumour (glioblastoma, meningioma, or medulloblastoma) in either the index case or one of their first or second degree relatives. Any stigmata of Cowden disease was an exclusion criteria. Screening of the PTEN gene for point mutations or small rearrangements were performed using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method on the 9 coding exons. No disease-associated mutation of the PTEN gene has been detected in our series. It is, thus, unlikely that PTEN is a significant BRCA predisposing locus. However, one might ask whether breast cancer cases resulting from germline PTEN mutation could occur without any mammary histological feature of Cowden disease. PMID:10371336

  18. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  19. Inference of brain pathway activities for Alzheimer's disease classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disorder that results in brain malfunctions. Resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have been successfully applied for quantifying brain activities of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Region-based approaches are widely utilized to classify patients from cognitively normal subjects (CN). Nevertheless, region-based approaches have a few limitations, reproducibility owing to selection of disease-specific brain regions, and heterogeneity of brain activities during disease progression. For coping with these issues, network-based approaches have been suggested in the field of molecular bioinformatics. In comparison with individual gene-based approaches, they acquired more accurate results in diverse disease classification, and reproducibility was confirmed by replication studies. In our work, we applied a similar methodology integrating brain pathway information into pathway activity inference, and permitting classification of both aMCI and AD patients based on pathway activities rather than single region activities. Results After aggregating the 59 brain pathways from literature, we estimated brain pathway activities by using exhaustive search algorithms between patients and cognitively normal subjects, and identified discriminatory pathways according to disease progression. We used three different data sets and each data set consists of two different groups. Our results show that the pathway-based approach (AUC = 0.89, 0.9, 0.75) outperformed the region-based approach (AUC = 0.69, 0.8, 0.68). Also, our approach provided enhanced diagnostic power achieving higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (pathway-based approach: accuracy = 83%; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 78%, region-based approach: accuracy = 74%; sensitivity = 78%; specificity = 76%). Conclusions We proposed a novel method inferring brain pathway activities for disease classification. Our approach shows better classification performance than region-based approach in four classification models. We expect that brain pathway-based approach would be helpful for precise classification of brain disorders, and provide new opportunities for uncovering disrupted brain pathways caused by disease. Moreover, discriminatory pathways between patients and cognitively normal subjects may facilitate the interpretation of functional alterations during disease progression. PMID:26044913

  20. Detection of comorbidities and synchronous primary tumours via thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography and their influence on treatment outcome in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas, primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours.

    PubMed

    Bigio Marcello, A; Gieger, T L; Jiménez, D A; Granger, L Abbigail

    2015-12-01

    Canine soft tissue sarcomas (STS), primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours are commonly treated with radiotherapy (RT). Given the low metastatic potential of these tumours, recommendations regarding imaging tests as staging are variable among institutions. The purpose of our study was to describe thoracic radiographic and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in dogs with these neoplasms and to investigate association of abnormal findings with alterations in recommended treatment. Medical records from 101 dogs, each having thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound performed as part of their staging, were reviewed. In 98 of 101 (97%), imaging abnormalities were detected, 27% of which were further investigated with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy. Nine percent of the detected abnormalities were considered serious comorbidities that altered treatment recommendations, including 3 (3%) which were confirmed as synchronous primary neoplasms. These findings may influence recommendations regarding the decision to perform thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound prior to initiation of RT. PMID:23968175

  1. Long-term supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function following cerebellar tumour resections in childhood.

    PubMed

    Moberget, T; Andersson, S; Lundar, T; Due-Tønnessen, B J; Heldal, A; Endestad, T; Westlye, L T

    2015-03-01

    The cerebellum is connected to extensive regions of the cerebrum, and cognitive deficits following cerebellar lesions may thus be related to disrupted cerebello-cerebral connectivity. Moreover, early cerebellar lesions could affect distal brain development, effectively inducing long-term changes in brain structure and cognitive function. Here, we characterize supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function in 20 adult patients treated for cerebellar tumours in childhood (mean age at surgery: 7.1 years) and 26 matched controls. Relative to controls, patients showed reduced cognitive function and increased grey matter density in bilateral cingulum, left orbitofrontal cortex and the left hippocampus. Within the patient group, increased grey matter density in these regions was associated with decreased performance on tests of processing speed and executive function. Further, diffusion tensor imaging revealed widespread alterations in white matter microstructure in patients. While current ventricle volume (an index of previous hydrocephalus severity it patients) was associated with grey matter density and white matter microstructure in patients, this could only partially account for the observed group differences in brain structure and cognitive function. In conclusion, our results show distal effects of cerebellar lesions on cerebral integrity and wiring, likely caused by a combination of neurodegenerative processes and perturbed neurodevelopment. PMID:25665770

  2. Classification of brain tumors using MRI and MRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Liacouras, Eirini Karamani; Miranda, Erickson; Kanamalla, Uday S.; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2007-03-01

    We study the problem of classifying brain tumors as benign or malignant using information from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assist in clinical diagnosis. The proposed approach consists of several steps including segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification model construction. Using an automated segmentation technique based on fuzzy connectedness we accurately outline the tumor mass boundaries in the MR images so that further analysis concentrates on these regions of interest (ROIs). We then apply a concentric circle technique on the ROIs to extract features that are utilized by the classification algorithms. To remove redundant features, we perform feature selection where only those features with discriminatory information (among classes) are used in the model building process. The involvement of MRS features further improves the classification accuracy of the model. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in classifying brain tumors in MR images.

  3. Brain MRI tissue classification based on local Markov random fields.

    PubMed

    Tohka, Jussi; Dinov, Ivo D; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W

    2010-05-01

    A new method for tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain is proposed. The method is based on local image models where each models the image content in a subset of the image domain. With this local modeling approach, the assumption that tissue types have the same characteristics over the brain needs not to be evoked. This is important because tissue type characteristics, such as T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density, vary across the individual brain and the proposed method offers improved protection against intensity non-uniformity artifacts that can hamper automatic tissue classification methods in brain MRI. A framework in which local models for tissue intensities and Markov Random Field (MRF) priors are combined into a global probabilistic image model is introduced. This global model will be an inhomogeneous MRF and it can be solved by standard algorithms such as iterative conditional modes. The division of the whole image domain into local brain regions possibly having different intensity statistics is realized via sub-volume probabilistic atlases. Finally, the parameters for the local intensity models are obtained without supervision by maximizing the weighted likelihood of a certain finite mixture model. For the maximization task, a novel genetic algorithm almost free of initialization dependency is applied. The algorithm is tested on both simulated and real brain MR images. The experiments confirm that the new method offers a useful improvement of the tissue classification accuracy when the basic tissue characteristics vary across the brain and the noise level of the images is reasonable. The method also offers better protection against intensity non-uniformity artifact than the corresponding method based on a global (whole image) modeling scheme. PMID:20110151

  4. Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

  5. 77 FR 16925 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Devices; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector AGENCY: Food and Drug...is classifying the Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector into class II (special...the generic name Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector, and it is...

  6. Increasing Rates of Brain Tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., “possibly”, carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007–2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008–2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk. PMID:25854296

  7. Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Saatman, Kathryn E.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Bullock, Ross; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Valadka, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials. PMID:18627252

  8. Quantification and classification of high-resolution magic angle spinning data for brain tumor diagnosis

    E-print Network

    Quantification and classification of high-resolution magic angle spinning data for brain tumor protocol (preprocessing, processing and classification) for classifying brain tumors with proton high-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy might help for brain tumor diagnosis. Cheng et al. [1] demonstrated

  9. Evolutionary hypothesis of telomere length in primary breast cancer and brain tumour patients: a tracer for genomic-tumour heterogeneity and instability.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Parvin; Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Atri, Morteza

    2011-09-01

    It was previously reported that tumour samples had shorter telomeres than the surrounding normal tissue. Hereby, the initial sign of correlation between malignant tissue and telomere behaviour could be noticed. Bridging knowledge between germ and somatic cells could facilitate understanding cellular evolution. The aim of our investigation was to provide evidence for the evolutionary hypothesis of TL (telomere length) in primary BC (breast cancer) and BTs (brain tumours), which might be applied as a prognostic and/or predictive marker. DNA extraction from the frozen tissues was performed using high pure PCR template preparation kit. Standard protocol of Telo TTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit, a non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay, was used. The protein expression in extracted cells was analysed by immunofluorescence. We also detected telomerase activity. The G/T (genomic/tumour ratio) for TL in two groups of patients affected with primary BC and primary BT revealed significant differences in both BC patients (P?=?0.025) and in BTs (P?=?0.001). The pattern of telomere signals by Q-FISH (quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization) show that in all samples, except one, SI (signal intensity) has been significantly decreased in tissue related to blood, either in BC patients or in patients with BTs (0.041?P?0.001). However, the data achieved by Q-FISH support the results of Southern blot. These data reflect a significant diversity either in BC or in BT patients, providing evidence for the evolutionary hypothesis of TL in cancer development and progression. PMID:21385157

  10. Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation of SICE Matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjia; Zhou, Luping; Wang, Lei; Li, Wanqing

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering 1) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definiteness matrices, and 2) human brains share common patterns of connectivity across subjects. Therefore, we propose to employ manifold-based similarity measures and kernel-based PCA to extract principal connectivity components as a compact representation of brain network. Moreover, to cater for the requirement of both discrimination and interpretation in neuroimage analysis, we develop a novel preimage estimation algorithm to make the obtained connectivity components anatomically interpretable. To verify the efficacy of our method and gain insights into SICE-based brain networks, we conduct extensive experimental study on synthetic data and real rs-fMRI data from the ADNI dataset. Our method outperforms the comparable methods and improves the classification accuracy significantly. PMID:25667346

  11. Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a “cocktail” of non-tumourous elements is a reliable, quick and easy technique for inferring methylation status in glioblastomas and other primary brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a new protocol for MGMT immunohistochemistry with good agreement between observers and good correlation with molecular genetic tests of tumour methylation. We examined 40 primary brain tumours (30 glioblastomas and 10 oligodendroglial tumours) with our new technique, namely double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a "cocktail" of non-tumour antigens (CD34, CD45 and CD68). We compared the results with single-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, a recognised molecular genetic technique which we applied as the gold-standard for the methylation status). Results Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT produced a visual separation of tumourous and non-tumourous elements on the same histological slide, making it quick and easy to determine whether tumour cell nuclei were MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative (and thereby infer the methylation status of the tumour). We found good agreement between observers (kappa 0.76) and within observer (kappa 0.84). Furthermore, double-labelling showed good specificity (80%), sensitivity (73.33%), positive predictive value (PPV, 83.33%) and negative predictive value (NPV, 68.75%) compared to MS-MLPA. Double-labelling was quicker and easier to assess than single-labelling and it outperformed quantitative computerised image analysis of MGMT single-labelling in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Conclusions Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a cocktail of non-tumourous elements provides a "one look" method for determining whether tumour cell nuclei are MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative. This can be used to infer the methylation status of the tumour. There is good observer agreement and good specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV compared to a molecular gold-standard. PMID:24252243

  12. Shape Classification Using Wasserstein Distance for Brain Morphometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhengyu; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yalin; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Gu, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Brain morphometry study plays a fundamental role in medical imaging analysis and diagnosis. This work proposes a novel framework for brain cortical surface classification using Wasserstein distance, based on uniformization theory and Riemannian optimal mass transport theory. By Poincare uniformization theorem, all shapes can be conformally deformed to one of the three canonical spaces: the unit sphere, the Euclidean plane or the hyperbolic plane. The uniformization map will distort the surface area elements. The area-distortion factor gives a probability measure on the canonical uniformization space. All the probability measures on a Riemannian manifold form the Wasserstein space. Given any 2 probability measures, there is a unique optimal mass transport map between them, the transportation cost defines the Wasserstein distance between them. Wasserstein distance gives a Riemannian metric for the Wasserstein space. It intrinsically measures the dissimilarities between shapes and thus has the potential for shape classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to introduce the optimal mass transport map to general Riemannian manifolds. The method is based on geodesic power Voronoi diagram. Comparing to the conventional methods, our approach solely depends on Riemannian metrics and is invariant under rigid motions and scalings, thus it intrinsically measures shape distance. Experimental results on classifying brain cortical surfaces with different intelligence quotients demonstrated the efficiency and efficacy of our method. PMID:26221691

  13. Shape Classification Using Wasserstein Distance for Brain Morphometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhengyu; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yalin; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Gu, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Brain morphometry study plays a fundamental role in medical imaging analysis and diagnosis. This work proposes a novel framework for brain cortical surface classification using Wasserstein distance, based on uniformization theory and Riemannian optimal mass transport theory. By Poincare uniformization theorem, all shapes can be conformally deformed to one of the three canonical spaces: the unit sphere, the Euclidean plane or the hyperbolic plane. The uniformization map will distort the surface area elements. The area-distortion factor gives a probability measure on the canonical uniformization space. All the probability measures on a Riemannian manifold form the Wasserstein space. Given any 2 probability measures, there is a unique optimal mass transport map between them, the transportation cost defines the Wasserstein distance between them. Wasserstein distance gives a Riemannian metric for the Wasserstein space. It intrinsically measures the dissimilarities between shapes and thus has the potential for shape classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first. work to introduce the optimal mass transport map to general Riemannian manifolds. The method is based on geodesic power Voronoi diagram. Comparing to the conventional methods, our approach solely depends on Riemannian metrics and is invariant under rigid motions and scalings, thus it intrinsically measures shape distance. Experimental results on classifying brain cortical surfaces with different intelligence quotients demonstrated the efficiency and efficacy of our method. PMID:26221691

  14. Multi-fractal detrended texture feature for brain tumor classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Syed M. S.; Mays, Randall; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel non-invasive brain tumor type classification using Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) [1] in structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. This preliminary work investigates the efficacy of the MFDFA features along with our novel texture feature known as multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) [2] in classifying (grading) brain tumors as High Grade (HG) and Low Grade (LG). Based on prior performance, Random Forest (RF) [3] is employed for tumor grading using two different datasets such as BRATS-2013 [4] and BRATS-2014 [5]. Quantitative scores such as precision, recall, accuracy are obtained using the confusion matrix. On an average 90% precision and 85% recall from the inter-dataset cross-validation confirm the efficacy of the proposed method.

  15. FAST TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CT SLICE INDEXING VIA ANATOMICAL FEATURE CLASSIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    FAST TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CT SLICE INDEXING VIA ANATOMICAL FEATURE CLASSIFICATION Ruizhe Liu for Infocomm Research ABSTRACT Computed tomography (CT) is used widely in traumatic brain injury diagnosis. One axial brain CT scan consists of multiple slices with different heights along the brain axial direction

  16. Germline copy number variation of genes involved in chromatin remodelling in families suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome with brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Bougeard, Gaëlle; Castel, Hélène; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Drouet, Aurélie; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Schouft, Marie-Thérèse; Férec, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Lasset, Christine; Coupier, Isabelle; Caron, Olivier; Herceg, Zdenko; Frebourg, Thierry; Flaman, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Germline alterations of the tumour suppressor TP53 gene are detected approximately in 25% of the families suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), characterised by a genetic predisposition to a wide tumour spectrum, including soft-tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancers, brain tumours, adrenocortical tumours, plexus choroid tumours, leukaemia and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of germline copy number variations (CNVs) to LFS in families without detectable TP53 mutation. Using a custom-designed high-resolution array CGH, we evaluated the presence of rare germline CNVs in 64 patients fulfilling the Chompret criteria for LFS, but without any detectable TP53 alteration. In 15 unrelated patients, we detected 20 new CNVs absent in 600 controls. Remarkably, in four patients who had developed each brain tumour, the detected CNV overlap the KDM1A, MTA3, TRRAP or SIRT3 genes encoding p53 partners involved in histone methylation or acetylation. Focused analysis of SIRT3 showed that the CNV encompassing SIRT3 leads to SIRT3 overexpression, and that in vitro SIRT3 overexpression prevents apoptosis, increases G2/M and results in a hypermethylation of numerous genes. This study supports the causal role of germline alterations of genes involved in chromatin remodelling in genetic predisposition to cancer and, in particular, to brain tumours. PMID:23612572

  17. Paediatric head CT scan and subsequent risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour: a nation-wide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W-Y; Muo, C-H; Lin, C-Y; Jen, Y-M; Yang, M-H; Lin, J-C; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the possible association between paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examination and increased subsequent risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour. Methods: In the exposed cohort, 24?418 participants under 18 years of age, who underwent head CT examination between 1998 and 2006, were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients were followed up until a diagnosis of malignant disease or benign brain tumour, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system, or at the end of 2008. Results: The overall risk was not significantly different in the two cohorts (incidence rate=36.72 per 100?000 person-years in the exposed cohort, 28.48 per 100?000 person-years in the unexposed cohort, hazard ratio (HR)=1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.90–1.85). The risk of benign brain tumour was significantly higher in the exposed cohort than in the unexposed cohort (HR=2.97, 95% CI=1.49–5.93). The frequency of CT examination showed strong correlation with the subsequent overall risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour. Conclusions: We found that paediatric head CT examination was associated with an increased incidence of benign brain tumour. A large-scale study with longer follow-up is necessary to confirm this result. PMID:24569470

  18. Brain tissue segmentation in 4D CT using voxel classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, R.; Oei, M. T. H.; Lafebre, S.; Oostveen, L. J.; Meijer, F. J. A.; Steens, S. C. A.; Prokop, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Manniesing, R.

    2012-02-01

    A method is proposed to segment anatomical regions of the brain from 4D computer tomography (CT) patient data. The method consists of a three step voxel classification scheme, each step focusing on structures that are increasingly difficult to segment. The first step classifies air and bone, the second step classifies vessels and the third step classifies white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. As features the time averaged intensity value and the temporal intensity change value were used. In each step, a k-Nearest-Neighbor classifier was used to classify the voxels. Training data was obtained by placing regions of interest in reconstructed 3D image data. The method has been applied to ten 4D CT cerebral patient data. A leave-one-out experiment showed consistent and accurate segmentation results.

  19. 77 FR 16925 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Near Infrared (NIR) Brain... generic name Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector, and it is identified as a noninvasive...

  20. 3-D MRI Brain Scan Feature Classification Using an Oct-tree Representation

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    we only consider the lateral ventricles. An example of a 3-D MRI brain scan is shown in Figure 1 where the lateral ventricles are the dark areas at the centre of the brain. The dataset used to evaluate3-D MRI Brain Scan Feature Classification Using an Oct-tree Representation Akadej Udomchaiporn1

  1. Mir-34a Mimics Are Potential Therapeutic Agents for p53-Mutated and Chemo-Resistant Brain Tumour Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuen Ngan; Meley, Daniel; Pizer, Barry; Sée, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma) and adult (glioblastoma) brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1). Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells. PMID:25250818

  2. Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    van Tongeren, Martie

    2013-01-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

  3. MRI-image based radiotherapy treatment optimization of brain tumours using stochastic approach

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Prabhat

    radiation therapy as a therapy. In order to achieve the best results with radiation therapy, an efficient-planning efficacy would be enhanced. Researchers from different parts of the world have engaged themselves by [3,4,5] to visualize both the internal and external structure of a dynamic tumour. Wasserman

  4. The Sum of Tumour-to-Brain Ratios Improves the Accuracy of Diagnosing Gliomas Using 18F-FET PET

    PubMed Central

    Zyromska, Agnieszka; Wisniewski, Tomasz; Harat, Aleksandra; Lopatto, Rita; Furtak, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are common brain tumours, but obtaining tissue for definitive diagnosis can be difficult. There is, therefore, interest in the use of non-invasive methods to diagnose and grade the disease. Although positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorethyltyrosine (18F-FET) can be used to differentiate between low-grade (LGG) and high-grade (HGG) gliomas, the optimal parameters to measure and their cut-points have yet to be established. We therefore assessed the value of single and dual time-point acquisition of 18F-FET PET parameters to differentiate between primary LGGs (n = 22) and HGGs (n = 24). PET examination was considered positive for glioma if the metabolic activity was 1.6-times higher than that of background (contralateral) brain, and maximum tissue-brain ratios (TBRmax) were calculated 10 and 60 min after isotope administration with their sums and differences calculated from individual time-point values. Using a threshold-based method, the overall sensitivity of PET was 97%. Several analysed parameters were significantly different between LGGs and HGGs. However, in a receiver operating characteristics analysis, TBR sum had the best diagnostic accuracy of 87% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 72.7%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. 18F-FET PET is valuable for the non-invasive determination of glioma grade, especially when dual time-point metrics are used. TBR sum shows the greatest accuracy, sensitivity, and negative predictive value for tumour grade differentiation and is a simple method to implement. However, the cut-off may differ between institutions and calibration strategies would be useful. PMID:26468649

  5. Multiple instance learning for classification of dementia in brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tong; Wolz, Robin; Gao, Qinquan; Guerrero, Ricardo; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Machine learning techniques have been widely used to detect morphological abnormalities from structural brain magnetic resonance imaging data and to support the diagnosis of neurological diseases such as dementia. In this paper, we propose to use a multiple instance learning (MIL) method in an application for the detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In our work, local intensity patches are extracted as features. However, not all the patches extracted from patients with dementia are equally affected by the disease and some of them may not be characteristic of morphology associated with the disease. Therefore, there is some ambiguity in assigning disease labels to these patches. The problem of the ambiguous training labels can be addressed by weakly supervised learning techniques such as MIL. A graph is built for each image to exploit the relationships among the patches and then to solve the MIL problem. The constructed graphs contain information about the appearances of patches and the relationships among them, which can reflect the inherent structures of images and aids the classification. Using the baseline MR images of 834 subjects from the ADNI study, the proposed method can achieve a classification accuracy of 89% between AD patients and healthy controls, and 70% between patients defined as stable MCI and progressive MCI in a leave-one-out cross validation. Compared with two state-of-the-art methods using the same dataset, the proposed method can achieve similar or improved results, providing an alternative framework for the detection and prediction of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24858570

  6. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T—contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    PubMed Central

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Szomolanyi, P.; Kronnerwetter, C.; Widhalm, G.; Weber, M.; Nemec, S.; Juras, V.; Ladd, M. E.; Prayer, D.; Trattnig, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Methods Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. Results The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8±45.8 vs. 43.9±25.3 [p=0.010], 128.1±53.7 vs. 75.5±32.4 [p=0.004]) and the full dose (129.2±50.9 vs. 66.6±33.1 [p=0.002], 165.4±54.2 vs. 102.6±45.4 [p=0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p=.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Conclusion Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. PMID:25194707

  7. Classification of Brain-Computer Interface Data Omar AlZoubi1,2

    E-print Network

    Calvo, Rafael A.

    Classification of Brain-Computer Interface Data Omar AlZoubi1,2 , Irena Koprinska1 and Rafael A for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) in two scenarios: off line and on-line. In the off-line scenario we-line scenario that we have designed, we study the performance of our system to play a computer game for which

  8. An improved brain image classification technique with mining and shape prior segmentation procedure.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, P; Madheswaran, M

    2012-04-01

    The shape prior segmentation procedure and pruned association rule with ImageApriori algorithm has been used to develop an improved brain image classification system are presented in this paper. The CT scan brain images have been classified into three categories namely normal, benign and malignant, considering the low-level features extracted from the images and high level knowledge from specialists to enhance the accuracy in decision process. The experimental results on pre-diagnosed brain images showed 97% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 98.5% accuracy. The proposed algorithm is expected to assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple key features per image. PMID:20703655

  9. L-phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, ?)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours. PMID:26455769

  10. Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns

    E-print Network

    Balc?, Serdar Kemal

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

  11. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice. PMID:25974641

  12. Boosting brain connectome classification accuracy in Alzheimer's disease using higher-order singular value decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Liang; Liu, Yashu; Wang, Yalin; Zhou, Jiayu; Jahanshad, Neda; Ye, Jieping; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. Accurate detection of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are crucial. There is also a growing interest in identifying brain imaging biomarkers that help to automatically differentiate stages of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we focused on brain structural networks computed from diffusion MRI and proposed a new feature extraction and classification framework based on higher order singular value decomposition and sparse logistic regression. In tests on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, our proposed framework showed promise in detecting brain network differences that help in classifying different stages of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26257601

  13. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with presentation as a brain inflammatory pseudo-tumour.

    PubMed

    Polivka, M; Vallat, A V; Woimant, F; Lot, G; Boukobza, M; Guichard, J P; Mikol, J

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is frequent but often asymptomatic. It can induce lobar haemorrhage, rapidly progressive dementia or recurrent transient neurological symptoms, other presentations being less frequent. We report 3 patients in their sixties presenting with a space occupying lesion which was the first manifestation of CAA. They were operated with a diagnosis of cerebral tumour. In all three cases, macroscopy was similar, the lesions were superficial in the cerebral cortex and the preoperative diagnoses were glioblastoma, meningioma and cavernoma. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a large inflammatory granuloma with numerous lipophages and siderophages surrounding capillaries with prominent endothelial cells. Vessels in the near cortex and meninges and within the granuloma harboured heavy amyloid deposits immunolabelled by anti-P component, anti-protein beta A4 with a A40 predominance and anti-apolipoprotein E. Adjacent cerebral cortex showed reactive gliosis and rare senile plaques. Amyloidosis is rarely considered among diagnoses of space occupying lesions. In our three cases, CT scan and MRI changes were related to the presence of an inflammatory granuloma around foci of haemorrhage and amyloid laden vessels. PMID:10812436

  14. A numerical model for the study of photoacoustic imaging of brain tumours

    E-print Network

    Firouzi, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has shown great promise for medical imaging, where optical energy absorption by blood haemoglobin is used as the contrast mechanism. A numerical method was developed for the in-silico assessment of the photoacoustic image reconstruction of the brain. Image segmentation techniques were used to prepare a digital phantom from MR images. Light transport through brain tissue was modelled using a Finite Element approach. The resulting acoustic pressure was then estimated by pulsed photoacoustics considerations. The forward acoustic wave propagation was modelled by the linearized coupled first order wave equations and solved by an acoustic k-space method. Since skull bone is an elastic solid and strongly attenuates ultrasound (due to both scattering and absorption), a k-space method was developed for elastic media. To model scattering effects, a new approach was applied based on propagation in random media. In addition, absorption effects were incorporated using a power law. Finally, the acoust...

  15. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh Sharma, R.; Marikkannu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for the identification of brain regions using magnetic resonance images accountable for brain tumor is presented in this paper. Classification of medical images is substantial in both clinical and research areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality outperforms towards diagnosing brain abnormalities like brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhage, and many more. The primary objective of this work is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) novel brain tumor classification model using MRI images with both micro- and macroscale textures designed to differentiate the MRI of brain under two classes of lesion, benign and malignant. The design approach was initially preprocessed using 3D Gaussian filter. Based on VOI (volume of interest) of the image, features were extracted using 3D volumetric Square Centroid Lines Gray Level Distribution Method (SCLGM) along with 3D run length and cooccurrence matrix. The optimal features are selected using the proposed refined gravitational search algorithm (RGSA). Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002). The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods. PMID:26509188

  16. Efficient Multilevel Brain Tumor Segmentation with Integrated Bayesian Model Classification

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema are the tumor itself, comprising a necrotic (dead) part and an active part, the edema or swelling in the nearby. On the right, we outline the different heterogeneous regions of the brain tumor and label them as edema, active

  17. Brain tumor segmentation based on local independent projection-based classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

    2014-10-01

    Brain tumor segmentation is an important procedure for early tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. Although numerous brain tumor segmentation methods have been presented, enhancing tumor segmentation methods is still challenging because brain tumor MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as high diversity in tumor appearance and ambiguous tumor boundaries. To address this problem, we propose a novel automatic tumor segmentation method for MRI images. This method treats tumor segmentation as a classification problem. Additionally, the local independent projection-based classification (LIPC) method is used to classify each voxel into different classes. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the local independent projection into the classical classification model. Locality is important in the calculation of local independent projections for LIPC. Locality is also considered in determining whether local anchor embedding is more applicable in solving linear projection weights compared with other coding methods. Moreover, LIPC considers the data distribution of different classes by learning a softmax regression model, which can further improve classification performance. In this study, 80 brain tumor MRI images with ground truth data are used as training data and 40 images without ground truth data are used as testing data. The segmentation results of testing data are evaluated by an online evaluation tool. The average dice similarities of the proposed method for segmenting complete tumor, tumor core, and contrast-enhancing tumor on real patient data are 0.84, 0.685, and 0.585, respectively. These results are comparable to other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24860022

  18. Brain tumour classification using short echo time 1 H MRS. Objective comparison of classification techniques (LDA, LS-SVM).

    E-print Network

    techniques (LDA, LS-SVM). A. Devos1 , L. Lukas1 , J. A. K. Suykens1 , L. Vanhamme1 , F. A. Howe2 , C. Majós3 Analysis (PCA) prior to Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) with a linear kernel and LS-SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF). LS-SVM is a kernel-based technique

  19. Multiple stages classification of Alzheimers disease based on structural brain networks using

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Multiple stages classification of Alzheimers disease based on structural brain networks using for a progressing disease such as Alzheimers dis- ease is a key issue for the disease prevention and treatment networks in the progression of the Alzheimers disease. Here we developed a framework to utilize generalized

  20. On the effect of data set size on bias and variance in classification learning Damien Brain

    E-print Network

    Webb, Geoff

    On the effect of data set size on bias and variance in classification learning Damien Brain with large data sets. However, most machine learning research has been conducted in the context of learning from very small data sets. To date most approaches to scaling up machine learning to large data sets

  1. Chemotherapy for unresectable and recurrent intramedullary glial tumours in children. Brain Tumours Subcommittee of the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFOP).

    PubMed

    Doireau, V; Grill, J; Zerah, M; Lellouch-Tubiana, A; Couanet, D; Chastagner, P; Marchal, J C; Grignon, Y; Chouffai, Z; Kalifa, C

    1999-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment for intramedullary tumours is based on radiotherapy. The place of chemotherapy in this setting has yet to be determined. Between May 1992 and January 1998, eight children with unresectable or recurrent intramedullary glioma were treated with the BB SFOP protocol (a 16-month chemotherapy regimen with carboplatin, procarbazine, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin). Six children had progressive disease following incomplete surgery and two had a post-operative relapse. Three patients had leptomeningeal dissemination at the outset of chemotherapy. Seven of the eight children responded clinically and radiologically, while one remained stable. At the end of the BB SFOP protocol four children were in radiological complete remission. After a median follow-up of 3 years from the beginning of chemotherapy, all the children but one (who died from another cause) are alive. Five patients remain progression-free, without radiotherapy, 59, 55, 40, 35 and 16 months after the beginning of chemotherapy. The efficacy of this chemotherapy in patients with intramedullary glial tumours calls for further trials in this setting, especially in young children and patients with metastases. PMID:10555754

  2. Chemotherapy for unresectable and recurrent intramedullary glial tumours in children. Brain Tumours Subcommittee of the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFOP).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Doireau V; Grill J; Zerah M; Lellouch-Tubiana A; Couanet D; Chastagner P; Marchal JC; Grignon Y; Chouffai Z; Kalifa C

    1999-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment for intramedullary tumours is based on radiotherapy. The place of chemotherapy in this setting has yet to be determined. Between May 1992 and January 1998, eight children with unresectable or recurrent intramedullary glioma were treated with the BB SFOP protocol (a 16-month chemotherapy regimen with carboplatin, procarbazine, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin). Six children had progressive disease following incomplete surgery and two had a post-operative relapse. Three patients had leptomeningeal dissemination at the outset of chemotherapy. Seven of the eight children responded clinically and radiologically, while one remained stable. At the end of the BB SFOP protocol four children were in radiological complete remission. After a median follow-up of 3 years from the beginning of chemotherapy, all the children but one (who died from another cause) are alive. Five patients remain progression-free, without radiotherapy, 59, 55, 40, 35 and 16 months after the beginning of chemotherapy. The efficacy of this chemotherapy in patients with intramedullary glial tumours calls for further trials in this setting, especially in young children and patients with metastases.

  3. Imaging of sinonasal tumours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract More than 70 benign and malignant sinonasal tumours and tumour-like conditions have been described. However, sinonasal tumours are rare, and sinonasal cancers comprise only 3% of all head and neck cancers and 1% of all malignancies, with a peak incidence in the 5th to 7th decades and with a male preponderance. The early symptoms and imaging findings of sinonasal tumours are similar to rhinosinusitis with runny and stuffy nose, lacrimation and epistaxis and therefore neglected both by the patients and doctors. When late symptoms such as anosmia, visual disturbances, cranial neuropathy (Cn II, IV, V, VI) or facial swelling appear, the patient is referred to sinonasal endoscopy or imaging. At the time of correct diagnosis more than half of the tumours have reached an advanced stage with a poor prognostic outcome. Even if imaging is performed in the early stages, a radiologist inexperienced with sinonasal anatomy and tumour features may easily interpret early signs of a malignant tumour as rhinosinusitis or a lesion that does not require follow-up. This article presents the imaging findings in some of the most common benign and malignant sinonasal tumours, and the TNM classification and staging of sinonasal carcinomas. PMID:22571851

  4. Multiple instance learning for classification of dementia in brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tong; Wolz, Robin; Gao, Qinquan; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Machine learning techniques have been widely used to support the diagnosis of neurological diseases such as dementia. Recent approaches utilize local intensity patterns within patches to derive voxelwise grading measures of disease. However, the relationships among these patches are usually ignored. In addition, there is some ambiguity in assigning disease labels to the extracted patches. Not all of the patches extracted from patients with dementia are characteristic of morphology associated with disease. In this paper, we propose to use a multiple instance learning method to address the problem of assigning training labels to the patches. In addition, a graph is built for each image to exploit the relationships among these patches, which aids the classification work. We illustrate the proposed approach in an application for the detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD): Using the baseline MR images of 834 subjects from the ADNI study, the proposed method can achieve a classification accuracy of 88.8% between AD patients and healthy controls, and 69.6% between patients with stable Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and progressive MCI. These results compare favourably with state-of-the-art classification methods. PMID:24579190

  5. Spatially Aggregated Multi-Class Pattern Classification in Functional MRI using Optimally Selected Functional Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Ackley, Elena S.; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Posse, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In previous works, boosting aggregation of classifier outputs from discrete brain areas has been demonstrated to reduce dimensionality, and improve the robustness and accuracy of fMRI classification. However, dimensionality reduction and classification of mixed activation patterns of multiple classes remain challenging. In the present study, the goals were (a) to reduce dimensionality by combining feature reduction at the voxel level and backward elimination of optimally aggregated classifiers at the region level, (b) to compare region selection for spatially aggregated classification using boosting and partial least squares regression methods and (c) to resolve mixed activation patterns using probabilistic prediction of individual tasks. Brain activation maps from interleaved visual, motor, auditory and cognitive tasks were segmented into 144 functional regions. Feature selection reduced the number of feature voxels by more than 50%, leaving 95 regions. The two aggregation approaches further reduced the number of regions to 30, resulting in more than 75% reduction of classification time and misclassification rates of less than 3%. Boosting and partial least squares (PLS) were compared to select the most discriminative and the most task correlated regions, respectively. Successful task prediction in mixed activation patterns was feasible within the first block of task activation in real time fMRI experiments. This methodology is suitable for sparsifying activation patterns in real-time fMRI and for neurofeedback from distributed networks of brain activation. PMID:22902471

  6. Fast and accurate water content and T2* mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oros-Peusquens, A.-M.; Keil, F.; Langen, K. J.; Herzog, H.; Stoffels, G.; Weiss, C.; Shah, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue - obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time - amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2* values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 > min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use.

  7. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; B?czyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, El?bieta; Rucha?a, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  8. Classification of autism spectrum disorder using supervised learning of brain connectivity measures extracted from synchrostates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Wasifa; Das, Saptarshi; Oprescu, Ioana-Anastasia; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The paper investigates the presence of autism using the functional brain connectivity measures derived from electro-encephalogram (EEG) of children during face perception tasks. Approach. Phase synchronized patterns from 128-channel EEG signals are obtained for typical children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The phase synchronized states or synchrostates temporally switch amongst themselves as an underlying process for the completion of a particular cognitive task. We used 12 subjects in each group (ASD and typical) for analyzing their EEG while processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. The minimal and maximally occurring synchrostates for each subject are chosen for extraction of brain connectivity features, which are used for classification between these two groups of subjects. Among different supervised learning techniques, we here explored the discriminant analysis and support vector machine both with polynomial kernels for the classification task. Main results. The leave one out cross-validation of the classification algorithm gives 94.7% accuracy as the best performance with corresponding sensitivity and specificity values as 85.7% and 100% respectively. Significance. The proposed method gives high classification accuracies and outperforms other contemporary research results. The effectiveness of the proposed method for classification of autistic and typical children suggests the possibility of using it on a larger population to validate it for clinical practice.

  9. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kanesan, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA), and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients’ benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%). Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities from the individual subjects, therefore, it can be used as a significant tool in clinical practice. PMID:26280918

  10. Glomus tumour.

    PubMed

    Sethu, C; Sethu, A U

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours are rare tumours accounting for only 1-5% of soft tissue tumours of the hand. They are described classically in the subungual region. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with a late diagnosis of a glomus tumour that had caused her excruciating pain. Clinical examination was positive for Hildreth's sign and the Love test. Magnetic resonance imaging delineated the tumour, which was excised and confirmed histologically. This case highlights the continued delay in diagnosis of glomus tumours as well as the use of imaging in diagnosis and planning of surgery. PMID:26688416

  11. Classification of Alzheimer's disease using regional saliency maps from brain MR volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Andrea; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the complex alteration of patterns in brain anatomy that could indicate the presence or absence of the pathology. Currently, an effective approach that allows to interpret the disease in terms of global and local changes is not available in the clinical practice. In this paper, we propose an approach for classification of brain MR images, based on finding pathology-related patterns through the identification of regional structural changes. The approach combines a probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) technique, which allows to identify image regions through latent topics inferred from the brain MR slices, with a bottom-up Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) model, which calculates maps of relevant information per region. Regional saliency maps are finally combined into a single map on each slice, obtaining a master saliency map of each brain volume. The proposed approach includes a one-to-one comparison of the saliency maps which feeds a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, to group test subjects into normal or probable AD subjects. A set of 156 brain MR images from healthy (76) and pathological (80) subjects, splitted into a training set (10 non-demented and 10 demented subjects) and one testing set (136 subjects), was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Preliminary results show that the proposed method reaches a maximum classification accuracy of 87.21%.

  12. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  13. Simple adaptive sparse representation based classification schemes for EEG based brain-computer interface applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Younghak; Lee, Seungchan; Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Jun, Sung Chan; Lee, Heung-No

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems related to electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is the non-stationarity of the underlying EEG signals. This results in the deterioration of the classification performance during experimental sessions. Therefore, adaptive classification techniques are required for EEG based BCI applications. In this paper, we propose simple adaptive sparse representation based classification (SRC) schemes. Supervised and unsupervised dictionary update techniques for new test data and a dictionary modification method by using the incoherence measure of the training data are investigated. The proposed methods are very simple and additional computation for the re-training of the classifier is not needed. The proposed adaptive SRC schemes are evaluated using two BCI experimental datasets. The proposed methods are assessed by comparing classification results with the conventional SRC and other adaptive classification methods. On the basis of the results, we find that the proposed adaptive schemes show relatively improved classification accuracy as compared to conventional methods without requiring additional computation. PMID:26378500

  14. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  15. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI. PMID:26447861

  16. Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

  17. Spatial cluster analysis of nanoscopically mapped serotonin receptors for classification of fixed brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sams, Michael; Silye, Rene; Göhring, Janett; Muresan, Leila; Schilcher, Kurt; Jacak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    We present a cluster spatial analysis method using nanoscopic dSTORM images to determine changes in protein cluster distributions within brain tissue. Such methods are suitable to investigate human brain tissue and will help to achieve a deeper understanding of brain disease along with aiding drug development. Human brain tissue samples are usually treated postmortem via standard fixation protocols, which are established in clinical laboratories. Therefore, our localization microscopy-based method was adapted to characterize protein density and protein cluster localization in samples fixed using different protocols followed by common fluorescent immunohistochemistry techniques. The localization microscopy allows nanoscopic mapping of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor groups within a two-dimensional image of a brain tissue slice. These nanoscopically mapped proteins can be confined to clusters by applying the proposed statistical spatial analysis. Selected features of such clusters were subsequently used to characterize and classify the tissue. Samples were obtained from different types of patients, fixed with different preparation methods, and finally stored in a human tissue bank. To verify the proposed method, samples of a cryopreserved healthy brain have been compared with epitope-retrieved and paraffin-fixed tissues. Furthermore, samples of healthy brain tissues were compared with data obtained from patients suffering from mental illnesses (e.g., major depressive disorder). Our work demonstrates the applicability of localization microscopy and image analysis methods for comparison and classification of human brain tissues at a nanoscopic level. Furthermore, the presented workflow marks a unique technological advance in the characterization of protein distributions in brain tissue sections.

