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1

Brain tumour classification using short echo time 1 H MRS. Objective comparison of classification techniques (LDA, LS-SVM).  

E-print Network

Brain tumour classification using short echo time 1 H MRS. Objective comparison of classification techniques, for binary and multiclass classification of short echo time 1 H spectra. The influence of several for binary and multiclass classification was measured respectively by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC

2

Brain tumour stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The

Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi

2006-01-01

3

The molecular genomics of metastatic brain tumours  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metastatic brain tumours remain an intractable clinical problem despite notable advances in the treatment of the primary cancers. It is estimated that 30–40% of breast and lung cancer patients will develop brain metastases. Typically, brain lesions are not diagnosed until patients exhibit neurological symptoms because there are currently no tests that can predict which patients will be afflicted. Brain metastases are resistant to current chemotherapies, and despite surgical resection and radiotherapy, the prognosis for these patients remains very poor with an average survival of only 6–9 months. Cancer is ultimately a genetic disease, involving patient genetics and aberrant tumour genomics; therefore the pursuit of an explanation for why or how brain metastases occur requires investigation of the associated somatic mutations. In this article, we review the current literature surrounding the molecular and genome-based mechanistic evidence to indicate driver oncogenes that hold potential biomarkers for risk, or therapeutic targets for treatment of brain metastases. Conclusion Patients afflicted with metastatic brain tumours are in dire need of more effective therapies, and clinicians need predictive laboratory tests to identify patients at risk of developing metastatic brain tumours. The as yet unrealized comprehensive analysis of metastatic brain tumour genomics is necessary to meet these needs. Moreover, without improved understanding of the genomic aberrations that drive metastatic brain tumours, development of biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies will remain stalled and patient outcomes will continue to be dismal.

Bollig-Fischer, A; Michelhaugh, SK; Ali-Fehmi, R; Mittal, S

2014-01-01

4

Neuropathology and prognosis of foetal brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of brain tumours that had been diagnosed prenatally by foetal sonography yielded 89 cases. The most commonly found\\u000a tumour entities were teratomas (53.9%), glioblastomas (14.6%), lipomas (9.0%), plexus papillomas (7.9%) and craniopharyngiomas\\u000a (5.6%). The mean gestational age at ultrasound diagnosis was 30.0 weeks, ranging between 25.4 weeks in craniopharyngiomas\\u000a and 35.3 weeks in lipomas. Girls were more frequently

Christian H. Rickert

1999-01-01

5

Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis.

L. Michaels; V. J. Hyams

1975-01-01

6

Neural stem cells, tumour stem cells and brain tumours: Dangerous relationships?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural stem cells (NSC) have been implicated not only in brain development and neurogenesis but also in tumourigenesis. Brain tumour stem cells (BTSC) have been isolated from several paediatric or adult human brain tumours, however their origin is still disputed. This review discusses the normal role of NSC in the adult mammalian brain and their anatomical location. It compares the

Reto Sutter; Gokhan Yadirgi; Silvia Marino

2007-01-01

7

Automated EEG signal analysis for identification of epilepsy seizures and brain tumour.  

PubMed

Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) is a clinical test which records neuro-electrical activities generated by brain structures. EEG test results used to monitor brain diseases such as epilepsy seizure, brain tumours, toxic encephalopathies infections and cerebrovascular disorders. Due to the extreme variation in the EEG morphologies, manual analysis of the EEG signal is laborious, time consuming and requires skilled interpreters, who by the nature of the task are prone to subjective judegment and error. Further, manual analysis of the EEG results often fails to detect and uncover subtle features. This paper proposes an automated EEG analysis method by combining digital signal processing and neural network techniques, which will remove error and subjectivity associated with manual analysis and identifies the existence of epilepsy seizure and brain tumour diseases. The system uses multi-wavelet transform for feature extraction in which an input EEG signal is decomposed in a sub-signal. Irregularities and unpredictable fluctuations present in the decomposed signal are measured using approximate entropy. A feed-forward neural network is used to classify the EEG signal as a normal, epilepsy or brain tumour signal. The proposed technique is implemented and tested on data of 500 EEG signals for each disease. Results are promising, with classification accuracy of 98% for normal, 93% for epilepsy and 87% for brain tumour. Along with classification, the paper also highlights the EEG abnormalities associated with brain tumour and epilepsy seizure. PMID:24116656

Sharanreddy, M; Kulkarni, P K

2013-11-01

8

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan

9

Revised classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, pancreas and gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article new classifications of the neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, pancreas and gut are proposed. These classifications use a common frame work and attempt to consider the morphological, functional as well as biological features of the tumours.