  18. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use

    PubMed Central

    HARDELL, LENNART; CARLBERG, MICHAEL; SÖDERQVIST, FREDRIK; MILD, KJELL HANSSON

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the hand-held phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a ‘possible’ human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18–75 years and diagnosed during 2007–2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6–6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996–2.7, increasing with latency >15–20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.9, and, for latency of 15–20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20–25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1–5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15–20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:24064953

  19. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04?3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:24064953

  20. Automated glioblastoma segmentation based on a multiparametric structured unsupervised classification.

    PubMed

    Juan-Albarracín, Javier; Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Manjón, José V; Robles, Montserrat; Aparici, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Automatic brain tumour segmentation has become a key component for the future of brain tumour treatment. Currently, most of brain tumour segmentation approaches arise from the supervised learning standpoint, which requires a labelled training dataset from which to infer the models of the classes. The performance of these models is directly determined by the size and quality of the training corpus, whose retrieval becomes a tedious and time-consuming task. On the other hand, unsupervised approaches avoid these limitations but often do not reach comparable results than the supervised methods. In this sense, we propose an automated unsupervised method for brain tumour segmentation based on anatomical Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Four unsupervised classification algorithms, grouped by their structured or non-structured condition, were evaluated within our pipeline. Considering the non-structured algorithms, we evaluated K-means, Fuzzy K-means and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), whereas as structured classification algorithms we evaluated Gaussian Hidden Markov Random Field (GHMRF). An automated postprocess based on a statistical approach supported by tissue probability maps is proposed to automatically identify the tumour classes after the segmentations. We evaluated our brain tumour segmentation method with the public BRAin Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2013 Test and Leaderboard datasets. Our approach based on the GMM model improves the results obtained by most of the supervised methods evaluated with the Leaderboard set and reaches the second position in the ranking. Our variant based on the GHMRF achieves the first position in the Test ranking of the unsupervised approaches and the seventh position in the general Test ranking, which confirms the method as a viable alternative for brain tumour segmentation. PMID:25978453

  1. Automated Glioblastoma Segmentation Based on a Multiparametric Structured Unsupervised Classification

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Albarracín, Javier; Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Manjón, José V.; Robles, Montserrat; Aparici, F.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.; García-Gómez, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic brain tumour segmentation has become a key component for the future of brain tumour treatment. Currently, most of brain tumour segmentation approaches arise from the supervised learning standpoint, which requires a labelled training dataset from which to infer the models of the classes. The performance of these models is directly determined by the size and quality of the training corpus, whose retrieval becomes a tedious and time-consuming task. On the other hand, unsupervised approaches avoid these limitations but often do not reach comparable results than the supervised methods. In this sense, we propose an automated unsupervised method for brain tumour segmentation based on anatomical Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Four unsupervised classification algorithms, grouped by their structured or non-structured condition, were evaluated within our pipeline. Considering the non-structured algorithms, we evaluated K-means, Fuzzy K-means and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), whereas as structured classification algorithms we evaluated Gaussian Hidden Markov Random Field (GHMRF). An automated postprocess based on a statistical approach supported by tissue probability maps is proposed to automatically identify the tumour classes after the segmentations. We evaluated our brain tumour segmentation method with the public BRAin Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2013 Test and Leaderboard datasets. Our approach based on the GMM model improves the results obtained by most of the supervised methods evaluated with the Leaderboard set and reaches the second position in the ranking. Our variant based on the GHMRF achieves the first position in the Test ranking of the unsupervised approaches and the seventh position in the general Test ranking, which confirms the method as a viable alternative for brain tumour segmentation. PMID:25978453

  2. Classification of mathematics deficiency using shape and scale analysis of 3D brain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtek, Sebastian; Klassen, Eric; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua; Srivastava, Anuj

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the use of a recent technique for shape analysis of brain substructures in identifying learning disabilities in third-grade children. This Riemannian technique provides a quantification of differences in shapes of parameterized surfaces, using a distance that is invariant to rigid motions and re-parameterizations. Additionally, it provides an optimal registration across surfaces for improved matching and comparisons. We utilize an efficient gradient based method to obtain the optimal re-parameterizations of surfaces. In this study we consider 20 different substructures in the human brain and correlate the differences in their shapes with abnormalities manifested in deficiency of mathematical skills in 106 subjects. The selection of these structures is motivated in part by the past links between their shapes and cognitive skills, albeit in broader contexts. We have studied the use of both individual substructures and multiple structures jointly for disease classification. Using a leave-one-out nearest neighbor classifier, we obtained a 62.3% classification rate based on the shape of the left hippocampus. The use of multiple structures resulted in an improved classification rate of 71.4%.

  3. Classification of anatomical structures in MR brain images using fuzzy parameters.

    PubMed

    Algorri, Maria-Elena; Flores-Mangas, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    We present an algorithm that automatically segments and classifies the brain structures in a set of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images using expert information contained in a small subset of the image set. The algorithm is intended to do the segmentation and classification tasks mimicking the way a human expert would reason. The algorithm uses a knowledge base taken from a small subset of semiautomatically classified images that is combined with a set of fuzzy indexes that capture the experience and expectation a human expert uses during recognition tasks. The fuzzy indexes are tissue specific and spatial specific, in order to consider the biological variations in the tissues and the acquisition inhomogeneities through the image set. The brain structures are segmented and classified one at a time. For each brain structure the algorithm needs one semiautomatically classified image and makes one pass through the image set. The algorithm uses low-level image processing techniques on a pixel basis for the segmentations, then validates or corrects the segmentations, and makes the final classification decision using higher level criteria measured by the set of fuzzy indexes. We use single-echo MR images because of their high volumetric resolution; but even though we are working with only one image per brain slice, we have multiple sources of information on each pixel: absolute and relative positions in the image, gray level value, statistics of the pixel and its three-dimensional neighborhood and relation to its counterpart pixels in adjacent images. We have validated our algorithm for ease of use and precision both with clinical experts and with measurable error indexes over a Brainweb simulated MR set. PMID:15376508

  4. Computational Classification Approach to Profile Neuron Subtypes from Brain Activity Mapping Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Fang; Lee, Jason; Wang, Dong; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of cell type-specific activity patterns during behaviors is important for better understanding of how neural circuits generate cognition, but has not been well explored from in vivo neurophysiological datasets. Here, we describe a computational approach to uncover distinct cell subpopulations from in vivo neural spike datasets. This method, termed “inter-spike-interval classification-analysis” (ISICA), is comprised of four major steps: spike pattern feature-extraction, pre-clustering analysis, clustering classification, and unbiased classification-dimensionality selection. By using two key features of spike dynamic - namely, gamma distribution shape factors and a coefficient of variation of inter-spike interval - we show that this ISICA method provides invariant classification for dopaminergic neurons or CA1 pyramidal cell subtypes regardless of the brain states from which spike data were collected. Moreover, we show that these ISICA-classified neuron subtypes underlie distinct physiological functions. We demonstrate that the uncovered dopaminergic neuron subtypes encoded distinct aspects of fearful experiences such as valence or value, whereas distinct hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells responded differentially to ketamine-induced anesthesia. This ISICA method should be useful to better data mining of large-scale in vivo neural datasets, leading to novel insights into circuit dynamics associated with cognitions. PMID:26212360

  5. Neuropsychological Assessment of Individuals with Brain Tumor: Comparison of Approaches Used in the Classification of Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dwan, Toni Maree; Ownsworth, Tamara; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G.; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Approaches to classifying neuropsychological impairment after brain tumor vary according to testing level (individual tests, domains, or global index) and source of reference (i.e., norms, controls, and pre-morbid functioning). This study aimed to compare rates of impairment according to different classification approaches. Participants were 44 individuals (57% female) with a primary brain tumor diagnosis (mean age?=?45.6?years) and 44 matched control participants (59% female, mean age?=?44.5?years). All participants completed a test battery that assesses pre-morbid IQ (Wechsler adult reading test), attention/processing speed (digit span, trail making test A), memory (Hopkins verbal learning test-revised, Rey–Osterrieth complex figure-recall), and executive function (trail making test B, Rey–Osterrieth complex figure copy, controlled oral word association test). Results indicated that across the different sources of reference, 86–93% of participants were classified as impaired at a test-specific level, 61–73% were classified as impaired at a domain-specific level, and 32–50% were classified as impaired at a global level. Rates of impairment did not significantly differ according to source of reference (p?>?0.05); however, at the individual participant level, classification based on estimated pre-morbid IQ was often inconsistent with classification based on the norms or controls. Participants with brain tumor performed significantly poorer than matched controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning, including executive function (p?=?0.001) and memory (p??0.05). These results highlight the need to examine individuals’ performance across a multi-faceted neuropsychological test battery to avoid over- or under-estimation of impairment. PMID:25815271

  6. Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2011-05-01

    We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20. PMID:21331446

  7. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum-part II.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Michael A; Marx, Alexander; Mukai, Kiyoshi; Ströbel, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an updated overview of mesenchymal tumours that have been reported in the mediastinum. PMID:26358060

  8. In vivo PET evaluation in tumour-bearing rats of 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine as a new potential tracer for molecular imaging of brain and extra-cranial tumours in humans with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersemans, Ken; Bauwens, Matthias; Lahoutte, Tony; Bossuyt, Axel; Mertens, John

    2007-02-01

    The Na +-independent L-type LAT1 amino acid transport system for large and neutral amino acids has been shown to be expressed higher in tumour tissue relative to normal tissue and has been regarded as a key point for the development of new amino acid based tumour tracers for molecular imaging. We developed a new fluorinated phenylalanine analogue, 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine, considering that the spatial volume of FCH 3 is comparable with that of the iodine atom in 2-I- L-phenylalanine, of which we have proven that it is taken up excellently in tumours by the LAT1 system. The substrate molecule for radiolabeling, Boc-2-bromomethyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester, was prepared by radical bromination of Boc-2-methyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester. [ 18F -] for bromine exchange is performed within 3 min in conditions comparable to the [ 18F]FDG synthesis with a radiochemical yield of at least 85%. After deprotection and semi-preparative HPLC purification, the 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine is recovered n.c.a. (57%) with a high purity and 3.7 MBq were injected into R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing rats. Imaging was performed with a human PET camera from 5 to 45 min p.i. The tumour/background and tumour/blood ratios obtained from PET acquisition were at least 2.5. DUR values for the tumours were at least about 5. Furthermore, a small tumour implanted near a kidney could be well visualized completely separated from this kidney. Moreover in all tumours the "active" tumour tissue can clearly be differentiated from less active tumour tissue. This proves that 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine has a great potential as a new tracer for specific tumour diagnosis with PET.

  9. Voxel-based discriminant map classification on brain ventricles for Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingnan; de Haan, Gerard; Unay, Devrim; Soldea, Octavian; Ekin, Ahmet

    2009-02-01

    One major hallmark of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of neurons in the brain. In many cases, medical experts use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to qualitatively measure the neuronal loss by the shrinkage or enlargement of the structures-of-interest. Brain ventricle is one of the popular choices. It is easily detectable in clinical MR images due to the high contrast of the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) with the rest of the parenchyma. Moreover, atrophy in any periventricular structure will directly lead to ventricle enlargement. For quantitative analysis, volume is the common choice. However, volume is a gross measure and it cannot capture the entire complexity of the anatomical shape. Since most existing shape descriptors are complex and difficult-to-reproduce, more straightforward and robust ways to extract ventricle shape features are preferred in the diagnosis. In this paper, a novel ventricle shape based classification method for Alzheimer's disease has been proposed. Training process is carried out to generate two probability maps for two training classes: healthy controls (HC) and AD patients. By subtracting the HC probability map from the AD probability map, we get a 3D ventricle discriminant map. Then a matching coefficient has been calculated between each training subject and the discriminant map. An adjustable cut-off point of the matching coefficients has been drawn for the two classes. Generally, the higher the cut-off point that has been drawn, the higher specificity can be achieved. However, it will result in relatively lower sensitivity and vice versa. The benchmarked results against volume based classification show that the area under the ROC curves for our proposed method is as high as 0.86 compared with only 0.71 for volume based classification method.

  10. A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging modalities used in presurgical planning of brain tumour resection.

    PubMed

    Dimou, S; Battisti, R A; Hermens, D F; Lagopoulos, J

    2013-04-01

    Historically, brain tumour resection has relied upon standardised anatomical atlases and classical mapping techniques for successful resection. While these have provided adequate results in the past, the emergence of new technologies has heralded a wave of less invasive, patient-specific techniques for the mapping of brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and, more recently, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are two such techniques. While fMRI is able to highlight localisation of function within the cortex, DTI represents the only technique able to elucidate white matter structures in vivo. Used in conjunction, both of these techniques provide important presurgical information for thorough preoperative planning, as well as intraoperatively via integration into frameless stereotactic neuronavigational systems. Together, these techniques show great promise for improved neurosurgical outcomes. While further research is required for more widespread clinical validity and acceptance, results from the literature provide a clear road map for future research and development to cement these techniques into the clinical setup of neurosurgical departments globally. PMID:23187966

  11. Improved CSF classification and lesion detection in MR brain images with multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Yulian; Miron, Shmuel; Achiron, Anat; Greenspan, Hayit

    2007-03-01

    The study deals with the challenging task of automatic segmentation of MR brain images with multiple sclerosis lesions (MSL). Multi-Channel data is used, including "fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery" (fast FLAIR or FF), and statistical modeling tools are developed, in order to improve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification and to detect MSL. Two new concepts are proposed for use within an EM framework. The first concept is the integration of prior knowledge as it relates to tissue behavior in different MRI modalities, with special attention given to the FF modality. The second concept deals with running the algorithm on a subset of the input that is most likely to be noise- and artifact-free data. This enables a more reliable learning of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) parameters for brain tissue statistics. The proposed method focuses on the problematic CSF intensity distribution, which is a key to improved overall segmentation and lesion detection. A level-set based active contour stage is performed for lesion delineation, using gradient and shape properties combined with previously learned region intensity statistics. In the proposed scheme there is no need for preregistration of an atlas, a common characteristic in brain segmentation schemes. Experimental results on real data are presented.

  12. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training, and characterization of non-stationarities such that ECoG could be a viable signal source for grasp control for amputees or individuals with paralysis.

  13. EEG Subspace Analysis and Classification Using Principal Angles for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashari, Rehab Bahaaddin

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) help paralyzed people who have lost some or all of their ability to communicate and control the outside environment from loss of voluntary muscle control. Most BCIs are based on the classification of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded from users as they respond to external stimuli or perform various mental activities. The classification process is fraught with difficulties caused by electrical noise, signal artifacts, and nonstationarity. One approach to reducing the effects of similar difficulties in other domains is the use of principal angles between subspaces, which has been applied mostly to video sequences. This dissertation studies and examines different ideas using principal angles and subspaces concepts. It introduces a novel mathematical approach for comparing sets of EEG signals for use in new BCI technology. The success of the presented results show that principal angles are also a useful approach to the classification of EEG signals that are recorded during a BCI typing application. In this application, the appearance of a subject's desired letter is detected by identifying a P300-wave within a one-second window of EEG following the flash of a letter. Smoothing the signals before using them is the only preprocessing step that was implemented in this study. The smoothing process based on minimizing the second derivative in time is implemented to increase the classification accuracy instead of using the bandpass filter that relies on assumptions on the frequency content of EEG. This study examines four different ways of removing outliers that are based on the principal angles and shows that the outlier removal methods did not help in the presented situations. One of the concepts that this dissertation focused on is the effect of the number of trials on the classification accuracies. The achievement of the good classification results by using a small number of trials starting from two trials only, should make this approach more appropriate for online BCI applications. In order to understand and test how EEG signals are different from one subject to another, different users are tested in this dissertation, some with motor impairments. Furthermore, the concept of transferring information between subjects is examined by training the approach on one subject and testing it on the other subject using the training subject's EEG subspaces to classify the testing subject's trials.

  14. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  15. A novel criterion of wavelet packet best basis selection for signal classification with application to brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vautrin, Denis; Artusi, Xavier; Lucas, Marie-Françoise; Farina, Dario

    2009-11-01

    This study proposes a method to select a wavelet basis for classification. It uses a strategy defined by Wickerhauser and Coifman and proposes a new additive criterion describing the contrast between classes. Its performance is compared with other approaches on simulated signals and on experimental EEG signals for brain-computer interface applications. PMID:19651550

  16. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational affiliation. PMID:25565941

  17. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Lawrence A; Richardson, Drew C; Richardson, Graham M; Furedy, John J

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the "brain fingerprinting" method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational affiliation. PMID:25565941

  18. Inspection time in patients with intracranial tumours before and after neurosurgery 

    E-print Network

    Scotland, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Many patients with brain tumours experience dysfunction in several cognitive domains. Given the limited survival times of the majority of patients with brain tumours, maintenance or improvement of quality ...

  19. New approach for automatic classification of Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy brain magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Boukadoum, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Explored is the utility of modelling brain magnetic resonance images as a fractal object for the classification of healthy brain images against those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). More precisely, fractal multi-scale analysis is used to build feature vectors from the derived Hurst's exponents. These are then classified by support vector machines (SVMs). Three experiments were conducted: in the first the SVM was trained to classify AD against healthy images. In the second experiment, the SVM was trained to classify AD against MCI and, in the third experiment, a multiclass SVM was trained to classify all three types of images. The experimental results, using the 10-fold cross-validation technique, indicate that the SVM achieved 97.08% ± 0.05 correct classification rate, 98.09% ± 0.04 sensitivity and 96.07% ± 0.07 specificity for the classification of healthy against MCI images, thus outperforming recent works found in the literature. For the classification of MCI against AD, the SVM achieved 97.5% ± 0.04 correct classification rate, 100% sensitivity and 94.93% ± 0.08 specificity. The third experiment also showed that the multiclass SVM provided highly accurate classification results. The processing time for a given image was 25 s. These findings suggest that this approach is efficient and may be promising for clinical applications. PMID:26609373

  20. Robust volumetric texture classification of magnetic resonance images of the brain using local frequency descriptor.

    PubMed

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Kalra, Sanjay; Yang, Yee-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for robust volumetric texture classification. It also proposes 2D and 3D gradient calculation methods designed to be robust to imaging effects and artifacts. Using the proposed 2D method, the gradient information is extracted on the XYZ orthogonal planes at each voxel and used to form a local coordinate system. The local coordinate system and the local 3D gradient computed by the proposed 3D gradient calculator are then used to define volumetric texture features. It is shown that the presented gradient calculation methods can be efficiently implemented by convolving with 2D and 3D kernels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed gradient operators and the texture features are robust to imaging effects and artifacts, such as blurriness and noise in 2D and 3D images. The proposed method is compared with three state-of- the-art volumetric texture classification methods the 3D gray level cooccurance matrix, 3D local binary patterns, and second orientation pyramid on magnetic resonance imaging data of the brain. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method in accuracy, robustness, and speed. PMID:25167550

  1. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  2. MRI Brain Images Healthy and Pathological Tissues Classification with the Aid of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sheejakumari, V.; Sankara Gomathi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  3. MRI brain images healthy and pathological tissues classification with the aid of improved particle swarm optimization and neural network.

    PubMed

    Sheejakumari, V; Sankara Gomathi, B

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  4. Segmentation and classification of normal-appearing brain: how much is enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, John O.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ji, Qing; Glas, Lauren S.

    2002-05-01

    In this study, subsets of MR slices were examined to assess their ability to optimally predict the total cerebral volume of gray matter, white matter and CSF. Patients underwent a clinical imaging protocol consisting of T1-, T2-, PD-, and FLAIR-weighted images after obtaining informed consent. MR imaging sets were registered, RF-corrected, and then analyzed with a hybrid neural network segmentation and classification algorithm to identify normal brain parenchyma. After processing the data, the correlation between the image subsets and the total cerebral volumes of gray matter, white matter and CSF were examined. The 29 subjects (18F, 11M) assessed in this study were 1.7 ? 18.7 (median = 5.2) years of age. The five subsets accounted for 5%, 15%, 24%, 56%, and 79% of the total cerebral volume. The predictive correlation for gray matter, white matter, and CSF in each of these subsets were: 5% (R= 0.94, 0.92, 0.91), 15% (R= 0.93, 0.95, 0.94), 24% (R= 0.92, 0.95, 0.94), 56% (R= 0.75, 0.95, 0.89), and 79% (R= 0.89, 0.98, 0.99) respectively. All subsets of slices examined were significantly correlated (p<0.001) with the total cerebral volume of gray matter, white matter, and CSF.

  5. Brain functional connectivity patterns for emotional state classification in Parkinson's disease patients without dementia.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mesquita, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    Successful emotional communication is crucial for social interactions and social relationships. Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients have shown deficits in emotional recognition abilities although the research findings are inconclusive. This paper presents an investigation of six emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) of twenty non-demented (Mini-Mental State Examination score >24) PD patients and twenty Healthy Controls (HCs) using Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based Brain Functional Connectivity (BFC) patterns. The functional connectivity index feature in EEG signals is computed using three different methods: Correlation (COR), Coherence (COH), and Phase Synchronization Index (PSI). Further, a new functional connectivity index feature is proposed using bispectral analysis. The experimental results indicate that the BFC change is significantly different among emotional states of PD patients compared with HC. Also, the emotional connectivity pattern classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier yielded the highest accuracy for the new bispectral functional connectivity index. The PD patients showed emotional impairments as demonstrated by a poor classification performance. This finding suggests that decrease in the functional connectivity indices during emotional stimulation in PD, indicating functional disconnections between cortical areas. PMID:26515932

  6. Automatic classification of sulcal regions of the human brain cortex using pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Kirsten J.; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Pham, Dzung L.; Shen, Dinggang; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Prince, Jerry L.

    2003-05-01

    Parcellation of the cortex has received a great deal of attention in magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis, but its usefulness has been limited by time-consuming algorithms that require manual labeling. An automatic labeling scheme is necessary to accurately and consistently parcellate a large number of brains. The large variation of cortical folding patterns makes automatic labeling a challenging problem, which cannot be solved by deformable atlas registration alone. In this work, an automated classification scheme that consists of a mix of both atlas driven and data driven methods is proposed to label the sulcal regions, which are defined as the gray matter regions of the cortical surface surrounding each sulcus. The premise for this algorithm is that sulcal regions can be classified according to the pattern of anatomical features (e.g. supramarginal gyrus, cuneus, etc.) associated with each region. Using a nearest-neighbor approach, a sulcal region is classified as being in the same class as the sulcus from a set of training data which has the nearest pattern of anatomical features. Using just one subject as training data, the algorithm correctly labeled 83% of the regions that make up the main sulci of the cortex.

  7. Molecular classification of brain tumor biopsies using solid-state magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and robust classifiers.

    PubMed

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Blekas, Konstantinos D; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Astrakas, Loukas; Black, Peter M; Tzika, A Aria

    2008-11-01

    Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however, molecular classification of these tumors with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is limited because of the small number of metabolites detected. In vitro MRS provides highly informative biomarker profiles at higher fields, but also consumes the sample so that it is unavailable for subsequent analysis. In contrast, ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS conserves the sample but requires large samples and can pose technical challenges for producing accurate data, depending on the sample testing temperature. We developed a novel approach that combines a two-dimensional (2D), solid-state, HRMAS proton (1H) NMR method, TOBSY (total through-bond spectroscopy), which maximizes the advantages of HRMAS and a robust classification strategy. We used approximately 2 mg of tissue at -8 degrees C from each of 55 brain biopsies, and reliably detected 16 different biologically relevant molecular species. We compared two classification strategies, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and a feed-forward neural network using the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm. We used the minimum redundancy/maximum relevance (MRMR) method as a powerful feature-selection scheme along with the SVM classifier. We suggest that molecular characterization of brain tumors based on highly informative 2D MRS should enable us to type and prognose even inoperable patients with high accuracy in vivo. PMID:18949365

  8. Matched signal detection on graphs: Theory and application to brain imaging data classification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenhui; Sepulcre, Jorge; Johnson, Keith A; Fakhri, Georges E; Lu, Yue M; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-01-15

    Motivated by recent progress in signal processing on graphs, we have developed a matched signal detection (MSD) theory for signals with intrinsic structures described by weighted graphs. First, we regard graph Laplacian eigenvalues as frequencies of graph-signals and assume that the signal is in a subspace spanned by the first few graph Laplacian eigenvectors associated with lower eigenvalues. The conventional matched subspace detector can be applied to this case. Furthermore, we study signals that may not merely live in a subspace. Concretely, we consider signals with bounded variation on graphs and more general signals that are randomly drawn from a prior distribution. For bounded variation signals, the test is a weighted energy detector. For the random signals, the test statistic is the difference of signal variations on associated graphs, if a degenerate Gaussian distribution specified by the graph Laplacian is adopted. We evaluate the effectiveness of the MSD on graphs both with simulated and real data sets. Specifically, we apply MSD to the brain imaging data classification problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on two independent data sets: 1) positron emission tomography data with Pittsburgh compound-B tracer of 30 AD and 40 normal control (NC) subjects, and 2) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data of 30 early mild cognitive impairment and 20 NC subjects. Our results demonstrate that the MSD approach is able to outperform the traditional methods and help detect AD at an early stage, probably due to the success of exploiting the manifold structure of the data. PMID:26481679

  9. Classification of Parkinsonian Syndromes from FDG-PET Brain Data Using Decision Trees with SSM/PCA Features

    PubMed Central

    Mudali, D.; Teune, L. K.; Renken, R. J.; Leenders, K. L.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this study, the objective is to classify FDG-PET brain scans of subjects with Parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy) compared to healthy controls. The scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) method was applied to FDG-PET brain image data to obtain covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. The latter were used as features for supervised classification by the C4.5 decision tree method. Leave-one-out cross validation was applied to determine classifier performance. We carried out a comparison with other types of classifiers. The big advantage of decision tree classification is that the results are easy to understand by humans. A visual representation of decision trees strongly supports the interpretation process, which is very important in the context of medical diagnosis. Further improvements are suggested based on enlarging the number of the training data, enhancing the decision tree method by bagging, and adding additional features based on (f)MRI data. PMID:25918550

  10. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. PMID:26114606

  11. Supervised classification of brain tissues through local multi-scale texture analysis by coupling DIR and FLAIR MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, Enea; Veronese, Elisa; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    The automatic segmentation of brain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) is usually performed on T1-weighted images, due to their high spatial resolution. T1w sequence, however, has some major downsides when brain lesions are present: the altered appearance of diseased tissues causes errors in tissues classification. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we employed two different MR sequences: fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and double inversion recovery (DIR). The former highlights both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), the latter highlights GM alone. We propose here a supervised classification scheme that does not require any anatomical a priori information to identify the 3 classes, "GM", "WM", and "background". Features are extracted by means of a local multi-scale texture analysis, computed for each pixel of the DIR and FLAIR sequences. The 9 textures considered are average, standard deviation, kurtosis, entropy, contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, and skewness, evaluated on a neighborhood of 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels. Hence, the total number of features associated to a pixel is 56 (9 textures x3 scales x2 sequences +2 original pixel values). The classifier employed is a Support Vector Machine with Radial Basis Function as kernel. From each of the 4 brain volumes evaluated, a DIR and a FLAIR slice have been selected and manually segmented by 2 expert neurologists, providing 1st and 2nd human reference observations which agree with an average accuracy of 99.03%. SVM performances have been assessed with a 4-fold cross-validation, yielding an average classification accuracy of 98.79%.

  12. Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  13. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum-part I.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Michael A; Marx, Alexander; Mukai, Kiyoshi; Ströbel, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The mediastinum is an anatomically defined space in which organs and major blood vessels reside with surrounding soft tissue elements. The thymus is an important organ in the mediastinum, and many of the masses encountered in the mediastinum are related to this organ. Most neoplasms diagnosed in the mediastinum are epithelial tumours (thymomas and thymic carcinomas), lymphomas or germ cell tumours. In contrast, soft tissue tumours of the mediastinum are rare. In 1963, Pachter and Lattes systematically reviewed soft tissue pathology of the mediastinum, covering the hitherto described [2, 226, 227] In this review, based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart, we provide an updated overview of mesenchymal tumours that may be encountered in the mediastinum. PMID:26358059

  14. Description and classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain magnetic resonance imaging morphology measures

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gonzalez, Jorge Luis; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Cosío, Fernando Arámbula; Jiménez, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present a discrete compactness (DC) index, together with a classification scheme, based both on the size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A set of 30 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes for each group was segmented and two indices were measured for several structures: three-dimensional DC and normalized volumes (NVs). The discrimination power of these indices was determined by means of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic, where the proposed compactness index showed an average AUC of 0.7 for HC versus MCI comparison, 0.9 for HC versus AD separation, and 0.75 for MCI versus AD groups. In all cases, this index outperformed the discrimination capability of the NV. Using selected features from the set of DC and NV measures, three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pairwise separation of the three classes. Our analysis shows classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD, 85% between HC and MCI, and 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indices to classify different aging stages. PMID:26158061

  15. Brain classification reveals the right cerebellum as the best biomarker of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R; Poline, Jean Baptiste; Demonet, Jean François; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental dyslexia is a specific cognitive disorder in reading acquisition that has genetic and neurological origins. Despite histological evidence for brain differences in dyslexia, we recently demonstrated that in large cohort of subjects, no differences between control and dyslexic readers can be found at the macroscopic level (MRI voxel), because of large variances in brain local volumes. In the present study, we aimed at finding brain areas that most discriminate dyslexic from control normal readers despite the large variance across subjects. After segmenting brain grey matter, normalizing brain size and shape and modulating the voxels' content, normal readers' brains were used to build a 'typical' brain via bootstrapped confidence intervals. Each dyslexic reader's brain was then classified independently at each voxel as being within or outside the normal range. We used this simple strategy to build a brain map showing regional percentages of differences between groups. The significance of this map was then assessed using a randomization technique. Results The right cerebellar declive and the right lentiform nucleus were the two areas that significantly differed the most between groups with 100% of the dyslexic subjects (N = 38) falling outside of the control group (N = 39) 95% confidence interval boundaries. The clinical relevance of this result was assessed by inquiring cognitive brain-based differences among dyslexic brain subgroups in comparison to normal readers' performances. The strongest difference between dyslexic subgroups was observed between subjects with lower cerebellar declive (LCD) grey matter volumes than controls and subjects with higher cerebellar declive (HCD) grey matter volumes than controls. Dyslexic subjects with LCD volumes performed worse than subjects with HCD volumes in phonologically and lexicon related tasks. Furthermore, cerebellar and lentiform grey matter volumes interacted in dyslexic subjects, so that lower and higher lentiform grey matter volumes compared to controls differently modulated the phonological and lexical performances. Best performances (observed in controls) corresponded to an optimal value of grey matter and they dropped for higher or lower volumes. Conclusion These results provide evidence for the existence of various subtypes of dyslexia characterized by different brain phenotypes. In addition, behavioural analyses suggest that these brain phenotypes relate to different deficits of automatization of language-based processes such as grapheme/phoneme correspondence and/or rapid access to lexicon entries. PMID:19555471

  16. Distributed effects of methylphenidate on the network structure of the resting brain: a connectomic pattern classification analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Chandra Sekhar; Kessler, Daniel; Welsh, Robert; Angstadt, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan; Scott, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication that produces improvements in functions associated with multiple neurocognitive systems. To investigate the potentially distributed effects of methylphenidate on the brain’s intrinsic network architecture, we coupled resting state imaging with multivariate pattern classification. In a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design, 32 healthy human volunteers received either methylphenidate or placebo prior to two fMRI resting state scans separated by approximately one week. Resting state connectomes were generated by placing regions of interest at regular intervals throughout the brain, and these connectomes were submitted for support vector machine analysis. We found that methylphenidate produces a distributed, reliably detected, multivariate neural signature. Methylphenidate effects were evident across multiple resting state networks, especially visual, somatomotor, and default networks. Methylphenidate reduced coupling within visual and somatomotor networks. In addition, default network exhibited decoupling with several task positive networks, consistent with methylphenidate modulation of the competitive relationship between these networks. These results suggest that connectivity changes within and between large-scale networks is potentially involved in the mechanisms by which methylphenidate improves attention functioning. PMID:23684862

  17. Extracellular vesicles in the biology of brain tumour stem cells--Implications for inter-cellular communication, therapy and biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ichiro; Garnier, Delphine; Minata, Mutsuko; Rak, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as carriers of molecular and oncogenic signatures present in subsets of tumour cells and tumour-associated stroma, and as mediators of intercellular communication. These processes likely involve cancer stem cells (CSCs). EVs represent a unique pathway of cellular export and cell-to-cell transfer of insoluble molecular regulators such as membrane receptors, signalling proteins and metabolites, thereby influencing the functional integration of cancer cell populations. While mechanisms that control biogenesis, cargo and uptake of different classes of EVs (exosomes, microvesicles, ectosomes, large oncosomes) are poorly understood, they likely remain under the influence of stress-responses, microenvironment and oncogenic processes that define the biology and heterogeneity of human cancers. In glioblastoma (GBM), recent molecular profiling approaches distinguished several disease subtypes driven by distinct molecular, epigenetic and mutational mechanisms, leading to formation of proneural, neural, classical and mesenchymal tumours. Moreover, molecularly distinct clonal cellular lineages co-exist within individual GBM lesions, where they differentiate according to distinct stem cell hierarchies resulting in several facets of tumour heterogeneity and the related potential for intercellular interactions. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) may carry signatures of either proneural or mesenchymal GBM subtypes and differ in several biological characteristics that are, at least in part, represented by the output and repertoire of EV production (vesiculome). We report that vesiculomes differ between known GBM subtypes. EVs may also reflect and influence the equilibrium of the stem cell hierarchy, contain oncogenic drivers and modulate the microenvironment (vascular niche). The GBM/GSC subtype-specific differentials in EV cargo of proteins, transcripts, microRNA and DNA may enable detection of the dynamics of the stem cell compartment and result in biological effects that remain to be fully characterized. PMID:25721810

  18. Schizophrenia Classification Using Regions of Interest in Brain MRI D. S. Cheng1

    E-print Network

    Castellani, Umberto

    by schizophrenia and other mental illnesses traditionally diagnosed by self-reports and behavioral observations and early diagnoses, and to character- ize mental illnesses with specific and detectable brain abnormalities

  19. Raman and FTIR microspectroscopy for detection of brain metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, Norbert; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic imaging methods are novel tools to visualise chemical component in tissue without staining. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging is more frequently applied than Raman imaging so far. FTIR images recorded with a FPA detector have been demonstrated to identify the primary tumours of brain metastases. However, the strong absorption of water makes it difficult to transfer the results to non-dried tissues. Raman spectroscopy with near infrared excitation can be used instead and allows collecting the chemical fingerprint of native specimens. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for tumour diagnosis in neurosurgery. Scope of the study is to compare FTIR and Raman images to visualize the tumour border and identify spectral features for classification. Brain metastases were obtained from patients undergoing surgery at the university hospital. Brain tissue sections were shock frozen, cryosectioned, dried and the same areas were imaged with both spectroscopic method. To visualise the chemical components, multivariate statistical algorithms were applied for data analysis. Furthermore classification models were trained using supervised algorithms to predict the primary tumor of brain metastases. Principal component regression (PCR) was used for prediction based on FTIR images. Support vector machines (SVM) were used for prediction based on Raman images. The principles are shown for two specimens. In the future, the study will be extended to larger data sets.

  20. Case Identification of Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury Using the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS)

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M.; Blanar, Laura; Bowman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common, costly, and disabling occupational injuries. Objectives included determining whether work-related TBI could be reliably identified using the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) and describing challenges in developing an OIICS-based TBI case definition. Methods Washington State trauma registry reports and workers’ compensation claims were linked (1998–2008). Trauma registry diagnoses were used as the gold standard for six OIICS-based TBI case definitions. Results OIICS-based case definitions were highly specific but had low sensitivity, capturing less than a third of fatal and nonfatal TBI. Conclusions The use of OIICS versus ICD-9-CM codes underestimated TBI and changed the attributable cause distribution, with potential implications for prevention efforts. Surveillance methods that can more fully and accurately capture the impact of work-related TBI across the U.S are needed. PMID:23618883

  1. Risk assignment in childhood brain tumors: the emerging role of molecular and biologic classification.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Ian F; Biegel, Jaclyn; Yates, Allan; Hamilton, Ronald; Finkelstein, Sydney

    2002-03-01

    Brain tumors as a group are the most common solid tumors of childhood and currently have the highest mortality rate. A major emphasis has historically been placed on stratifying therapy for these tumors based on histologic and clinical prognostic factors. However, with the increasing application of molecular approaches to refine the categorization of these tumors, it has become apparent that histologically comparable lesions may exhibit diverse patterns of gene expression and genomic alterations, which may correspond with important prognostic distinctions. This paper summarizes these observations and discusses how they are being applied in a preliminary fashion as a foundation for risk-adapted stratification of childhood brain tumor therapy. PMID:11822983

  2. Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter…

  3. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR AUTISTIC VS. TYPICALLY DEVELOPING BRAIN USING MRI DATA

    E-print Network

    Louisville, University of

    somewhere in the autistic spectrum (http://www.cdc.gov/). There is no cure for autism; however, therapies ABSTRACT Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that disrupts social and cognitive functions. Various autism studies revealed ab- normalities in several brain regions. There is an increasing agreement from

  4. Multilevel Segmentation and Integrated Bayesian Model Classification with an Application to Brain Tumor Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Corso, Jason J.

    region membership: or Incorporate models as hidden variables and marginalize over them: brain edema tumor. Typical Example: T1 T1 w/ Contrast Flair T2 Results on Training Set Tumor Edema Algorithm Jac Prec Rec Jac% 76% Model-Based Extractor 62% 75% 81% 54% 66% 72% Results on Testing Set Tumor Edema Algorithm Jac

  5. New Ratios for the Detection and Classification of CJD in Multisequence MRI of the Brain

    E-print Network

    Ayache, Nicholas

    spongiform encephalopathy in multisequence MRI of the brain. We employ T1, T2 and FLAIR-T2 MR sequences, which represent 80% of all forms of CJD. The first study #12;cases describe hypersignals in T2-weighted images (and FLAIR-T2) with higher incidence in the basal ganglia in a bilateral symmetric form [1

  6. Endocrine tumours of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Capurso, Gabriele; Milione, Massimo; Panzuto, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    Gastric endocrine tumours (gastric carcinoids) usually grow from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Three types of tumour may be distinguished on the basis of the background gastric pathology: type I, which develops in atrophic body gastritis (ABG); type II, which is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; and the sporadic type III, which is not associated with any background pathology. This classification plays a major role in determining the optimal approach to these diseases. In fact, type I carcinoids can be considered to be benign lesions, with exceptional risk of metastases. Type II, in contrast, may be associated with distant metastases, which are also common in type III carcinoids. The therapeutic approach is based mainly on endoscopic excision and somatostatin analogues in types I and II, or on surgical resection in type III. Both types I and II grow under the stimulus of hypergastrinaemia through a well-described sequence. However, gastrin is sufficient to cause ECL cell hyperplasia and dysplasia, but not transformation, which is due to menin defects in MEN-I patients, or to other unknown alterations in ABG. Several other candidates--including Bcl2, p53 and MMP9--have been linked with carcinoid initiation and progression. The biology of type III tumours which are not associated with hypergastrinaemia is still poorly understood. PMID:16253892

  7. Characterization of a Raman spectroscopy probe system for intraoperative brain tissue classification

    PubMed Central

    Desroches, Joannie; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Lemieux-Leduc, Cédric; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Urmey, Kirk; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Marple, Eric; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization study is presented of a Raman spectroscopy system designed to maximize the volume of resected cancer tissue in glioma surgery based on in vivo molecular tissue characterization. It consists of a hand-held probe system measuring spectrally resolved inelastically scattered light interacting with tissue, designed and optimized for in vivo measurements. Factors such as linearity of the signal with integration time and laser power, and their impact on signal to noise ratio, are studied leading to optimal data acquisition parameters. The impact of ambient light sources in the operating room is assessed and recommendations made for optimal operating conditions. In vivo Raman spectra of normal brain, cancer and necrotic tissue were measured in 10 patients, demonstrating that real-time inelastic scattering measurements can distinguish necrosis from vital tissue (including tumor and normal brain tissue) with an accuracy of 87%, a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 89%. PMID:26203368

  8. A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wels, Michael; Zheng, Yefeng; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-06-01

    We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average Dice coefficients of 0.93 ± 0.03 (WM) and 0.90 ± 0.05 (GM) on simulated mono-spectral and 0.94 ± 0.02 (WM) and 0.92 ± 0.04 (GM) on simulated multi-spectral data from the BrainWeb repository. The scores are 0.81 ± 0.09 (WM) and 0.82 ± 0.06 (GM) and 0.87 ± 0.05 (WM) and 0.83 ± 0.12 (GM) for the two collections of real-world data sets—consisting of 20 and 18 volumes, respectively—provided by the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository.

  9. New frontiers for astrocytic tumours.

    PubMed

    Nano, Rosanna; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio; Paolini, Alessandro; Pasi, Francesca; Corbella, Franco; DI Liberto, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumour, remains an unsolved clinical problem. A great deal of work has been done in an effort to understand the biology and genetics of glioblastoma multiforme, but clinically effective treatments remain elusive. It is well known that malignant gliomas develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In this review we evaluated the literature data regarding therapeutic progress for the treatment of astrocytic tumours, focusing our attention on new frontiers for glioblastoma. The research studies performed in in vitro and in vivo models show that the application of hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is safe and could be a promising tool in the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Our efforts are focused towards new fields of research, for example nanomedicine and the study of the uptake and cytotoxic effects of magnetic nanoparticles. The improvement of the quality of life of patients, by increasing their survival rate is the best result to be pursued, since these tumours are considered as ineradicable. PMID:22753735

  10. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  11. Tumour ablation: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours. PMID:19965296

  12. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    E-print Network

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-09-04

    Tasmanian devils. CTVT tumours are generally not fatal as a tumour specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the devil immune system...

  13. Maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumour.

    PubMed

    Barodiya, Animesh; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Vyawahare, Saket

    2013-01-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a benign, slow-growing, relatively rare oral tumour, which accounts for about 3-7% of all odontogenic tumours as reported in the literature. It is an unusual benign neoplasm which shares clinical and radiographical characteristics with odontogenic cystic lesions denoting a distinct behaviour. The three variants-follicular, extrafollicular and peripheral-present with identical histological findings. This report describes a patient with an AOT in the anterior maxilla. Radiographically, the lesion was characterised by a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent area displacing left maxillary lateral incisor, canine and first premolars. The final diagnosis was AOT. The lesion was enucleated under local anaesthesia. The patient was followed-up for one year. This paper also provides a refresher for general dental practitioners about various diagnostic aspects of this tumour and highlights the controversies regarding its origin and management in the light of recent findings. PMID:23771977

  14. Recruitment feasibility to a cohort study of endocrine and metabolic health among survivors of childhood brain tumours: a report from the Canadian study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in ChIlDrEn (CanDECIDE)

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M Constantine; Scheinemann, Katrin; Burrow, Sarah; Dillenburg, Rejane F; Barr, Ronald D; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Valencia, Marlie; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of recruitment and performance of study procedures of the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in ChIlDrEn (CanDECIDE) study, which was designed to assess the determinants of endocrine and metabolic health in survivors of childhood brain tumours. Setting A single paediatric tertiary care centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Participants We included boys and girls, aged 5?years and older, who were lean (body mass index (BMI) below 85th centile for age and gender) or overweight/obese (BMI 85th centile or above for age and gender). We excluded children on steroids or immunosuppressant therapy, smokers and those who had an active infection for the 2?weeks prior to participation. Outcomes Feasibility targets included recruitment rate of at least 50%, the consenting of 80% of participants to provide biological samples, 90% questionnaire completion rate and the ability to process biological samples from at least 80% of participants. Results We approached 210 potential participants, and of the 112 (53%) who agreed to participate, 30 (26.8%) completed the study visit over 7?months. All participants agreed to fast, provide biological samples and complete the questionnaires. Sample collection was successful in 97% (29/30) of participants and laboratory procedures were feasible in 100% of collected samples. We also tested resources required for the conduct of the full study including personnel, space, laboratory equipment and procedures and determined that they are all feasible. Conclusions Recruitment and consenting of patients for the CanDECIDE study may be feasible. However, we are considering prolonging recruitment duration and collaboration with other centres to meet recruitment targets due to lower than expected recruitment rate. Completion of questionnaires and implementation of sample processing protocols are feasible. PMID:24969784

  15. Predicting tumour response

    PubMed Central

    Law, W. Phillip; Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Response prediction is an important emerging concept in oncologic imaging, with tailored, individualized treatment regimens increasingly becoming the standard of care. This review aims to define tumour response and illustrate the ways in which imaging techniques can demonstrate tumour biological characteristics that provide information on the likely benefit to be received by treatment. Two imaging approaches are described: identification of therapeutic targets and depiction of the treatment-resistant phenotype. The former approach is exemplified by the use of radionuclide imaging to confirm target expression before radionuclide therapy but with angiogenesis imaging and imaging correlates for genetic response predictors also demonstrating potential utility. Techniques to assess the treatment-resistant phenotype include demonstration of hypoperfusion with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), depiction of necrosis with diffusion-weighted MRI, imaging of hypoxia and tumour adaption to hypoxia, and 99mTc-MIBI imaging of P-glycoprotein mediated drug resistance. To date, introduction of these techniques into clinical practice has often been constrained by inadequate cross-validation of predictive criteria and lack of verification against appropriate response end points such as survival. With further refinement, imaging predictors of response could play an important role in oncology, contributing to individualization of therapy based on the specific tumour phenotype. This ability to predict tumour response will have implications for improving efficacy of treatment, cost-effectiveness and omission of futile therapy. PMID:24061161

  16. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  17. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  18. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Jørgen Labori, Knut; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins ?6?4 and ?6?1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin ?v?5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins ?6?4 and ?v?5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis. PMID:26524530

  19. [Molecular tumour therapy].

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Neubauer, A; Burchert, A

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, molecular tumour therapy has dramatically improved the treatment of various types of cancer. Molecular therapy is expected to attack malignant cells more specifically with fewer side effects than conventional chemotherapy. Both kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are key components of today's molecular cancer therapy. These substances cannot fully overcome the major tumour-biological problems, e.g. therapy resistance. However, as can be vividly seen with the example of immune checkpoint inhibitors, the rational design of molecularly designed drugs will considerably change therapeutic practice in oncology, albeit at the expense of exponentially growing health care costs. PMID:26585240

  20. Elucidating a Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Neuroanatomic Biomarker for Psychosis: Classification Analysis Using Probabilistic Brain Atlas and Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Daqiang; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Daley, Melita; Kushan, Leila; Hardt, Molly E.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Toga, Arthur W.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2011-01-01

    Background No objective diagnostic biomarkers or laboratory tests have yet been developed for psychotic illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies consistently find significant abnormalities in multiple brain structures in psychotic patients relative to healthy control subjects, but these abnormalities show substantial overlap with anatomic variation that is in the normal range and therefore nondiagnostic. Recently, efforts have been made to discriminate psychotic patients from healthy individuals using machine-learning-based pattern classification methods on MRI data. Methods Three-dimensional cortical gray matter density (GMD) maps were generated for 36 patients with recent-onset psychosis and 36 sex- and age-matched control subjects using a cortical pattern matching method. Between-group differences in GMD were evaluated. Second, the sparse multinomial logistic regression classifier included in the Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Python machine-learning package was applied to the cortical GMD maps to discriminate psychotic patients from control subjects. Results Patients showed significantly lower GMD, particularly in prefrontal, cingulate, and lateral temporal brain regions. Pattern classification analysis achieved 86.1% accuracy in discriminating patients from controls using leave-one-out cross-validation. Conclusions These results suggest that even at the early stage of illness, psychotic patients present distinct patterns of regional cortical gray matter changes that can be discriminated from the normal pattern. These findings indicate that we can detect complex patterns of brain abnormality in early stages of psychotic illness, which has critical implications for early identification and intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis/schizophrenia. PMID:19729150

  1. Video Article Electrochemotherapy of Tumours

    E-print Network

    Ljubljana, University of

    % of the treated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour nodules of different malignancies are in an objective response Journal of Visualized Experiments 1. Tumour type: basal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma, breast carcinoma, hypernephroma, Kaposi's sarcoma and others. 2. Tumour location

  2. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  3. A Subset of Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins from a Multi-Analyte Panel Associated with Brain Atrophy, Disease Classification and Prediction in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Wasim; Aguilar, Carlos; Kiddle, Steven J.; Doyle, Orla; Thambisetty, Madhav; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Sattlecker, Martina; Newhouse, Stephen; Lovestone, Simon; Dobson, Richard; Giampietro, Vincent; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory neuroimaging-proteomic study, we aimed to identify CSF proteins associated with AD and test their prognostic ability for disease classification and MCI to AD conversion prediction. Our study sample consisted of 295 subjects with CSF multi-analyte panel data and MRI at baseline downloaded from ADNI. Firstly, we tested the statistical effects of CSF proteins (n = 83) to measures of brain atrophy, CSF biomarkers, ApoE genotype and cognitive decline. We found that several proteins (primarily CgA and FABP) were related to either brain atrophy or CSF biomarkers. In relation to ApoE genotype, a unique biochemical profile characterised by low CSF levels of Apo E was evident in ?4 carriers compared to ?3 carriers. In an exploratory analysis, 3/83 proteins (SGOT, MCP-1, IL6r) were also found to be mildly associated with cognitive decline in MCI subjects over a 4-year period. Future studies are warranted to establish the validity of these proteins as prognostic factors for cognitive decline. For disease classification, a subset of proteins (n = 24) combined with MRI measurements and CSF biomarkers achieved an accuracy of 95.1% (Sensitivity 87.7%; Specificity 94.3%; AUC 0.95) and accurately detected 94.1% of MCI subjects progressing to AD at 12 months. The subset of proteins included FABP, CgA, MMP-2, and PPP as strong predictors in the model. Our findings suggest that the marker of panel of proteins identified here may be important candidates for improving the earlier detection of AD. Further targeted proteomic and longitudinal studies would be required to validate these findings with more generalisability. PMID:26284520

  4. Stem cell research points the way to the cell of origin for intracranial germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chris; Scotting, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Germ cell tumours found in the brain (intracranial GCTs) are a very unusual class of tumour for two reasons. First, they include a very diverse range of histological subtypes classified together due to their proposed common cell of origin. Second, this proposed cell of origin, the germ cell progenitor, would not normally be found in the tissue where these tumours arise. This is in contrast to all other primary brain tumours, in which the cell of origin is believed to be a brain cell. Indeed, no other class of primary cancer arises from a cell from a distant organ. This theory for the origins of intracranial GCTs has been in place for many decades, but recent data arising from studies of induced pluripotency for regenerative medicine raise serious questions about this dogma. Here we review the cellular origins of intracranial GCTs in the light of these new data and reanalyse the existing data on the biology of this unusual class of tumours. Together, these considerations lead us to conclude that the evidence now falls in favour of a model in which these tumours arise from the transformation of endogenous brain cells. This theory should inform future studies of the aetiology of these tumours and so lead the way to animal models in which to study their development and potential biological therapeutics. PMID:22926997

  5. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: neural-network-based tissue classification with automatic training point extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Obladen, Thorsten; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of individual 3D region-of-interest atlas extraction is to automatically define anatomically meaningful regions in 3D MRI images for quantification of functional parameters (PET, SPECT: rMRGlu, rCBF). The first step of atlas extraction is to automatically classify brain tissue types into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), scalp/bone (SB) and background (BG). A feed-forward neural network with back-propagation training algorithm is used and compared to other numerical classifiers. It can be trained by a sample from the individual patient data set in question. Classification is done by a 'winner takes all' decision. Automatic extraction of a user-specified number of training points is done in a cross-sectional slice. Background separation is done by simple region growing. The most homogeneous voxels define the region for WM training point extraction (TPE). Non-white-matter and nonbackground regions are analyzed for GM and CSF training points. For SB TPE, the distance from the BG region is one feature. For each class, spatially uniformly distributed training points are extracted by a random generator from these regions. Simulated and real 3D MRI images are analyzed and error rates for TPE and classification calculated. The resulting class images can be analyzed for extraction of anatomical ROIs.

  6. Current state of knowledge on neuroendocrine small bowel tumours: non-systematic review of the literature based on one case

    PubMed Central

    Simion, Nicolae Irinel; Muntean, Valentin; Fabian, Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    More than 60% of neuroendocrine tumours, also called carcinoids, are localised within the gastrointestinal tract. Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours have been diagnosed with increasing frequency over the past 35?years, being the second most frequent tumours of the small intestine. Ileal neuroendocrine tumours diagnosis is late because patients have non-specific symptoms. We have proposed to illustrate as an example the case of a patient, and on its basis, to make a brief review of the literature on small bowel neuroendocrine tumours, resuming several recent changes in the field, concerning classification criteria of these tumours and new recommendations and current advances in diagnosis and treatment. This patient came to our emergency department with a complete bowel obstruction, along with a 2-year history of peristaltic abdominal pain, vomits and diarrhoea episodes. During emergency laparotomy, an ileal stricture was observed, that showed to be a neuroendocrine tumour of the small bowel. PMID:23329706

  7. Distribution of endogenous tumour necrosis factor alpha in gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Maruno, M; Kovach, J S; Kelly, P J; Yanagihara, T

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution and cellular origin of endogenous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in the cellular components of human gliomas. METHODS: Frozen sections of 26 gliomas (four astrocytomas (As); two oligoastrocytomas (OA); one ansplastic astrocytoma (AA); one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA); 18 glioblastomas (GB)) were examined immunohistochemically using antihuman TNF alpha and anti-Leu-M5 (CD11c) antibodies. Additional studies with double immunohistocchemical procedures were performed with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neurofilament antibodies. RESULTS: Eighty per cent of the AA, AOA, and GB (16 of 20) had a positive reaction for TNF alpha, but only 17% of As and OA (one of six) were positive. Positive cells were seen in both the tumour tissue and adjacent brain tissues. TNF alpha protein was detected not only in the tumour cells but also in the endothelium of tumour vessels as well as reactive astrocytes and neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous TNF alpha is present in cells of various origins in glial tumours including tumour vessels; however, the role of TNF alpha may be different in different types of cells or altered microenvironment. Images PMID:9306934

  8. Classification of Resting, Anticipation and Movement States in Self-Initiated Arm Movements for EEG Brain Computer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    Minguez, Javier

    of the patient to move her body. A crucial step of these therapies is to provide help to the user just when she patients where it has been suggested that the brain-computer interface could play a key role by providing human cognitive aspects such as motor intention, perception of the feedback, and higher level

  9. Diverse effects of hypothermia therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury based on the computed tomography classification of the traumatic coma data bank.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Kaneko, Tadashi; Oda, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Susumu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2015-03-01

    A multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with severe traumatic brain injury who received therapeutic hypothermia or fever control was performed from 2002 to 2008 in Japan (BHYPO). There was no difference in the therapeutic effect on traumatic brain injury between the two groups. The efficacy of hypothermia treatment and the objective of the treatment were reexamined based on a secondary analysis of the BHYPO trial in 135 patients (88 treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 47 with fever control). This analysis was performed to examine clinical outcomes according to the CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank on admission. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and mortality at 6 months after injury. Good recovery and moderate disability were defined as favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes in young patients (?50 years old) with evacuated mass lesions significantly increased from 33.3% with fever control to 77.8% with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients with diffuse injury III who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia, however, had significantly higher mortality than patients treated with fever control. It was difficult to control intracranial pressure with hypothermia for patients with diffuse injury III, but hypothermia was effective for young patients with an evacuated mass lesion. PMID:25233298

  10. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-06-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice.

  11. Mesenchymal tumours of the bladder and prostate: an update.

    PubMed

    Tavora, Fabio; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder and prostate are infrequent neoplasms. The body of literature is growing with isolated case reports and short series, and the majority of cases are benign neoplasms. Other than stromal tumour of uncertain malignant potential and prostatic stromal sarcoma, both neoplasms derived from the specific prostatic stroma, the mesenchymal neoplasms in these locations are identical to their counterparts seen in other organs. However, the limited amount of tissue generated by biopsy and rarity of mesenchymal lesions in these sites create unique diagnostic difficulties, while correct classification of the neoplasm often bears significant impact on prognosis and therapeutic strategy. In this review we summarise the diagnostic features, focus on the differential diagnosis, and highlight the potential diagnostic pitfalls of mesenchymal tumours of the bladder and prostate. PMID:23250042

  12. Gastrointestinal endocrine tumours. Insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Grant, C S

    1996-12-01

    Fundamental to establishing a diagnosis of insulinoma is first to consider the diagnosis when presented with the constellation of symptoms and signs that indicate hypoglycaemia. Prominent and most convincing are manifestations of neuroglycopenia. Although hypoglycaemia can be caused by a number of disorders, the combination of hypoglycaemia and endogenous hyperinsulinaemia is diagnostic of insulinoma. Our criteria now include a glucose level of 40 mg/dl with a concomitant insulin level of 6 microU/ml, a C-peptide level exceeding 200 pmol/l, and negative screen for sulphonlyurea. Ancillary diagnostic tests or the use of insulin surrogates may offer helpful confirmation. Localization is still evolving, but in our hands pre-operative ultrasound is the best and only pre-operative test that we obtain in the usual situation. Expertise and experience with other modalities at other institutions offer reasonable but more costly alternatives. Intraoperative ultrasonography provides significant benefit in both tumour localization and delineating important related anatomy. Insulinomas are virtually all located in the pancreas; 90% are benign, single, and are generally firmer than surrounding normal pancreas. Extensive exposure may be required to identify and remove safely the tumour. Enucleation is our preferred technique, but distal pancreatectomy for tumours in the body or tail is an excellent method as well. Pancreatoduodenectomy is rarely necessary. Complications most commonly relate to leak of pancreatic secretions, causing pseudocyst, abscess, or fistula. except in MEN 1 syndrome, excision of a benign insulinoma equates with disease cure, and patients are often extraordinarily grateful as the change in their lives may be profound. PMID:9113316

  13. Primary fibrosarcoma of brain.

    PubMed

    Vatsal, D K; Sharma, S; Renjen, P N; Kaul, S; Jha, A N

    2000-12-01

    This is a case presentation of a young patient with an intracranial space-occupying lesion following multiple episodes of generalised tonic clonic seizures for the last 20 years. Such a long latency period between the onset of fits and the discovery of an intracranial lesion is highly unusual in malignant brain tumours. This lesion was excised completely and proved to be a primary lesion of the brain - fibrosarcoma. These rare tumours of mesenchymal origin in the central nervous system are very rare. PMID:11146612

  14. Molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent tumour derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. It is well established that cancer is a disease of the genome and, as in other types of solid tumours, a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulated during the hepatocarcinogenesis process. Recent developments using comprehensive genomic tools have enabled the identification of the molecular diversity in human HCC. Consequently, several molecular classifications have been described using different approaches and important progress has been made particularly with the transcriptomic, genetic, chromosomal, miRNA and methylation profiling. On the whole, all these molecular classifications are related and one of the major determinants of the identified subgroups of tumours are gene mutations found in oncogenes and tumour suppressors. However, the full understanding of the HCC molecular classification requires additional comprehensive studies using both genomic and pathway analyses. Finally, a refinement of the molecular classification of HCC, taking into account the geographical and genetic diversity of the patients, will be essential for an efficient design of the forthcoming personalized clinical treatments. PMID:20547309

  15. Suppression of putative tumour suppressor gene GLTSCR2 expression in human glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-J; Cho, Y-E; Kim, Y-W; Kim, J-Y; Lee, S; Park, J-H

    2008-10-01

    Glioma tumour-suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2/PICT-1) is localized within the well-known 1.4 Mb tumour-suppressive region of chromosome 19q, which is frequently altered in various human tumours, including diffuse gliomas. Aside from its chromosomal localization, several lines of evidence, including PTEN-phosphorylating and cell-killing activities, suggests that GLTSCR2 participates in the suppression of tumour growth and development. However, little is known about the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of GLTSCR2 as a tumour suppressor gene. We investigated the pathological significance of GLTSCR2 expression in association with the development and progression of glioblastomas, the most common malignant brain tumour. We used real-time PCR and western blot analysis to examine the expression levels of GLTSCR2 mRNA and protein in glioblastomas, normal brain tissue and in non-glial tumour tissue of different origin, and found that GLTSCR2 expression is down-regulated in glioblastomas. In addition, direct sequencing analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization clearly demonstrates the presence of genetic alterations, such as a nonsense mutation and deletion, in the GLTSCR2 gene in glioblastomas. Finally, our immunohistochemical study demonstrates that GLTSCR2 is sequentially down-regulated according to the histological malignant progression of the astrocytic glial tumour. Taken together, our results suggest that GLTSCR2 is involved in astrocytic glioma progression. PMID:18729076

  16. Brain source localization: A new method based on MUltiple SIgnal Classification algorithm and spatial sparsity of the field signal for electroencephalogram measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergallo, P.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2013-08-01

    Brain activity can be recorded by means of EEG (Electroencephalogram) electrodes placed on the scalp of the patient. The EEG reflects the activity of groups of neurons located in the head, and the fundamental problem in neurophysiology is the identification of the sources responsible of brain activity, especially if a seizure occurs and in this case it is important to identify it. The studies conducted in order to formalize the relationship between the electromagnetic activity in the head and the recording of the generated external field allow to know pattern of brain activity. The inverse problem, that is given the sampling field at different electrodes the underlying asset must be determined, is more difficult because the problem may not have a unique solution, or the search for the solution is made difficult by a low spatial resolution which may not allow to distinguish between activities involving sources close to each other. Thus, sources of interest may be obscured or not detected and known method in source localization problem as MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) could fail. Many advanced source localization techniques achieve a best resolution by exploiting sparsity: if the number of sources is small as a result, the neural power vs. location is sparse. In this work a solution based on the spatial sparsity of the field signal is presented and analyzed to improve MUSIC method. For this purpose, it is necessary to set a priori information of the sparsity in the signal. The problem is formulated and solved using a regularization method as Tikhonov, which calculates a solution that is the better compromise between two cost functions to minimize, one related to the fitting of the data, and another concerning the maintenance of the sparsity of the signal. At the first, the method is tested on simulated EEG signals obtained by the solution of the forward problem. Relatively to the model considered for the head and brain sources, the result obtained allows to have a significant improvement compared to the classical MUSIC method, with a small margin of uncertainty about the exact location of the sources. In fact, the constraints of the spatial sparsity on the signal field allow to concentrate power in the directions of active sources, and consequently it is possible to calculate the position of the sources within the considered volume conductor. Later, the method is tested on the real EEG data too. The result is in accordance with the clinical report even if improvements are necessary to have further accurate estimates of the positions of the sources.

  17. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields and step-and-shoot intensity levels). Simulated random and systematic errors in the pO2-related images reduced the TCP for the non-uniform dose prescription. In conclusion, improved tumour control of hypoxic tumours by dose redistribution may be expected following hypoxia imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and IMRT.

  18. Electrode replacement does not affect classification accuracy in dual-session use of a passive brain-computer interface for assessing cognitive workload

    PubMed Central

    Estepp, Justin R.; Christensen, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The passive brain-computer interface (pBCI) framework has been shown to be a very promising construct for assessing cognitive and affective state in both individuals and teams. There is a growing body of work that focuses on solving the challenges of transitioning pBCI systems from the research laboratory environment to practical, everyday use. An interesting issue is what impact methodological variability may have on the ability to reliably identify (neuro)physiological patterns that are useful for state assessment. This work aimed at quantifying the effects of methodological variability in a pBCI design for detecting changes in cognitive workload. Specific focus was directed toward the effects of replacing electrodes over dual sessions (thus inducing changes in placement, electromechanical properties, and/or impedance between the electrode and skin surface) on the accuracy of several machine learning approaches in a binary classification problem. In investigating these methodological variables, it was determined that the removal and replacement of the electrode suite between sessions does not impact the accuracy of a number of learning approaches when trained on one session and tested on a second. This finding was confirmed by comparing to a control group for which the electrode suite was not replaced between sessions. This result suggests that sensors (both neurological and peripheral) may be removed and replaced over the course of many interactions with a pBCI system without affecting its performance. Future work on multi-session and multi-day pBCI system use should seek to replicate this (lack of) effect between sessions in other tasks, temporal time courses, and data analytic approaches while also focusing on non-stationarity and variable classification performance due to intrinsic factors. PMID:25805963

  19. Interleukin-2 and histamine in combination inhibit tumour growth and angiogenesis in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M; Henriksson, R; Bergenheim, A T; Koskinen, L-O D

    2000-01-01

    Biotherapy including interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment seems to be more effective outside the central nervous system when compared to the effects obtained when the same tumour is located intracerebrally. Recently published studies suggest that reduced activity of NK cells in tumour tissue can be increased by histamine. The present study was designed to determine whether IL-2 and histamine, alone or in combination, can induce anti-tumour effects in an orthotopic rat glioma model. One group of rats was treated with histamine alone (4 mg kg–1s.c. as daily injections from day 6 after intracranial tumour implantation), another group with IL-2 alone as a continuous subcutaneous infusion and a third group with both histamine and IL-2. The animals were sacrificed at day 24 after tumour implantation. IL-2 and histamine in combination significantly reduced tumour growth. The microvessel density was significantly reduced, an effect mainly affecting the small vessels. No obvious alteration in the pattern of VEGF mRNA expression was evident and no significant changes in apoptosis were observed. Neither IL-2 nor histamine alone caused any detectable effects on tumour growth. Histamine caused an early and pronounced decline in tumour blood flow compared to normal brain. The results indicate that the novel combination of IL-2 and histamine can be of value in reducing intracerebral tumour growth and, thus, it might be of interest to re-evaluate the therapeutic potential of biotherapy in malignant glioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952789

  20. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  1. Heavy ion tumour therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, M.

    2000-03-01

    Ion beams represent a promising radiotherapy modality for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Compared to conventional photon beams, in particular beams of heavier ions like e.g. carbon show several advantages which are related to their different physical and radiobiological properties: The dose increases with penetration depth and shows a sharp distal fall off at the end of the particle range, i.e., the depth dose profile is inverted compared to photon beams. They exhibit an increased biological effectiveness in particular at the end of their range and thus in the target volume. The spatial distribution of stopping particles can be monitored by means of PET-techniques making use of the small amount of radioactive projectile fragments. Ion beams were first used for medical applications in 1954 in Berkeley. Since then, several treatment facilities for tumour therapy have been established worldwide, and approximately 25 000 patients have been treated with protons and 3000 patients with heavier ions successfully. As an example, the specific advantages of the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI Darmstadt established in cooperation with the Radiological Clinics and DKFZ Heidelberg and FZ Rossendorf will be described. In contrast to most existing facilities, it is based on an active beam delivery system, using magnetic deflection of a pencil beam (raster scan) and accelerator energy variation to adjust the penetration depth. Thus, an optimal conformation of the dose to the target volume is achieved. PET-measurements allow for a quasi on-line monitoring of the 3D distribution of stopping particles and in particular of the position of the distal edge of the dose distribution. Furthermore, in the treatment planning procedure the radiobiological properties of ion beams are taken into account in great detail. In December 1997, patient treatments started at GSI, and up to now 42 patients were treated with carbon ions alone or in a mixed carbon/photon beam regime.

  2. JC polyomavirus in the aetiology and pathophysiology of glial tumours.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Tihomir; Enchev, Yavor; Tsekov, Iliya; Simeonov, Plamen; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Encheva, Elitsa

    2016-01-01

    Glial brain tumours with their poor prognosis, limited treatment modalities and unclear detailed pathophysiology represent a significant health concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and describe the possible role of the human polyomavirus JC as an underlying cancerogenic or co-cancerogenic factor in the complex processes of glial tumour induction and development. Samples from 101 patients with glial tumours were obtained during neurosurgical tumour resection. Small tissue pieces were taken from several areas of the histologically verified solid tumour core. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and subsequent amplification reactions of sequences from the JC viral genome. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for detection and quantification of its non-coding control region (NCCR) and gene encoding the regulatory protein Large T antigen (LT). An average of 37.6 % of all patients was found to be LT positive, whereas only 6.9 % tested positive for NCCR. The analysis of the results demonstrated significant variance between the determined LT prevalence and the rate for NCCR, with a low starting copy number in all positive samples and threshold cycles in the range of 36 to 42 representing viral load in the range from 10 to 1000 copies/?l. The results most probably indicate incomplete JC viral replication. Under such conditions, mutations in the host cell genome may be accumulated due to interference of the virus with the host cell machinery, and eventually malignant transformation may occur. PMID:26560882

  3. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel; Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien; Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen ; Marteau, Lena; Bernaudin, Jean-Francois; Roussel, Simon; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele; Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen ; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  4. Institutional experience of paediatric high-grade central nervous system tumours: an analysis of 74 patients and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Aynur; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Okur, Arzu; Sarac, Avni; Baykaner, Kemali; Bora, Huseyin; Poyraz, Aylar

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Although the survival for children with certain central nervous system (CNS) tumour types has improved through current surgical and adjuvant treatment modalities, the prognosis of many high-grade tumours remains poor despite aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to analyse patients with high-grade brain tumours in our institution to determine the histopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival. Material and methods A total of 74 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade brain tumour were analysed. There were a total of 31 patients with embryonal tumours, 27 patients with high-grade glial tumours, 12 patients with brain stem gliomas and 4 patients with other high-grade brain tumours. Results There were 48 (65%) boys and 26 (35%) girls (ratio: 1.85) with a median age of 99.7 months (range = 2-204 months). The median follow-up period was 19 months (range = 1-204 months). Tumour recurrence was observed in 38 patients (51.4%). The overall survival rate and event-free survival rate of our patients were 27% and 19.5%, respectively. Conclusions Pediatric high-grade CNS tumours have a very aggressive behaviour and a significant number of children eventually succumb to disease despite multimodal treatment. There is a need of more effective therapeutic approaches for these tumours with poor prognosis. The future improvement in childhood high-grade brain tumour management depends on a better understanding of the molecular genetics and biology of brain tumours. PMID:23788851

  5. [Malignant tumours of the hand].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Jensen, Nina Vendel; Søe, Niels Henrik

    2011-05-30

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months. PMID:21627901

  6. Image guided tumour ablation

    PubMed Central

    Gillams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Several different technologies have been employed for the local ablation of tissue by thermal techniques. At the present time the most widely favoured technique is radiofrequency ablation (RFA) but developments in other techniques, e.g. microwave may change this. In many countries RFA or percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) are accepted therapies for patients with Childs Pugh Class A or B cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results for RFA in large series of patients with liver metastases from colon cancer are very promising. Five-year survival rates of 26% from the time of first ablation and 30% from the diagnosis of liver metastases for patients with limited (<6, <5 cm) liver disease who are not surgical candidates compares well with post resection series where 5-year survival rates vary between 29% and 39% in operable candidates. Sufficient experience has now been gained in lung and renal ablation to show that these are minimally invasive techniques which can produce effective tumour destruction with a limited morbidity. More novel areas for ablation such as adrenal or pelvic recurrence are being explored. PMID:16305946

  7. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  8. Classification of binary intentions for individuals with impaired oculomotor function: ‘eyes-closed’ SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Han, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ki-Young; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Some patients suffering from severe neuromuscular diseases have difficulty controlling not only their bodies but also their eyes. Since these patients have difficulty gazing at specific visual stimuli or keeping their eyes open for a long time, they are unable to use the typical steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for SSVEP-based BCI, which can be potentially suitable for disabled individuals with impaired oculomotor function. Approach. The proposed electroencephalography (EEG)-based BCI system allows users to express their binary intentions without needing to open their eyes. A pair of glasses with two light emitting diodes flickering at different frequencies was used to present visual stimuli to participants with their eyes closed, and we classified the recorded EEG patterns in the online experiments conducted with five healthy participants and one patient with severe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Main results. Through offline experiments performed with 11 participants, we confirmed that human SSVEP could be modulated by visual selective attention to a specific light stimulus penetrating through the eyelids. Furthermore, the recorded EEG patterns could be classified with accuracy high enough for use in a practical BCI system. After customizing the parameters of the proposed SSVEP-based BCI paradigm based on the offline analysis results, binary intentions of five healthy participants were classified in real time. The average information transfer rate of our online experiments reached 10.83 bits min-1. A preliminary online experiment conducted with an ALS patient showed a classification accuracy of 80%. Significance. The results of our offline and online experiments demonstrated the feasibility of our proposed SSVEP-based BCI paradigm. It is expected that our ‘eyes-closed’ SSVEP-based BCI system can be potentially used for communication of disabled individuals with impaired oculomotor function.

  9. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Adam, Patrick; Welz, Stefan; Sievert, Anne; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of 106 patients with primary sinonasal malignancies treated and followed-up between March 2006 and October 2012. Possible predictive parameters for PFS were entered into univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis included age, sex, baseline tumour volume (based on MR imaging), histology type, TNM stage and prognostic groups according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis concerning the predictive value of tumour volume for recurrence was also conducted. Results The main histological subgroup consisted of epithelial tumours (77%). The majority of the patients (68%) showed advanced tumour burden (AJCC stage III–IV). Lymph node involvement was present in 18 cases. The mean tumour volume was 26.6 ± 21.2 cm3. The median PFS for all patients was 24.9 months (range: 2.5–84.5 months). The ROC curve analysis for the tumour volume showed 58.1% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity for predicting recurrence. Tumour volume, AJCC staging, T- and N- stage were significant predictors in the univariate analysis. Positive lymph node status and tumour volume remained significant and independent predictors in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Radiological tumour volume proofed to be a statistically reliable predictor of PFS. In the multivariate analysis, T-, N- and overall AJCC staging did not show significant prognostic value. PMID:26401135

  10. Brain metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Börcek, P; Asa, S L; Gentili, F; Ezzat, S; Kiehl, T-R

    2010-01-01

    The brain is an exceedingly rare site of metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A 50-year-old female who had a history of micro-MTC 11 years prior developed a cerebellar metastasis which was incidentally discovered. Imaging revealed a right cerebellar hemispheric mass with contrast enhancement on CT scans. Histopathologic exam demonstrated a metastatic tumour composed of nodules and sheets of large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the origin from a MTC. This case report highlights the unique features of an unusual metastatic brain tumour, which followed an indolent course for a long time despite multiple distant metastases. PMID:22802478

  11. Tumour suppressor TRIM33 targets nuclear ?-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianfei; Chen, Yaohui; Wu, Yamei; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhou, Aidong; Zhang, Sicong; Lin, Kangyu; Aldape, Kenneth; Majumder, Sadhan; Lu, Zhimin; Huang, Suyun

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of ?-catenin in the nucleus has been implicated in a variety of human cancers but the fate of nuclear ?-catenin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that tripartite motif-containing protein 33 (TRIM33), acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduces the abundance of nuclear ?-catenin protein. TRIM33-mediated ?-catenin is destabilized and is GSK-3? or ?-TrCP independent. TRIM33 interacts with and ubiquitylates nuclear ?-catenin. Moreover, protein kinase C?, which directly phosphorylates ?-catenin at Ser715, is required for the TRIM33–?-catenin interaction. The function of TRIM33 in suppressing tumour cell proliferation and brain tumour development depends on TRIM33-promoted ?-catenin degradation. In human glioblastoma specimens, endogenous TRIM33 levels are inversely correlated with ?-catenin. In summary, our findings identify TRIM33 as a tumour suppressor that can abolish tumour cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by degrading nuclear ?-catenin. This work suggests a new therapeutic strategy against human cancers caused by aberrant activation of ?-catenin. PMID:25639486

  12. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  13. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  14. Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoe; Calhoun, Vince D; Shim, Eunsoo; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was quantified by using kurtosis/modularity measures and features from the higher hidden layer showed holistic/global FC patterns differentiating SZ from HC. Our proposed schemes and reported findings attained by using the DNN classifier and whole-brain FC data suggest that such approaches show improved ability to learn hidden patterns in brain imaging data, which may be useful for developing diagnostic tools for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders and identifying associated aberrant FC patterns. PMID:25987366

  15. Fluorescence-guided surgical sampling of glioblastoma identifies phenotypically distinct tumour-initiating cell populations in the tumour mass and margin

    PubMed Central

    Piccirillo, S G M; Dietz, S; Madhu, B; Griffiths, J; Price, S J; Collins, V P; Watts, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquiring clinically annotated, spatially stratified tissue samples from human glioblastoma (GBM) is compromised by haemorrhage, brain shift and subjective identification of ‘normal' brain. We tested the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence to objective tissue sampling and to derive tumour-initiating cells (TICs) from mass and margin. Methods: The 5-ALA was administered to 30 GBM patients. Samples were taken from the non-fluorescent necrotic core, fluorescent tumour mass and non-fluorescent margin. We compared the efficiency of isolating TICs from these areas in 5-ALA versus control patients. HRMAS 1H NMR was used to reveal metabolic alterations due to 5-ALA. We then characterised TICs for self-renewal in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Results: The derivation of TICs was not compromised by 5-ALA and the metabolic profile was similar between tumours from 5-ALA patients and controls. The TICs from the fluorescent mass were self-renewing in vitro and tumour-forming in vivo, whereas TICs from non-fluorescent margin did not self-renew in vitro but did form tumours in vivo. Conclusion: Our data show that 5-ALA does not compromise the derivation of TICs. It also reveals that the margin contains TICs, which are phenotypically different from those isolated from the corresponding mass. PMID:22722315

  16. [The probability of developing brain tumours among users of cellular telephones (scientific information to the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced on May 31, 2011)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2011-01-01

    The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has made May 31 2011 PRESS RELEASE No 208 which classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The decision is based on an increased risk of glioma, i.e., a malignant type of brain cancer associated with the wireless phone use. This paper reports the analysis of the long-term research on the issue in question that had been carried out in many countries around the world before the decision was made. PMID:22279776

  17. Late recurrences of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) after 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nannini, Margherita; Biasco, Guido; Pallotti, Maria Caterina; Di Battista, Monica; Santini, Donatella; Paterini, Paola; Maleddu, Alessandra; Mandrioli, Anna; Lolli, Cristian; Saponara, Maristella; Di Scioscio, Valerio; Zompatori, Maurizio; Catena, Fausto; Fusaroli, Pietro; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza

    2012-03-01

    In practice, relapses of gastrointestinal stromal tumours after long time of surgical resection occur. However, few published data are available for duration, intensity and imaging sources of follow-up in radically excised patients with localized disease. Therefore, every single institution chooses the surveillance schedule according to its experience. The aim of this study was to describe the late recurrences of disease 5 years after the primary tumour's excision in a series of patients with recurrent GIST from our institution. We retrospectively reviewed 42 patients with "recurrent" GIST, collected since 2001. Ten patients were always followed at our institution, and 32 patients came to our attention at the time of recurrence. The analysed series were divided into two groups: patients who developed recurrence before 5 years and patients who developed recurrence 5 years after the primary tumour's excision. Among 42 patients, 36 patients developed the recurrence within 5 years of the primary tumour excision, whereas 6 patients developed the recurrence 5 years after primary tumour excision diagnosed during follow-up or casually for other reasons. All patients had distant recurrence, involving liver and peritoneum, whereas no local relapse was observed. These patients were heterogeneous in primary tumour site, risk classification and molecular analysis. Duration of the follow-up for radically excised patients with GIST remains still unsettled; however, the integration of every clinical, pathological and molecular parameter is essential to optimize the duration and intensity of the follow-up for each single patient. PMID:21258878

  18. Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumours: Their somatic mutational spectrum and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Somatic gene mutations constitute key events in the malignant transformation of human cells. Somatic mutation can either actively speed up the growth of tumour cells or relax the growth constraints normally imposed upon them, thereby conferring a selective (proliferative) advantage at the cellular level. Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) affects 1/3,000-4,000 individuals worldwide and is caused by the inactivation of the NF1 tumour suppressor gene, which encodes the protein neurofibromin. Consistent with Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, NF1 patients harbouring a heterozygous germline NF1 mutation develop neurofibromas upon somatic mutation of the second, wild-type, NF1 allele. While the identification of somatic mutations in NF1 patients has always been problematic on account of the extensive cellular heterogeneity manifested by neurofibromas, the classification of NF1 somatic mutations is a prerequisite for understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying NF1 tumorigenesis. Here, the known somatic mutational spectrum for the NF1 gene in a range of NF1-associated neoplasms --including peripheral nerve sheath tumours (neurofibromas), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, gastric carcinoid, juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia, glomus tumours, astrocytomas and phaeochromocytomas -- have been collated and analysed. PMID:22155606

  19. Microenvironment-induced PTEN loss by exosomal microRNA primes brain metastasis outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Siyuan; Yao, Jun; Lowery, Frank J; Zhang, Qingling; Huang, Wen-Chien; Li, Ping; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chenyu; Wang, Hai; Ellis, Kenneth; Cheerathodi, Mujeeburahiman; McCarty, Joseph H; Palmieri, Diane; Saunus, Jodi; Lakhani, Sunil; Huang, Suyun; Sahin, Aysegul A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua

    2015-11-01

    The development of life-threatening cancer metastases at distant organs requires disseminated tumour cells' adaptation to, and co-evolution with, the drastically different microenvironments of metastatic sites. Cancer cells of common origin manifest distinct gene expression patterns after metastasizing to different organs. Clearly, the dynamic interaction between metastatic tumour cells and extrinsic signals at individual metastatic organ sites critically effects the subsequent metastatic outgrowth. Yet, it is unclear when and how disseminated tumour cells acquire the essential traits from the microenvironment of metastatic organs that prime their subsequent outgrowth. Here we show that both human and mouse tumour cells with normal expression of PTEN, an important tumour suppressor, lose PTEN expression after dissemination to the brain, but not to other organs. The PTEN level in PTEN-loss brain metastatic tumour cells is restored after leaving the brain microenvironment. This brain microenvironment-dependent, reversible PTEN messenger RNA and protein downregulation is epigenetically regulated by microRNAs from brain astrocytes. Mechanistically, astrocyte-derived exosomes mediate an intercellular transfer of PTEN-targeting microRNAs to metastatic tumour cells, while astrocyte-specific depletion of PTEN-targeting microRNAs or blockade of astrocyte exosome secretion rescues the PTEN loss and suppresses brain metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, this adaptive PTEN loss in brain metastatic tumour cells leads to an increased secretion of the chemokine CCL2, which recruits IBA1-expressing myeloid cells that reciprocally enhance the outgrowth of brain metastatic tumour cells via enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate a remarkable plasticity of PTEN expression in metastatic tumour cells in response to different organ microenvironments, underpinning an essential role of co-evolution between the metastatic cells and their microenvironment during the adaptive metastatic outgrowth. Our findings signify the dynamic and reciprocal cross-talk between tumour cells and the metastatic niche; importantly, they provide new opportunities for effective anti-metastasis therapies, especially of consequence for brain metastasis patients. PMID:26479035

  20. Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Giulio Sandini

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    1 Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Scienecs Giulio Sandini IIT- RBCSGiulio Sandini Italian Institute of Technology Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department Genoa January 22nd, 2008 Which technologies are missing in today's humanoid robots? · Technologies supporting learning, recognition and classification

  1. Benign tumours of the bone: A review?

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, David N.; Pelly, Theo; Kulendran, Myutan; Caris, Jochem A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign tumours of the bone are not cancerous and would not metastasise to other regions of the body. However, they can occur in any part of the skeleton, and can still be dangerous as they may grow and compress healthy bone tissue. There are several types of benign tumours that can be classified by the type of matrix that the tumour cells produce; such as bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue, fat or blood vessel. Overall, 8 different types can be distinguished: osteochondroma, osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia and enchondroma. The incidence of benign bone tumours varies depending on the type. However, they most commonly arise in people less than 30 years old, often triggered by the hormones that stimulate normal growth. The most common type is osteochondroma. This review discusses the different types of common benign tumours of the bone based on information accumulated from published literature. PMID:26579486

  2. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  3. Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumours: current status

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for thoracic tumours has emerged as a minimally invasive therapy option for primary and secondary lung tumours and has gained increasing acceptance for pain palliation. The procedure is well tolerated and the complication rates are low. RFA provides the opportunity for localized tissue destruction of limited tumour volumes with medium and long term follow-up data suggesting that survival figures do parallel those of non-surgical treatment modalities. The purpose of this article is to review the status of RFA in lung tumours, to emphasize its place in symptomatic palliation and to discuss its potential role in conjunction with radiation or systemic therapy. PMID:18331970

  4. Tumour-to-tumour metastases: prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Petts, Gemma; Rashid, Tina; Hrouda, David; Ngo, Nye-Thane

    2013-01-01

    This is a case report of prostate carcinoma metastasising to a renal oncocytoma. The report demonstrates the unusual presentation of metastases from a common cancer to a common benign tumour, and reviews the rare phenomenon of tumour-to-tumour metastases. PMID:23307454

  5. Training for planning tumour resection: augmented reality and human factors.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S H; Chen, Elvis C S; Khan, Ali R; Peters, Terry M; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Planning surgical interventions is a complex task, demanding a high degree of perceptual, cognitive, and sensorimotor skills to reduce intra- and post-operative complications. This process requires spatial reasoning to coordinate between the preoperatively acquired medical images and patient reference frames. In the case of neurosurgical interventions, traditional approaches to planning tend to focus on providing a means for visualizing medical images, but rarely support transformation between different spatial reference frames. Thus, surgeons often rely on their previous experience and intuition as their sole guide is to perform mental transformation. In case of junior residents, this may lead to longer operation times or increased chance of error under additional cognitive demands. In this paper, we introduce a mixed augmented-/virtual-reality system to facilitate training for planning a common neurosurgical procedure, brain tumour resection. The proposed system is designed and evaluated with human factors explicitly in mind, alleviating the difficulty of mental transformation. Our results indicate that, compared to conventional planning environments, the proposed system greatly improves the nonclinicians' performance, independent of the sensorimotor tasks performed ( ). Furthermore, the use of the proposed system by clinicians resulted in a significant reduction in time to perform clinically relevant tasks ( ). These results demonstrate the role of mixed-reality systems in assisting residents to develop necessary spatial reasoning skills needed for planning brain tumour resection, improving patient outcomes. PMID:25546854

  6. Large cell neuroendocrine – Adenocarcinona mixed tumour of colon: Collision tumour with peculiar behaviour. What do we know about these tumours?