C. Capella; P. U. Heitz; H. Höfler; E. Solcia; G. Klöppel

1995-01-01

10

Evolution of the brain tumour spheroid model: transcending current model limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶Tumour recurrence and the high mortality and morbidity associated with malignant brain tumours may be attributed to the failure of current therapeutic modalities (surgery, radiation and chemotherapy) to control the invasion of malignant brain tumour cells into healthy brain tissue. Several in vitro and in vivo models have been developed and used to study brain tumour invasion and cell

A. Corcoran; L. I. F. De Ridder; D. Del Duca; O. J. P. Kalala; T. Lah; G. J. Pilkington; R. F. Del Maestro

2003-01-01

11

ASHRAF ELSAYED et al.: MRI BRAIN SCAN CLASSIFICATION 1 MRI Brain Scan Classification According to  

E-print Network

, a structure of the mammalian brain that connects the two hemispheres; a graph mining based approach and a time function is to connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain, and to provide the commu- nicationASHRAF ELSAYED et al.: MRI BRAIN SCAN CLASSIFICATION 1 MRI Brain Scan Classification According

Coenen, Frans

12

Three different brain tumours evolving from a common origin  

PubMed Central

Despite an improved understanding of the molecular aberrations that occur in glioblastoma, the use of molecularly targeted therapies have so far been disappointing. We present a patient with three different brain tumours: astrocytoma, glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. Genetic analysis showed that the three different brain tumours were derived from a common origin but had each developed unique genetic aberrations. Included in these, the glioblastoma had PDGFRA amplification, whereas the gliosarcoma had MYC amplification. We propose that genetic heterogeneity contributes to treatment failure and requires comprehensive assessment in the era of personalised medicine. PMID:23545860

Forshew, T; Lewis, P; Waldman, A; Peterson, D; Glaser, M; Brock, C; Sheer, D; Mulholland, P J

2013-01-01

13

Cytokine Patterns in Brain Tumour Progression  

PubMed Central

Inflammation represents the immune system response to external or internal aggressors such as injury or infection in certain tissues. The body's response to cancer has many parallels with inflammation and repair; the inflammatory cells and cytokines present in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression, rather than in building an effective antitumour defence. Using new proteomic technology, we have investigated serum profile of pro- (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, GM-CSF, and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), along with angiogenic factors (VEGF, bFGF) in order to assess tumoural aggressiveness. Our results indicate significant dysregulation in serum levels of cytokines and angiogenic factors, with over threefold upregulation of IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-10 and up to twofold upregulation of VEGF, FGF-2, IL-8, IL-2, and GM-CSF. These molecules are involved in tumour progression and aggressiveness, and are also involved in a generation of disease associated pain. PMID:23864770

Albulescu, Radu; Codrici, Elena; Popescu, Ionela Daniela; Mihai, Simona; Necula, Laura Georgiana; Petrescu, Daniel; Teodoru, Mihaela; Tanase, Cristiana Pistol

2013-01-01

14

Computer and robotic assisted resection of brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six children ages 2 to 10 years harbouring deep brain tumours were operated upon using a computer and robotic assisted system. A radical excision was achieved in all cases with no significant morbidity or any mortality. The system consists of an interactive 3 dimensional (3D) display of computed tomography image contours and digitized cerebral angiograms taken using the BRW stereotactic

James M. Drake; Michael Joy; Andrew Goldenberg; David Kreindler

1991-01-01

15

Genomics and Metabolomics Research for Brain Tumour Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Genomics and Metabolomics Research for Brain Tumour Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning Juan M-based diagnosis. We summarize some studies related to brain tumour research in Europe, based on the metabolic by DNA microarrays. The first result presents the improvement in brain tumour diagnosis by combining Long