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Bravo, Ana María; Garcia Mahillo, Julio Cesar; Mendoza Moreno, Fernando; Noguelares Fraguas, Fernando; Granell, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mixed glandular-endocrine carcinomas are rare tumours of gastrointestinal tract (MANEC). They are more frequent in stomach and hardly one hundred cases have been described in colon. According to Lewis, they are classified into collision (side by side pattern), composite (intermingled) or amphicrine (neuroendocrine and glandular features inside a same cell). Collision tumours are related to biclonal theory: two simultaneous cancerogenic events. Conversely, multidirectional differentiation from a stem cell is accepted as origin of composite tumours. The aim of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of these tumours, with an especial concern about how these tumours metastasise, and the different theories about carcinogenesis. Presentation of case We report a rare case of collision adenocarcinoma-large cell neuroendocrine tumour of colon that after a three-year period of follow-up has presented a retroperitoneal recurrence that features adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine components. Discussion After an exhaustive review of the English literature, we found that only two cases of collision tumour of colon with metastases showing glandular and endocrine components have been described up to date, so we report the third case, and the first happening in transverse colon. Conclusion We conclude that not all collision tumours follow the biclonal theory and more studies are needed to clarify the origin of these neoplasms, and consequently, to reach an adequate treatment. PMID:26635955

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of amelogenins in odontogenic epithelial tumours and cysts.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Yamada, K; Kasai, T; Yamada, T; Shimokawa, H; Sasaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Amelogenins, enamel proteins in odontogenic tumours, were detected immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody. They were strongly expressed in amyloid-like material, ghost cells, and the cells surrounding ghost cells of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts, whereas calcified bodies within the tumours and cysts showed negative staining. The expression of amelogenins was also positive in tumour cells of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, squamous odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic fibroma. Peripheral tumour cells of the follicular ameloblastoma were positive with relatively intense staining. Undifferentiated or flattened tumour cells of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour and non-keratinized tumour cells of the squamous odontogenic tumour showed marked staining. Reduced ameloblasts in the odontoma displayed the strongest staining for amelogenins. The study suggests that biosynthesis of amelogenins may occur in the homogeneous materials of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours and cysts. PMID:2024453

  8. Specificity of antibodies to the purified Con A acceptor glycoproteins of cultured tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, G. L.; Smith, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Con A acceptor glycoproteins from the human Molt 4 (T cell leukaemia) and HeLa (endocervical adenocarcinoma) cell lines were purified by affinity chromatography and used for the preparation of rat antisera. Cross-absorption analysis showed that each antiserum contained antibodies which recognised cell surface antigens preferentially expressed by the donor cell line. Molt 4-associated antigens were fully expressed on T cell tumour lines and normal thymocytes, but not on non T cell tumour lines, peripheral blood lymphocytes or other blood cells. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the antigens were preferentially expressed on a sub-population of immature thymocytes. HeLa-associated antigens were only fully expressed on one other epithelial tumour cell in a panel of 17 cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the HeLa-associated antigens were expressed on normal endocervical adenoepithelium but not on ectocervical, endometrial or intestinal epithelia. Thus purified Con A acceptor glycoproteins of cultured tumour cell lines are potent immunogens for the generation of antibodies recognising lineage-associated differentiation antigens. These antigens should be useful in tumour classification and in the study of normal differentiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3511935

  9. CT/MRI of neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Reznek, Rodney H

    2006-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are often thought to be rare and rather recherché cancers which are of little concern to the general physician, surgeon or radiologist because of their rarity and esoteric nature. In fact, while relatively uncommon, the total group of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours incorporates the spectrum of all types of carcinoids, incuding bronchial carcinoids, and the whole gamut of islet-cell tumours. Some of these may present as functioning tumours, with a plethora of hormonal secretions and concomitant clinical syndromes, and GEPs in general have an incidence around 30 per million population per year. This means that in the whole European Union, for example, there will be in the region of 12000 new patients every year presenting with one or another manifestation of these tumours. Furthermore, the comparatively long survival of many of these patients, compared to more common adenocarcinomas or epithelial tumours, implies that the point prevalence is also not inconsiderable. However, it is undoubtedly true that these tumours can be difficult to identify, especially in their early stages, and it is then that radiological investigation becomes of paramount importance. Having taken into account all these considerations, most investigators would initiate investigation of a suspected or biochemically proven islet-cell tumour with cross-sectional imaging—either CT or MRI. This will clearly identify the larger lesions, allow assessment of the entire abdomen, and provide valuable information on the presence of hepatic metastates. PMID:17114072

  10. Tumours of the prostate and penis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William C.; Nielsen, Svend W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the male genital tract, excluding the testes, are relatively rare in the six major domestic animals. The most important tumours are prostate carcinoma and transmissible venereal tumour of the penis in dogs, fibropapilloma of the penis in bulls, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in horses, and squamous papilloma in pigs. Four histological types of canine prostate carcinoma exist: alveolar papillary, acinar, organoid, and poorly differentiated. The biological behaviour of prostate carcinomas is similar to that in man, with frequent metastasis to the regional pelvic nodes, bones, and lungs. There appears to be no relationship between the common diffuse glandular hyperplasia and carcinoma in the prostate of dogs. A unique lesion of dogs is squamous metaplasia of the prostate related to estrogen-producing Sertoli cell tumours of the testis. Three different transmissible tumours of the penis occur in domestic animals. The canine venereal tumours can be transmitted only by intact tumour cells during licking and coital contact, whereas bovine fibropapillomas and porcine squamous papillomas can be transmitted by cell-free material. In cattle, the fibropapillomas are caused by the same virus that produces cutaneous papillomatosis. All three tumours are benign and usually regress spontaneously. ImagesFig. 9 and 10Fig. 11 and 12Fig. 13 and 14Fig. 16 and 15Fig. 5-8Fig. 1-4 PMID:1086155

  11. Map Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsgaard, Mary

    1973-01-01

    Although map classification may seem a somewhat esoteric subject, at least to those who are not map librarians, the enterprising searcher for map classification schemes can find a goodly number from which to choose. (30 references) (Author)

  12. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Tan A.; Sousa, Aurea D.; Jones, Michelle A.; Harrell, J. Chuck; Agoston, Elin S.; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M.; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S.; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R.; Crum, Christopher P.; Brugge, Joan S.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  13. Large benign retroperitoneal tumour in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Berczi, Csaba; Osvath, Peter; Flasko, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old female was in the 13th week of pregnancy when an abdominal ultrasound examination revealed a large retroperitoneal tumour. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out and the imaging described a 10-cm mass in diameter extending from the right kidney. Given that the patient was in her first trimester and that there was a suspicion of malignancy, further surgical exploration of the tumour was warranted. During the operation, the tumour was removed, but nephrectomy was not necessary. Histologic analysis of the resected tumour showed a mucinous cystic adenoma, and no signs of malignancy were present. Following the surgery, the pregnancy was otherwise uneventful and further complications did not occur. This case illustrates that surgery is recommended in patients with a retroperitoneal tumour early during a pregnancy, when a malignancy cannot be excluded. PMID:26609332

  14. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6?h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060??g/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  15. Active specific immunotherapy of mouse methylcholanthrene induced tumours with Corynebacterium parvum and irradiated tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bomford, R.

    1975-01-01

    The relative efficiency of active nonspecific or specific immunotherapy of developing methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcomata with C. parvum was compared. For nonspecific immunotherapy, mice were challenged with tumour cells s.c. or i.v., and 2 days later injected i.v. with dilutions of C. parvum. The only significant effect was a retardation of s.c. tumour growth by the highest concentration of C. parvum (350 mug). However, active specific immunotherapy, using mixtures of C. parvum and irradiated or living tumour cells in the footpads, suppressed tumour growth when given at 2 or 6, but not 10, days after tumour challenge. Successful therapy required: sufficient tumour cells (greater than or equal to 5 X 10(4)); an optimal dose of C. parvum (5-120 mug, increasing with the number of tumour cells); an intact T cell system; the same tumour cells for challenge and treatment. The specificity was confirmed in a protection system in which treatment was given 7 days before tumour challenge. No protective immunity could be achieved with mixtures of C. parvum and foetal cells. Thus in this system C. parvum potentiates protective immunity only to the tumour unique TSTA. PMID:1082344

  16. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  17. Target classification strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2015-05-01

    Target classification algorithms have generally kept pace with developments in the academic and commercial sectors since the 1970s. However, most recently, investment into object classification by internet companies and various Human Brain Projects have far outpaced that of the defense sector. Implications are noteworthy. There are some unique characteristics of the military classification problem. Target classification is not solely an algorithm design problem, but is part of a larger system design task. The design flows down from a concept of operations (ConOps) and key performance parameters (KPPs). Inputs are image and/or signal data and time-synchronized metadata. The operation is real-time. The implementation minimizes size, weight and power (SWaP). The output must be conveyed to a time-strapped operator who understands the rules of engagement. It is assumed that the adversary is actively trying to defeat recognition. The target list is often mission dependent, not necessarily a closed set, and may change on a daily basis. It is highly desirable to obtain sufficiently comprehensive training and testing data sets, but costs of doing so are very high and data on certain target types are scarce. The training data may not be representative of battlefield conditions suggesting the avoidance of highly tuned designs. A number of traditional and emerging target classification strategies are reviewed in the context of the military target problem.

  18. The prophylaxis of nonindustrial urothelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Balfour M.

    1973-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning carcinogenesis and the natural history of urothelial tumours precludes firm conclusions relative to nonindustrial prophylaxis. However, a number of measures are consistent with current data and may be instituted for those patients with a demonstrated propensity to urothelial tumours. Their acceptability is based on the lack of associated toxicity for the patient. These measures include the elimination of significant infection, cigarettes, artificial sweeteners, analgesic abuse and coffee, the administration of vitamins C and B6, and in selected cases, the use of thiotepa. It is emphasized that the merit of these steps in altering the natural history of urothelial tumours is uncertain. PMID:4197537

  19. Female adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian origin.

    PubMed Central

    Sivathondan, Y; Salm, R; Hughesdon, P E; Faccini, J M

    1979-01-01

    Two further cases of 'female adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian origin' are described Both were retroperitoneal and presented a unique histology of uniformly close-packed bland spaces. solid islands, cords, and diffuse areas. A small hamartoma in a female fetus, part of which resembled the tumours, was traced to an area of near apposition with some paroophoron canals, providing further evidence of a Wolffian origin. The literature of this and some other putative Wolffian tumours is briefly reviewed, and the relation to rete adenomas is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:469017

  20. Imaging evaluation of treated benign bone tumours.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Michael A; McDonald, Douglas J; Wessell, Daniel E; Friedman, Michael V

    2015-10-01

    A number of benign bone tumours can be treated with curettage and packing with either bone cement or graft. It is essential that the radiologist be familiar with both the normal and abnormal post-operative imaging appearance of these treated tumours. Through the use of numerous imaging examples, we aim to provide a pictorial review of the expected post-operative appearance of benign bone tumours treated with curettage and packing, as well as the imaging features of recurrence, the most common potential complication. PMID:26108970

  1. Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

  2. Multiscale modelling and nonlinear simulation of vascular tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Macklin, Paul; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Chaplain, Mark A. J.; Cristini, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a new multiscale mathematical model for solid tumour growth which couples an improved model of tumour invasion with a model of tumour-induced angiogenesis. We perform nonlinear simulations of the multi-scale model that demonstrate the importance of the coupling between the development and remodeling of the vascular network, the blood flow through the network and the tumour progression. Consistent with clinical observations, the hydrostatic stress generated by tumour cell proliferation shuts down large portions of the vascular network dramatically affecting the flow, the subsequent network remodeling, the delivery of nutrients to the tumour and the subsequent tumour progression. In addition, extracellular matrix degradation by tumour cells is seen to have a dramatic affect on both the development of the vascular network and the growth response of the tumour. In particular, the newly developing vessels tend to encapsulate, rather than penetrate, the tumour and are thus less effective in delivering nutrients. PMID:18781303

  3. Musculoskeletal deformities following treatment of Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, J. H.; Gluck, G.; Gledhill, R. B.; Chevalier, L.

    1978-01-01

    Wilms' tumour is one of the most common neoplasms of infancy and childhood. Current treatment regimens result in a cure rate of about 80% for localized tumours but may also cause musculoskeletal deformities. Assessment of 21 patients previously treated for Wilms' tumour showed that all had flank atrophy on the treated side. Radiologic abnormalities included asymmetry of vertebral bodies, vertebral end-plate irregularities, scoliosis, kyphosis, platyspondyly and hypoplasia of the ilium. Although the vertebral changes following radiotherapy for Wilms' tumour are present from an early age and the potential is great for an increase in spinal deformity with growth, few spinal curves progress past 20 degree. Since one cannot predict which curves will progress, all such patients need careful orthopedic follow-up until skeletal maturity is achieved. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 PMID:210920

  4. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  5. Intramuscular Hibernoma: A Rare Tumour in Buttock

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena; Kushwaha, Anil KU; Agrawal, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hibernomas are benign tumours of brown fat that does not recur after complete excision. These tumours are found most often in adults and most commonly in thigh. Four morphologic variants of hibernoma are identified: typical, myxoid, spindle cell, and lipoma-like. The most common histologic type is typical variant. In this report, we present the clinical, morphological features and discuss the differential diagnosis of a typical variant of intramuscular hibernoma. PMID:26266129

  6. Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis. PMID:23468124

  7. Epithelial odontogenic tumours in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K M; Denholm, L J; Cooper, B J

    1987-09-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumours are uncommon, poorly understood and often difficult to diagnose, oral neoplasms. Dental organ pre-ameloblasts and basal lamina induce development of mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, which produce dentin and induce pre-ameloblasts to mature into secretory ameloblasts. These reciprocal sequential inductive interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme form the basis for classifying epithelial odontogenic tumours. There are three tumours classified as non-inductive: ameloblastoma characterized by cords and islands of stellate reticulum with peripheral palisades of polarized columnar cells, adenomatoid ameloblastoma which has acini, rosettes and ducts of polarized columnar cells and stellate reticulum and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour which contains foci of Congo-red-positive material surrounded by pleomorphic polygonal epithelial cells. There are five tumours in which induction of mesenchymal tissue is evident: ameloblastic fibroma with characteristics of ameloblastoma plus proliferation of closely associated pulp-like mesenchyme; dentinoma consisting of masses of dentin, often with minimal cellular component; ameloblastic odontoma which contains palisaded epithelium and stellate reticulum as in ameloblastoma, as well as foci of dentin and/or enamel; complex odontoma which is a disorderly array of dentin, enamel, ameloblastic epithelium and odontoblasts; and compound odontoma containing denticles with well-organized tooth morphology. This paper reviews the embryogenesis of teeth and describes six types of epithelial odontogenic tumours in 13 animals. The literature concerning these tumours in nearly 250 animals is reviewed. The most commonly reported tumour is ameloblastoma and the species in which all types are most commonly reported is the dog. PMID:3316314

  8. A dynamical model of tumour immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frascoli, Federico; Kim, Peter S; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2014-07-01

    A coupled ordinary differential equation model of tumour-immune dynamics is presented and analysed. The model accounts for biological and clinical factors which regulate the interaction rates of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on the surface of the tumour mass. A phase plane analysis demonstrates that competition between tumour cells and lymphocytes can result in tumour eradication, perpetual oscillations, or unbounded solutions. To investigate the dependence of the dynamic behaviour on model parameters, the equations are solved analytically and conditions for unbounded versus bounded solutions are discussed. An analytic characterisation of the basin of attraction for oscillatory orbits is given. It is also shown that the tumour shape, characterised by a surface area to volume scaling factor, influences the size of the basin, with significant consequences for therapy design. The findings reveal that the tumour volume must surpass a threshold size that depends on lymphocyte parameters for the cancer to be completely eliminated. A semi-analytic procedure to calculate oscillation periods and determine their sensitivity to model parameters is also presented. Numerical results show that the period of oscillations exhibits notable nonlinear dependence on biologically relevant conditions. PMID:24759513

  9. Consensus on biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kjell; Modlin, Irvin M; De Herder, Wouter; Pavel, Marianne; Klimstra, David; Frilling, Andrea; Metz, David C; Heaney, Anthony; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Strosberg, Jonathan; Meyer, Timothy; Moss, Steven F; Washington, Kay; Wolin, Edward; Liu, Eric; Goldenring, James

    2015-09-01

    Management of neuroendocrine neoplasia represents a clinical challenge because of its late presentation, lack of treatment options, and limitations in present imaging modalities and biomarkers to guide management. Monoanalyte biomarkers have poor sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability. A National Cancer Institute summit, held in 2007, on neuroendocrine tumours noted biomarker limitations to be a crucial unmet need in the management of neuroendocrine tumours. A multinational consensus meeting of multidisciplinary experts in neuroendocrine tumours assessed the use of current biomarkers and defined the perquisites for novel biomarkers via the Delphi method. Consensus (at >75%) was achieved for 88 (82%) of 107 assessment questions. The panel concluded that circulating multianalyte biomarkers provide the highest sensitivity and specificity necessary for minimum disease detection and that this type of biomarker had sufficient information to predict treatment effectiveness and prognosis. The panel also concluded that no monoanalyte biomarker of neuroendocrine tumours has yet fulfilled these criteria and there is insufficient information to support the clinical use of miRNA or circulating tumour cells as useful prognostic markers for this disease. The panel considered that trials measuring multianalytes (eg, neuroendocrine gene transcripts) should also identify how such information can optimise the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:26370353

  10. Chemotherapeutic tumour targeting using clostridial spores.

    PubMed

    Minton, N P; Mauchline, M L; Lemmon, M J; Brehm, J K; Fox, M; Michael, N P; Giaccia, A; Brown, J M

    1995-10-01

    The toxicity associated with conventional cancer chemotherapy is primarily due to a lack of specificity for tumour cells. In contrast, intravenously injected clostridial spores exhibit a remarkable specificity for tumours. This is because, following their administration, clostridial spores become exclusively localised to, and germinate in, the hypoxic/necrotic tissue of tumours. This unique property could be exploited to deliver therapeutic agents to tumours. In particular, genetic engineering could be used to endow a suitable clostridial host with the capacity to produce an enzyme within the tumour which can metabolise a systemically introduced, non-toxic prodrug into a toxic metabolite. The feasibility of this strategy (clostridial-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, CDEPT) has been demonstrated by cloning the Escherichia coli B gene encoding nitroreductase (an enzyme which converts the prodrug CB1954 to a highly toxic bifunctional alkylating agent) into a clostridial expression vector and introducing the resultant plasmid into Clostridium beijerinckii (formerly C. acetobutylicum) NCIMB 8052. The gene was efficiently expressed, with recombinant nitroreductase representing 8% of the cell soluble protein. Following the intravenous injection of the recombinant spores into mice, tumour lysates have been shown, by Western blots, to contain the E. coli-derived enzyme. PMID:7576773

  11. Gastrin releasing peptide in human neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, D G; Bensch, K G

    1985-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours of the lung and gut are known to possess bombesin-like immunoreactivity. The recent observation that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), a 27 amino acid peptide isolated from the porcine intestine, may be the mammalian analogue of bombesin led us to look for this peptide in a variety of human neoplasms. Formalin-fixed tissues from 85 tumours were examined by the immunoperoxidase technique, using specific antisera to the GRP molecule (1-27) and the GRP fragment (1-16). Intense cytoplasmic GRP immunoreactivity was seen in thyroid medullary carcinomas (3/3), carcinoids of lung, pancreas, and intestine (22/36), and paragangliomas (2/3). Less frequent staining was present in pulmonary small cell (oat cell) carcinomas (1/8) and pituitary adenomas (1/6). Complete absence of immunoreactivity was observed in three phaeochromocytomas, five Merkel cell tumours, six neuroblastomas and 15 non-neuroendocrine tumours. Normal neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid (C-cells) and bronchial mucosa (Kulchitsky cells) exhibited GRP immunoreactivity; nerve fibres from all sites failed to demonstrate staining for GRP. In each positive case, the pattern of staining for GRP (1-27) and GRP (1-16) was identical, although the GRP (1-16) immunostaining was weaker. These findings indicate that bombesin immunoreactivity in human neuroendocrine cells and tumours is attributable to GRP-like molecules and that GRP is a useful marker of neuroendocrine differentiation in many tumours. PMID:3003308

  12. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  13. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. PMID:25648860

  14. Role of tumour markers, cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lamerz, R

    1999-01-01

    A review is presented on the role of conventional and molecular tumour markers (TM) in diagnosis and monitoring of patients with biliopancreatic malignancies. For biliopancreatic malignancy, following CEA as more historical and basic TM of gastrointestinal diseases, the mainstay marker is CA 19-9 as monosialo-ganglioside/glycolipid and sialyl derivative of lacto-N-fucopentaose II (sialyl-Lewis(a), hapten of human Lewis(a) bloodgroup determinant). It is detected in serum of healthy individuals at low concentration < 40 U/ml, with lower and often transitional elevation in benign hepatobiliary diseases and with highest levels in excretory ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (s = 70%-95%, sp = 72%-90%), biliary (s = 55%-79%), hepatocellular and cholangiocellular cancer (s = 22%-51%) besides gastric, colorectal and ovarian cancer and occasionally in lung, breast and uterine cancer. Physiologically elevated concentrations in healthy individuals have to be considered in all sorts of secretions (e.g. sputum, saliva, bronchial/gastric secretions, bile juice) of individuals with Lewis(a)-positive secretor status in contrast with low or lacking serum levels of CA 19-9 in patients with Lewis(a-/b-) status (7%-10% of population). In biliopancreatic malignancies, especially pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 correlates well with clinical course of disease following surgical, chemo- or radiotherapy by a quick normalisation within 2-4 weeks after complete surgery, a transient decrease with successful palliative therapy and an often anticipated increase (lead time up to 6 months) before clinical detection in case of relapse or progressive disease. From CA 19-9 related TM tests some are detecting in addition to sialyl-Lewis(a) (sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose II) also the non-fucosylated precursor sialyl-Lewis(c) (sialyllacto-N-tetraose: CA 50, CA 242, Span-1) solely detected by the DUPAN-2 test and independent of the Lewis(a) secretor status. Some other markers comprise in addition to sialyl-Lewis(a) partially the non-sialylated Lewis(a) antigen (CA 195, CAM 43, CA 494) or are less related (CAM 17.1). The initial phase of screening and early detection is hoped to be better assessed by using molecular markers detecting gene mutations (p53, K-ras), growth factors (EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta, HB-EGF, a/bFGFs, KGF) and growth factor receptor alterations (EGFr, c-erbB2/3/4). From these, K-ras mutations detected in blood, stool and bile juice of patients at risk for pancreatic cancer seem to be more promising than p53 alterations as a more later step in carcinogenesis, although they are neither yet well established nor standardised by reliable assays. In contrast growth factor and growth factor receptor alterations mainly concerning signal transducing systems seem to reflect increased tumour aggressiveness, thus shorter survival and poorer prognosis thereby contributing in the selection of patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:10436809

  15. Critical transitions in a game theoretic model of tumour metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kianercy, Ardeshir; Veltri, Robert; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Tumour proliferation is promoted by an intratumoral metabolic symbiosis in which lactate from stromal cells fuels energy generation in the oxygenated domain of the tumour. Furthermore, empirical data show that tumour cells adopt an intermediate metabolic state between lactate respiration and glycolysis. This study models the metabolic symbiosis in the tumour through the formalism of evolutionary game theory. Our game model of metabolic symbiosis in cancer considers two types of tumour cells, hypoxic and oxygenated, while glucose and lactate are considered as the two main sources of energy within the tumour. The model confirms the presence of multiple intermediate stable states and hybrid energy strategies in the tumour. It predicts that nonlinear interaction between two subpopulations leads to tumour metabolic critical transitions and that tumours can obtain different intermediate states between glycolysis and respiration which can be regulated by the genomic mutation rate. The model can apply in the epithelial–stromal metabolic decoupling therapy. PMID:25097747

  16. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  17. Incidental vs symptomatic renal tumours: Survival outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Osman, Ahmed Mosbah; Kamal, Mohammed M.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Currently there is an increase in the incidental diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our aim was to assess the survival of patients with incidental and symptomatic renal tumours who had undergone nephrectomy. Patients and methods We retrospectively assessed 604 patients who underwent renal surgery for RCC between 1983 and 2005. Patients were divided in two groups; group 1 had incidental and group 2 had symptomatic tumours. The median follow-up was 4 and 3.3 years for groups 1 and 2, respectively. All patients had surgery in the form of radical or partial nephrectomy. Sex, age, tumour size, type of surgery, pathological characteristics and patient survival in both groups were evaluated. The statistical analysis included the log-rank, Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression tests. Results There were 85 patients (14%) in group 1 (mean age 49.6 years) and 519 (86%) in group 2 (mean age 50 years). The mean (SEM, range) tumour size was 7.4 (0.4, 1.5–20) cm in group 1 and 9.7 (0.2, 2–38) cm in group 2 (P < 0.001). The most common stage was T1 (52%) and T2 (44%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively, with a predominance of G2 grade and the conventional type histology in both the groups. There was a significant difference in cancer-specific survival (CSS) between the groups (log-rank, P = 0.017). The 5- and 10-year CSS was 94% and 94% for group 1, and 82.5% and 79.5% for group 2. Cox regression analysis showed that in group 1, only the tumour mid-zonal location (P = 0.093), tumour stage pT (P < 0.001), grade 1 (P = 0.03), grade 2 (P = 0.01), grade 4 (P = 0.01) and the papillary histological type (P = 0.019) had significant effects on CSS. In group 2, only tumour size (P = 0.022) and stage pN (P = 0.003) had significant effects on CSS. The tumour recurrence rate was 18% and 29% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions This large study supports the findings of other smaller studies published previously, confirming that at presentation incidental renal tumours are smaller and their diagnosis provides a better prognosis and longer CSS.

  18. Localization of gastroenteropancreatic tumours by angiography.

    PubMed

    Doppman, J L; Jensen, R T

    1999-10-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are seen on arteriography as diffusely enhancing masses without tumour vessels and without arteriovenous shunting. In 70 patients with surgically proven tumours, the sensitivity of angiography was 68% for extrapancreatic and 86% for hepatic lesions. Hepatic metastases have always been easier to demonstrate arteriographically than the primary tumour because of the absence of overlying bowel. Portal venous sampling is a sensitive technique for detecting functioning gastroenteropancreatic tumours. Sampling the small veins about the pancreatic head yielded a sensitivity of 62% but this is an invasive procedure in which considerable experience is required. Intra-arterial secretagogue, secretin for gastrinomas and calcium for insulinomas, selectively injected into the pancreatic and the hepatic arteries produce a diagnostic gastrin or insulin gradient respectively. The localization sensitivity of arterial stimulation with venous sampling is 77-89% for gastrinoma and 92% for pancreatic insulinoma. Recently, spiral CT in conjunction with selective intra-arterial rather than intravenous injection of contrast may increase the detection sensitivity of duodenal and pancreatic gastrinomas. PMID:10604123

  19. Primary pulmonary tumours of neurogenic origin.

    PubMed Central

    Roviaro, G; Montorsi, M; Varoli, F; Binda, R; Cecchetto, A

    1983-01-01

    Primary intrapulmonary neurogenic tumours are extremely rare. In a series of 1664 patients with pulmonary neoplasms observed during 1967-80 only four such tumours were identified (0.2%). All four patients underwent surgical excision. The histological diagnosis was benign neurilemmoma in three cases and malignant schwannoma in the fourth. The patients with neurilemmoma are alive and well four to 12 years after surgery, but the patient with malignant schwannoma died from metastatic spread of the tumour four months after surgery. No association with von Recklinghausen's disease was observed. Macroscopic and microscopic features generally lead to a correct diagnosis in benign types, but the histological diagnosis of malignant schwannoma may present some difficulties and requires the establishment of a definite origin in a nervous structure, identification of benign neurofibroma in different areas of the same tumour, and a high density of cells with appreciable pleomorphism, with mitosis and atypia. Benign tumours carry a good prognosis with little tendency to recur, but malignant schwannoma has a high invasive tendency and is associated with a low survival rate. Images PMID:6665754

  20. Neuroendoscopic management of pineal region tumours.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E; Santamarta, D; Garcia-Fructuoso, G; Caral, L; Rumià, J

    1997-01-01

    The management of pineal tumours remains controversial. During 1994 we treated four consecutive adults (16-44 yrs) harbouring a pineal tumour with a neuroendoscopic procedure. All of them presented with hydrocephalus. Pre-operative workup included cranial computerized tomography (CT), craniospinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serum levels of biological tumour markers. The endoscopic procedure consisted of a third ventriculostomy followed by biopsy with a flexible, steerable neuroendoscope. Histological diagnosis was achieved in three patients who no longer required a shunt device. Recorded complications were: bleeding during ventriculostomy that prevented us from obtaining a good sample for biopsy, short-term memory loss that cleared over a two-week period, and transient increase of pre-operative hemiparesis. Complications and morbidity are emphasized so as to be avoided with further technical experience. Neuroendoscopy affords a minimally invasive way of reaching three objectives by one-step surgery in the management of pineal region lesions: 1) CSF sample for analysis of tumour markers. 2) Treatment of hydrocephalus by third ventriculostomy. 3) Several biopsy specimens can be obtained identifying tumours which will require further open surgery or adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy. PMID:9059706

  1. Brain herniation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. Post-treatment imaging of liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Kurtaran, Amir; Schindl, Martin; Gruenberger, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the past few years, great improvements have been made to achieve local tumour control of primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and tumour ablation techniques, including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RF), and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) have been developed. For colorectal liver metastases, surgery is still the standard technique in localised disease, although percutaneous RF ablation has gained considerable acceptance. In patients with widespread disease, chemotherapy with new drugs offers improved survival. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice to evaluate treatment response. The present review demonstrates imaging findings of complete and incomplete tumour control after intervention as well as the imaging spectrum of complications. Imaging guidelines according to the World Health Organization and Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) for assessment of chemotherapy response are presented. PMID:17921098

  3. Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking Klatskin tumour on radiology.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Yousaf Bashir; Sohail, Abdul Malik Amir Humza; Haider, Zishan

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is categorised into two distinct types, AIP type 1 and 2. Although there can be multisystem involvement, rarely, the cholangitis associated with AIP can present radiologically in a manner similar to that of Klatskin tumour. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who was almost misdiagnosed with a Klatskin tumour because of the similarity in radiological features of the two aforementioned clinical entities. The patient presented with a history of jaundice, pruritus and abdominal pain, and work up showed deranged liver function tests, elevated cancer antigen 19-9 levels and positive antinuclear antibodies. CT scan of the abdomen showed findings suggestive of Klatskin tumour but due to diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and surrounding low-attenuation halo found on a closer review, a diagnosis of AIP was performed. The patient was started on standard corticosteroid therapy and responded well, with complete resolution of the radiological findings. PMID:25858920

  4. Peripheral nerve tumours: 30-year experience in the surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Mazurek, Piotr; Koszewicz, Magdalena; Zió?kowski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve tumours are relatively rare type of soft tissue tumours. The aim of this work is to present our experience with surgical treatment of this type of lesions. Clinical material consists of 94 patients (56 females, 38 males), in whom 101 tumours deriving from peripheral nervous system were removed. The patients underwent surgical treatment between 1983 and 2012. Tumours occurred mainly in the upper extremity (72 tumours), less often in the lower extremity (25 tumours). Lesions developed in major peripheral nerves (51 tumours) and small nerve branches (50 tumours). The most common symptoms reported before surgery included presence of tumour mass (100 %), positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign (95.6 %) and paraesthesia (93.4 %). Less often sensory deficit (89.1 %) and pain (71.7 %) were observed. Motor deficit was the least common manifestation (41.3 %). Benign tumours prevailed in presented material (94 tumours). In 7 cases, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) was identified. As a result of surgical treatment in the group of tumours deriving from major peripheral nerves, in 87.8 % of the patients, pain relief was achieved; in 84 %, Hoffmann-Tinel sign was negative; and in 79 %, paraesthesia resolved. Sensory function improvement was observed in 51.2 % of the patients while motor function improved in 26.3 % of the patients. None of the patients experienced tumour relapse. In the group of tumours deriving from small nerve branches, 47 patients had no signs of tumour recurrence. One female patient diagnosed with MPNST suffered a relapse. Obtaining satisfactory results of peripheral nerve tumour treatment requires both careful differential diagnosis and well thought-out strategy at every stage of therapeutic management. PMID:25727458

  5. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  6. NT-35SAFER AND MORE COMPLETE RESECTION OF INTRINSIC TUMOURS FOLLOWING INTRODUCTION OF 3D NEURO-NAVIGATIONAL ULTRASOUND CONTROLLED RESECTION: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Vaqas, Babar; Epton, Sarah; Harrison, Conrad; Awad, Mohammed; O'Neill, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of intrinsic tumour resection is to improve survival by maximising tumour resection and minimising any new post operative neurological deficit. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if neuronavigational 3D ultrasound guided resection resulted in improved tumour resection in terms of percentage resection and clinical outcome. A retrospective consecutive case series of 50 patients who underwent resection of intrinsic tumour was collected, comprising 25 cases using neuronavigational intraoperative 3D ultrasound and 25 with standard neuronavigation without intraoperative ultrasound. The volume of the tumour was calculated both pre- and post-operatively using volumetric analysis software based on T1 contrast sequences from MRI scans. Neurological outcome was measured as the presence of new neurological deficits at discharge from the ward. The ultrasound group had 97.7% tumour resection (95% CI 96.9%- 98.5%) and the non-ultrasound group having 93.5% resection (95% CI of 92.1%-94.9%), this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.0005). There was no significant difference in the pre-op volume or tumour location between the two groups. One patient suffered new neurological deficit in the ultrasound group (4%) compared with 3 patients (12%) in the non-ultrasound group. The experience in our unit is that neuronavigational ultrasound controlled resection allows tailor made resection of the reducing tumour mass allowing safer and more complete resection. The fine control over tumour resection probably results in reduced collateral damage to adjacent structures thus reducing new post operative neurological deficit. Further studies within a larger patient sample size are required to show if this results in reduced time to recurrence and improved survival in patients with intrinsic brain tumours.

  7. Extracutaneous glomus tumour of the trachea

    PubMed Central

    ?ochowski, Mariusz Piotr; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, Józef

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presenting expiratory stridor and high-grade dyspnoea was admitted to hospital in Lodz in February 2013. Chest radiographs and computed tomography scans showed a solid lesion in the upper part of the trachea occluding 85% of the airway lumen. A segmental resection of the trachea with a subsequent end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology showed an extracutaneous glomus tumour. There were no postoperative complications. Tracheal resection is the primary curative method in cases of this rare tumour. PMID:26702289

  8. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

  9. Sertoli cell tumour in an Amur tiger.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, C L; Meredith, A L

    2001-01-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour in a 17-year-old Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) are described. Histological examination of the primary lesion in the right testis and metastatic lesions throughout the internal organs showed a variable cellular pattern with an admixture of tubular structures divided by fine stroma filled with fusiform to stellate cells, and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated strong positive staining for neuron-specific enolase and variable positive staining for vimentin in neoplastic cells, supporting a diagnosis of a tumour of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:11428192

  10. A retrospective study of 21 cases of malignant odontogenic tumours from two tertiary health centres in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Akinyamoju, Akindayo Olufunto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant odontogenic tumours (MOTs) are relatively rare tmours and only few cases have been reported in the sub-Sahara African literature. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic distribution of malignant odontogenic tumours in two tertiary health centres based on the current WHO 2005 classification scheme. Methods We reviewed 21 malignant odontogenic tumours out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours from two Tertiary Health Centres. Information regarding histology, location, patients age and gender for MOTs were analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results Twenty one (5.6%) MOTs out of a total of 374 odontogenic tumours were seen from the two institutions over the study period. The median age for MOTs was 42.0 (±19.0) years (range = 16-66 years). The male: female ratio was 2.5:1 and 85.7% occurred in the mandible. Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) with 13 (61.9%) cases was the most common MOT. AC had a mean age of 37.5 (±11.9) years. AC had a mandible: maxilla ratio of 5.5:1 with majority (84.6%) occurring in the posterior mandible. Conclusion This study showed that MOTs are rare lesions. AC was the most common MOT and majority of MOTs occurred in the posterior mandible of male patients. The study helps to better elucidate the demography of MOTs in sub-Sahara Africans. PMID:26185562

  11. Systematic pan-cancer analysis of tumour purity.

    PubMed

    Aran, Dvir; Sirota, Marina; Butte, Atul J

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is the non-cancerous cells present in and around a tumour, including mainly immune cells, but also fibroblasts and cells that comprise supporting blood vessels. These non-cancerous components of the tumour may play an important role in cancer biology. They also have a strong influence on the genomic analysis of tumour samples, and may alter the biological interpretation of results. Here we present a systematic analysis using different measurement modalities of tumour purity in >10,000 samples across 21 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Patients are stratified according to clinical features in an attempt to detect clinical differences driven by purity levels. We demonstrate the confounding effect of tumour purity on correlating and clustering tumours with transcriptomics data. Finally, using a differential expression method that accounts for tumour purity, we find an immunotherapy gene signature in several cancer types that is not detected by traditional differential expression analyses. PMID:26634437

  12. Frequent and Discriminative Subnetwork Mining for Mild Cognitive Impairment Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Jie, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies on brain networks have suggested that many brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are related to a large-scale brain network, rather than individual brain regions. However, it is challenging to find such a network from the whole brain network due to the complexity of brain networks. In this article, the authors propose a novel method to mine the discriminative subnetworks for classifying MCI patients from healthy controls (HC). Specifically, the authors first extract a set of frequent subnetworks from each of the two groups (i.e., MCI and HC), respectively. Then, measure the discriminative ability of those frequent subnetworks using the graph kernel-based classification method and select the most discriminative subnetworks for subsequent classification. The results on the functional connectivity networks of 12 MCI and 25 HC show that this method can obtain competitive results compared with state-of-the-art methods on MCI classification. PMID:24766561

  13. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPUB version (2 MB) MOBI version (4 MB) Brain Basics: Know Your Brain Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction ... dysfunctional. Image 1 < top > The Architecture of the Brain The brain is like a committee of experts. ...

  14. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    E-print Network

    Russomando, Andrea; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, %Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Morganti, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.

  15. Electrochemotherapy in treatment of tumours , D. Miklavcic b

    E-print Network

    Ljubljana, University of

    drug delivery approach aimed at treatment with palliative intent of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour for treating cutaneous and subcuta- neous tumour nodules. The treatment response for various tumours (predominantly melanoma) was w75% complete and 10% partial response of the treated nodules. Conclusions

  16. The mechanical microenvironment in cancer: How physics affects tumours.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerke, Anika; Bussink, Johan; Rowan, Alan E; Span, Paul N

    2015-12-01

    The tumour microenvironment contributes greatly to the response of tumour cells. It consists of chemical gradients, for example of oxygen and nutrients. However, a physical environment is also present. Apart from chemical input, cells also receive physical signals. Tumours display unique mechanical properties: they are a lot stiffer than normal tissue. This may be either a cause or a consequence of cancer, but literature suggests it has a major impact on tumour cells as will be described in this review. The mechanical microenvironment may cause malignant transformation, possibly through activation of oncogenic pathways and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. In addition, the mechanical microenvironment may promote tumour progression by influencing processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing cell survival through autophagy, but also affects sensitivity of tumour cells to therapeutics. Furthermore, multiple intracellular signalling pathways prove sensitive to the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. It appears the increased stiffness is unlikely to be caused by increased stiffness of the tumour cells themselves. However, there are indications that tumours display a higher cell density, making them more rigid. In addition, increased matrix deposition in the tumour, as well as increased interstitial fluid pressure may account for the increased stiffness of tumours. Overall, tumour mechanics are significantly different from normal tissue. Therefore, this feature should be further explored for use in cancer prevention, detection and treatment. PMID:26343578

  17. Glutathione S-transferase activity and isoenzyme composition in benign ovarian tumours, untreated malignant ovarian tumours, and malignant ovarian tumours after platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, A. G.; van Ommen, B.; Meijer, C.; Hollema, H.; van Bladeren, P. J.; de Vries, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme composition, isoenzyme quantities and enzymatic activity were investigated in benign (n = 4) ovarian tumours and malignant ovarian tumours, before (n = 20) and after (n = 16) chemotherapy. Enzymatic activity of GST in cytosols was measured by determining 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene conjugation with glutathione, cytosolic GST subunits were determined by wide pore reversed phase HPLC, using a S-hexylglutathione-agarose affinity column, and isoelectric focussing. Both GST activity and GST pi amount were not related to histopathologic type, differentiation grade, or tumour volume index in untreated malignant tumours. GST isoenzyme patterns were identical in benign tumours and malignant tumours before and after platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, while GST pi was the predominant transferase. Mean GST activity and GST pi amount were decreased (P < 0.05) in malignant ovarian tumours after platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy compared to untreated ovarian malignant tumours. No relation was found in untreated ovarian tumours between GST pi amount and response to platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Thus, within the limitations of the current study no arguments were found for a role of GST in in vivo drug resistance of malignant ovarian tumours to platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. PMID:1419639

  18. Hereditary costovertebral dysplasia with malignant cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J; Glass, A

    1983-01-01

    Costovertebral dysplasia comprises multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs, with a characteristic clinical picture of short trunk dwarfism, short neck, scoliosis, and rib cage deformity. We describe two sibs with the syndrome who are presumed to represent the autosomal recessive form of the disorder. One sib died from a malignant cerebral tumour and the association may be more than fortuitous. Images PMID:6655670

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to Masson's tumour.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Andrew Gordon; Arenas-Prat, Joan

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a Masson's tumour causing carpal tunnel syndrome. Space occupying lesions should be considered as a differential in refractory cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, especially those in whom the symptoms are dynamic. Once radiological investigation confirms such a diagnosis, we advocate surgical excision, as malignancy can only be excluded via histological examination. PMID:26566345

  20. 2007 Nature Publishing Group TUMOUR SUPPRESSORS

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    , in approximately one third of patients with the childhood kidney cancer Wilms tumour. WTX mutations did), in human fibroblasts prevents p53-dependent senescence induced by the oncogenes E2F1, RASV12 or STAT5) Daniel Haber and colleagues have identified mutations in WTX, a newly identified gene on the X chromosome

  1. Malignant gonadal tumour formation in intersexual states

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, H. W. S.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases of malignant tumour are reported in phenotypically male hermaphrodites. The importance of establishing the presence of persistent Müllerian duct structures in pseudo-hermaphrodites is discussed in relation to prophylactic castration in anticipation of malignant change. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197157

  2. Anti-tumour activity in RAS-driven tumours by blocking AKT and MEK

    E-print Network

    Tolcher, Anthony W.; Khan, Khurum; Ong, Michael; Banerji, Udai; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Gandara, David; Patnaik, Amita; Baird, Richard D.; Olmos, David; Garrett, Christopher R.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.; Rubin, Eric; Smith, Paul; Huang, Pearl; Learoyd, Maria; Shannon, Keith; Morosky, Anne; Tetteh, Ernestina; Jou, Ying-Ming; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P.; Moreno, Victor; Kaiser, Brianne; Yap, Timothy A.; Yan, Li; de Bono, Johann S.

    2014-12-16

    , 7). Inhibition of MEK by selumetinib in KRAS-mutant cancers can result in reactive up-regulation of AKT phosphorylation (8), whilst co-targeting of PI3K and MEK ablates this compensatory effect and results in superior anti-tumour efficacy... inhibition alone, combined MEK and PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition resulted in synergistic induction of tumour regression (14). Combinatorial inhibition of key nodes within signal transduction networks to overcome both de novo...

  3. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Ansari, Hena A.; Sherwani, Rana K.; Rahman, Khaliqur; Akhtar, Nishat

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified) are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified). A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup. PMID:21436872

  4. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  5. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Burgos, Rocío; González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy's solution. PMID:25136427

  6. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade

    PubMed Central

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

  7. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  8. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S

    2015-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin. PMID:24635732

  9. Symptomatic Control of Neuroendocrine Tumours with Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Larbi, Emmanuel; Middleton, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, increases progression-free survival in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Patients with neuroendocrine tumours and symptomatic carcinoid have inferior health-related quality of life than those without symptoms. We aimed to evaluate the effect of everolimus on symptomatic control of neuroendocrine tumours. Fifteen patients with metastatic neuroendocrine disease pre-treated with depot octreotide received combination everolimus and octreotide (midgut?=?8, pancreatic?=?3, other?=?4). Reasons for initiation of everolimus were progressive disease (PD) by response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (n?=?5), worsening syndromic symptomology (n?=?5), or both (n?=?5). Symptomatic and objective response and toxicity were evaluated using standard criteria. 7/10 patients who were syndromic had improvements in symptomology, with a mean duration of symptom control 13.9 months (range 1-39). All 10 symptomatic patients had non pancreatic neuroendocrine (pNET) primaries, and with everolimus, 6/10 had reduced stool frequency, 3/7 had a reduction of asthenia, and 5/7 had reduced frequency and severity of flushing. Sixty percent of patients experienced any grade toxicities, including the following: 40 % grade 1/2 stomatitis, 7 % grade 3/4 stomatitis, 20 % grade 1/2 rash, 13 % diarrhoea, and one case of pneumonitis. In this cohort of 15 patients, we demonstrated that 70 % of non pNET individuals with common carcinoid syndrome symptoms resistant to depot octreotide had improvement in these symptoms on institution of everolimus, with meaningful durations of symptom control. Although this data is observational, to our knowledge, this represents the largest analysis of carcinoid syndrome control with combined everolimus and octreotide. PMID:26245686

  10. Prognostic characteristics of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shou, C-H; Yu, J-R; Yang, W-L; Liu, X-S; Yu, H; Gao, Y; Shen, Q-Y; Zhao, Z-C

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the clinical characteristics, surgical procedures and prognosis of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Methods Patients with a diagnosis of primary duodenal GIST treated between January 2000 and December 2012 were analysed. Patients with gastric and small intestinal GISTs were chosen as control groups according to the following parameters: age, tumour size, mitotic index and adjuvant imatinib therapy. Operative procedures for patients with duodenal GIST included pancreaticoduodenectomy or limited resection. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Some 71 patients with duodenal, 71 with gastric and 70 with small intestinal GISTs were included in the study. DFS of patients with duodenal GIST was shorter than that of patients with gastric GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 94 per cent; hazard ratio (HR) 3.67, 95 per cent c.i. 1.21 to 11.16; P?=?0.014), but was similar to that of patients with small intestinal GIST (3-year DFS 84 versus 81 per cent; HR 0.75, 0.37 to 1.51; P?=?0.491). Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were older, and had larger tumours and a higher mitotic index than patients who had limited resection. The 3-year DFS was 93 per cent among patients who had limited resection compared with 64 per cent for those who underwent PD (HR 0.18, 0.06 to 0.59; P?=?0.001). Conclusion The prognosis of duodenal GISTs is similar to that of small intestinal GISTs. Prognosis no different than for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumours PMID:25980461

  11. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePLUS

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

  12. Brain components

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  13. Brain surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  14. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins. PMID:19968734

  15. Familial syndromes associated with neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Hanna; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; B?czyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, El?bieta; Rucha?a, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours may be associated with familial syndromes. At least eight inherited syndromes predisposing to endocrine neoplasia have been identified. Two of these are considered to be major factors predisposing to benign and malignant endocrine tumours, designated multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and type 2 (MEN1 and MEN2). Five other autosomal dominant diseases show more heterogeneous clinical patterns, such as the Carney complex, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and tuberous sclerosis. The molecular and cellular interactions underlying the development of most endocrine cells and related organs represent one of the more complex pathways not yet to be deciphered. Almost all endocrine cells are derived from the endoderm and neuroectoderm. It is suggested that within the first few weeks of human development there are complex interactions between, firstly, the major genes involved in the initiation of progenitor-cell differentiation, secondly, factors secreted by the surrounding mesenchyme, and thirdly, a series of genes controlling cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Together these represent a formula for the harmonious development of endocrine glands and tissue. PMID:26557756

  16. Cryosurgery for malignant tumours of the liver

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, J. Gregory; Temple, Walley J.; Wiseman, David A.; Saliken, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided cryosurgery to treat malignant tumours of the liver. Design A prospective nonrandomized trial. The follow-up was complete and ranged from 8 to 35 months. Setting A university-affiliated hospital. Patients Ten patients with secondary malignant tumours of the liver; 1 with primary hepatoma. Interventions Computed portography for preoperative staging; laparotomy and ultrasonographic examination of the liver; cryosurgical ablation of liver tumours with or without a concomitant resection. Thirteen procedures were performed on 11 patients. Main Outcome Measures Preoperative morbidity, disease-free and overall survival. Results Of 24 lesions frozen, the procedure on 4 lesions was considered a technical failure because of persistent disease. There were no perioperative deaths. One patient had a liver abscess that resolved with percutaneous drainage. One patient had a biliary fistula that resolved spontaneously, and one had a transient rise in the serum creatinine level. Of 11 patients treated, 7 had a recurrence in the liver (persistent disease in 2 and new liver metastases in 5); 2 of these patients died. One patient died of distant disease with no local recurrence. At the time of writing, one patient was alive with extrahepatic disease and no local recurrence and two were free of disease. Conclusions Cryosurgery of the liver is a relatively safe procedure that allows treatment of otherwise un-resectable malignant disease. Proof of long-term benefit requires further experience and follow-up. PMID:8857990

  17. Familial syndromes associated with neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Gut, Pawe?; Komarowska, Hanna; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; B?czyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, El?bieta; Rucha?a, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours may be associated with familial syndromes. At least eight inherited syndromes predisposing to endocrine neoplasia have been identified. Two of these are considered to be major factors predisposing to benign and malignant endocrine tumours, designated multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and type 2 (MEN1 and MEN2). Five other autosomal dominant diseases show more heterogeneous clinical patterns, such as the Carney complex, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and tuberous sclerosis. The molecular and cellular interactions underlying the development of most endocrine cells and related organs represent one of the more complex pathways not yet to be deciphered. Almost all endocrine cells are derived from the endoderm and neuroectoderm. It is suggested that within the first few weeks of human development there are complex interactions between, firstly, the major genes involved in the initiation of progenitor-cell differentiation, secondly, factors secreted by the surrounding mesenchyme, and thirdly, a series of genes controlling cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Together these represent a formula for the harmonious development of endocrine glands and tissue. PMID:26557756

  18. A misleading hepatic tumour: epithelioid angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, Faten; Korbi, Skander; Lahmar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Saâdia; Aloui, Slim; Jedidi, Souha; Miloudi, Nizar; Mzabi-Regaya, Sabeh

    2012-12-01

    Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of varying amounts of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue, and vessels. Its morphological diversity often poses diagnostic problems. In this paper, the authors report a peculiar case of epithelioid HAML mimicking histologically hepatocellular carcinoma with focal areas resembling inflammatory pseudotumour. A 57 year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain and discomfort. Non enhanced CT scan demonstrated a heterogeneous hypodense mass located in segment II and IV of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma was suspected and the patient underwent left lobectomy. Histologically, the tumour was mainly composed of epithelioid cells arranged in trabeculae and sheets (50% of the tumour surface) admixed with mature fat cells (20%) and thick-walled blood vessels. Lymphocytic aggregates and clusters of foamy histiocytes were focally found in the stroma (30%). Most of the epithelioid tumour cells were immunoreactive to homatropine methylbromide 45 (HMB-45) and smooth muscle actin. Morphological pattern and immunophenotype were consistent with epithelioid HAML. PMID:23402089

  19. Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Fassl, Anne; Chick, Joel; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiaoyu; Mansour, Marc R; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Haizhen; King, Bryan; Shaik, Shavali; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ordureau, Alban; Otto, Tobias; Kreslavsky, Taras; Baitsch, Lukas; Bury, Leah; Meyer, Clifford A; Ke, Nan; Mulry, Kristin A; Kluk, Michael J; Roy, Moni; Kim, Sunkyu; Zhang, Xiaowu; Geng, Yan; Zagozdzon, Agnieszka; Jenkinson, Sarah; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Zhao, Jean J; Mullighan, Charles G; Harper, J Wade; Aster, Jon C; Aifantis, Iannis; von Boehmer, Harald; Gygi, Steven P; Wei, Wenyi; Look, A Thomas; Sicinski, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C. PMID:25344755

  20. The desmoid tumour: local control after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Hanna R; Koljonen, Virve; Böhling, Tom O; Tukiainen, Erkki J; Sampo, Mika M

    2015-02-01

    Desmoid tumours are uncommon non-malignant tumours that show a locally aggressive growth pattern and a high local recurrence rate after surgery. Approximately 10% of the desmoid tumours are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Variable natural history of the disease challenges treatment decision-making in the absence of prospective, randomised data. Association of this rare tumour to GIST is speculated and the tumorigenesis may share common steps. This study reviews given treatment and reports prognostic factors for local control and concurrent neoplasms in patients evaluated by a single soft tissue tumour group. Patients referred to the soft tissue tumour group at Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) for a desmoid tumour (primary or recurred) during 1987-2007 and receiving surgical treatment with or without adjuvant treatment were included in this retrospective review. All locations and also patients with a FAP-associated tumour were included. Extra-abdominal location showed lower local control despite the fact that 27% of patients also received radiation therapy. One amputation was performed. Female sex and location in the rectus abdominis muscle predicted improved local control in multivariate analysis. In this review, the occurrence (14%) of concurrent neoplasms was higher than expected with unusual tumour types noted including two GISTs. In those patients in whom surgical treatment is chosen, adjuvant radiation therapy should also be considered in order to decrease morbidity from aggressive surgery aiming at R0 resection. Further studies are suggested to illuminate the biological association between the desmoid tumour and other neoplasms. PMID:25116575

  1. Prediction of tumour hypoxia and radioresistance with nuclear medicine markers.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J. D.; Coia, L. R.; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, M. C.; Schneider, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tumour hypoxia have been synthesised and screened for hypoxic marking activity in cell cultures and in mouse tumours (EMT-6). Markers of the iodinated azomycin nucleoside class with greater water solubility and faster plasma clearance rates relative to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) were of particular interest. The test systems used to characterise hypoxic marking activity of compounds included (1) covalent linkage of radiolabelled markers to cells in suspension culture equilibrated with specific O2 concentrations; (2) biodistribution of radiolabelled markers in EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice; and (3) biodistribution in R3327-AT tumour-bearing rats by nuclear medicine procedures. Of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides produced to date, beta-D-iodoazomycin galactoside (beta-D-IAZG) and beta-D-iodoazomycin xylopyranoside (beta-D-IAZXP) exhibited high metabolism-dependent hypoxic cell uptake, rapid clearance kinetics from the blood and excellent tumour marking activity in vivo. Tumour-blood (T/B) ratio (a measure of tumour hypoxic fraction) was dependent upon EMT-6 tumour size and implantation site. The radioresistance of individual tumours was measured by in vivo/in vitro assay and correlated well with the T/B ratio of hypoxic marker. These studies have identified beta-D-IAZG and beta-D-IAZXP as effective hypoxic markers for planar and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) imaging studies of tumour oxygenation. PMID:8763881

  2. Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens.

    PubMed

    Gubin, Matthew M; Zhang, Xiuli; Schuster, Heiko; Caron, Etienne; Ward, Jeffrey P; Noguchi, Takuro; Ivanova, Yulia; Hundal, Jasreet; Arthur, Cora D; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Mulder, Gwenn E; Toebes, Mireille; Vesely, Matthew D; Lam, Samuel S K; Korman, Alan J; Allison, James P; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Pearce, Erika L; Schumacher, Ton N; Aebersold, Ruedi; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Melief, Cornelis J M; Mardis, Elaine R; Gillanders, William E; Artyomov, Maxim N; Schreiber, Robert D

    2014-11-27

    The immune system influences the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter that facilitates cellular transformation, promotes tumour growth and sculpts tumour cell immunogenicity, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion. Yet, clinically apparent cancers still arise in immunocompetent individuals in part as a consequence of cancer-induced immunosuppression. In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells. Monoclonal-antibody-based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits-including durable responses--to patients with different malignancies. However, little is known about the identity of the tumour antigens that function as the targets of T cells activated by checkpoint blockade immunotherapy and whether these antigens can be used to generate vaccines that are highly tumour-specific. Here we use genomics and bioinformatics approaches to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T-cell rejection antigens following anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA-4 therapy of mice bearing progressively growing sarcomas, and we show that therapeutic synthetic long-peptide vaccines incorporating these mutant epitopes induce tumour rejection comparably to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Although mutant tumour-antigen-specific T cells are present in progressively growing tumours, they are reactivated following treatment with anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA-4 and display some overlapping but mostly treatment-specific transcriptional profiles, rendering them capable of mediating tumour rejection. These results reveal that tumour-specific mutant antigens are not only important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy, but they can also be used to develop personalized cancer-specific vaccines and to probe the mechanistic underpinnings of different checkpoint blockade treatments. PMID:25428507

  3. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  4. Heterocyclic scaffolds as promising anticancer agents against tumours of the central nervous system: Exploring the scope of indole and carbazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Chris; Snape, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Tumours of the central nervous system are intrinsically more dangerous than tumours at other sites, and in particular, brain tumours are responsible for 3% of cancer deaths in the UK. Despite this, research into new therapies only receives 1% of national cancer research spend. The most common chemotherapies are temozolomide, procarbazine, carmustine, lomustine and vincristine, but because of the rapid development of chemoresistance, these drugs alone simply aren't sufficient for long-term treatment. Such poor prognosis of brain tumour patients prompted us to research new treatments for malignant glioma, and in doing so, it became apparent that aromatic heterocycles play an important part, especially the indole, carbazole and indolocarbazole scaffolds. This review highlights compounds in development for the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system which are structurally based on the indole, carbazole and indolocarbazole scaffolds, under the expectation that it will highlight new avenues for research for the development of new compounds to treat these devastating neoplasms. PMID:25466446

  5. Synthesis and biological characterisation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, novel and high selectivity ?2 radiotracers, for tumour imaging properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sigma2 (?2) receptors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines and in tumours. Two novel selective 18F-phthalimido ?2 ligands, 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, were prepared and characterised for their potential tumour imaging properties. Methods Preparation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353 was achieved via nucleophilic substitution of their respective nitro precursors. In vitro studies including radioreceptor binding assays in the rat brain membrane and cell uptake studies in the A375 cell line were performed. In vivo studies were carried out in mice bearing A375 tumours including positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, biodistribution, blocking and metabolite studies. Results In vitro studies showed that SIG343 and SIG353 displayed excellent affinity and selectivity for ?2 receptors (Ki(?2)?=?8 and 3 nM, ?2:?1?=?200- and 110-fold, respectively). The ?2 selectivity of 18F-SIG343 was further confirmed by blocking studies in A375 cells, however, not noted for 18F-SIG353. Biodistribution studies showed that both radiotracers had similar characteristics including moderately high tumour uptake (4%ID/g to 5%ID/g); low bone uptake (3%ID/g to 4%ID/g); and high tumour-to-muscle uptake ratios (four- to sevenfold) up to 120 min. Although radiotracer uptake in organs known to express ? receptors was significantly blocked by pre-injection of competing ? ligands, the blocking effect was not observed in the tumour. PET imaging studies indicated major radioactive localisation in the chest cavity for both ligands, with approximately 1%ID/g uptake in the tumour at 120 min. Metabolite studies showed that the original radiotracers remained unchanged 65% to 80% in the tumour up to 120 min. Conclusions The lead ligands showed promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. However, PET imaging indicated low tumour-to-background ratios. Furthermore, we were unable to demonstrate that uptake in the A375 tumour was ?2-specific. 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG343 do not display ideal properties for imaging the ?2 receptor in the A375 tumour model. However, since the radiotracers show promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics, longer scans using appropriate half-life isotopes and alternative tumour models will be carried out in future studies to fully validate the imaging characteristics of these radiotracers. PMID:24330526

  6. Neuro-oncology dilemma: Tumour or tumefactive demyelinating lesion.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Mohammad; Freedman, Mark S

    2015-11-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) are not an uncommon manifestation of demyelinating disease but can pose diagnostic challenges in patients without a pre-existing diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as in known MS patients. Brain tumours can also arise in MS patients and can be seen in chronic MS patients as co-morbidities. Delayed diagnosis or unnecessary intervention or treatment will affect the ultimate prognosis of these patients. In this article, we will review some typical cases illustrating the dilemma and review the information that helps to differentiate the two conditions. The intention is not to present an extensive differential diagnosis of both entities, but to examine some typical examples when the decision arises to decide between the two. We take a somewhat different approach, by presenting the cases in "real time", allowing the readers to consider in their own minds which diagnosis they favour, discussing in detail some of the pertinent literature, then revealing later the actual diagnosis. We would urge readers to consider re-visiting their first thoughts about each case after reading the discussion, before reading the follow-up of each case. The overall objective is to highlight the real possibility of being forced to decide between these two entities in clinical practise, present a reasonable approach to help differentiate them and especially to focus on the possibility of TDLs in order to avoid unnecessary biopsy. PMID:26590662

  7. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  8. Analysis of paediatric tumour types associated with hemihyperplasia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Sullivan, M; Algar, E; Shapiro, D N

    1994-12-01

    In order to further explore the relationship between hemihyperplasia in children and the occurrence of embryonal tumours of childhood, the records at St Jude Children's Research Hospital were examined for patients who presented with a malignant tumour and hemihyperplasia. Of 27 evaluable patients, 19 had Wilm's tumour and one had massive bilateral nephroblastomatosis. The tumours were more likely to occur on the side affected by hemihyperplasia than to be found contralaterally. All but five of these patients developed the tumours before the age of six. Twenty-two of the 27 patients developed tumours associated with allelic loss on chromosome band 11p15, suggesting that the locus associated with hemihyperplasia may be also located at chromosome band 11p15. PMID:7865265

  9. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co?occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

  10. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Puja; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Nath, Devajit; Bhasker, Suman; Chander, Subhash; Bakhshi, Sameer; Singh, Chirom Amit

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:24744936

  11. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Thomas; He, Jie; Yelensky, Roman; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Botton, Thomas; Yeh, Iwei; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Brennan, Kristina; Murali, Rajmohan; Garrido, Maria; Miller, Vincent A.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Berger, Michael F.; Sparatta, Alyssa; Palmedo, Gabriele; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Busam, Klaus J.; Kutzner, Heinz; Cronin, Maureen T.; Stephens, Philip J.; Bastian, Boris C.

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid neoplasms are a group of melanocytic tumours with distinctive histopathological features. They include benign tumours (Spitz naevi), malignant tumours (spitzoid melanomas) and tumours with borderline histopathological features and uncertain clinical outcome (atypical Spitz tumours). Their genetic underpinnings are poorly understood, and alterations in common melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent. Here we show that spitzoid neoplasms harbour kinase fusions of ROS1 (17%), NTRK1 (16%), ALK (10%), BRAF (5%) and RET (3%) in a mutually exclusive pattern. The chimeric proteins are constitutively active, stimulate oncogenic signalling pathways, are tumourigenic and are found in the entire biologic spectrum of spitzoid neoplasms, including 55% of Spitz naevi, 56% of atypical Spitz tumours and 39% of spitzoid melanomas. Kinase inhibitors suppress the oncogenic signalling of the fusion proteins in vitro. In summary, kinase fusions account for the majority of oncogenic aberrations in spitzoid neoplasms and may serve as therapeutic targets for metastatic spitzoid melanomas.

  12. Mixed tumour of salivary gland type of the male breast.

    PubMed

    Simha, M R; Doctor, V M; Udwadia, T E

    1992-03-01

    Benign breast tumours with a mixed cartilaginous and epithelial component are distinctly rare as evident from the literature. A case of Mixed Tumour of the breast presenting pre-operatively as a hard mass in a 65 year old male is reported. Histologically, it was composed of a mixture of benign cartilage, myoepithelial cells, tubules and a myxoid stroma in fat. A brief review of cartilage bearing lesions and mixed tumour in the mammary region is discussed. PMID:1328037

  13. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  14. Localisation of neuroendocrine tumours of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, T; Ziegler, K; Bäder, M; Fett, U; Hamm, B; Riecken, E O; Wiedenmann, B

    1994-01-01

    In order to localise neuroendocrine tumours of the foregut type (that is, of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), 18 patients were studied prospectively by endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. These 18 patients had a total of 25 primary tumour lesions which were verified histologically in tissue obtained by surgery or by ultrasound or endoscopy guided biopsy. Tumours were found in the stomach (n = 1), duodenum (n = 6), pancreas (n = 17), and liver (n = 1). Endoscopic ultrasonography had the highest sensitivity for tumour detection, followed by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (88%, 52%, 36%, 32%, and 24% respectively). Endoscopic ultrasonography was especially sensitive in tumours smaller than 2 cm in diameter (88% v somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 35%; computed tomography 12%; transabdominal ultrasonography 6%; and magnetic resonance imaging 0%). Of 17 tumours located in the pancreas, endoscopic ultrasonography showed a sensitivity of 94% (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 47%; computed tomography 47%; transabdominal ultrasonography 41%; and magnetic resonance imaging 29%). Of eight extrapancreatic tumours, six were identified by endoscopic ultrasonography, five by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and only one by computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. One neuroendocrine tumour that was not detected by endoscopic ultrasonography was correctly identified by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Endoscopic ultrasound allowed correct determination of the tumour size and tumour spread into parapancreatic structures, especially the large vessels (T stage), in all 14 patients operated upon. The lymph node stage (N stage) was correctly determined in 10 of these 14 patients. In summary, endoscopic ultrasonography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were the most sensitive imaging methods for the localisation of these tumours and should be used as early diagnostic procedures to accurately stage neuroendocrine tumours of the foregut type. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8174983

  15. A support vector machine classifier with automatic confidence and its application to gender classification

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    , in which human classification is introduced. These methods, nevertheless, do not consider how to use classification Ji Zheng a , Bao-Liang Lu a,b,Ã a Center for Brain-Like Computing and Machine Intelligence online 19 February 2011 Keywords: Label confidence Pattern classification Support vector machine Gender

  16. Reduced Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor in Pancreatic and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma Signifies Tumour Progression and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001–2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n?=?175) and paired lymph node metastases (n?=?105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p?=?0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p<0.001), perineural growth (p?=?0.027), lymphatic invasion (p?=?0.016), vascular invasion (p?=?0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p?=?0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR?=?2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–5.25) and early recurrence (HR?=?2.89, 95% CI 1.67–4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR?=?1.98, 95% CI 1.10–3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high tumour-specific pIgR expression signifies a more favourable tumour phenotype and that low expression independently predicts a shorter survival in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. The mechanistic basis for the putative tumour suppressing properties of pIgR in these cancers merits further study. PMID:25397670

  17. Tumour cells coerce host tissue to cancer spread

    PubMed Central

    Malanchi, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    A solid tumour is a complex structure and understanding this complexity is required to study the disease progression. Indeed, 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastatic spreading. Two aspects contribute to tumour complexity. One is the synergistic relationship between tumour cells and their associated host tissue, which persistently characterize tumour growth from the onset to metastasis. Another aspect is the heterogeneity of the cancer cells. It is now clear that within a tumour mass there is a hierarchical organization, stemming from a small amount of cells retaining the highest tumorigenic potential, named cancer stem cells (CSCs). Despite being one of the main studied topics in cancer research, CSC definition is still the subject of debate. Functional testing allows their identification, which is the ability of recapitulating the original tumour structure when transplanted in mice, but occasionally generates conflicting results. This has shaped the hypothesis that their key initiation ability is conditioned by their local microenvironment called niche. The CSC identity appears to be a contextual status where the ability to create a favourable supporting microenvironment may become a key hallmark of their tumour initiation capability. Remarkably, as shown in experimental models, the tumour-initiating potential of CSCs is maintained during metastatic progression, when disseminated cancer cells require the creation of their permissive niche to be able to trigger metastatic growth. This review will discuss the most recent findings on metastatic niche establishment and the cooperation between cancer cells and their newly recruited tumour-associated stroma forming the basis of metastatic development. PMID:24422098

  18. Malignant Extra Renal Rhabdoid Tumour Presenting as Central Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours are one of the most aggressive childhood neoplasms associated with high mortality. The commonest age group affected is children less than five years of age. Rhabdoid tumour presenting as an endoluminal tracheal mass leading to central airway obstruction has not been previously reported. We describe the case of a 17-year-old male patient where malignant rhabdoid tumour masqueraded as bronchial asthma leading to a delayed diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by tracheal growth. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour. PMID:25243090

  19. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  20. Macrophage infiltration of breast tumours: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Lauder, I; Aherne, W; Stewart, J; Sainsbury, R

    1977-01-01

    In 50 cases of infiltrating breast cancer investigated in a prospective study the number of macrophages within each tumour was assessed. The macrophages were identified by their cytoplasmic acid phosphatase activity. The number of lymphocytes and plasma cells within the tumours were graded by a scoring technique. Significantly fewer cases with metastases were found among those with high macrophage and plasma cell scores. There was no correlation between lymphoreticular infiltration and the degree of tumour differentiation, but in cases without metastases the lymphoreticular infiltration between tumour cells was nearly always only slight when the macrophage score was low. PMID:874114

  1. New cyclodextrin bioconjugates for active tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Semenzato, Alessandra; Caliceti, Paolo

    2007-07-01

    A new cyclodextrin-based carrier for active targeting of low soluble and degradable drugs has been synthesized and characterized. Beta-cyclodextrins were first reacted with excess hexamethylene diisocyanate and the resulting CD-(C6-NCO)5 derivative was reacted with 700 Da diamino-PEG to yield CD-(C6-PEG-NH2)5. About one out of five free amino groups of PEG were functionalised with folic acid (FA) as a tumour targeting moiety. The chemical structures of the intermediates as well as the final product, CD-(C6-PEG)5-FA, were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, reverse phase and gel permeation chromatography, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. After modification, the haemolytic activity of beta-cyclodextrins decreased by about 70%. In the presence of the new carrier, the beta-estradiol solubility increased by more than 300 fold and the chlorambucil degradation rate decreased by 50-60%. CD-(C6-PEG)5-FA formed an inclusion complex with curcumin displaying an association constant of 954,732 M(-1). The new carrier increased the curcumin solubility by about 3200 fold as compared to native beta-cyclodextrins and reduced its degradation rate at pH 6.5 and 7.2 by 10 and 45 fold, respectively. FA receptor-overexpressing human nasopharyngeal tumour KB cell lines and non-folic acid receptor-expressing human breast cancer MCF7 cells were used to evaluate the targeting properties of the new drug delivery system. The in vitro studies demonstrate that the new carrier possesses potential selectivity for the folate receptor-overexpressing tumour cells as ED50 values of 52 microM, 58 microM and 21 microM were obtained with curcumin-loaded CD-(C6-PEG-NH2)5, curcumin in foetal serum medium and CD-(C6-PEG)5-FA, respectively. PMID:17613656

  2. Tumour-associated macrophages are associated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Raposo, T P; Pires, I; Carvalho, M I; Prada, J; Argyle, D J; Queiroga, F L

    2015-12-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in carcinogenesis including an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we describe the relationship between TAMs and angiogenesis in canine mammary tumours (CMT). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CMT samples [(n = 128: malignant (n = 97) and benign (n = 31)] were submitted to immunohistochemical staining to detect MAC387, vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF and CD31 expression. A statistical analysis was carried out to assess possible associations with clinicopathological variables and biological markers of tumour angiogenesis. TAMs, detected by MAC387 expression, were significantly associated with malignant CMT (P < 0.001) and VEGF positive tumours (P = 0.002) and also associated with VEGF expression within malignant CMT (P = 0.043). Associations with clinicopathological variables were found between TAMs and the presence of infiltrative growth (P = 0.031), low tubule formation (P = 0.040) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016). The results support the hypothesis that TAMs influence angiogenesis in CMT suggesting TAMs may represent a therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:24119241

  3. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. Methods In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin®) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib®) inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Results Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. Conclusions A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy. PMID:20222943

  4. Tumour heterogeneity and cancer cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Corbin E; Morrison, Sean J

    2013-09-19

    Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity arise among cancer cells within the same tumour as a consequence of genetic change, environmental differences and reversible changes in cell properties. Some cancers also contain a hierarchy in which tumorigenic cancer stem cells differentiate into non-tumorigenic progeny. However, it remains unclear what fraction of cancers follow the stem-cell model and what clinical behaviours the model explains. Studies using lineage tracing and deep sequencing could have implications for the cancer stem-cell model and may help to determine the extent to which it accounts for therapy resistance and disease progression. PMID:24048065

  5. Renal pseudotumour following treatment of Wilms' tumour

    SciTech Connect

    Verstandig, A.G.; Gordon, R.L.; Abu-Dalu, K.; Okon, E.

    1982-01-01

    A 9 1/2-year-old boy was found to have a mass occupying the lower pole of his left kidney, six years after his right kidney had been removed because of a Wilms' tumour. Investigation of the mass included angiography which demonstrated a mass with pathological arteries. Open biopsy of the mass revealed histological changes of nonspecific nephritis. It is probable that this nephritis was a result of radiation damage potentiated by concurrent treatment with actinomycin D, which he had received six years ago.

  6. The Nature and Classification of Ovarian Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Abell, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    The classification of ovarian neoplasms on a histogenetic basis according to presentday concepts of development and structure of the ovary is considered. There are four histogenetic categories of primary ovarian tumours: neoplasms of germ cell origin, neoplasms of celomic (germinal) epithelium and its derivatives, neoplasms of specialized gonadal stroma (sex cords and mesenchyme), and neoplasms of non-specialized gonadal stromal and heterotopic elements. In patients of all ages, 70% of ovarian neoplasms were of celomic epithelial origin, 16% of germ-cell origin, 5% of specialized gonadal stromal origin, and 9% arose from the non-specialized stroma and heterotopic elements. Before 20 years of age, 59% of ovarian neoplasms were of germ cell origin and before puberty they accounted for 90% of all ovarian tumours. The different structural types of neoplasms within the four categories are described. Accurate classification of ovarian neoplasms on a histogenetic basis is stressed if proper treatment is to be given and intelligent assessment of end results is to be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30 PMID:4286898

  7. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  8. Chromosome 2 (2p16) abnormalities in Carney complex tumours

    PubMed Central

    Matyakhina, L; Pack, S; Kirschner, L; Pak, E; Mannan, P; Jaikumar, J; Taymans, S; Sandrini, F; Carney, J; Stratakis, C

    2003-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome characterised by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac, skin, and breast myxomas, and a variety of endocrine and other tumours. The disease is genetically heterogeneous; two loci have been mapped to chromosomes 17q22–24 (the CNC1 locus) and 2p16 (CNC2). Mutations in the PRKAR1A tumour suppressor gene were recently found in CNC1 mapping kindreds, while the CNC2 and perhaps other genes remain unidentified. Analysis of tumour chromosome rearrangements is a useful tool for uncovering genes with a role in tumorigenesis and/or tumour progression. CGH analysis showed a low level 2p amplification recurrently in four of eight CNC tumours; one tumour showed specific amplification of the 2p16-p23 region only. To define more precisely the 2p amplicon in these and other tumours, we completed the genomic mapping of the CNC2 region, and analysed 46 tumour samples from CNC patients with and without PRKAR1A mutations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Consistent cytogenetic changes of the region were detected in 40 (87%) of the samples analysed. Twenty-four samples (60%) showed amplification of the region represented as homogeneously stained regions (HSRs). The size of the amplicon varied from case to case, and frequently from cell to cell in the same tumour. Three tumours (8%) showed both amplification and deletion of the region in their cells. Thirteen tumours (32%) showed deletions only. These molecular cytogenetic changes included the region that is covered by BACs 400-P-14 and 514-O-11 and, in the genetic map, corresponds to an area flanked by polymorphic markers D2S2251 and D2S2292; other BACs on the centromeric and telomeric end of this region were included in varying degrees. We conclude that cytogenetic changes of the 2p16 chromosomal region that harbours the CNC2 locus are frequently observed in tumours from CNC patients, including those with germline, inactivating PRKAR1A mutations. These changes are mostly amplifications of the 2p16 region, that overlap with a previously identified amplicon in sporadic thyroid cancer, and an area often deleted in sporadic adrenal tumours. Both thyroid and adrenal tumours constitute part of CNC indicating that the responsible gene(s) in this area may indeed be involved in both inherited and sporadic endocrine tumour pathogenesis and/or progression. PMID:12676898

  9. The role of biopsy in incidental renal tumours?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Historically, the biopsy of renal masses was not advocated, and to date there remains some controversy on the role of biopsy for renal masses in making treatment decisions. With the widespread use of imaging methods, the incidental diagnosis of renal masses has increased, necessitating renal biopsies to better plan the management of these tumours. Here I review previous reports to define the role of biopsy in incidental renal tumours. Methods Data were obtained from English-language studies listed in PubMed on the use of renal biopsy for evaluating incidental solid small renal tumours. Results The biopsy of small renal tumours is increasingly accepted due to: the increase in the incidence of small renal tumours; the finding that a significant number of these tumours are benign; the availability of new management options, such as ablative therapy and surveillance strategies; that imaging alone is unable to predict the biological behaviour of these tumours; and advances in the pathological evaluation of the biopsies. The biopsy procedure has an acceptable complication rate but is not free of limitations. The current recommendations for the use of renal biopsy in small renal tumours are: to help in differentiating benign from malignant renal tumours; before or during ablative therapies and during the follow-up after ablative therapies, for defining treatment success or failure; and to exclude nonrenal cell primary tumours (metastasis and lymphoma) or benign conditions (abscess), which may not require surgery. Conclusions The biopsy of small renal tumours is a safe and accurate procedure, and can help in the planning of definitive patient management.