16

Iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumours - a review  

PubMed Central

Iodine-125 brachytherapy has been applied to brain tumours since 1979. Even though the physical and biological characteristics make these implants particularly attractive for minimal invasive treatment, the place for stereotactic brachytherapy is still poorly defined. An extensive review of the literature has been performed, especially concerning indications, results and complications. Iodine-125 seeds have been implanted in astrocytomas I-III, glioblastomas, metastases and several other tumour entities. Outcome data given in the literature are summarized. Complications are rare in carefully selected patients. All in all, for highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent primary or metastatic tumours, this method provides encouraging survival rates with relatively low complication rates and a good quality of life. PMID:22394548

2012-01-01

17

Value of 11C-methionine PET in imaging brain tumours and metastases.  

PubMed

(11)C-methionine (MET) is the most popular amino acid tracer used in PET imaging of brain tumours. Because of its characteristics, MET PET provides a high detection rate of brain tumours and good lesion delineation. This review focuses on the role of MET PET in imaging cerebral gliomas. The Introduction provides a clinical overview of what is important in primary brain tumours, recurrent brain tumours and brain metastases. The indications for radiotherapy and the results and problems arising after chemoradiotherapy in relation to imaging (pseudoprogression or radionecrosis) are discussed. The working mechanism, scan interpretation and quantification possibilities of MET PET are then explained. A literature overview is given of the role of MET PET in primary gliomas (diagnostic accuracy, grading, prognosis, assessment of tumour extent, biopsy and radiotherapy planning), in brain metastases, and in the differentiation between tumour recurrence and radiation necrosis. Finally, MET PET is compared to other nuclear imaging possibilities in brain tumour imaging. PMID:23232505

Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Enting, Roelien H; Heesters, Mart A A M; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Rheenen, Ronald W J; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Slart, Riemer H J A

2013-04-01

18

Primary pulmonary solitary fibrous tumour with brain metastases.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of subendothelial origin that can be found in all anatomical locations, but rarely in the lungs. A 71-year old female was referred to our hospital because of the increase in size of a solitary pulmonary mass. Chest contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed lobulated mass measuring 3.1×1.6 cm in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe of the lung. Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) demonstrated that the mass had high FDG uptake. A right upper lobectomy of the lung and mediastinal lymphadenectomy were performed. The tumour was pathologically diagnosed as an SFT. Seven months later, the patient was found to have brain metastases of the tumour, which led to dizziness. A craniotomy and successive radiosurgery with a gamma knife were performed for the metastatic tumours. She is still alive without evidence of disease 12 months after the treatment of the metastases. Pulmonary SFT seldom behaves aggressively, and only two previous cases of primary pulmonary SFT with brain metastases have been reported. Local therapy including surgery and radiotherapy against metastases from SFT could help improve the survival of such patients. PMID:23711464

Ozeki, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Yokoi, Kohei

2014-02-01

19

Factors Influencing Surgical Complications of Intra-Axial Brain Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Object. Extensive surgical resection remains nowadays the best treatment available for most intra-axial brain tumours. However, postoperative\\u000a sequelae can outweigh the potential benefits of surgery. The goal of this study has been to review the results of this treatment\\u000a in our Department in order to quantify morbidity and mortality and determine predictive risk factors for each patient.\\u000a \\u000a ?Method. We report