  10. Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nader; Woo, Mark; Alameldin, Mona; MacDonald, Kyle; Goneau, Lee W.; Cadieux, Peter; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, known for its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. OTA has been linked to several genitourinary pathologies, including Balkan nephropathy and genitourinary malignancies. We examine OTA levels in serum samples and tumour specimens collected from patients with renal and testicular tumours. Methods: Frozen samples were obtained from the Ontario Tumour Bank. Serum specimens, along with renal and testicular tumour biopsies, were included in this study. Normal tissue from the negative surgical margins of each tumour served as a control. OTA levels in serum was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while OTA detection in tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We included specimens collected from 56 patients (36 men and 20 women). Histopathology of the 52 renal tumours included 31 (60%) conventional type renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 5 (10%) chromophobe RCC, 5 (10%) papillary RCC, 1 (2%) oncocytoma and 10 (19%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). The 4 testicular tumours included 1 seminomatous (25%) germ cell tumour and 3 (75%) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. OTA was detected in the serum of renal tumour patients, with a range from 0.004 to 0.25 ng/mL (mean: 0.07 and median 0.06 ng/mL). There was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours. Conclusions: The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low. No OTA was detected in the tissue samples. PMID:24578744

  11. A skull stripping method using deformable surface and tissue classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Chang, Ming-Ching

    2010-03-01

    Many neuroimaging applications require an initial step of skull stripping to extract the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. We approach this problem by combining deformable surface models and a fuzzy tissue classification technique. Our assumption is that contrast exists between brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) and cerebrospinal fluid, which separates the brain from the extra-cranial tissue. We first analyze the intensity of the entire image to find an approximate centroid of the brain and initialize an ellipsoidal surface around it. We then perform a fuzzy tissue classification with bias field correction within the surface. Tissue classification and bias field are extrapolated to the entire image. The surface iteratively deforms under a force field computed from the tissue classification and the surface smoothness. Because of the bias field correction and tissue classification, the proposed algorithm depends less on particular imaging contrast and is robust to inhomogeneous intensity often observed in magnetic resonance images. We tested the algorithm on all T1 weighted images in the OASIS database, which includes skull stripping results using Brain Extraction Tool; the Dice scores have an average of 0.948 with a standard deviation of 0.017, indicating a high degree of agreement. The algorithm takes on average 2 minutes to run on a typical PC and produces a brain mask and membership functions for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We also tested the algorithm on T2 images to demonstrate its generality, where the same algorithm without parameter adjustment gives satisfactory results.

  12. Endothelial FAK is required for tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tavora, Bernardo; Batista, Silvia; Reynolds, Louise E; Jadeja, Shalini; Robinson, Stephen; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Hart, Ian; Fruttiger, Marcus; Parsons, Maddy; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a fundamental role in integrin and growth factor mediated signalling and is an important player in cell migration and proliferation, processes vital for angiogenesis. However, the role of FAK in adult pathological angiogenesis is unknown. We have generated endothelial-specific tamoxifen-inducible FAK knockout mice by crossing FAK-floxed (FAKfl/fl) mice with the platelet derived growth factor b (Pdgfb)-iCreER mice. Tamoxifen-treatment of Pdgfb-iCreER;FAKfl/fl mice results in FAK deletion in adult endothelial cells (ECs) without any adverse effects. Importantly however, endothelial FAK-deletion in adult mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced tumour angiogenesis. Furthermore, in in vivo angiogenic assays FAK deletion impairs vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovascularization. In addition, in vitro deletion of FAK in ECs resulted in reduced VEGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and correlating reduced cellular proliferation as well as increased cell death. Our data suggest that FAK is required for adult pathological angiogenesis and validates FAK as a possible target for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:21154724

  13. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:23000897

  14. STRA13 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and tumour tissues: implications for use as a diagnostic and differentiation marker

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, A; Liao, S; Lerman, M; Ivanov, S; Stanbridge, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: STRA13 is a bHLH transcription factor that plays a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and response to hypoxia. Objective: To assess STRA13 involvement in carcinogenesis and evaluate its diagnostic value. Methods: A comprehensive analysis was undertaken of the endogenous protein expression in 389 normal and corresponding malignant specimens, using newly generated polyclonal antibodies. Results: STRA13 was commonly expressed in epithelial cells of normal and neoplastic tissues where it was confined mostly to the nucleus. Intense cytoplasmic STRA13 immunoreactivity was characteristic of myoepithelial and differentiated squamous epithelial cells of all organ sites and their neoplastic counterparts, suggesting application of STRA13 as a myoepithelial cell marker. A distinctive apical granular cytoplasmic staining pattern observed in the pancreas and large intestine was retained in corresponding metastatic carcinomas, providing for identification of the primary sites of these disseminating tumours. In less differentiated tumours there was a tendency to lose the cytoplasmic staining or to switch to nuclear STRA13 staining. Analysis of STRA13, HIF-1?, and CAIX expression patterns in a large set of various tumours substantiated the association of STRA13 with HIF-1? expression and hypoxia in vivo. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms of STRA13 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling suggested that STRA13 employs nuclear import/export that utilises the NLS/NES motifs situated within the N-terminus and in the middle of the protein. Conclusions: STRA13 may serve as a marker for myoepithelial cells, for the degree of tumour differentiation, and for identification of the primary site of certain metastatic tumours. In combination with CAIX and CAXII markers, it may lead to a more accurate classification of all renal carcinomas. PMID:15994878

  15. Thyrotropin secreting pituitary tumours: a cause of hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Ibrahim S; Nuwayri-Salti, Nuha; Bergman, Ronald A; Nassar, Sami I; Muakkasah, Kamel F; Fakhri-Sahli, Itaf

    1980-01-01

    Pituitary thyrotropin excess resulting in hyperthyroidism has been previously reported in only 25 patients, of whom 19 had a pituitary tumour. This report describes a patient in whom a thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumour was associated with triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis. Hypophysectomy was followed by a prompt fall in serum thyrotropin and a return to a euthyroid state. Images PMID:7217962

  16. Neuroectodermal tumours in the cerebellum in two sisters

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Myfanwy; Adams, J. Hume; Doyle, David

    1977-01-01

    Two sisters, one 5 years and the other 2 years old, with intrinsic tumours of the cerebellum are reported. One of the tumours was interpreted as being a ganglioneuroma with neuroblastomatous change. The other was a desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Images PMID:599365

  17. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial. PMID:24567746

  18. Isthmus hypertrophy mimics tumour in horseshoe kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arda, K; Basar, M; Koçkar, O; Tola, M; Olçer, T; Cumhur, T

    1996-04-01

    We present a case of horseshoe kidney. He was operated because of nephrolithiasis, and was found to have a tumour-like mass in the isthmic localization 2 years after the operation. The tumour-like mass was proven to be an isthmus hypertrophy after detailed research. PMID:8713567

  19. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial. PMID:24567746

  20. Comparison of Inter Subject Variability and Reproducibility of Whole Brain Proton Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Veenith, Tonny V.; Mada, Marius; Carter, Eleanor; Grossac, Julia; Newcombe, Virginia; Outtrim, Joanne; Lupson, Victoria; Nallapareddy, Sridhar; Williams, Guy B.; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Menon, David K.; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Coles, Jonathan P.

    2014-12-17

    of progression and prediction of outcome in a variety of neurological disorders such as brain tumours [1], traumatic brain injury [2–4], multiple sclerosis [5, 6], motor neuron disease [7], Alzheimer’s dementia [8] and psychiatric disorders [9... of the global burden of neurological disease even in regions that appears structurally normal. 1HMRS has been used to non-invasively evaluate normal appearing brain in a variety of neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis and head injury [3, 6, 16...

  1. Retroperitoneal tumours--a ten years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Subrata; Das, Shikha

    2005-01-01

    In a ten-year retrospective study (1985-95), 42 cases of retroperitoneal tumours were analysed. All cases were treated surgically. Among the relevant investigations CT scan and fine needle aspiration cytology were found to be most helpful to have a pre-operative idea regarding the best course of therapy. The highest incidence of retroperitoneal tumours were found in the 4th decade of life with roughly equal sex incidence. Malignant tumours were double in comparison to benign tumours and lymphoma was found to be the most common malignant tumour. Though complete resection should be the aim to treat them it may lead to sacrifice of other vital organs like kidney, spleen and part of large gut in advanced cases. Complication may be always for a heroic surgery leading to inadvertent injury to other structures, causing high mortality up to 19.1%. PMID:16008325

  2. Peripheral odontogenic tumours--differential diagnosis in gingival lesions.

    PubMed

    Manor, Y; Mardinger, O; Katz, J; Taicher, S; Hirshberg, A

    2004-04-01

    Peripheral odontogenic tumours (POT) are rare benign focal overgrowths of the oral soft tissue, usually occurring in the gingiva. Between 1996-2000, 6 out of 406 excised gingival lesions were diagnosed as POT (1.5%). Tumours included peripheral odontogenic fibroma (2 patients), peripheral calcifying odontogenic cyst (2 patients), peripheral ameloblastoma (1 patient), and peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (1 patient). Review of the literature reveals that peripheral odontogenic fibroma and peripheral ameloblastoma were the most common POT. The purpose of this article was to analyse the clinical data of these tumours according to the presented cases and the literature review, to elucidate typical features of each tumour type and enhance easy identification. PMID:15287310

  3. The skin immune system and the challenge of tumour immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Woods, Gregory M; Malley, Roslyn C; Muller, H Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The Skin Immune System (SIS) is a relatively new concept central to the issue of cutaneous tumour surveillance. The Langerhans cell (LC) is a key component of SIS. Skin cancer causing agents such as ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation and chemical carcinogens like dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) alter LC function, resulting in immunosuppression and the promotional phase of tumour development. Once tumours, such as melanoma, are established they may show evidence of tumour regression due to immune reaction but frequently escape immune attack and metastasise. This article explores our knowledge of LC and SIS in these responses. For tumour immunosurveillance to be an effective reality at the clinical level, experiments are required to provide a more precise base for immunotherapy. PMID:15757812

  4. Paratesticular Liposarcoma-Masquerading as a Testicular Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-01-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years’ duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  5. Ovarian-type epithelial tumours of the testis: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two serous borderline tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Tobias; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Inniger, Reinhard; Hansen, Joachim; Mayer, Peter; Schweyer, Stefan; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of ovarian-epithelial type of the testis, including serous borderline tumours, represent very rare entities. They are identical to the surface epithelial tumours of the ovary and have been reported in patients from 14 to 68 years of age. We describe two cases of a 46- and a 39-year old man with incidental findings of intratesticular masses of the left respectively right testis. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour the patients were subjected to inguinal orchiectomy. Histologically, the tumours were identical to their ovarian counterparts: They showed a cystic configuration with a fibrous wall and irregular papillary structures lined by partially multistratified columnar cells and areas of hobnail cells. Furthermore, there was mild cytological atypia with a proliferative activity of below 5% as proved by Ki67 staining; mitoses could not be detected. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells displayed expression of pan-cytokeratin AE3, progesterone receptor, Wilms' tumour protein (WT1), and PAX8 (Paired box gene 8). Estrogen receptor was expressed in one case. Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4), calretinin, thrombomodulin, and D2-40 were not expressed. Mutation testing of BRAF revealed a BRAF V600E mutation in one case, while testing for KRAS mutations proved to be negative in both. The BRAF mutated tumour showed strong cytosolic and membranous positivity for B-Raf also on immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization of one case could not reveal any chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26197800

  6. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  7. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  8. Phthalocyanine-mediated Photodynamic Treatment of Tumoural and Non-tumoural cell lines.

    PubMed

    Manisova, Barbora; Binder, Svatopluk; Malina, Lukas; Jiravova, Jana; Langova, Katerina; Kolarova, Hana

    2015-07-01

    This study deals with the use of cationic far-red absorbing photosensitizers (?(max) ~740 nm) from the group of the phthalocyanines, in photodynamic therapy. The photosensitizers differed in their central atom, bearing either hydrogen, zinc or magnesium. These photosensitizers were tested in vitro on the tumour cell line HeLa (cervical cancer) and non-tumour cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast). The following tests were performed: measurement of reactive oxygen species production, viability testing, Comet assay and cell type detection (apoptotic, necrotic and living cells). The best results were achieved with zinc derivative at relatively low half-maximum inhibitory concentration (0.04 ?M) and a total radiation dose of 15 J cm(-2). PMID:26124341

  9. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  10. Circulating tumour cells in patients with urothelial tumours: Enrichment and in vitro culture

    PubMed Central

    Kolostova, Katarina; Cegan, Martin; Bobek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Results of clinical trials have demonstrated that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are frequently detected in patients with urothelial tumours. The monitoring of CTCs has the potential to improve therapeutic management at an early stage and also to identify patients with increased risk of tumour progression or recurrence before the onset of clinically detected metastasis. In this study, we report a new effectively simplified methodology for a separation and in vitro culturing of viable CTCs from peripheral blood. Method: We include patients diagnosed with 3 types of urothelial tumours (prostate cancer, urinary bladder cancer, and kidney cancer). A size-based separation method for viable CTC - enrichment from unclothed peripheral blood has been introduced (MetaCell, Ostrava, Czech Republic). The enriched CTCs fraction was cultured directly on the separation membrane, or transferred from the membrane and cultured on any plastic surface or a microscopic slide. Results: We report a successful application of a CTCs isolation procedure in patients with urothelial cancers. The CTCs captured on the membrane are enriched with a remarkable proliferation potential. This has enabled us to set up in vitro cell cultures from the viable CTCs unaffected by any fixation buffers, antibodies or lysing solutions. Next, the CTCs were cultured in vitro for a minimum of 10 to 14 days to enable further downstream analysis (e.g., immunohistochemistry). Conclusion: We demonstrated an efficient CTCs capture platform, based on a cell size separation principle. Furthermore, we report an ability to culture the enriched cells – a critical requirement for post-isolation cellular analysis. PMID:25408812

  11. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. PMID:26542368

  12. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  13. An Evolutionary Hybrid Cellular Automaton Model of Solid Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, P.; Anderson, A.R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a cellular automaton model of solid tumour growth, in which each cell is equipped with a micro-environment response network. This network is modelled using a feed-forward artificial neural network, that takes environmental variables as an input and from these determines the cellular behaviour as the output. The response of the network is determined by connection weights and thresholds in the network, which are subject to mutations when the cells divide. As both available space and nutrients are limited resources for the tumour this gives rise to clonal evolution where only the fittest cells survive. Using this approach we have investigated the impact of the tissue oxygen concentration on the growth and evolutionary dynamics of the tumour. The results show that the oxygen concentration affects the selection pressure, cell population diversity and morphology of the tumour. A low oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a fingered morphology that contains aggressive phenotypes with a small apoptotic potential, while a high oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a round morphology containing less evolved phenotypes. The tissue oxygen concentration thus affects the tumour at both the morphological level and on the phenotype level. PMID:17374383

  14. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Boudabous, E; Ben Slama, S; Chelly, B; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

    2013-04-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. Herein, we report two cases of sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. The two patients were 16 and 45 years old and both presented with pelvic pain. Ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous solid mass of the left and right ovary, respectively, with some cystic foci in the second tumour. Laboratory tests including tumour markers and serum hormonal assays were normal in both cases. The two patients underwent left and right salpingo-oophrectomy, respectively. Microscopically, the tumours showed a pseudolobular pattern with cellular areas separated by oedematous and collagenous areas. The cellular areas were richly vascularized, with a hemangiopericytic pattern, and were composed of an admixture of theca-like and spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumour cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, inhibin and vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin. The final pathological diagnosis was sclerosing stromal tumour. Postoperative course was uneventful for both patients. PMID:23951586

  15. Consensus on the management of intracranial germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Murray, Matthew J; Bartels, Ute; Nishikawa, Ryo; Fangusaro, Jason; Matsutani, Masao; Nicholson, James C

    2015-09-01

    The management of intracranial germ-cell tumours is complex because of varied clinical presentations, tumour sites, treatments and outcomes, and the need for multidisciplinary input. Participants of the 2013 Third International CNS Germ Cell Tumour Symposium (Cambridge, UK) agreed to undertake a multidisciplinary Delphi process to identify consensus in the clinical management of intracranial germ-cell tumours. 77 delegates from the symposium were selected as suitable experts in the field and were invited to participate in the Delphi survey, of which 64 (83%) responded to the invitation. Invited participants represented multiple disciplines from Asia, Australasia, Europe, and the Americas. 38 consensus statements encompassing aspects of intracranial germ-cell tumour work-up, staging, treatment, and follow-up were prepared. To achieve consensus, statements required at least 70% agreement from at least 60% of respondents. Overall, 34 (89%) of 38 statements met consensus criteria. This international Delphi approach has defined key areas of consensus that will help guide and streamline clinical management of patients with intracranial germ-cell tumours. Additionally, the Delphi approach identified areas of different understanding and clinical practice internationally in the management of these tumours, areas which should be the focus of future collaborative studies. Such efforts should translate into improved patient outcomes. PMID:26370356

  16. Ovarian dysgerminoma with normal serum tumour markers presenting in a child with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Naglaa M; Khan, Ubaidullah; Mirza, Shazia; Mazoun, Kais; Mirza, Farahat M; Jundi, Majd

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female child was presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Her assessment revealed a firm large lower abdominal mass with evidence of precocious puberty with bilaterally symmetrically enlarged breast (Tanner stage B4-P1-A1). Abdominal imaging showed a well-defined soft midline pelvi-abdominal single mass measuring 7.0 × 12.6 × 11.7 cms with no ascites. Serum tumour markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) and luteinizing hormone/follicular stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) were all normal. At operation, there was a huge abdominal tumour weighing 558 grams, localized to the right ovary sparing the left ovary, uterus, lymph nodes and other abdominal organs. Unilateral right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed ovarian dysgerminoma with intact capsule; FIGO Ia. Immunohistochemical stainings were positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP), CD 117(c-kit) and calretinin focally but was negative for cancer antigen-125 (CA-125), B-hCG, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Being fitting in the low risk classification, the wait and see protocol was selected with strict follow-up with pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon. Along the duration of 2 years follow up, there was no more vaginal bleeding with dramatic reduction of the breast size and no recurrence. PMID:26458677

  17. Malignant salivary gland tumours of the head and neck region: a single institutions review

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Kolude, Bamidele; Adeyemi, Bukola Folasade

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant salivary gland tumours (MSGTs) comprise about 3% of all head and neck cancers; they demonstrate an unpredictable clinical course. The purpose of this study is to review MSGTs seen at a tertiary Health centre, and compare findings with those of previous studies. Methods The records of the Department of Oral Pathology and the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital Ibadan were reviewed over a 19 year period and lesions diagnosed as MSGTs according to 2005 WHO histological classification were analysed for age, gender and site using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results MSGTs were more common in males (55.2%) than females (44.8%). The mean age of was 47.9 (±17.0) years and peak age was the fifth decade. The parotid gland was the commonest site with 62 (28.1%) cases. The palate was the commonest intraoral site with 61(27.6%). The nose with 19 (8.6%) was the commonest minor extra-oral site. Conclusion The findings were essentially similar to reports from Europe and America. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma was the most common MSGT in this series. A high proportion of salivary gland tumours in sublingual gland were malignant. The reason(s) for high proportion of MSGTs in sublingual glands requires further investigation. PMID:26213602

  18. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  19. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Mackay, Andrew Reay

    2014-01-01

    Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function. PMID:24473089

  20. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, M E; Byrne, H M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model. Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. PMID:23032218

  1. A practical approach to the diagnosis of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours of the uterus.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The current 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours of the uterus includes categories of carcinosarcoma, adenosarcoma, adenofibroma, adenomyoma and atypical polypoid adenomyoma, the last two lesions being composed of an admixture of benign epithelial and mesenchymal elements with a prominent smooth muscle component. In this review, each of these categories of uterine neoplasm is covered with an emphasis on practical tips for the surgical pathologist and new developments. In particular, helpful clues in the distinction between carcinosarcoma and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma will be discussed. In addition, salient features to help distinguish between adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and other mesenchymal neoplasms in the differential diagnosis will be outlined. Finally, a discussion of adenomyoma and its main differential diagnostic considerations will be covered. PMID:26715175

  2. Plumbagin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth through the Ras signalling pathway following activation of the VEGF receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li; Liu, Junchen; Zhai, Dong; Lin, Qingxiang; He, Lijun; Dong, Yanmin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Binbin; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects. PMID:21658027

  3. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour and Variants of Ameloblastoma – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    R, Maya; B, Sekar; S, Murali; K, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a histopathologiocally and behaviourally unique and specific entity. It is the most aggressive and recurrent of all the cysts and shows characteristics resembling both cyst and a tumour. The unique nature of OKC and the recent shift of OKC as a tumour made us evaluate yet another factor, Inducible nitric oxide synthase an (iNos) enzyme which has been implicated in the tumourigenesis of various neoplasms. Aims and Objects: The objective of the study was to analyse and compare the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS in odontogenic keratocysts (OKC’s) in variants of ameloblastoma affecting the oral cavity, to determine the neoplastic potential of OKC and to reinforce the classification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Materials and Methods: Thirty two specimens, eight specimens each in OKC, follicular ameloblastoma, plexiform ameloblastoma and unicystic ameloblastoma, taken from the Oral Pathology Department were randomly selected for this study and were evaluated for epithelial expression of iNOS by immunohistochemistry Results: Epithelial immunoreactivity to iNOS was strongly positive in 93.5% of follicular ameloblastomas, 68.7% of plexiform ameloblastomas, 66.9% of odontogenic keratocysts and 66.2% of unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusion: iNOS may be an important marker involved in the biological behaviour of OKC. Furthermore the presence of increased expression of iNOS in Follicular ameloblastomas followed by Plexiform ameloblastomas, OKCs and Unicystic ameloblastomas is yet another evidence to support that OKC could be considered as a neoplasm. PMID:25584300

  4. in tumour formation and growth but high inthoserelatedtosexandreproduction5

    E-print Network

    Head III, James William

    ,melanomasandothercancers. These proteins are key targets for the development of cancer vaccines, as they are usually seen by the immune system only when they occur in tumours, and their expression is linked to the same mechanisms at work

  5. Intracellular shuttling of a Drosophila APC tumour suppressor homolog

    E-print Network

    Cliffe, Adam; Mieszczanek, Julius; Bienz, Mariann

    2004-09-30

    Abstract Background The Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor is found in multiple discrete subcellular locations, which may reflect sites of distinct functions. In Drosophila epithelial cells, the predominant APC relative (E...

  6. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  7. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  8. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16 in sporadic Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, R. G.; Pritchard, J.; Scambler, P.; Cowell, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    To establish whether loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for chromosome 16q in Wilms' tumours confers an adverse prognosis, DNA from 40 Wilms' tumour/normal pairs were analysed using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers along the length of 16q. Fifteen per cent of tumours showed LOH for 16q. Although the common region of allele loss spanned the 16q24-qter region, a second distinct region of LOH was identified in 16q21. Five out of six tumours showing LOH were either (1) high stage or (2) low stage with unfavourable histology. In addition, there was a higher mortality rate in patients showing LOH for 16q than those that did not. These data strongly support the suggestion that LOH for 16q is associated with an adverse prognosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9820177

  9. Expression of tumour-specific antigens underlies cancer immunoediting

    E-print Network

    DuPage, Michel J.

    Cancer immunoediting is a process by which immune cells, particularly lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, protect the host from the development of cancer and alter tumour progression by driving the outgrowth of ...

  10. Tumour microenvironment interactions of small cell lung cancer. 

    E-print Network

    Hodkinson, Philip Simon

    2009-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterised by rapid growth, early metastatic spread and poor long-term survival. The tumour is initially sensitive to chemotherapy and thus objective response rates are high. Unfortunately, ...

  11. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  12. Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Florian; Kosch, Olaf; Seifert, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar) make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied. PMID:22163498

  13. Cytologic Interpretation of Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumour of Infancy Involving Cranial Bones: Clue to Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kar, Asaranti; Biswal, Priyadarshini; Behera, Susmita; Dhal, Ipsita; Surabhi

    2015-09-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare, benign but locally aggressive neoplasm of infants commonly affecting the maxilla. It can also involve other areas like skull, mandible, brain and epididymis. The tumour comprise of dual populations of cells like small, basophilic neuroblast like cells and large pigment laden epithelial cells arranged in tubular and pseudoglandular pattern. The proportion of two components varies and therefore the diagnosis can be difficult in absence of the large cells. We describe the cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical findings in a case of MNTI involving left side orbit with frontal, temporal and parietal bones. The cytologic interpretation could be made due to the suggestive clinical and radiologic findings and detection of large epithelial pigmented cells on thorough searching. The neuroblast like cells was positive for Neuron specific enolase, large cells for HMB-45 and Pan CK. Both the cellular components were negative for desmin. This case report is presented due to its rarity and also to aid the surgical pathologists in diagnosis where the findings are not too straight forward. PMID:26500916

  14. Spindle assembly checkpoint inactivation fails to suppress neuroblast tumour formation in aurA mutant Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Romé, Pierre; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent; Karess, Roger; Giet, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires accurate control of cell proliferation, differentiation and chromosome segregation. Drosophila sas-4 and aurA mutants present brain tumours with extra neuroblasts (NBs), defective mitotic spindle assembly and delayed mitosis due to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here we inactivate the SAC in aurA and sas-4 mutants to determine whether the generation of aneuploidy compromises NB proliferation. Inactivation of the SAC in the sas-4 mutant impairs NB proliferation and disrupts euploidy. By contrast, disrupting the SAC in the aurA mutant does not prevent NB amplification, tumour formation or chromosome segregation. The monitoring of Mad2 and cyclin B dynamics in live aurA NBs reveals that SAC satisfaction is not coupled to cyclin B degradation. Thus, the NBs of aurA mutants present delayed mitosis, with accurate chromosome segregation occurring in a SAC-independent manner. We report here the existence of an Aurora A-dependent mechanism promoting efficient, timed cyclin B degradation. PMID:26568519

  15. Cytologic Interpretation of Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumour of Infancy Involving Cranial Bones: Clue to Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Priyadarshini; Behera, Susmita; Dhal, Ipsita; Surabhi

    2015-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare, benign but locally aggressive neoplasm of infants commonly affecting the maxilla. It can also involve other areas like skull, mandible, brain and epididymis. The tumour comprise of dual populations of cells like small, basophilic neuroblast like cells and large pigment laden epithelial cells arranged in tubular and pseudoglandular pattern. The proportion of two components varies and therefore the diagnosis can be difficult in absence of the large cells. We describe the cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical findings in a case of MNTI involving left side orbit with frontal, temporal and parietal bones. The cytologic interpretation could be made due to the suggestive clinical and radiologic findings and detection of large epithelial pigmented cells on thorough searching. The neuroblast like cells was positive for Neuron specific enolase, large cells for HMB-45 and Pan CK. Both the cellular components were negative for desmin. This case report is presented due to its rarity and also to aid the surgical pathologists in diagnosis where the findings are not too straight forward. PMID:26500916

  16. Spindle assembly checkpoint inactivation fails to suppress neuroblast tumour formation in aurA mutant Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Romé, Pierre; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent; Karess, Roger; Giet, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires accurate control of cell proliferation, differentiation and chromosome segregation. Drosophila sas-4 and aurA mutants present brain tumours with extra neuroblasts (NBs), defective mitotic spindle assembly and delayed mitosis due to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here we inactivate the SAC in aurA and sas-4 mutants to determine whether the generation of aneuploidy compromises NB proliferation. Inactivation of the SAC in the sas-4 mutant impairs NB proliferation and disrupts euploidy. By contrast, disrupting the SAC in the aurA mutant does not prevent NB amplification, tumour formation or chromosome segregation. The monitoring of Mad2 and cyclin B dynamics in live aurA NBs reveals that SAC satisfaction is not coupled to cyclin B degradation. Thus, the NBs of aurA mutants present delayed mitosis, with accurate chromosome segregation occurring in a SAC-independent manner. We report here the existence of an Aurora A-dependent mechanism promoting efficient, timed cyclin B degradation. PMID:26568519

  17. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. PMID:22943286

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging detected prostate evasive anterior tumours: Further insights

    PubMed Central

    Edwan, Ghazi Al; Ghai, Sangeet; Margel, David; Kulkarni, Girish; Hamilton, Rob; Toi, Ants; Haidar, Masoom A.; Finelli, Antonio; Fleshner, Neil E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical confusion continues to exist regarding the underestimation of cancers among patients on active surveillance and among men with repeated negative prostate biopsies despite worrisome prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. We have previously described our initial experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based detection of tumours in the anterior prostate gland. In this report, we update and expand our experience with these tumours in terms of multiparametric-MRI findings, staging, and grading. Furthermore, we report early treatment outcomes with these unique cancers. Methods: We reviewed our prostate MRI dataset of 1117 cases from January 2006 until December 2012 and identified 189 patients who fulfilled criteria for prostate evasive anterior tumors (PEATS). Descriptive analyses were performed on multiple covariates. Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique was used to plot the treatment-related outcomes from PEATS tumours. Results: Among the 189 patients who had MRI-detectable anterior tumours, 148 had biopsy proven disease in the anterior zone. Among these tumours, the average PSA was 18.3 ng/mL and most cancers were Gleason 7. In total, 68 patients chose surgical therapy. Among these men, most of their cancers had extra prostatic extension and 46% had positive surgical margins. Interestingly, upgrading of tumours that were biopsy Gleason 6 in the anterior zone was common, with 59% exhibiting upgrading to Gleason 7 or higher. Biochemical-free survival among men who elected surgery was not ideal, with 20% failing by 20 months. Conclusion: PEATS tumours are found late and are disproportionally high grade tumours. Careful consideration to MRI testing should be given to men at risk for PEATS. PMID:26029293

  19. A patient with a VEGF and endostatin producing gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, A H G; van Hensbergen, Y; Kuenen, B C; van Diest, P J; Hanemaaijer, R; Meijer, S; Pinedo, H M; Hoekman, K

    2004-01-01

    Tumour associated neovascularisation has been characterised as chaotic and insufficient. This report details the results of the analysis of angiogenic factors in tumour cyst fluid, pleural fluid, and blood from a patient with a gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour. The tumour produced vascular endothelial growth factor and endostatin in large quantities, which may explain the dysfunctional angiogenesis and tendency to bleeding seen in this tumour type. PMID:15113863

  20. Toxicodynamics of tumour promoters of mouse skin. III. Specific binding of the tumour promoter thapsigargin as measured by the cold-acetone filter assay.

    PubMed

    Christensen, S B; Hergenhahn, M; Roeser, H; Hecker, E

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for measuring rapid, specific, and saturable binding of the skin irritant and tumour-promoting secretagogue thapsigargin (sesquiterpene lactone) to the microsomal fraction from mouse brain. Employing the tritium-labelled compound its apparent dissociation constant, Kd, and the maximal amount of binding Bmax are shown to be 9.8 nM and 1.9 pmol/mg protein respectively. Such a Kd for thapsigargin is similar to (a) its IC50 value for inhibiting Ca2+ uptake in the microsomal fraction from rat brain and (b) its EC50 values for inducing a rise in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of human platelets and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. A positive correlation is found between the binding affinities of thapsigargin, thapsitranstagin, and trilobolide, their potencies as secretagogues and their lipophilicities. This correlation does not extend to the skin-irritant activities of the compounds thus emphasizing that their mechanism of action is unlike that of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. PMID:1533861

  1. Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour growth in Nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Statins have long been used as anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs, but numerous lines of evidence suggest that they may also bear anti-tumour potential. We have recently demonstrated that it was possible to isolate cancer cells adapted to growth in the continuous presence of lovastatin. These cells grew more slowly than the statin-sensitive cells of origin. In the present study, we compared the ability of both statin-sensitive and statin-resistant cells to give rise to tumours in Nude mice. Methods HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells and L50 statin-resistant derivatives were injected subcutaneously into Nude mice and tumour growth was recorded. At the end of the experiment, tumours were recovered and marker proteins were analyzed by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results L50 tumours grew more slowly, showed a strong decrease in cyclin B1, over-expressed collagen IV, and had reduced laminin 332, VEGF and CD34 levels, which, collectively, may have restricted cell division, cell adhesion and neoangiogenesis. Conclusions Taken together, these results showed that statin-resistant cells developed into smaller tumours than statin-sensitive cells. This may be reflective of the cancer restricting activity of statins in humans, as suggested from several retrospective studies with subjects undergoing statin therapy for several years. PMID:22107808

  2. Geographical differences in the distribution of malignant tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Chaklin, A. V.

    1962-01-01

    Malignant tumours are encountered among all races and in every type of geographical zone, but there are marked differences in different areas in the prevalence of particular forms of tumour—differences that are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on factors such as the climate and geography of the region and the habits, customs and occupations of the people. The study of these factors in relation to the occurrence of malignant tumours is of great importance in reaching an understanding of the etiology of tumours in man. In this paper the author discusses the many problems involved in the study of regional features in the prevalence of malignant tumours, with special reference to the difficulties of ensuring comparability of the data from widely differing regions and population groups. He concludes the paper with a review of some known facts regarding the distribution of malignant tumours at various sites in which he compares data obtained in surveys in the USSR with those obtained in other countries. PMID:14019866

  3. [Diagnostics and treatment in functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Müssig, K; Dudziak, K; Horger, M; Anlauf, M; Goretzki, P E

    2011-06-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) are rare entities with an annual incidence of?tumours. About one third of these tumours secrete biologically active substances that lead to development of specific clinical syndromes. PNET may occur sporadically or in association with hereditary syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Among the functional PNET, insulinomas and gastrinomas are the most common entities. In contrast, vasoactive intetinale peptide (VIP)-secreting tumours, glucagonomas, serotonin-secreting carcinoid tumors, and tumours with secretion of ectopic hormones, such as calcitonin, are extremely rare. Once diagnosis has been established on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings, localization of the source of pathologic hormone secretion is warranted. Imaging methods frequently used for localization of PNET comprise anatomical imaging modalities, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, selective arterial catheterization with hepatic venous sampling, DTPA-octreotid scintigraphy and DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotid positron emission tomography. Therapy is based on the specific tumour entity and the extent of the disease. In the majority of patients, even in the case of malignant disease, a surgical approach is warranted, eventually combined with a medical treatment. PMID:21656454

  4. Bacterial-mediated DNA delivery to tumour associated phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Byrne, W L; Murphy, C T; Cronin, M; Wirth, T; Tangney, M

    2014-12-28

    Phagocytic cells including macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils are now recognised as playing a negative role in many disease settings including cancer. In particular, macrophages are known to play a pathophysiological role in multiple diseases and present a valid and ubiquitous therapeutic target. The technology to target these phagocytic cells in situ, both selectively and efficiently, is required in order to translate novel therapeutic modalities into clinical reality. We present a novel delivery strategy using non-pathogenic bacteria to effect gene delivery specifically to tumour-associated phagocytic cells. Non-invasive bacteria lack the ability to actively enter host cells, except for phagocytic cells. We exploit this natural property to effect 'passive transfection' of tumour-associated phagocytic cells following direct administration of transgene-loaded bacteria to tumour regions. Using an in vitro-differentiated human monocyte cell line and two in vivo mouse models (an ovarian cancer ascites and a solid colon tumour model) proof of delivery is demonstrated with bacteria carrying reporter constructs. The results confirm that the delivery strategy is specific for phagocytic cells and that the bacterial vector itself recruits more phagocytic cells to the tumour. While proof of delivery to phagocytic cells is demonstrated in vivo for solid and ascites tumour models, this strategy may be applied to other settings, including non-cancer related disease. PMID:25466954

  5. Obesity and cancer—mechanisms underlying tumour progression and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Clegg, Deborah J.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, the field of cancer research has directed increased interest towards subsets of obesity-associated tumours, which include mammary, renal, oesophageal, gastrointestinal and reproductive cancers in both men and women. The increased risk of breast cancer that is associated with obesity has been widely reported; this has drawn much attention and as such, warrants investigation of the key mechanisms that link the obese state with cancer aetiology. For instance, the obese setting provides a unique adipose tissue microenvironment with concomitant systemic endocrine alterations that favour both tumour initiation and progression. Major metabolic differences exist within tumours that distinguish them from non-transformed healthy tissues. Importantly, considerable metabolic differences are induced by tumour cells in the stromal vascular fraction that surrounds them. The precise mechanisms that underlie the association of obesity with cancer and the accompanying metabolic changes that occur in the surrounding microenvironment remain elusive. Nonetheless, specific therapeutic agents designed for patients with obesity who develop tumours are clearly needed. This Review discusses recent advances in understanding the contributions of obesity to cancer and their implications for tumour treatment. PMID:24935119

  6. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  7. PET-Specific Parameters and Radiotracers in Theoretical Tumour Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Loredana G.; Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The innovation of computational techniques serves as an important step toward optimized, patient-specific management of cancer. In particular, in silico simulation of tumour growth and treatment response may eventually yield accurate information on disease progression, enhance the quality of cancer treatment, and explain why certain therapies are effective where others are not. In silico modelling is demonstrated to considerably benefit from information obtainable with PET and PET/CT. In particular, models have successfully integrated tumour glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell oxygenation from multiple tracers in order to simulate tumour behaviour. With the development of novel radiotracers to image additional tumour phenomena, such as pH and gene expression, the value of PET and PET/CT data for use in tumour models will continue to grow. In this work, the use of PET and PET/CT information in in silico tumour models is reviewed. The various parameters that can be obtained using PET and PET/CT are detailed, as well as the radiotracers that may be used for this purpose, their utility, and limitations. The biophysical measures used to quantify PET and PET/CT data are also described. Finally, a list of in silico models that incorporate PET and/or PET/CT data is provided and reviewed. PMID:25788973

  8. PET-specific parameters and radiotracers in theoretical tumour modelling.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Matthew; Marcu, Loredana G; Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The innovation of computational techniques serves as an important step toward optimized, patient-specific management of cancer. In particular, in silico simulation of tumour growth and treatment response may eventually yield accurate information on disease progression, enhance the quality of cancer treatment, and explain why certain therapies are effective where others are not. In silico modelling is demonstrated to considerably benefit from information obtainable with PET and PET/CT. In particular, models have successfully integrated tumour glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell oxygenation from multiple tracers in order to simulate tumour behaviour. With the development of novel radiotracers to image additional tumour phenomena, such as pH and gene expression, the value of PET and PET/CT data for use in tumour models will continue to grow. In this work, the use of PET and PET/CT information in in silico tumour models is reviewed. The various parameters that can be obtained using PET and PET/CT are detailed, as well as the radiotracers that may be used for this purpose, their utility, and limitations. The biophysical measures used to quantify PET and PET/CT data are also described. Finally, a list of in silico models that incorporate PET and/or PET/CT data is provided and reviewed. PMID:25788973

  9. The tumour stroma of oral squamous cell carcinomas show increased vascularity compared with adjacent host tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, S.; Powe, D. G.; Wilkinson, M.; Pearson, J.; Hewitt, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    For tumours to grow they must acquire an adequate blood supply, and the use of drugs to inhibit tumour vascularization is one promising approach to anti-cancer therapy. Clear information is therefore required on the vascular architecture of human tumours and animal tumour models used for testing anti-angiogenic therapies. Many previous studies on animal tumour models have shown that carcinomas are least vascular in their centres and that host tissues become more vascular with proximity to the tumour. However, we have previously found that many human colorectal carcinomas do not show this pattern. The present study on human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) again reveals significant differences. Paraffin sections from 24 SCCs were immunostained using the QBEnd-10 monoclonal antibody to demonstrate blood vessels, and these were quantified by interactive morphometry using a Kontron Videoplan system. In most carcinomas, viable tumour tissue was no less vascular in the tumour centre than in the tumour periphery. Although tumours are known to release angiogenic factors, viable tumour tissue was less vascular than adjacent host tissues. However, the tumour stroma, by itself, was more vascular than adjacent host tissues. Host tissue adjacent to tumour showed no obvious increase in vascular density with increasing proximity to the tumour edge, which suggests that tumour-released angiogenic factors are only effective over a short distance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9052411

  10. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pituitary Tumours using a Web-based Pituitary Tumour Registry in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Futaisi, Abdullah; Saif, Al-Yaarubi; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Qassabi, Salim; Al-Riyami, Shaden; Wali, Yasser

    2007-01-01

    Objective: From a recently instituted web-based pituitary tumour registry at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, this study explores the results of comprehensive clinical evaluation, hormonal levels, radiological evidence of pituitary mass lesion using magnetic resonance (MRI) and the different treatment modalities. Methods: All patients who were diagnosed with pituitary mass tumours in our tertiary care endocrinology clinic between January 1998 and February 2006 were registered in the Oman pituitary tumour registry. Two physicians performed hospital chart review and data entry. Results: A total of 160 entries were made into the pituitary tumour registry. The overall mean age of the cohort was 32 ±12 years (age range 8–73 years). The majority of registrations were female (n=114; 71%). There were 81 patients with non-functioning adenomas (50.6%), 59 with prolactinoma (36.9%) eight with acromegaly (5%), seven with craniopharyngioma (4.4%), four with Cushing’s disease (2.5%) and one with sarcoidosis (0.6%). Sub-group analyses were done only for the subjects with the 3 most prevalent pituitary tumours (non-functioning adenomas, prolactinomas, and acromegaly). The most prevalent symptoms are amenorrhea-galactorrhea (n=55; 37%), headache (n=31; 21%) and fatigue (n=23; 16%). The most common treatment modality was medical (n=58; 39%), followed by observation (n=56; 38%), surgery (n=31; 21%) and surgery plus medical (n=3; 2%). None of the patients in this registry are recorded to have died. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first pituitary tumour registry in the Arabian Gulf countries using a web-based programme. This tumour registry will enable us to characterize clinical and the epidemiological features of pituitary tumours in the Sultanate of Oman. PMID:21654941

  11. A mathematical model of tumour self-seeding reveals secondary metastatic deposits as drivers of primary tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jacob G.; Basanta, David; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Gerlee, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Two models of circulating tumour cell (CTC) dynamics have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of tumour ‘self-seeding’, whereby CTCs repopulate the primary tumour and accelerate growth: primary seeding, where cells from a primary tumour shed into the vasculature and return back to the primary themselves; and secondary seeding, where cells from the primary first metastasize into a secondary tissue and form microscopic secondary deposits, which then shed cells into the vasculature returning to the primary. These two models are difficult to distinguish experimentally, yet the differences between them is of great importance to both our understanding of the metastatic process and also for designing methods of intervention. Therefore, we developed a mathematical model to test the relative likelihood of these two phenomena in the subset of tumours whose shed CTCs first encounter the lung capillary bed, and show that secondary seeding is several orders of magnitude more likely than primary seeding. We suggest how this difference could affect tumour evolution, progression and therapy, and propose several possible methods of experimental validation. PMID:23427099

  12. Shower Classification Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zloczewski, K.; Wisniewski, M.; Lelit, M.; Polakowski, K.