M. Brell; J. Ibáńez; L. Caral; E. Ferrer

2000-01-01

20

Management of endocrine disease: clinicopathological classification and molecular markers of pituitary tumours for personalized therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Pituitary tumours, the most frequent intracranial tumour, are historically considered benign. However, various pieces of clinical evidence and recent advances in pathological and molecular analyses suggest the need to consider these tumours as more than an endocrinological disease, despite the low incidence of metastasis. Recently, we proposed a new prognostic clinicopathological classification of these pituitary tumours, according to the tumour size (micro, macro and giant), type (prolactin, GH, FSH/LH, ACTH and TSH) and grade (grade 1a, non-invasive; 1b, non-invasive and proliferative; 2a, invasive; 2b, invasive and proliferative and 3, metastatic). In addition to this classification, numerous molecular prognostic markers have been identified, allowing a better characterisation of tumour behaviour and prognosis. Moreover, clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that pituitary tumours could be treated by some chemotherapeutic drugs or new targeted therapies. Our improved classification of these tumours should now allow the identification of prognosis markers and help the clinician to propose personalised therapies to selected patients presenting tumours with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:24431196

Raverot, Gerald; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Trouillas, Jacqueline

2014-04-01

21

Mortality following a brain tumour diagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives As brain tumours and their treatment may theoretically have a poorer prognosis in inflammatory central nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), all-cause mortality following a brain tumour diagnosis was compared between patients with and without MS. The potential role of age at tumour diagnosis was also examined. Setting Hospital inpatients in Sweden with assessment of mortality in hospital or following discharge. Participants Swedish national registers identified 20?543 patients with an MS diagnosis (1969–2005) and they were matched individually to produce a comparison cohort of 204?163 members of the general population without MS. Everyone with a primary brain tumour diagnosis was selected for this study: 111 with MS and 907 without MS. Primary and secondary outcome measures 5-year mortality risk following brain tumour diagnosis and age at brain tumour diagnosis. Results A non-statistically significant lower mortality risk among patients with MS (lower for those with tumours of high-grade and uncertain-grade malignancy and no notable difference for low-grade tumours) produced an unadjusted HR (and 95% CI) of 0.75 (0.56 to 1.02). After adjustment for age at diagnosis, grade of malignancy, sex, region of residence and socioeconomic index, the HR is 0.91 (0.67–1.24). The change in estimate was largely due to adjustment for age at brain tumour diagnosis, as patients with MS were on average 4.7?years younger at brain tumour diagnosis than those in the comparison cohort (p<0.001). Conclusions Younger age at tumour diagnosis may contribute to mortality reduction in those with high-grade and uncertain-grade brain tumours. Survival following a brain tumour is not worse in patients with MS; even after age at brain tumour diagnosis and grade of malignancy are taken into account. PMID:24220114

Montgomery, Scott; Hassan, Ahmad; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Brus, Ole; Hussein, Oula; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Fall, Katja

2013-01-01

22

Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five  

E-print Network

studies of mobile phone use and brain cancer risk have used information on mobile phone use as a proxyRisk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five The objective of this study was to examine the associations of brain tumours with radio frequency (RF) fields

Boyer, Edmond

23

Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma

T Takebayashi; N Varsier; Y Kikuchi; K Wake; M Taki; S Watanabe; S Akiba; N Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

24

Random Forest Classification for Training a Brain Computer Interface (BCI)  

E-print Network

Random Forest Classification for Training a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Abstract1 Brain brain activity. Most3 existing BCIs detect specific mental activity in a so-called synchronous4 paradigm extraction7 followed by a classification scheme to detect intentions from the brain8 signal. In this paper

de Freitas, Nando

25

Ethics roundtable debate: Child with severe brain damage and an underlying brain tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A young person presents with a highly malignant brain tumour with hemiparesis and limited prognosis after resection. She then\\u000a suffers an iatrogenic cardiac and respiratory arrest that results in profound anoxic encephalopathy. A difference in opinion\\u000a between the treatment team and the parent is based on a question of futile therapy. Opinions from five intensivists from around\\u000a the world explore

Scott Gunn; Satoru Hashimoto; Michael Karakozov; Thomas Marx; Ian KS Tan; Dan R Thompson; Jean-Louis Vincent

2004-01-01

26

MRS water resonance frequency in childhood brain tumours: a novel potential biomarker of temperature and tumour environment.  

PubMed

(1) H MRS thermometry has been investigated for brain trauma and hypothermia monitoring applications but has not been explored in brain tumours. The proton resonance frequency (PRF) of water is dependent on temperature but is also influenced by microenvironment factors, such as fast proton exchange with macromolecules, ionic concentration and magnetic susceptibility. (1) H MRS has been utilized for brain tumour diagnostic and prognostic purposes in children; however, the water PRF measure may provide complementary information to further improve characterization. Water PRF values were investigated from a repository of MRS data acquired from childhood brain tumours and children with apparently normal brains. The cohort consisted of histologically proven glioma (22), medulloblastoma (19) and control groups (28, MRS in both the basal ganglia and parietal white matter regions). All data were acquired at 1.5?T using a short TE (30?ms) single voxel spectroscopy (PRESS) protocol. Water PRF values were calculated using methyl creatine and total choline. Spectral peak amplitude weighted averaging was used to improve the accuracy of the measurements. Mean PRF values were significantly larger for medulloblastoma compared with glioma, with a difference in the means of 0.0147?ppm (p?brain. However, the PRF shift may not reflect a change in temperature, given that alterations in protein content, microstructure and ionic concentration contribute to PRF shifts. Measurement of these effects could also be used as a supplementary biomarker, and further investigation is required. This study has shown that the water PRF value has the potential to be used for characterizing childhood brain tumours, which has not been reported previously. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25125325

Babourina-Brooks, Ben; Wilson, Martin; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Peet, Andrew C; Davies, Nigel P

2014-10-01

27

Expression of ADAMTS-8, a secreted protease with antiangiogenic properties, is downregulated in brain tumours  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis and extracellular matrix degradation are key events in tumour progression, and factors regulating stromal–epithelial interactions and matrix composition are potential targets for the development of novel anti-invasive/antiangiogenic therapies. Here, we examine the expression of ADAMTS-8, a secreted protease with antiangiogenic properties, in brain tissues. Using quantitative RT–polymerase chain reaction (PCR), high, equivalent expression of ADAMTS-8 was found in normal whole brain, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, cerebellum and meninges. ADAMTS-8 expression in 34 brain tumours (including 22 high-grade gliomas) and four glioma cell lines indicated at least two-fold reduction in mRNA compared to normal whole brain in all neoplastic tissues, and no detectable expression in 14 out of 34 (41%) tumours or four out of four (100%) cell lines. In contrast, differential expression of TSP1 and VEGF was seen in nine out of 15 (60%) and seven out of 13 (54%) tumours, with no relationship in the expression of these genes. Immunohistochemistry and Western analysis indicated downregulation of ADAMTS-8 protein in >77% tumours. Methylation-specific PCR analysis of ADAMTS-8 indicated promoter hypermethylation in one out of 24 brain tumours (a metastasis) and three out of four glioma cell lines suggesting an alternative mechanism of downregulation. These data suggest a role for ADAMTS-8 in brain tumorigenesis, warranting further investigation into its role in regulation of tumour angiogenesis and local invasion. PMID:16570050

Dunn, J R; Reed, J E; du Plessis, D G; Shaw, E J; Reeves, P; Gee, A L; Warnke, P; Walker, C

2006-01-01

28

An experimental trial of cyclic nucleotides on multicellular spheroids derived from human brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cyclic nucleotides, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate (db-cAMP and db-cGMP), on the growth rate of multicellular tumour spheroids were evaluated by comparing the growth delay and colony forming efficiency in vitro. Multicellular tumour spheroids were derived directly from human brain tumours. To compare the chemotherapeutic effect of cyclic nucleotides, CCNU was used as

Nezih Oktar; John L. Darling; David G. T. Thomas

1987-01-01

29

Adaptive multiclass classification for brain computer interfaces.  

PubMed

We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data sets and tangent space mapping (Barachant, Bonnet, Congedo, & Jutten, 2012) as a feature extractor, we demonstrate that MPMLDA can significantly outperform state-of-the-art multiclass static and adaptive methods. Furthermore, efficient learning rates can be achieved using data from different subjects. PMID:24684452

Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

2014-06-01

30

Heterogeneous data fusion for brain tumor classification.  