    2009-06-01

    We describe the Shower Classification Software (SCS) which makes an automatic shower classification of plotted meteors. This tool is developed to help observers make shower classification procedure fast and allows them to check calculations done by hand. The programme is available for Linux and Windows operating systems and can be obtained from http://www.pkim.org/?q=pl/scs.

  13. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  14. Brain Fog

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain. • Exercise regularly. Adequate physical exercise enhances cognition/memory. • Train the Brain! “If you don’t use it, you will lose it.” • Boost your brain power: Continue to work into retirement (part time), learn new skills, volunteer, engage in social ...

  15. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FTD, at this time the risks outweigh the value and brain biopsy is rarely done with FTD patients. Autopsy is the study of tissue removed from the body after death. Examination of the whole brain is important in understanding FTD because the patterns of tissue damage are ...

  16. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  17. Biological evaluation of new potential anticancer agent for tumour imaging and radiotherapy by two methods: 99mTc-radiolabelling and EPR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karamalakova, Yanka; Chuttani, Krishna; Sharma, Rakesh; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Gadjeva, Veselina; Mishra, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a new class of in vitro and ex vivo radiotracers/radioprotectors, the nitroxyl-labelled agent 1-ethyl-1-nitroso–3-[4-(2,2,6,6–tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)]-urea (SLENU), has been discovered. Our previous investigations demonstrated that SLENU is a low-molecular-weight stable free radical which is freely membrane permeable, easily crosses the blood brain barrier and exhibited in/ex vivo the lowest general toxicity and higher anticancer activity against some experimental tumour models. Further investigation was aimed to develop a 99mTc-labelled SLENU (97%) as a chelator and evaluate its labelling efficiency and potential use as a tumour seeking agent and for early diagnosis. Tissue biodistribution of 99mTc-SLENU was determined in normal mice at 1, 2 and 24 h (n = 4/time interval, route of administration i.v.). The distribution data were compared using male albino non-inbred mice and electron paramagnetic resonance investigation. The imaging characteristics of 99mTc-SLENU conjugate examined in BALB/c mice grafted with Ehrlich Ascitis tumour in the thigh of hind leg demonstrated major accumulation of the radiotracer in the organs and tumour. Planar images and auto-radiograms confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-SLENU. Blood kinetic study of radio-conjugate showed a bi-exponential pattern, as well as quick reduced duration in the blood circulation. This study establishes nitroxyls as a general class of new spin-labelled diagnostic markers that reduce the negative lateral effects of radiotherapy and drug damages, and are appropriate for tumour-localization. PMID:26019604

  18. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    PubMed Central

    Investigators, The PARITY

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies of patients with bone sarcomas have been challenged by insufficient numbers at individual centres to draw valid conclusions. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a definitive multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether a five-day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. Methods We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. Results We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants (44 men and 16 women) across 21 sites from four countries over 24 months (mean 2.13 participants per site per year, standard deviation 2.14). One participant was lost to follow-up and one withdrew consent. Complete data were obtained for 98% of eligible patients at two weeks, 83% at six months, and 73% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. Conclusions It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of post-operative antibiotic regimens in patients with bone sarcomas, but further expansion of our collaborative network will be critical. We have demonstrated an ability to coordinate in multiple countries, enrol participants, maintain protocol adherence, and minimise losses to follow-up. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res;4:154–162 PMID:26423584

  19. CN-12PINEAL PARENCHYMAL TUMOUR OF INTERMEDIATE DIFFERENTIATION: CASE SERIES FROM A SINGLE INSTITUTE

    PubMed Central

    Mahtab, Najibah; Ramamurthy, Sindhu; Willis, Nick; Lewis, Joanne; Lethbridge, Emma

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pineal parenchymal tumours of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are a group of rare tumours with intermediate malignant potential between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma, for which there is currently no standard treatment paradigm. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2014, five patients with PPTID were treated at our institute. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes. Patient demographics, presentation, staging, surgery, radiotherapy (RT) technique, late toxicities and any chemotherapy administered were noted from the hospital electronic data base. RESULTS: Patient age range 20-74 years. Common presenting symptom was headache and visual disturbance and neurological sign was diplopia. All had ventriculostomy plus or minus ventriculo-peritoneal shunt to relieve hydrocephalus. Two patients had biopsy only and three patients had excision of pineal tumour. Three patients underwent whole brain RT with boost to pineal region [35.07Gy in 21 fractions - whole brain, average boost dose- 17.81Gy (16.7- 20.04 Gy) at 1.67Gy/fraction]. Two patients had limited field RT to the pineal region (54Gy and 39.6 Gy delivered in 1.8 Gy/fraction). Four patients had complete radiological response on MRI post-RT. One patient had partial radiological response. Two patients recurred after an average disease free survival period of 54.5 months from diagnosis: one recurred locally and was retreated with radiosurgery; the other developed disseminated leptomeningeal disease and received platinum based palliative chemotherapy. Four patients are alive to date. Average overall survival including relapsed patients is 102.5 months. Median DFS and OS are 41 and 100 months respectively. All patients developed mild cognitive impairment. The patient who received platinum chemotherapy developed severe neuropathy. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPTID in this case series survived medium term and four remain on follow up. A prospective multi institutional study is recommended due to the potential for late adverse effects. However, because this entity is rare, the difficulties in achieving this are recognised therefore cases should be collated at centres for review.

  20. Fractal characterization of brain lesions in CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhari, Rajnish K.; Trivedi, Rashmi; Munshi, Prabhat; Sahni, Kamal

    2005-12-15

    Fractal Dimension (FD) is a parameter used widely for classification, analysis, and pattern recognition of images. In this work we explore the quantification of CT (computed tomography) lesions of the brain by using fractal theory. Five brain lesions, which are portions of CT images of diseased brains, are used for the study. These lesions exhibit self-similarity over a chosen range of scales, and are broadly characterized by their fractal dimensions.

  1. Decomposition of spontaneous fluctuations in tumour oxygenation using BOLD MRI and independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Miguel R; Johnson, S Peter; Ramasawmy, Rajiv; Pedley, R Barbara; Lythgoe, Mark F; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Solid tumours can undergo cycles of hypoxia, followed by reoxygenation, which can have significant implications for the success of anticancer therapies. A need therefore exists to develop methods to aid its detection and to further characterise its biological basis. We present here a novel method for decomposing systemic and tumour-specific contributions to fluctuations in tumour deoxyhaemoglobin concentration, based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements. Methods: Fluctuations in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in two tumour xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma were decomposed into distinct contributions using independent component analysis. These components were then correlated with systemic pulse oximetry measurements to assess the influence of systemic variations in blood oxygenation in tumours, compared with those that arise within the tumour itself (tumour-specific). Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the physiological basis of each source of fluctuation. Results: Systemic fluctuations in blood oxygenation were found to contribute to cycling hypoxia in tumours, but tumour-specific fluctuations were also evident. Moreover, the size of the tumours was found to influence the degree of systemic, but not tumour-specific, oscillations. The degree of vessel maturation was related to the amplitude of tumour-specific, but not systemic, oscillations. Conclusions: Our results provide further insights into the complexity of spontaneous fluctuations in tumour oxygenation and its relationship with tumour pathophysiology. These observations could be used to develop improved drug delivery strategies. PMID:26484634

  2. A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY T classification based on machine learning is a powerful tool to analyze human brain activity data obtained recently been used to study how stimulus fea- tures are processed in the human brain. In particular

  3. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  4. Neuroprotection in a rabbit model of intraventricular haemorrhage by cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Csiszar, Anna; Hu, Furong; Dummula, Krishna; Pandey, Nishi Kant; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ferreri, Nicholas R.; Ungvari, Zoltan; LaGamma, Edmund F.

    2010-01-01

    Intraventricular haemorrhage is a major complication of prematurity that results in neurological dysfunctions, including cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. No therapeutic options are currently available to limit the catastrophic brain damage initiated by the development of intraventricular haemorrhage. As intraventricular haemorrhage leads to an inflammatory response, we asked whether cyclooxygenase-2, its derivative prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in intraventricular haemorrhage; whether their suppression would confer neuroprotection; and determined how cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines were mechanistically-linked. To this end, we used our rabbit model of intraventricular haemorrhage where premature pups, delivered by Caesarian section, were treated with intraperitoneal glycerol at 2 h of age to induce haemorrhage. Intraventricular haemorrhage was diagnosed by head ultrasound at 6 h of age. The pups with intraventricular haemorrhage were treated with inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?; and cell-infiltration, cell-death and gliosis were compared between treated-pups and vehicle-treated controls during the first 3 days of life. Neurobehavioural performance, myelination and gliosis were assessed in pups treated with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor compared to controls at Day 14. We found that both protein and messenger RNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptor-1, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? were consistently higher in the forebrain of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage relative to pups without intraventricular haemorrhage. However, cyclooxygenase-1 and prostanoid receptor 2–4 levels were comparable in pups with and without intraventricular haemorrhage. Cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-? inhibition reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, apoptosis, neuronal degeneration and gliosis around the ventricles of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage. Importantly, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition alleviated neurological impairment, improved myelination and reduced gliosis at 2 weeks of age. Cyclooxygenase-2 or prostanoid receptor-1 inhibition reduced tumour necrosis factor-? level, but not interleukin-1?. Conversely, tumour necrosis factor-? antagonism did not affect cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Hence, prostanoid receptor-1 and tumour necrosis factor-? are downstream to cyclooxygenase-2 in the inflammatory cascade induced by intraventricular haemorrhage, and cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition or suppression of downstream molecules—prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?—might be a viable neuroprotective strategy for minimizing brain damage in premature infants with intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:20488889

  5. MEK inhibition prevents tumour-shed transforming growth factor-?-induced T-regulatory cell augmentation in tumour milieu.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Dewan M S; Panda, Abir K; Chakrabarty, Sreeparna; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Kajal, Kirti; Mohanty, Suchismita; Sarkar, Irene; Sarkar, Diptendra K; Kar, Santosh K; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2015-04-01

    Tumour progression is associated with immune-suppressive conditions that facilitate the escape of tumour cells from the regimen of immune cells, subsequently paralysing the host defence mechanisms. Induction of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells has been implicated in the tumour immune escape mechanism, although the novel anti-cancer treatment strategies targeting Treg cells remain unknown. The focus of this study is to define the interaction between tumour and immune system, i.e. how immune tolerance starts and gradually leads to the induction of adaptive Treg cells in the tumour microenvironment. Our study identified hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) -signalling as a potential target for reversing Treg cell augmentation in breast cancer patients. In more mechanistic detail, pharmacological inhibitors of MEK/ERK signalling inhibited transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) production in tumour cells that essentially blocked TGF-?-SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated induction of CD25/interleukin-2 receptor ? on CD4(+) T-cell surface. As a result high-affinity binding of interleukin-2 on those cells was prohibited, causing lack of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK3-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/STAT5 activation required for FoxP3 expression. Finally, for a more radical approach towards a safe MEK inhibitor, we validate the potential of multi-kinase inhibitor curcumin, especially the nano-curcumin made out of pure curcumin with greater bioavailability; in repealing tumour-shed TGF-?-induced Treg cell augmentation. PMID:25284464

  6. Oxygen carrying microbubbles for enhanced sonodynamic therapy of hypoxic tumours.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Conor; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Fowley, Colin; Nesbitt, Heather; Cochrane, David; Coussios, Constantin C; Borden, M; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2015-04-10

    Tumour hypoxia represents a major challenge in the effective treatment of solid cancerous tumours using conventional approaches. As oxygen is a key substrate for Photo-/Sono-dynamic Therapy (PDT/SDT), hypoxia is also problematic for the treatment of solid tumours using these techniques. The ability to deliver oxygen to the vicinity of the tumour increases its local partial pressure improving the possibility of ROS generation in PDT/SDT. In this manuscript, we investigate the use of oxygen-loaded, lipid-stabilised microbubbles (MBs), decorated with a Rose Bengal sensitiser, for SDT-based treatment of a pancreatic cancer model (BxPc-3) in vitro and in vivo. We directly compare the effectiveness of the oxygen-loaded MBs with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)-loaded MBs and reveal a significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy. The combination of oxygen-carrying, ultrasound-responsive MBs, with an ultrasound-responsive therapeutic sensitiser, offers the possibility of delivering and activating the MB-sensitiser conjugate at the tumour site in a non-invasive manner, providing enhanced sonodynamic activation at that site. PMID:25660073

  7. Metastatic liver tumour segmentation from discriminant Grassmannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Vorontsov, Eugene; Tang, An

    2015-08-01

    The early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of liver cancer progression can be achieved with the precise delineation of metastatic tumours. However, accurate automated segmentation remains challenging due to the presence of noise, inhomogeneity and the high appearance variability of malignant tissue. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised metastatic liver tumour segmentation framework using a machine learning approach based on discriminant Grassmannian manifolds which learns the appearance of tumours with respect to normal tissue. First, the framework learns within-class and between-class similarity distributions from a training set of images to discover the optimal manifold discrimination between normal and pathological tissue in the liver. Second, a conditional optimisation scheme computes non-local pairwise as well as pattern-based clique potentials from the manifold subspace to recognise regions with similar labelings and to incorporate global consistency in the segmentation process. The proposed framework was validated on a clinical database of 43 CT images from patients with metastatic liver cancer. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method achieves a better performance on two separate datasets of metastatic liver tumours from different clinical sites, yielding an overall mean Dice similarity coefficient of 90.7+/- 2.4 in over 50 tumours with an average volume of 27.3?mm3.

  8. Notch functions in developmental and tumour angiogenesis by diverse mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Tattersall, Ian W; Kitajewski, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is a key regulator of developmental and tumour angiogenesis. Inhibition of Delta-like 4 (Dll4)-mediated Notch signalling results in hyper-sprouting, demonstrating that Notch regulates tip-stalk cell identity in developing tissues and tumours. Paradoxically, Dll4 blockade leads to reduced tumour growth because the newly growing vessels are poorly perfused. To explore the potential for targeting Notch, we developed Notch inhibitors, termed the Notch1 decoys. A Notch1 decoy variant containing all 36 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats of the extracellular domain of rat Notch1 has been shown to inhibit both Dll and Jagged class Notch ligands. Thus this Notch1 decoy functions differently than Dll4-specific blockade, although it has the potential to inhibit Dll4 activity. Expression of the Notch1 decoy in mice disrupted tumour angiogenesis and inhibited tumour growth. To understand the mechanism by which Notch blockade acts, it is important to note that Notch can function in multiple cell types that make up the vasculature, including endothelial cells and perivascular cells. We investigated Notch function in retinal microglia and determined how myeloid-expressed Notch can influence macrophages and angiogenesis. We found that myeloid-specific loss of Notch1 reduced microglia recruitment and led to improper microglia localization during retinal angiogenesis. Thus either pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling or genetic deficiencies of Notch function in microglia leads to abnormal angiogenesis. PMID:25399571

  9. Myelolipomas and other fatty tumours of the adrenals

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Nazih; Khauli, Raja

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipomatous tumours of the adrenals are almost always benign. The importance of recognising their characteristic radiological features, leading to their correct treatment, is fundamental, as there has been an increase in the identification of these lesions. Our goal was to review all lipomatous tumours of the adrenal glands, particularly myelolipomas, their imaging methods and surgical management, updated in 2011. Methods This was a retrospective review of articles published in the USA and Europe, from 1979 to date. The sites from which information was retrieved covered PubMed, Medscape, Clinical Imaging, Histopathology, Urologia Internationalis, Archives of Surgery, JACS, the American Urological Association, BMJ, Medline, and Springer Link. We report areas of controversies in addition to well established guidelines. Results We reviewed 45 articles, that confirmed, with a high level of evidence-based medicine, that the diagnosis of a lipomatous adrenal tumour is made by various imaging procedures, particularly computed tomography (CT). We emphasise the importance to their management of the initial size of the adrenal mass, its increase in size over time, in addition to the presence of symptoms. Conclusion Lipomatous tumours of the adrenals are most frequently benign. The diagnosis is usually made by various techniques, in particular CT. The fundamental characteristics indicating the necessity of surgical intervention are the symptoms presented, volume of the tumoral mass (>5 cm), and the increase in size of the tumour as shown in two consecutive imaging studies.

  10. On a nonlinear model for tumour growth with drug application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Donatella; Trivisa, Konstantina

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a nonlinear system modelling tumour growth with drug application. The tumour is viewed as a mixture consisting of proliferating, quiescent and dead cells as well as a nutrient in the presence of a drug. The system is given by a multi-phase flow model: the densities of the different cells are governed by a set of transport equations, the density of the nutrient and the density of the drug are governed by rather general diffusion equations, while the velocity of the tumour is given by Brinkman's equation. The domain occupied by the tumour in this setting is a growing continuum ? with boundary ?? both of which evolve in time. Global-in-time weak solutions are obtained using an approach based on penalization of the boundary behaviour, diffusion and viscosity in the weak formulation. Both the solutions and the domain are rather general, no symmetry assumption is required and the result holds for large initial data. This article is part of a research programme whose aim is the investigation of the effect of drug application in tumour growth.

  11. Targeting lactate transport suppresses in vivo breast tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Morais-Santos, Filipa; Granja, Sara; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Moreira, António H.J.; Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João L.; Schmitt, Fernando C.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Paredes, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Background Most cancers, including breast cancer, have high rates of glucose consumption, associated with lactate production, a process referred as “Warburg effect”. Acidification of the tumour microenvironment by lactate extrusion, performed by lactate transporters (MCTs), is associated with higher cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and increased cell survival. Previously, we have described MCT1 up-regulation in breast carcinoma samples and demonstrated the importance of in vitro MCT inhibition. In this study, we performed siRNA knockdown of MCT1 and MCT4 in basal-like breast cancer cells in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions to validate the potential of lactate transport inhibition in breast cancer treatment. Results The effect of MCT knockdown was evaluated on lactate efflux, proliferation, cell biomass, migration and invasion and induction of tumour xenografts in nude mice. MCT knockdown led to a decrease in in vitro tumour cell aggressiveness, with decreased lactate transport, cell proliferation, migration and invasion and, importantly, to an inhibition of in vivo tumour formation and growth. Conclusions This work supports MCTs as promising targets in cancer therapy, demonstrates the contribution of MCTs to cancer cell aggressiveness and, more importantly, shows, for the first time, the disruption of in vivo breast tumour growth by targeting lactate transport. PMID:26203664

  12. Classifications and prognosis of breast cancer: from morphology to molecular taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the WHO breast tumours classification was published. It was primarily histological, but in each chapter, a section of cytogenetic as well as molecular pathology was present. The various problems of terminology were solved introducing for each histological group a paragraph where most of the synonyms were included. When an agreement was not reached, a table was presented where the different terminologies were compared. This was mostly evident for the intraductal neoplastic proliferations and accordingly the traditional terminology of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ was taken in consideration, together with the "novel" terminology of Ductal Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Using microarrays, Sorlie et al. were able to classify breast cancer along six different categories of which basal-like was at an extreme representing the most undifferentiated tumours and luminal subtype A represented the majority of their cases which probably were the most differentiated. The advantages and disadvantages of the recent molecular classifications are discussed. PMID:21050300

  13. Histogenetic Concepts, Terminology and Categorization of Biphasic Tumours of the Oral and Maxillofacial Region

    PubMed Central

    Babu R.S., Arvind; Reddy B.V., Ramana; C.H., Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    A biphasic tumour is a truly histological term that refers to neoplastic tissue which is characterized by two different cellular elements. Several histogenetic theories have been proposed for the aetiogenesis of the biphasic tumours. Literatures have been published on the individual lesions, which have described their biphasic nature but, biphasic tumours have not been categorized singly . Categorizing biphasic tumours is not likely to highlight diagnostic standards, but it may sensitize the therapeutic planning and post operative monitoring. This review article focuses on the histogenetic concepts of biphasic tumours, and the histopathological description of the lesions that are suggested to be biphasic tumours. PMID:24701553

  14. Unsupervised medical image classification by combining case-based classifiers Thien Anh Dinha

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    Unsupervised medical image classification by combining case-based classifiers Thien Anh Dinha an automated pathology classification system for medical volumetric brain image slices. Existing work often the time and effort for system calibration. In particular, classifica- tion of medical images

  15. Event-Related fMRI of Category Learning: Differences in Classification and Feedback Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; Shin, Silvia S.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen healthy young adults underwent event-related (ER) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain while performing a visual category learning task. The specific category learning task required subjects to extract the rules that guide classification of quasi-random patterns of dots into categories. Following each classification

  16. Drosophila neuroblasts as a new model for the study of stem cell self-renewal and tumour formation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Wang, Hongyan; Groth, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila larval brain stem cells (neuroblasts) have emerged as an important model for the study of stem cell asymmetric division and the mechanisms underlying the transformation of neural stem cells into tumour-forming cancer stem cells. Each Drosophila neuroblast divides asymmetrically to produce a larger daughter cell that retains neuroblast identity, and a smaller daughter cell that is committed to undergo differentiation. Neuroblast self-renewal and differentiation are tightly controlled by a set of intrinsic factors that regulate ACD (asymmetric cell division). Any disruption of these two processes may deleteriously affect the delicate balance between neuroblast self-renewal and progenitor cell fate specification and differentiation, causing neuroblast overgrowth and ultimately lead to tumour formation in the fly. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying Drosophila neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Furthermore, we highlight emerging evidence in support of the notion that defects in ACD in mammalian systems, which may play significant roles in the series of pathogenic events leading to the development of brain cancers. PMID:24965943

  17. Brain abscess

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abscess is a medical emergency. Pressure inside the skull may become high enough to be life threatening. ... break open (rupture) Surgery consists of opening the skull, exposing the brain, and draining the abscess. Laboratory ...

  18. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  19. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  20. A novel combretastatin A-4 derivative, AC7700, strongly stanches tumour blood flow and inhibits growth of tumours developing in various tissues and organs

    PubMed Central

    Hori, K; Saito, S; Kubota, K

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study, we used subcutaneous LY80 tumours (a subline of Yoshida sarcoma), Sato lung carcinoma, and methylcholanthrene-induced primary tumours, to demonstrate that a novel water-soluble combretastatin A-4 derivative, AC7700, abruptly and irreversibly stopped tumour blood flow. As a result of this interrupted supply of nutrients, extensive necrosis was induced within the tumour. In the present study, we investigated whether AC7700 acts in the same way against solid tumours growing in the liver, stomach, kidney, muscle, and lymph nodes. Tumour blood flow and the change in tumour blood flow induced by AC7700 were measured by the hydrogen clearance method. In a model of cancer chemotherapy against metastases, LY80 cells (2×106) were injected into the lateral tail vein, and AC7700 at 10?mg kg?1 was injected i.v. five times at intervals of 2 days, starting on day 7 after tumour cell injection. The number and size of tumours were compared with those in the control group. The change in tumour blood flow and the therapeutic effect of AC7700 on microtumours were observed directly by using Sato lung carcinoma implanted in a rat transparent chamber. AC7700 caused a marked decrease in the tumour blood flow of all LY80 tumours developing in various tissues and organs and growth of all tumours including lymph node metastases and microtumours was inhibited. In every tumour, tumour blood flow began to decrease immediately after AC7700 administration and reached a minimum at approximately 30?min after injection. In many tumour capillaries, blood flow completely stopped within 3?min after AC7700 administration. These results demonstrate that AC7700 is effective for tumours growing in various tissues and organs and for metastases. We conclude that tumour blood flow stanching induced by AC7700 may become an effective therapeutic strategy for all cancers, including refractory cancers because the therapeutic effect is independent of tumour site and specific type of cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1604–1614. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600296 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085211

  1. GANT-like gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumours with oncocytic features.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Pasquinelli, G; Eusebi, V

    1999-08-01

    We describe two cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumours with prominent oncocytic features. Both had features consistent with differentiation towards the interstitial cells of Cajal (CC). They were composed of nests and bundles of cells with abundant, deeply granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed positivity with c-kit, vimentin and CD34 antibodies in both neoplasms. Ultrastructurally the neoplastic cells showed characteristic features of CC; they had synapse-like structures and dense core cytoplasmic granules. Oncocytic features were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using anti-mitochondrion antibody in both cases and by electron microscopy in one case (case 1). Although the CC are frequently described as mitochondrion-rich cells, oncocytic changes have not previously been reported as a feature of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour (GANT)-like stromal tumours. PMID:10599314

  2. Ampullary carcinoid tumour presenting with extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Muhammad Salman; Fahim, Muhammad; Shahbaz Bhatti, Saadiah Tasnim; Khan, Jahangir Sarwar; Khan, Muahmmad Mussadiq

    2015-08-01

    Carcinoid tumours are slow growing tumours, derived from enterochromaffin cells located in the crypts of Lieberkühn, which is part of neuroendocrine system. A 36-year-old female patient presented in surgical clinic with complaints of progressively increasing yellowish discolouration of her eyes and pruritis for 6 months. She was deeply jaundiced with a soft and non-tender abdomen. Diagnostic work-up revealed obstructive jaundice secondary to ampullary growth, while computed tomography revealed a small intraluminal lower common bile duct mass. Endoscopic ultrasound showed thickened duodenum at ampulla of Vater. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) with pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy was done. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed carcinoid tumour. Postoperative course of patient was unremarkable and she is doing well after surgery. PMID:26228340

  3. Non-linear optical microscopy of kidney tumours.

    PubMed

    Galli, Roberta; Sablinskas, Valdas; Dasevicius, Darius; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The unregulated cancer cell growth leads to strong alterations in morphology and composition of the tissue. The combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation enables a high resolution imaging with strong information on tissue composition and can then provide useful information for tumour diagnosis. Here we present the potential of multimodal non-linear microscopy for imaging of renal tumours. Using cryosections of human oncocytoma and carcinoma, the method gave a detailed insight in cancer morphology and composition, enabling to discern between normal kidney tissue, tumour and necrosis. Several features significant for the diagnosis were clearly visualised without use of any staining. Translation of this method in clinical pathology will greatly improve speed and quality of the analyses. PMID:23365006

  4. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST). PMID:26500915

  5. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-01-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon’s clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as “plexiform neurofibroma” and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST). PMID:26500915

  6. Migrastatin analogues target fascin to block tumour metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Jakoncic, J.; Yang, S.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.Y.

    2010-04-15

    Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of death of cancer patients. Development of new therapeutics preventing tumour metastasis is urgently needed. Migrastatin is a natural product secreted by Streptomyces, and synthesized migrastatin analogues such as macroketone are potent inhibitors of metastatic tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Here we show that these migrastatin analogues target the actin-bundling protein fascin to inhibit its activity. X-ray crystal structural studies reveal that migrastatin analogues bind to one of the actin-binding sites on fascin. Our data demonstrate that actin cytoskeletal proteins such as fascin can be explored as new molecular targets for cancer treatment, in a similar manner to the microtubule protein tubulin.

  7. Delayed Menopause Due to Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Vyas M., Neetha; Manjeera, Lakshmi; Rai, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    A patient presented to us with complaints of inability to attain menopause even at the age of 64. She has been having irregular cycles of bleeding for 5 days every 2-3 months from the age of 54. On evaluation, she was found to have endometrial hyperplasia and ultrasonography showed a homogenous solid ovarian mass of size of the 4 cm x 3.5 cm. She underwent staging laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and infra colic omentectomy. Histopathology confirmed granulosa cell tumour of the ovary. Most commonly granulosa cell tumour presented with post–menopausal bleeding and abnormal uterine bleeding, however, women with delayed menopause also have to be evaluated thoroughly for estrogen secreting ovarian tumours. There should be an element of suspicion if patient doesn’t attain menopause as specified and they need to be evaluated in detail. PMID:24298512

  8. Multiple giant cell tumours of tendon sheath: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Pathade, Smita Charandas; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Tauheed, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Giant Cell Tumours Of Tendon Sheath (GCTTS) are the second most frequent soft tissue tumours affecting the hand with an overall incidence of 1 in 50,000 individuals. These tumours are usually localized and solitary, with multiple GCTTS occurring rarely. Multi-centric origin is considered unusual and very few cases of multiple GCTTS have been reported till date. Here, we report a rare case of a 26-year-old female who presented with multiple painless swellings on palmar aspect of little finger of right hand since six months. Clinical diagnosis of Dupuytren's contracture was given. Intraoperative examination revealed multiple separate nodules, firmly attached to the flexor tendon synovial sheath. Histopathology showed features of GCTTS. PMID:24596760

  9. Multiple Giant Cell Tumours of Tendon Sheath: A Rare Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pathade, Smita Charandas; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Tauheed, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Giant Cell Tumours Of Tendon Sheath (GCTTS) are the second most frequent soft tissue tumours affecting the hand with an overall incidence of 1 in 50,000 individuals. These tumours are usually localized and solitary, with multiple GCTTS occurring rarely. Multi-centric origin is considered unusual and very few cases of multiple GCTTS have been reported till date. Here, we report a rare case of a 26-year-old female who presented with multiple painless swellings on palmar aspect of little finger of right hand since six months. Clinical diagnosis of Dupuytren’s contracture was given. Intraoperative examination revealed multiple separate nodules, firmly attached to the flexor tendon synovial sheath. Histopathology showed features of GCTTS. PMID:24596760

  10. [Everolimus (RAD001) and solid tumours: a 2008 summary].

    PubMed

    Lévy, A; Sauvin, L Albiges; Massard, C; Soria, J-C

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, is a mediator in the downstream signalling pathway phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, playing a key role in regulation of basic cellular functions including growth and cell proliferation. The inhibitor of mTOR RAD001, or everolimus (Novartis Pharma AG), is a hydroxyethyl ether rapamycin derivative administered orally. Everolimus showed an important anti-angiogenic and antiproliferative activity on cell lines derived from human tumours and on xenograft models of human tumours. This molecule appears well tolerated, with skin reactions, stomatitis, myelosupression and metabolic abnormalities transient and reversible with interruption of treatment. Clear data suggest antitumor activity, including tumour regression and prolonged stable disease, which has been reported in patients with a variety of malignancies, especially those with metastatic renal cell cancer. Here, we review the preclinical data of this compound with current clinical results and future developments. PMID:19091655

  11. Huge Chest Wall Tumour Resection and Reconstruction using Titanium Mesh.

    PubMed

    Adli Azam, Mohammad Razi; Raja Amin, Raja Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Malignant chest wall tumour is rare. The presentation is usually aggressive that requires extensive resection to prevent recurrence. However, the extensive resection is to the expense of causing defect on the chest wall and hence, respiratory mechanics. Two cases of chest wall tumour are discussed including the surgical approach of radical tumour resection which was combined with placement of titanium mesh and Tranverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneus (TRAM) flap to cover the defect and preserve respiratory mechanical functions. The morbidity of using titanium mesh demonstrated in the case series were infection and injury to surrounding tissue due to its rigidity and large size which required its removal. However the formation of 'pseudopleura' made the thoracic cage return back as closed cavity even after the removal of the titanium mesh and allow normal respiratory functions. PMID:25892952

  12. Selective screening of hormonodependent tumours in women's reproductive system organs.

    PubMed

    Kuznetzov, V V; Semiglazov, V F; Maximov SYa

    1993-01-01

    The study is devoted to research of the selective screening possibilities for revealing of hormonodependent tumours of the reproductive system organs in women (endometrial carcinoma, ovarian and breast cancer). The detection of risk factors of cervix uteri cancer, endometrial carcinoma, ovarian and breast cancer has been carried out with the help of a case-control study (311 patients with cancer and 14,872 controls). On the basis of the established risk factors by means of mathematical methods the optimized calculation programmes of individual risks and models in the formation of risk groups of hormonodependent tumours (control 0.32%) have been detected. Through this approach the practical significance of hormonedependent tumours of the selective screening of the reproductive system organs in women has been augmented. PMID:8500503

  13. Selective screening on hormonedependent tumours of women's reproductive system organs.

    PubMed

    Kuznesov, V V

    1992-01-01

    This work is devoted to research on the selective screening possibilities of hormonodependent tumours of the female reproductive system organs (endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer). After morbidity analysis using case-control study elucidation of risk factors affecting cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium, ovary and breast were carried out on of female population the Ashkhabad (311 cancer patients and 14872 healthy women). Using established risk factors and mathematical methods optimized computer programmes were developed processing individual risk and models forming risk groups or hormonedependent tumours which were used in practice. As a result in the risk group were found 0.9% subclinical states and hormonedependent tumours (control -0.16%). The research accomplished has shown the practical importance of hormonedependent selective screening and necessity of elucidating new disease-epidemiological and laboratory risk factors in cancer of the reproductive system's organs. PMID:1387365

  14. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  15. Interleukin-2 gene therapy of surgical minimal residual tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Vlk, V; Rössner, P; Indrová, M; Bubeník, J; Sobota, V

    1998-03-30

    Our study was designed to examine the effects of IL-2 gene therapy in a surgical minimal residual tumour disease (SMRTD). Mice were inoculated s.c. with methylcholanthrene (MC)-induced MC12 sarcoma cells. When the tumours reached 8 to 12 mm in diameter, they were excised, either completely ("microscopic SMRTD") or incompletely ("macroscopic SMRTD"). On day 90 after surgery, the tumour recurrence rate in untreated mice with microscopic SMRTD was approximately 30%, whereas in those with macroscopic SMRTD it was 75%. After surgery, experimental mice were treated with 2 types of irradiated, IL-2 gene-modified, IL-2-producing tumour cell vaccine. One type of vaccine was derived from the MC12 sarcoma cells (MC12-1L2/IV-3); the other type was derived from an unrelated X63-Ag8.653 plasmacytoma (X63-m-IL-2). Both types of vaccine failed to cure the macroscopic SMRTD. Whereas the X63-m-IL-2 vaccine was also ineffective in the microscopic SMRTD, the MC12-IL2/IV-3 vaccine was capable of preventing growth in all but one mouse (1164) with microscopic SMRTD when administered 2 to 5 days after surgery. If the vaccination took place 2 days before surgery or later than 5 days after surgery, the therapeutic activity was lost. Vaccination with irradiated parental MC12 cells did not produce any significant benefit compared to the operated-only mice. The protective effect of the MC12-L2/IV-3 vaccine was specific and comparatively long-lasting. Vaccinated mice, which had rejected the MC12 tumour residuum, were capable of rejecting a second inoculum of the MC12 sarcoma cells injected on days 35 to 110 after surgery but succumbed to the growth of 2 other unrelated murine sarcomas carrying different tumour-rejection antigens. PMID:9533770

  16. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  17. Renal cystic tumours in children--a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Babut, J M; Bawab, F; Jouan, H; Coeurdacier, P; Treguier, C; Fremond, B

    1993-06-01

    A series of 8 cystic renal tumours is reported in seven-months to four-years-old children. The final diagnosis was cystic nephroma (multilocular cyst) in 4, cystic, partially differentiated nephroblastoma in 3 and partially cystic nephroblastoma in one. Pre-operative distinction between those three types is difficult and inadequate therapeutic approach may result from a wrong diagnosis. Progress in imaging techniques allows a better analysis of cysts and septa. If no solid part can be detected in the tumour, total nephrectomy is sufficient to obtain a favourable outcome. PMID:8394739

  18. Solitary fibrous tumour of lacrimal gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Narang, Vikram; Singh, Nagi Anitaraj Rajendra; Bajwa, Gurkirat Singh; Sood, Neena

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumour of mesenchymal origin most commonly encountered in pleura. It can affect the orbital region but SFT of lacrimal gland is rare. We hereby report of a SFT of lacrimal gland in a 50-year-old male presenting with slow growing swelling in left superolateral orbital region. The preliminary fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) could not reveal any definite diagnosis. Excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis. Therefore, clinician and pathologist should be aware of this entity and biopsy along with IHC is required to rule out other entities which can mimic it clinically and histopathologically. PMID:25954627

  19. Improvement in the computer-assisted diagnosis of cerebral tumours.

    PubMed

    Du Boulay, G H; Teather, D; Harling, D; Clarke, G

    1977-12-01

    Most applications of Bayes theorem in computer-aided diagnosis have been to situations involving the differential diagnosis of a small list of disease categories. In the case of the diagnosis of cerebral tumours, if each tumour type in each main anatomical situation is counted as a single diagnosis, there are about 100 possible disease categories. This paper investigates a method of incorporating expert prior information into the computer-aided diagnosis process so that this large number of categories can be handled. PMID:338083

  20. [Maternal virilization due to mucinous ovarian tumour: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fanara, E; Darnis, E; Winer, N; Kandel, C; Laboisse, C; Philippe, H-J

    2008-09-01

    Virilization in pregnancy is rare and mostly due to luteoma or to hyper-reactio luteinalis. We present a rare case of a virilization borderline mucinous ovarian tumour on a gravida 1 patient. The tumour was responsible for a clinical hyperandrogenism and for an increased level of testosterone. This patient was treated by ovariectomy at 31 weeks of gestation. The surgery was completed one month after delivery. There was no fetal consequence and the clinical and biological signs of virilization totally disappeared after surgery. PMID:18462892

  1. Pregnant with metastatic neuroendocrine tumour of the ovary: what now?

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, B; Grana, CM; Fazio, N; Cavaliere, A; Ferrari, ME; Bodei, L; Baio, SM; Scambia, G; Paganelli, G; Peccatori, FA

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs but can occur in other regions. Primary ovarian NET account for 5% of all NET and 0.1% of all ovarian malignancies. In metastatic disease, the therapeutic goal is to extend survival and to improve quality of life. As these tumours express somatostatin receptors, somatostatin analogues are frequently used to control symptoms. Here we present a case of a pregnant woman with an ovarian NET with liver metastases and carcinoid syndrome who was treated with the somatostatin analogue, Octreotide LAR. We also summarize reported data of the use of somatostatin analogues during pregnancy. PMID:22331988

  2. Disease Classification with Hippocampal Shape Boris Gutman1

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    : localizing AD's effect on brain anatomy or classifying subjects according to neuroanatomical differences be and L. Wang (Eds.): MICCAI 2008 Workshop on Computational Anatomy and Physiology of the Hippocampus AD classification studies to date, volume-based features, such as grey matter probability maps, were

  3. Predicting clinical response to anticancer drugs using an ex vivo platform that captures tumour heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Biswanath; Baraneedharan, Ulaganathan; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Radhakrishnan, Padhma; Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Dhandapani, Muthu; Brijwani, Nilesh; Pinto, Dency D.; Prasath, Arun; Shanthappa, Basavaraja U.; Thayakumar, Allen; Surendran, Rajagopalan; Babu, Govind K.; Shenoy, Ashok M.; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Bergthold, Guillaume; Horowitz, Peleg; Loda, Massimo; Beroukhim, Rameen; Agarwal, Shivani; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sundaram, Mallikarjun; Majumder, Pradip K.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting clinical response to anticancer drugs remains a major challenge in cancer treatment. Emerging reports indicate that the tumour microenvironment and heterogeneity can limit the predictive power of current biomarker-guided strategies for chemotherapy. Here we report the engineering of personalized tumour ecosystems that contextually conserve the tumour heterogeneity, and phenocopy the tumour microenvironment using tumour explants maintained in defined tumour grade-matched matrix support and autologous patient serum. The functional response of tumour ecosystems, engineered from 109 patients, to anticancer drugs, together with the corresponding clinical outcomes, is used to train a machine learning algorithm; the learned model is then applied to predict the clinical response in an independent validation group of 55 patients, where we achieve 100% sensitivity in predictions while keeping specificity in a desired high range. The tumour ecosystem and algorithm, together termed the CANScript technology, can emerge as a powerful platform for enabling personalized medicine. PMID:25721094

  4. Urothelial bladder tumour in childhood: A report of two cases and a review

    PubMed Central

    Rifat, Usama N.; Hamadalla, Nader Y.; Chiad Safi, Khalid C.; Al Habash, Salwan S.; Mohammed, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial bladder tumour in childhood is extremely rare, and almost all the reported cases have been low-grade tumours with a favourable outcome. Here we review 57 reports comprising 127 cases, and we report two new cases. PMID:26413332

  5. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: Revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1)

    Cancer.gov

    Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics. Both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and time to the devel-opment of disease progression are important endpoints in cancer clinical trials.