PubMed

Current research in biomedical informatics involves analysis of multiple heterogeneous data sets. This includes patient demographics, clinical and pathology data, treatment history, patient outcomes as well as gene expression, DNA sequences and other information sources such as gene ontology. Analysis of these data sets could lead to better disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and drug discovery. In this report, we present a novel machine learning framework for brain tumor classification based on heterogeneous data fusion of metabolic and molecular datasets, including state-of-the-art high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gene transcriptome profiling, obtained from intact brain tumor biopsies. Our experimental results show that our novel framework outperforms any analysis using individual dataset. PMID:22842996

Metsis, Vangelis; Huang, Heng; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Makedon, Fillia; Tzika, Aria

2012-10-01

31

Autologous spheroid culture: a screening tool for human brain tumour invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spheroids are three-dimensional cell aggregates expressing histotypic organisation in vitro comparable to tissue continuity in vivo. They can be prepared from normal tissue and from tumour fragments. In the experiments presented here, dermal human spheroids and brain tumour spheroids are prepared from the same patient. The dermal tissue originates from the border of the incision wound made to effect a

L de Ridder; M Cornelissen; D de Ridder

2000-01-01

32

What are the experiences of the child with a brain tumour and their parents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumours are one of the most common forms of childhood cancer, affecting approximately 350 children in the UK each year (CancerBackup, 2005). The complex and long treatment for such tumours is often delivered in more than one place of care, as a result children and their families meet a large number of healthcare professionals from a variety of disciplines.

Louise Soanes; Darren Hargrave; Lauren Smith; Faith Gibson

2009-01-01

33

Evolving role of myeloablative chemotherapy in the treatment of childhood brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary brain tumours, a heterogeneous group of cancer that constitute the second most common cancer in childhood, were historically treated with neurosurgical resection and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy has proven to be beneficial for some histological types, which has since led to exploration of the role of high-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell rescue. Patients with high-grade glial tumours, primitive neuroectodermal

S Dallorso; G Dini; R Ladenstein; A Cama; C Milanaccio; S Barra; B Cappelli; M L Garrč

2005-01-01

34

Computed tomography in the diagnosis of malignant brain tumours: do all patients require biopsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proportion of patients with computed tomographic (CT) scan appearances of malignant brain tumour undergo conservative management, despite the absence of histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Concern that this policy risked misdiagnosing a benign tumour prompted us to examine the accuracy of CT scanning in diagnosing malignant lesions. The study was designed to determine whether within a group of 300

M S Choksey; A Valentine; H Shawdon; C E Freer; K W Lindsay

1989-01-01

35

[11C]-Methionine PET: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours compared with other epileptogenic brain neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Brain tumours responsible for longstanding partial epilepsy are characterised by a high prevalence of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT), whose natural evolution is much more benign than that of gliomas. The preoperative diagnosis of DNT, which is not yet feasible on the basis of available clinical and imaging data, would help optimise the therapeutic strategy for this type of tumour. This study tested whether [11C]-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) could help to distinguish DNTs from other epileptogenic brain tumours. Methods: Prospective study of 27 patients with partial epilepsy of at least six months duration related to a non-rapidly progressing brain tumour on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A structured visual analysis, which distinguished between normal, moderately abnormal, or markedly abnormal tumour methionine uptake, as well as various regions of interest and semiquantitative measurements were conducted. Results: Pathological results showed 11 DNTs (41%), 5 gangliogliomas (18%), and 11 gliomas (41%). MET-PET visual findings significantly differed between the various tumour types (p<0.0002), regardless of gadolinium enhancement on MRI, and were confirmed by semiquantitative analysis (p<0.001 for all calculated ratios). All gliomas and gangliogliomas were associated with moderately or markedly increased tumour methionine uptake, whereas 7/11 DNTs had a normal methionine uptake, including all six located in the mesiotemporal structures. No DNT presented with a marked MET-PET abnormality. Conclusion: Normal MET-PET findings in patient with an epileptogenic and non-rapidly progressing brain tumour are suggestive of DNT, whereas a markedly increased tumour methionine uptake makes this diagnosis unlikely. PMID:16291894