  6. KANK: a novel EB1 interactor and drosophila orthologue of a conserved tumour suppressor 

    E-print Network

    Clohisey, Sara Mary Rose

    2014-06-28

    The conserved human protein KANK1 has been identified as a tumour suppressor and its expression is down-regulated in several tumour types. Roles for this protein in actin regulation, cell migration and cell polarity have ...

  7. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    E-print Network

    Chauhan, Vikash P.

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan ...

  8. Differentiating primary and extragenital metastatic mucinous ovarian tumours: an algorithm combining PAX8 with tumour size and laterality

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ajin; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Letian; Ren, Caixia; Wang, Yuxiang; Liu, Yan; Liu, Congrong

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our aim was to analyse the utility of the algorithm combining PAX8 with clinicopathological characteristics (tumour size, laterality and patient age) in differentiating primary ovarian mucinous tumours (POMTs) from extragenital metastatic mucinous carcinomas involving the ovary (eMOMCs). Methods and results Immunohistochemical staining for PAX8 was performed on formalin ?xed, paraf?n embedded tissues from 47 POMTs, 18 eMOMCs and 70 extragenital primary mucinous carcinomas (ePMCs) using anti-PAX8 rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb) and anti-PAX8 rabbit monoclonal antibody (mAb). PAX8 (pAb) positive signals were found in 3/18 eMOMCs and in 32/70 ePMCs. PAX8 (mAb) demonstrated superior specificity, with 0% positivity in both eMOMCs and ePMCs, but unfavourable sensitivity, with 60.9% in ovarian mucinous borderline tumours and 45.8% in POMCs. Although PAX8 (mAb) immunostaining status (66.2%), tumour size (75.4%) and laterality (84.6%) demonstrated unsatisfactory accuracy when they were evaluated individually in differentiating POMTs from eMOMCs, a combination of PAX8 (mAb) immunostaining status, tumour size and laterality markedly increased accuracy (86.2%), with a satisfactory Youden Index (63.7%). Conclusions PAX8 (mAb) was a specific marker in differentiating POMTs from eMOMCs. As a simple, convenient and high performance to price ratio algorithm, a combination of PAX8 (mAb) immunostaining with tumour size and laterality will improve the diagnostic criteria of ovarian mucinous metastasis. PMID:25827135

  9. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails.

  10. Organic brain syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  11. INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain

    E-print Network

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    CHAPTERS INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain Evolution P Thomas Schoenemann U nderstanding brain evolution Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Published 2013 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. #12;HOMINID BIWN EVOLUTION 137 BRAIN

  12. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour with Heterologus Elements Masquerading as Mucinous Tumour on Frozen Section: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Valiathan, Manna; Kumar, Sandeep; Kapoor, Sukriti

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour (SLCT) is an extremely rare ovarian neoplasm. This tumour is characterized by excessive proliferation of normal testicular structures sertoli and leydig cells. These cells are seen in varying proportions and exhibit varying degrees of differentiation. We report a case of primary ovarian SLCT with heterologus elements in a 17-year-old girl which was misdiagnosed on frozen section as mucinous cystic neoplasm. We discuss the clinicopathologic features of SLCT along with the unusual features seen in this case. PMID:26393134

  13. Blue Brain Project Brain Mind Institute

    E-print Network

    © Blue Brain Project Brain Mind Institute Prof. Henry Markram Dr. Felix Schürmann felix.schuermann@epfl.ch http://bluebrainproject.epfl.ch Reverse-Engineering the Brain #12;© Blue Brain Project The Electrophysiologist's View BBP BBPBBP #12;© Blue Brain Project Accurate Models that Relate to Experiment LBC PC SBC PC

  14. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (2004) 01, 128 A Multiphase Model Describing Vascular Tumour Growth

    E-print Network

    Breward, Chris J W

    2004-01-01

    of tumour cells, supply and removal of extracellular fluid via the blood and lymph drainage vessels grow much larger than its avascular counterpart, whose growth is diffusion limited. Liquid can also be removed from such tumours through the lymph drainage system. Vascular tumours are dangerous not only

  15. Disulphide-isomerase-enabled shedding of tumour-associated NKG2D ligands

    E-print Network

    Spies, Thomas

    LETTERS Disulphide-isomerase-enabled shedding of tumour-associated NKG2D ligands Brett K. Kaiser1 to cancer1­6 . However, many progressing tumours in humans counter this anti-tumour activity by shedding activity and ERp5 gene silencing revealed that cell-surface ERp5 function is required for MICA shedding

  16. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: reclassification of the odontogenic keratocyst from cyst to tumour.

    PubMed

    Madras, Jonathan; Lapointe, Henry

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the features and behaviour of the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), now officially known as the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT); to analyze a series of histologically confirmed KCOT cases; and to review and discuss the redesignation of KCOT and the implications for treatment. Redesignation of the OKC as the KCOT by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the well-known aggressive behaviour of this lesion, its histology and new information regarding its genetics. Abnormal function of PTCH, a tumour suppressor gene, is noted to be involved in both nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and sporadic KCOTs. Normally, PTCH forms a receptor complex with the oncogene SMO for the SHH ligand. PTCH binding to SMO inhibits growth-signal transduction. SHH binding to PTCH releases inhibition of the signal transduction pathway. If normal functioning of PTCH is lost, the proliferation-stimulating effects of SMO are permitted to predominate. A review of the literature was conducted and results were tabulated to determine whether treatment modality is related to recurrence rate. More aggressive treatment - resection or enucleation supplemented with Carnoy"s solution with or without peripheral ostectomy - results in a lower recurrence rate than enucleation alone or marsupialization. Notably, the recurrence rate after marsupialization followed by enucleation is not significantly higher than that following the so-called aggressive modalities. Our case series consists of 21 patients treated for KCOTs. Results were organized to demonstrate recurrence as it relates to size of lesion and time since treatment and incidence as it relates to patient age and location in the jaws. In our series, the average KCOT surface area measured radiographically was 14 cm2. Most lesions were within the 0-15 cm2 range and lesions in this range resulted in the greatest number and proportion of recurrences. The recurrence rate of 29% in our case series was consistent with previously established data; all recurrences occurred within 2 years post-intervention. The incidence of primary lesions was highest in the age group 70-79 years; most lesions occurred in the posterior mandible. WHO"s reclassification of the OKC as the KCOT based on behaviour, histology and genetics underscores the aggressive nature of the lesion and should motivate clinicians to manage the disease in a correspondingly aggressive manner. The most effective interventions for the KCOT are either enucleation with Carnoy"s solution, or marsupialization with later cystectomy. Future treatment may involve molecular-based modalities, which may reduce or eliminate the need for aggressive surgical management. PMID:18353202

  17. Role of Staging in Patients with Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumours.

    PubMed

    Clift, Ashley Kieran; Faiz, Omar; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Bockisch, Andreas; Liedke, Marc Olaf; Schloericke, Erik; Wasan, Harpreet; Martin, John; Ziprin, Paul; Moorthy, Krishna; Frilling, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours are the commonest malignancy arising in the small intestine and have substantially increased in incidence in recent decades. Patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumours commonly develop lymph node and/or distant metastases. Here, we examine the role of staging in 84 surgically treated patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumours, comparing diagnostic information yielded from morphological, functional and endoscopic modalities. Furthermore, we correlate pre-operative staging with intra-operative findings in a sub-cohort of 20 patients. The vast majority of patients had been histologically confirmed to have low-grade (Ki-67 <2 %) disease; however, lymph node and distant metastases were observed in 74 (88.1 %) and 51 (60.7 %) of patients at presentation, respectively. Liver metastases were evident in 48 (57.1 %) patients, with solely peritoneal and bone metastases observed in 2 (2.4 %) and 1 (1.2 %) patients, respectively. Forty patients (47.6 %) received multimodal treatment. In our sub-cohort analysis, pre-operative imaging understaged disease in 14/20 (70 %) when compared with intra-operative findings. In patients with multifocal primary tumours and miliary liver metastases, no imaging modality was able to detect entire disease spread. Overall, presently available imaging modalities heavily underestimate disease stage, with meticulous intra-operative abdominal examination being superior to any imaging technology. Multimodal treatment has an important role in prolonging survival. PMID:26394880

  18. Anatomical features of the origin and spread of tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Levene, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    All tumours have certain broad characteristics in common, though they vary widely in their origin, distribution, shape, and mode of spread. The part played by anatomical factors in determining these variations is discussed and the need for the surgeon to bear these factors in mind in diagnosis and treatment is emphasised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:626470

  19. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Ternette, Nicola; Su, Huizhong; Dabiri, Raliat; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Adam, Julie; Teh, Bin Tean; Pollard, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC. PMID:25105836

  20. Disruption of FAT10MAD2 binding inhibits tumour progression

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    Disruption of FAT10­MAD2 binding inhibits tumour progression Steven Setiawan Theng, Wei Wang, Way, and Caroline G. Lee FAT10 is a molecule that is found at low levels in various tissues of the body. Its found that over-expression of FAT10 promotes tumor formation, growth and progression. We also discovered

  1. Telomere maintenance as therapeutic target in embryonal tumours.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, T; Hiyama, E; Grotzer, M A

    2010-03-01

    Embryonal tumours most commonly occur in the first few years of life and account for approximately 30% of childhood malignancies. Knowledge of these tumours' genetics has already impacted on their clinical management and further knowledge of their cellular immortalization will hopefully result in novel therapies. The ends of human chromosomes are capped and protected by telomeres; cellular replication, however, causes their loss. A critical length of telomere repeats is required to ensure proper telomere function and avoid the activation of DNA damage pathways that result in senescence and cell death. To proliferate beyond the senescence checkpoint, cells must restore their telomere length. Hence stabilization of telomere is an important step in cell immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomere maintenance is evident in virtually all types of malignant cells, including embryonal tumours, where either a telomerase-dependent or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism is employed in order to ensure their limitless replicative potential. For this reason effective strategies targeting telomere maintenance in cancer cells require a combination of telomerase and ALT inhibitors. In this review, we are giving an overview about telomere maintenance in childhood tumours and discussing its potential as a new therapeutic target. PMID:20017721

  2. Genetically modified tumour vaccines (GMTV) in melanoma clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, S; Murawa, P; Malicki, J; Kapcinska, M; Gryska, K; Izycki, D; Kaczmarek, A; Laciak, M; Czapczyk, A; Karczewska, A; Rose-John, S; Mackiewicz, A

    2000-09-15

    Since melanoma is a model immunogenic malignancy incurable in the disseminated phase of its natural course different immunotherapeutic approaches are tested in clinical trials. A number of tumour vaccines genetically modified (GMTV), with various immunostimulatory factors, are tested in phase I/II clinical trials. These factors include cytokines, tumour antigens (TA), costimulatory molecules or HLA antigens. We have designed a novel, mixed auto/allogeneic cellular melanoma vaccine modified with the IL-6 and the sIL-6R genes. Preclinical studies in a mouse model demonstrated that the IL-6/sIL-6R based vaccine is able to elicit efficient anti-tumour responses, mediated by CD8+ and NK cells, which resulted in inhibition of the tumour growth, metastases formation and prolonged survival of the animals treated. Irradiation of vaccine cells does not only lead to their sterilisation but also causes increased secretion of exogenous IL-6 and sIL-6R. Since January 1996 we have vaccinated more than one hundred metastatic melanoma patients. Promising clinical results (22% CR+PR, 32% SD) and the evidence of immune responses in the vaccinated patients have prompted us to design a phase III clinical trial which is to be open in 2000. PMID:10996632

  3. Emulsion technologies for multicellular tumour spheroid radiation assays.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Kay S; McCluskey, Anthony G; Sorensen, Annette; Boyd, Marie; Zagnoni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A major limitation with current in vitro technologies for testing anti-cancer therapies at the pre-clinical level is the use of 2D cell culture models which provide a poor reflection of the tumour physiology in vivo. Three dimensional cell culture models, such as the multicellular spheroid, provide instead a more accurate representation. However, existing spheroid-based assessment methods are generally labour-intensive and low-throughput. Emulsion based technologies offer enhanced mechanical stability during multicellular tumour spheroid formation and culture and are scalable to enable higher-throughput assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of emulsion-based techniques for the formation and long term culture of multicellular UVW glioma cancer spheroids and apply these findings to assess the cytotoxic effect of radiation on spheroids. Our results showed that spheroids formed within emulsions had similar morphological and growth characteristics to those formed using traditional methods. Furthermore, we have identified the effects produced on the proliferative state of the spheroids due to the compartmentalised nature of the emulsions and applied this for mimicking tumour growth and tumour quiescence. Finally, proof of concept results are shown to demonstrate the scalability potential of the technology for developing high-throughput screening assays. PMID:26456100

  4. Management of penile tumours during the Byzantine period.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; de Bree, Eelco; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Manios, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While conventional treatment of penile cancer consists of total penile amputation and bilateral lymphadenectomy, recently a more conservative strategy comprising penile-preserving surgery and selective lymphadenectomy has been applied in order to preserve the penis and to minimize unnecessary inguinal lymphadenectomy. A thorough literature survey was performed to see what was already known of the surgical treatment of penile tumours in ancient times. In the Byzantine period, surgery appeared to have been highly developed, as one may conclude from the surgical material included mainly in the works of Oribasius of Pergamus and Paul of Aegina. Being aware of cancer, they described in their medical encyclopaedias malignant and benign tumours of the prepuce and glans penis, as well as their surgical and non-surgical management. After local excision of malignant tumours, they strongly recommended burning to prevent relapse, whereas they discouraged simultaneous removal of external and internal preputial lesions, because of the risk of perforation of the prepuce. These surprisingly detailed descriptions prove that Byzantine surgery had reached a higher level than commonly supposed. Penile-preserving treatment, which has recently become the therapeutic strategy of choice, was already accomplished in ancient times by using adjuvant thermal or chemical burning after local tumour excision. PMID:26011363

  5. Characteristics of salivary gland tumours in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al Sarraj, Yasir; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Al Siraj, Ammar; AlShayeb, Maher

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are relatively rare cancers characterised by striking morphological diversity and wide variation in the global distribution of SGT incidence. Given the proximity to the head and neck structures, management of SGT has been clinically difficult. To the best of our knowledge, there are no epidemiological studies on SGT from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) or the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCC). Patient charts (N = 314) and associated pathological records were systematically reviewed between the years 1998–2014. Predominance of benign (74%) compared with malignant (26%) SGT was observed. Among the 83 malignant SGT identified, frequency was higher in males (61%) than in females (39%) and peak occurrence was in the fifth decade of life. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of tumour (35%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (18.1%) and acinar cell carcinoma (10.8%). A similar pattern of tumour distribution was seen in patients from GCC, Asian, and Middle East countries. This is the first report to address the distribution of salivary gland tumours in a multiethnic, multicultural population of the Gulf. The results suggest that the development of an SGT registry will help clinicians and researchers to better understand, manage, and treat this rare disease. PMID:26557881

  6. Growth rate characteristics of Warthin's tumours of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Schwalje, A T; Uzelac, A; Ryan, W R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate growth characteristics of parotid gland Warthin's tumours. The medical records of 134 patients who had a cytological or histopathological diagnosis of Warthin's tumour between 1997 and 2013, at a single tertiary care centre, were reviewed retrospectively. Thirteen of these patients underwent observation with 30 serial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head and neck, with 24 Warthin's lesions identified. The mean length of time between scans was 882 days, and mean initial and final sizes per lesion were 3.9cm(3) and 5.6cm(3), respectively. Average growth of these lesions was 8% per year (95% confidence interval -27% to 43%; range -148% to 460%; median -8%), and was highly variable (standard deviation 96%). Age over 75 years was associated with slower growth (P=0.03), but gender, smoking status, multifocality, bilaterality versus unilaterality, and initial size did not correlate with the growth rate. Warthin's tumours appear to have an approximate average doubling time of 9 years, but can have a wide range of growth rates, with many cases showing a reduction in size. Either conservative management or surgical resection could be supported by these data, depending on the current size of the tumour, appearance, symptoms, and the age, health, and wishes of the patient. PMID:26314235

  7. Identification of a novel lytic peptide for the treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Claudia; Tenstad, Olav; Baumann, Anne; Martinez, Aurora; Myklebust, Reidar

    2014-01-01

    Originally known as host defence peptides for their substantial bacteriotoxic effects, many cationic antimicrobial peptides also exhibit a potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Their mode of action is characterized mostly by electrostatic interactions with the plasma membrane, leading to membrane disruption and rapid necrotic cell death. In this work, we have designed a novel cationic peptide of 27 amino acids (Cypep-1), which shows efficacy against a number of cancer cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, while normal human fibroblasts were significantly less affected. Surface plasmon resonance experiments as well as liposome leakage assays monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a substantial binding affinity of Cypep-1 to negatively charged liposomes and induced significant leakage of liposome content after exposure to the peptide. The observed membranolytic effect of Cypep-1 was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as by time-lapse confocal microscopy. Pharmacokinetic profiling of Cypep-1 in rats showed a short plasma half-life after i.v. injection, followed mainly by retention in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Extremely low concentrations within the organs of the central nervous system indicated that Cypep-1 did not pass the blood-brain-barrier. Local treatment of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma allografts by means of a single local bolus injection of Cypep-1 led to a significant reduction of tumour growth in the following weeks and prolonged survival. Detailed histological analysis of the treated tumours revealed large areas of necrosis. In sum, our findings show that the novel cationic peptide Cypep-1 displays a strong cytolytic activity against cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and thus holds a substantial therapeutic potential. PMID:25061502

  8. Feature selection and classification of multiparametric medical images using bagging and SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yong; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for brain classification based on multi-parametric medical images. This method takes advantage of multi-parametric imaging to provide a set of discriminative features for classifier construction by using a regional feature extraction method which takes into account joint correlations among different image parameters; in the experiments herein, MRI and PET images of the brain are used. Support vector machine classifiers are then trained based on the most discriminative features selected from the feature set. To facilitate robust classification and optimal selection of parameters involved in classification, in view of the well-known "curse of dimensionality", base classifiers are constructed in a bagging (bootstrap aggregating) framework for building an ensemble classifier and the classification parameters of these base classifiers are optimized by means of maximizing the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve estimated from their prediction performance on left-out samples of bootstrap sampling. This classification system is tested on a sex classification problem, where it yields over 90% classification rates for unseen subjects. The proposed classification method is also compared with other commonly used classification algorithms, with favorable results. These results illustrate that the methods built upon information jointly extracted from multi-parametric images have the potential to perform individual classification with high sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Brain metastasis detection by resonant Raman optical biopsy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pu, Yang; Li, Zhongwu; Liu, Yulong; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    Resonant Raman (RR) spectroscopy provides an effective way to enhance Raman signal from particular bonds associated with key molecules due to changes on a molecular level. In this study, RR is used for detection of human brain metastases of five kinds of primary organs of lung, breast, kidney, rectal and orbital in ex-vivo. The RR spectra of brain metastases cancerous tissues were measured and compared with those of normal brain tissues and the corresponding primary cancer tissues. The differences of five types of brain metastases tissues in key bio-components of carotene, tryptophan, lactate, alanine and methyl/methylene group were investigated. The SVM-KNN classifier was used to categorize a set of RR spectra data of brain metastasis of lung cancerous tissues from normal brain tissue, yielding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 100% and 75%, respectively. The RR spectroscopy may provide new moleculebased optical probe tools for diagnosis and classification of brain metastatic of cancers.

  10. CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview

    Cancer.gov

    CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview The CTEP Simplified Disease Classification (CTEP SDC) v1.0 is a restructured, more intuitive classification of diseases, designed to meet the needs of CTEP while still allowing reporting based on the

  11. Classification Oliver Gray

    E-print Network

    Gasparim, Elizabeth

    Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular invariant of the N = 2 Virasoro unitary minimal models Oliver Gray Universit¨at Augsburg 17th December 2008 First Cuban Congress #12;Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular

  12. Robotic Rock Classification and

    E-print Network

    Robotic Rock Classification and Autonomous Exploration Liam Pedersen #12;Acknowledgements for me to spend three summers at NASA's Ames Research Center working with him on rock classification to himself, a marvelous spectrometer with which to study rocks in Antarctica. Dr. Bill Cassidy's unstinting

  13. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  14. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Lisa M; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N

    2012-08-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with clinical characteristics and daily performance (fatigue and psychosocial functioning). In a cross-sectional study at the outpatient clinic of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (February-June 2010), sleep, fatigue and psychosocial functioning were analysed in 31 CNS tumour patients (mean age: 11.8years; 20 boys) and compared with 78 patients treated for a non-CNS malignancy (mean age: 9.7years; 41 boys) and norm data. Questionnaires applied were the Sleep Disorder Scale for Children, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sleeping habits and endocrine deficiencies were assessed with a self-developed questionnaire. Increased somnolence was found in CNS tumour patients compared with those with a non-CNS malignancy (8.8±2.8 versus 7.5±2.7; P<0.05). Both patient groups reported more problems (P<0.01) than the norm with initiating and maintaining sleep. No specific risk factors were identified for a sleep disorder in CNS tumour patients, but their excessive somnolence was correlated with lower fatigue related quality of life (QoL) (r=-0.78, P<0.001) and worse psychosocial functioning (r=0.63, P<0.001). In conclusion, children treated for a CNS tumour have increased somnolence, significantly increasing fatigue and worsening daily functioning. Further investigation should focus on possibilities to improve sleep quality and diminish fatigue. PMID:22780916

  15. Glycolipids of human primary testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Olie, R. A.; Fenderson, B.; Daley, K.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Murphy, J.; Looijenga, L. H.

    1996-01-01

    The glycolipid content of human non-seminomatous germ cell tumour cell lines correlates with their differentiation lineage. To analyse whether this reflects the situation in primary tumours, we studied five embryonal carcinomas, five yolk sac tumours and nine (mixed) non-seminomas, using thin-layer chromatography and carbohydrate immunostaining. We also analysed the glycolipid content of 19 seminomas to reveal their relationship with non-seminomas. Lactosylceramide (CDH) was detected in all embryonal carcinomas, but in fewer than half of the seminomas. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas contained globoseries glycolipids, including globotriosylceramide (Gb3), globoside (Gb4), galactosy globoside (Gb5) and sialy1 galactosyl globoside (GL7). The lacto-series glycolipid Le(x) was found in all embryonal carcinomas, but only in one seminoma. Gangliosides GD3 and GT3 were detected in many seminomas, but rarely in embryonal carcinomas. Yolk sac tumours displayed a heterogeneous glycolipid profile. Compared with seminomas and pure embryonal carcinomas, differentiated non-seminomas had reduced levels of globo-series glycolipids, especially Gb3 and Gb5, whereas CDH, Le(x), GD3 and GT3 were found in the majority of cases. Thus, the glycolipid content of non-seminoma cell lines reflects the situation in primary tumours. Globo-series glycolipids are similarly expressed in seminomas and embryonal carcinomas. The expression of Gb3 and Gb5 is reduced in non-seminomas upon differentiation. Le(x) expression in non-seminomas, including embryonal carcinomas, allows discrimination from seminomas. Expression of gangliosides in seminomas might indicate their maturation from ganglioside-negative precursor cells. Reprogramming of these precursors would result in the formation of Le(x)-expressing embryonal carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8679447

  16. A single institutional experience of thymic epithelial tumours over 11 years: clinical features and outcome and implications for future management

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H-S; Kim, S T; Lee, J; Choi, Y S; Han, J-H; Ahn, Y-C; Lee, K-S; Ahn, J S; Ahn, M J; Kim, K; Shim, Y M; Kim, J; Park, K

    2007-01-01

    Thymic epithelial tumours (TETs), the most common tumour of the anterior mediastinum, are epithelial neoplasms of the thymus with a wide spectrum of morphologic features. We retrospectively analysed clinical features of TET and the correlation of World Health Organisation (WHO) histologic classification and Masaoka staging system with different treatment modalities in 195 patients, from 1995 to 2005. According to the Masaoka's staging system, there were 78 (40.0 %) patients with stage I, 38 (19.5%) with stage II, 41 (21.0%) with stage III, 38 (19.5%) with stage IV. All patients were reclassified according to the WHO criteria as follows: Type A (n=9, 4.6%), AB (n=37, 18.9%), B1 (n=29, 14.8%), B2 (n=48, 24.6%), B3 (n=40, 20.5%), C (n=32, 16.4%). There was a fairly good correlation between Masaoka staging and WHO histotype (P<0.05). However, in multivariate analysis, the tumour stage and WHO histotype were two independent factors separately for predicting overall survival (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Thus, both Masaoka stage and WHO histotype should be considered in risk stratification of therapy for TET patients. Patients with completely resected types B2, B3 and C and adjuvant radiotherapy (n=57) had more favourable disease-free and overall survival as compared with those without adjuvant treatment (n=20) (P=0.015, 0.015, respectively). Given that the predominant sites of recurrence after surgery was pleura/pericardium and lung, and the fact that complete resection was a significant influential factor for survival at log–rank test, an active investigation of newer treatment strategies such as neoadjuvant treatment to improve the resectability and development of optimal adjuvant treatment modality is a high priority especially for those with high-risk for recurrence or in patients with advanced stage disease. PMID:17592498

  17. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore »most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  18. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Brain Tumors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Brain & Nervous System > ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  19. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  20. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us ...

  1. Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  2. Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  3. The potential role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the treatment of experimentally-induced mammary tumour: does celecoxib enhance the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin?

    PubMed

    Awara, Wageh M; El-Sisi, Alaa E; El-Sayad, Magda E; Goda, Ahmed E

    2004-11-01

    The potential anti-tumour activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) has been previously discussed. This study was undertaken to assess the possible anti-tumour activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor; celecoxib in an animal model of mammary carcinoma; the solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). The possibility that celecoxib may modulate the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin on the SEC was also studied. Some of the possible mechanisms underlying such modulation were investigated. The anti-tumour activity of celecoxib (25 mg kg(-1)), diclofenac (12.5 mg kg(-1)) and doxorubicin (2 mg kg(-1)) either alone or in combination were investigated on SEC in vivo through the assessment of tumour growth delay (TGD) and tumour volume (TV), changes in tumour DNA content and nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical staining of the tumour suppressor gene product; p53 histopathological examination and determination of apoptotic index of SEC. In addition, the influence of these drugs on the DNA fragmentation pattern of Ehrlich carcinoma cells (ECC) was studied. It was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac lack the anti-tumour activity on SEC. In addition there was a significant increase in doxorubicin anti-tumour activity when administered in combination with celecoxib. Moreover, it was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac have the potential to inhibit the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in ECC using rhodamine uptake and efflux assays. Therefore, the current study suggested the chemosensitizing potential of celecoxib in the SEC animal model of mammary tumour, which could be explained in part on the basis of inhibition of P-gp function, with possible enhancement of doxorubicin anti-tumour activity. PMID:15458769

  4. Co-operation of ?-galactosylceramide-loaded tumour cells and TLR9 agonists induce potent anti-tumour responses in a murine colon cancer model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tiangeng; Yi, Tuo; Yang, Mengxuan; Lin, Shengli; Li, Wenxiang; Xu, Xingyuan; Hu, Jianwei; Jia, Lijun; Hong, Xinqiang; Niu, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play important roles in linking innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Mature DCs activated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists directly activate iNKT cells and the iNKT ligand ?-galactosylceramide (?-Galcer) can induce DC maturation, resulting in enhanced protective immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to boost anti-tumour immunity in a murine colon cancer model by synergizing DCs and iNKT cells using ?-Galcer-loaded tumour cells (tumour-Gal) and the TLR9 agonist cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine (CpG1826). The vaccine strategy was sufficient to inhibit growth of established tumours and prolonged survival of tumour-bearing mice. Importantly, the immunization induced an adaptive memory immune response as the survivors from primary tumour inoculations were resistant to a tumour re-challenge. Furthermore, injection of tumour-Gal with CpG1826 resulted in iNKT cell activation and DC maturation as defined by interferon (IFN)-? secretion by iNKT, natural killer (NK) cells and interleukin (IL)-12 by DCs. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T-cells and CD8(+) T-cells played important roles in anti-tumour immunity. Additionally, the vaccine redirected Th2 (T-helper cell type 2) responses toward Th1 (T-helper cell type 1) responses with increases in IL-2, IFN-? expression and decreases in IL-4 and IL-5 expression after immunization with tumour-Gal with CpG1826. Taken together, our results demonstrated a novel vaccination by synergizing tumour-Gal and CpG1826 against murine colon cancer, which can be further developed as tumour-specific immunotherapy against human cancer. PMID:26450924

  5. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniotomy - discharge; Surgery - brain - discharge; Neurosurgery - discharge; Craniectomy - discharge; Stereotactic craniotomy - discharge; Stereotactic brain biopsy - discharge; Endoscopic craniotomy - discharge

  6. High FoxP3 expression in tumour cells predicts better survival in gastric cancer and its role in tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, G-F; Miao, Q; Liu, Y-M; Gao, H; Lian, J-J; Wang, Y-N; Zeng, X-Q; Luo, T-C; Ma, L-L; Shen, Z-B; Sun, Y-H; Chen, S-Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is thought to be a key transcription factor in regulatory T cells (Tregs), and recent data indicate that it is expressed in several tumour cells. However, its precise roles in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms regulating the interaction between GC cells and lymphocytes remain unclear. Methods: FoxP3 expression was examined in tumour cells and Tregs in 150 cases of gastric precancer and cancer, and their prognostic significances were evaluated, respectively, using a tissue microarray containing 135 GC patient samples with a mean 102-month follow-up. FoxP3 involvement in the tumour cells–lymphocytes interaction and its gene function were further investigated. Results: strong cytoplasmic staining of FoxP3 was observed in GC cells. FoxP3 protein expression in tumour cells predicts a good prognosis, whereas high-density Treg predicts a poor prognosis. Moreover, FoxP3 expression in GC cells increased after coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells through coculture systems. Upregulation of FoxP3 inhibited tumour growth in tumour-bearing nude mice. Conclusions: High FoxP3 expression in tumour cells predicts better survival in GC, possibility in relation to interaction between tumour cells and lymphocytes in microenvironment. Interfering with FoxP3 expression may open a new therapeutic strategy against tumour progression. PMID:24548868

  7. Brain Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... activity is a valuable part of any overall body wellness plan and is associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline. Learn more >> Adopt a healthy diet Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both your body and your brain. Adopt a diet that is ...

  8. Vision's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie Ann

    1978-01-01

    The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

  9. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE VS. FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA: A SPATIAL DECISION TREE APPROACH WITH FDG-PET

    E-print Network

    Tasdizen, Tolga

    AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE VS. FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA: A SPATIAL DECISION of subjects with Alzheimers Disease (AD) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Unlike previous work-- Brain imaging, decision tree, FDG-PET, Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal dementia. 1. INTRODUCTION

  10. Attenuating Tumour Angiogenesis: A Preventive Role of Metformin against Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Jiang, Jingcheng; Li, Pan; Song, Huijuan; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed antidiabetics for type 2 diabetes. A critical role of metformin against tumorigenesis has recently been implicated, although several studies also reported the lack of anticancer property of the antidiabetics. Given the controversies regarding the potential role of metformin against tumour progression, the effect of metformin against breast, cervical, and ovarian tumour cell lines was examined followed by in vivo assessment of metformin on tumour growth using xenograft breast cancer models. Significant inhibitory impact of metformin was observed in MCF-7, HeLa, and SKOV-3 cells, suggesting an antiproliferative property of metformin against breast, cervical, and ovarian tumour cells, respectively, with the breast tumour cells, MCF-7, being the most responsive. In vivo assessment was subsequently carried out, where mice with breast tumours were treated with metformin (20?mg/kg body weight) or sterile PBS solution for 15 consecutive days. No inhibition of breast tumour progression was detected. However, tumour necrosis was significantly increased in the metformin-treated group, accompanied by decreased capillary formation within the tumours. Thus, despite the lack of short-term benefit of metformin against tumour progression, a preventive role of metformin against breast cancer was implicated, which is at partially attributable to the attenuation of tumour angiogenesis. PMID:25883966

  11. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Elizabeth J; Gadd, Samantha; Arold, Stefan T; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Gerhard, Daniela S; Jennings, Lawrence; Huff, Vicki; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M; Davidsen, Tanja M; Dome, Jeffrey S; Meerzaman, Daoud; Hsu, Chih Hao; Nguyen, Cu; Anderson, James; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Marra, Marco A; Mullighan, Charles G; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A; Hampton, Oliver A; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Ross, Nicole; Smith, Malcolm A

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour. PMID:26635203

  12. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Gadd, Samantha; Arold, Stefan T.; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Jennings, Lawrence; Huff, Vicki; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Hsu, Chih Hao; Nguyen, Cu; Anderson, James; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Marra, Marco A.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Ross, Nicole; Smith, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour. PMID:26635203

  13. Non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth supports sub-clonal heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Marusyk, Andriy; Tabassum, Doris P; Altrock, Philipp M; Almendro, Vanessa; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-10-01

    Cancers arise through a process of somatic evolution that can result in substantial sub-clonal heterogeneity within tumours. The mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of distinct sub-clones and the biological consequences of this coexistence remain poorly understood. Here we used a mouse xenograft model to investigate the impact of sub-clonal heterogeneity on tumour phenotypes and the competitive expansion of individual clones. We found that tumour growth can be driven by a minor cell subpopulation, which enhances the proliferation of all cells within a tumour by overcoming environmental constraints and yet can be outcompeted by faster proliferating competitors, resulting in tumour collapse. We developed a mathematical modelling framework to identify the rules underlying the generation of intra-tumour clonal heterogeneity. We found that non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth, together with clonal interference, stabilizes sub-clonal heterogeneity, thereby enabling inter-clonal interactions that can lead to new phenotypic traits. PMID:25079331

  14. Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of primary intracranial tumours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mariani, C L; Schubert, T A; House, R A; Wong, M A; Hopkins, A L; Barnes Heller, H L; Milner, R J; Lester, N V; Lurie, D M; Rajon, D A; Friedman, W A; Bova, F J

    2015-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a procedure that delivers a single large radiation dose to a well-defined target. Here, we describe a frameless SRS technique suitable for intracranial targets in canines. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with a primary intracranial tumour by imaging or histopathology that underwent SRS were retrospectively reviewed. Frameless SRS was used successfully to treat tumours in 51 dogs with a variety of head sizes and shapes. Tumours diagnosed included 38 meningiomas, 4 pituitary tumours, 4 trigeminal nerve tumours, 3 gliomas, 1 histiocytic sarcoma and 1 choroid plexus tumour. Median survival time was 399?days for all tumours and for dogs with meningiomas; cause-specific survival was 493?days for both cohorts. Acute grade III central nervous system toxicity (altered mentation) occurred in two dogs. Frameless SRS resulted in survival times comparable to conventional radiation therapy, but with fewer acute adverse effects and only a single anaesthetic episode required for therapy. PMID:24007303

  15. Combination delivery of TGF-? inhibitor and IL-2 by nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels enhances tumour immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jason; Wrzesinski, Stephen H.; Stern, Eric; Look, Michael; Criscione, Jason; Ragheb, Ragy; Jay, Steven M.; Demento, Stacey L.; Agawu, Atu; Licona Limon, Paula; Ferrandino, Anthony F.; Gonzalez, David; Habermann, Ann; Flavell, Richard A.; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2012-10-01

    The tumour microenvironment thwarts conventional immunotherapy through multiple immunologic mechanisms, such as the secretion of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), which stunts local tumour immune responses. Therefore, high doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a conventional cytokine for metastatic melanoma, induces only limited responses. To overcome the immunoinhibitory nature of the tumour microenvironment, we developed nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels (nanolipogels; nLGs) of drug-complexed cyclodextrins and cytokine-encapsulating biodegradable polymers that can deliver small hydrophobic molecular inhibitors and water-soluble protein cytokines in a sustained fashion to the tumour microenvironment. nLGs releasing TGF-? inhibitor and IL-2 significantly delayed tumour growth, increased survival of tumour-bearing mice, and increased the activity of natural killer cells and of intratumoral-activated CD8+ T-cell infiltration. We demonstrate that the efficacy of nLGs in tumour immunotherapy results from a crucial mechanism involving activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  17. [Histological and molecular analysis of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Lechapt Zalcman, E; Bazille, C; Rousseau, A; Burel-Vandenbos, F; Pierga, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    The first step in the diagnosis of a metastatic brain lesion is to exclude a primary central nervous sytem tumour, followed by verification or identification of the primary tumor site, in order to guide the clinician to specific therapy. In addition to morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical study is most effective for the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary. Although the main principles are same, there are slight variations in the approach to the secondary lesion in the central nervous system versus other regions. Indeed, immunohistochemical approach focuses on the most common tumor types associated with secondary brain colonization: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. Several studies have reported that targeted therapies are capable of reducing brain metastases in melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer, sometimes with a high dramatic response. These results have clearly impacted routine neuropathological practice. It is likely that molecular subtyping of central nervous system metastases will play an increasing role in the future. In accordance with the recommendations of Inca (French national cancer institute), the pathologist develops appropriate strategies for molecular and immunohistochemical analysis, in order to provide results as soon as possible. This article summarizes the diagnosic approach to brain metastases, with a focus on the recent emergence of targeted therapies. PMID:25636728

  18. The 2015 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Thymus: Continuity and Changes.

    PubMed

    Marx, Alexander; Chan, John K C; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Detterbeck, Frank; Girard, Nicolas; Harris, Nancy L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Kurrer, Michael O; Marom, Edith M; Moreira, Andre L; Mukai, Kiyoshi; Orazi, Attilio; Ströbel, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    This overview of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of thymic tumors has two aims. First, to comprehensively list the established and new tumor entities and variants that are described in the new WHO Classification of thymic epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, dendritic cell and myeloid neoplasms, and soft-tissue tumors of the thymus and mediastinum; second, to highlight major differences in the new WHO Classification that result from the progress that has been made since the 3rd edition in 2004 at immunohistochemical, genetic and conceptual levels. Refined diagnostic criteria for type A, AB, B1-B3 thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinoma are given, and it is hoped that these criteria will improve the reproducibility of the classification and its clinical relevance. The clinical perspective of the classification has been strengthened by involving experts from radiology, thoracic surgery, and oncology; by incorporating state-of-the-art positron emission tomography/computed tomography images; and by depicting prototypic cytological specimens. This makes the thymus section of the new WHO Classification of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart a valuable tool for pathologists, cytologists, and clinicians alike. The impact of the new WHO Classification on therapeutic decisions is exemplified in this overview for thymic epithelial tumors and mediastinal lymphomas, and future perspectives and challenges are discussed. PMID:26295375

  19. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  20. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a sow.

    PubMed

    Resende, Talita P; Pereira, Carlos E R; Vannucci, Fabio A; Araujo, Fernando S; dos Santos, José Lúcio; Cassali, Geovanni D; Damasceno, Karine A; Guedes, Roberto M C

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lung lesions in swine are frequently due to abscesses or granulomatous pneumonia. Although tumours are rarely reported in modern pig farming, they should be considered as a differential diagnosis when nodular lung lesions are found. A first-parity sow exhibiting respiratory signs was euthanized. Several whitish firm nodules, not encapsulated, ranging in diameter from 0.5 to 5 cm were present in all lung lobes. Microscopically, the nodules were composed of dense neoplastic cells, mainly in Antoni types A and B patterns, infiltrative and with development of emboli. All neoplastic cells stained positively by immunohistochemistry for vimentin and S-100 protein, with variable immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and stained negative for cytokeratin. Based on the gross, histological and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:26407677