Rosenberg, D; Demarquay, G; Jouvet, A; Le Bars, D; Streichenberger, N; Sindou, M; Kopp, N; Mauguiere, F; Ryvlin, P

2005-01-01

36

Local Kernel for Brains Classification in Schizophrenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a novel framework for brain classification is proposed in the context of mental health research. A learning by example method is introduced by combining local measurements with non linear Support Vector Machine. Instead of considering a voxel-by-voxel comparison between patients and controls, we focus on landmark points which are characterized by local region descriptors, namely Scale Invariance Feature Transform (SIFT). Then, matching is obtained by introducing the local kernel for which the samples are represented by unordered set of features. Moreover, a new weighting approach is proposed to take into account the discriminative relevance of the detected groups of features. Experiments have been performed including a set of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 54 normal controls on which region of interest (ROI) have been manually traced by experts. Preliminary results on Dorso-lateral PreFrontal Cortex (DLPFC) region are promising since up to 75% of successful classification rate has been obtained with this technique and the performance has improved up to 85% when the subjects have been stratified by sex.

Castellani, U.; Rossato, E.; Murino, V.; Bellani, M.; Rambaldelli, G.; Tansella, M.; Brambilla, P.

37

Primary brain tumours consist of a diverse group of neoplasms that are derived from various different cell  

E-print Network

, and ¶ Brain Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 408 East 69th Street (Z1304), New York, NYPrimary brain tumours consist of a diverse group of neoplasms that are derived from various, however, have seen striking advances in basic brain tumour biology, especially with regard to malignant

Durrett, Richard

38

Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N.; Amini, Rose-Marie; Karja, Vesa; Pietilainen, Timo; Hamalainen, Kirsi M.; Sundstrom, Christer; Hesselager, Goran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Stahl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

2014-01-01

39

Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N; Amini, Rose-Marie; Kärjä, Vesa; Pietiläinen, Timo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi M; Sundström, Christer; Hesselager, Göran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Stĺhl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

2014-01-01

40

Whole-Body [ 18 F]FDG PET in the Management of Metastatic Brain Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background?To determine its roles in the diagnosis and the systemic evaluation of metastatic brain tumours, whole-body positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) using [18F]FDG was performed in 20 consecutive patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ?All patients were thought to be suffering or needing to be differentiated from metastatic brain tumours. Nine patients had\\u000a multiple brain lesions; six were older and showed a rim-enhancing lesion

D. G. Kim; C.-Y. Kim; S. H. Paek; D. S. Lee; J.-K. Chung; H.-W. Jung; B.-K. Cho

1998-01-01

41

Brain extraction based on locally linear representation-based classification.  

PubMed

Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remains challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a Locally Linear Representation-based Classification (LLRC) method for brain extraction. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the locally linear representation to the classical classification model. Under this classification framework, a common label fusion approach can be considered as a special case and thoroughly interpreted. Locality is important to calculate fusion weights for LLRC; this factor is also considered to determine that Local Anchor Embedding is more applicable in solving locally linear coefficients compared with other linear representation approaches. Moreover, LLRC supplies a way to learn the optimal classification scores of the training samples in the dictionary to obtain accurate classification. The International Consortium for Brain Mapping and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases were used to build a training dataset containing 70 scans. To evaluate the proposed method, we used four publicly available datasets (IBSR1, IBSR2, LPBA40, and ADNI3T, with a total of 241 scans). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the four common brain extraction methods (BET, BSE, GCUT, and ROBEX), and is comparable to the performance of BEaST, while being more accurate on some datasets compared with BEaST. PMID:24525169

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

2014-05-15

42

Vascular permeability and cell kinetics of ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced rat brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Vascular permeability and proliferative activity of ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced rat brain tumours were studied by intravenous injection of Evans blue dye (EB) and by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake examinations. Tumours induced by ENU showed various histologial types, and they were oligodendrogliomas, mixed oligo-astrocytomas, mixed oligo-ependymomas, astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, polymorphic gliomas, and ependymomas. The labelling indexes (LIs: the ratio of BrdU-labelled cells

T. Inoue; T. Tashima; S. Nishio; I. Takeshita; T. Iwaki; M. Fukui

1988-01-01

43

Quantifying the A1AR distribution in peritumoural zones around experimental F98 and C6 rat brain tumours.  

PubMed

Quantification of growth in experimental F98 and C6 rat brain tumours was performed on 51 rat brains, 17 of which have been further assessed by 3D tumour reconstruction. Brains were cryosliced and radio-labelled with a ligand of the peripheral type benzodiazepine-receptor (pBR), (3)H-Pk11195 [(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methyl-propylene)-3-isoquinoline-carboxamide)] by receptor autoradiography. Manually segmented and automatically registered tumours have been 3D-reconstructed for volumetric comparison on the basis of (3)H-Pk11195-based tumour recognition. Furthermore automatically computed areas of -300 microm inner (marginal) zone as well as 300 microm and 600 microm outer tumour space were quantified. These three different regions were transferred onto other adjacent slices that had been labelled by receptor autoradiography with the A(1) Adenosine receptor (A(1)AR)-ligand (3)H-CPFPX ((3)H-8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-fluorpropyl)-1-propylxanthine) for quantitative assessment of A(1)AR in the three different tumour zones. Hence, a method is described for quantifying various receptor protein systems in the tumour as well as in the marginal invasive zones around experimentally implanted rat brain tumours and their representation in the tumour microenvironment as well as in 3D space. Furthermore, a tool for automatically reading out radio-labelled rat brain slices from auto radiographic films was developed, reconstructed into a consistent 3D-tumour model and the zones around the tumour were visualized. A(1)AR expression was found to depend upon the tumour volume in C6 animals, but is independent on the time of tumour development. In F98 animals, a significant increase in A(1)AR receptor protein was found in the Peritumoural zone as a function of time of tumour development and tumour volume. PMID:17497078

Dehnhardt, Markus; Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Bauer, Andreas; Pietrzyk, Uwe

2007-10-01

44

Characterisation of Walker 256 breast carcinoma cells from two tumour cell banks as assessed using two models of secondary brain tumours  

PubMed Central

Background Metastatic brain tumours are a common end stage of breast cancer progression, with significant associated morbidity and high mortality. Walker 256 is a rat breast carcinoma cell line syngeneic to Wistar rats and commonly used to induce secondary brain tumours. Previously there has been the assumption that the same cancer cell line from different cell banks behave in a similar manner, although recent studies have suggested that cell lines may change their characteristics over time in vitro. Methods In this study internal carotid artery injection and direct cerebral inoculation models of secondary brain tumours were used to determine the tumorigenicity of Walker 256 cells obtained from two cell banks, the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), and the Cell Resource Centre for Medical Research at Tohoku University (CRCTU). Results Tumour incidence and volume, plus immunoreactivity to albumin, IBA1 and GFAP, were used as indicators of tumorigenicity and tumour interaction with the host brain microenvironment. CRCTU Walker 256 cells showed greater incidence, larger tumour volume, pronounced blood–brain barrier disruption and prominent glial response when compared to ATCC cell line. Conclusions These findings indicate that immortalised cancer cell lines obtained from different cell banks may have diverse characteristics and behaviour in vivo. PMID:23374226

2013-01-01

45

Imaging features of primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the central nervous system is a rare neoplasm affecting children. We present a pathologically\\u000a proven case, which was initially referred to the paediatric surgeons as a sebaceous cyst, and highlights the importance of\\u000a imaging prior to surgery of potentially innocuous scalp lesions. Imaging features on CT and MRI are presented, which show\\u000a bony involvement

A. Evans; Rakesh Ganatra; Susan J. Morris

2001-01-01

46

The level of MnSOD is directly correlated with grade of brain tumours of neuroepithelial origin.  

PubMed Central

The oxy-radical scavenger enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) may act in the capacity of a tumour-suppressor gene. To address the issue of its role in tumour transformation and progression in vivo, we evaluated the content of this enzyme in 33 brain tumours of neuroepithelial origin with different degrees of differentiation (WHO grade II-IV) by means of Western blot and immunohistology. Our results show that immunoreactive MnSOD increases in a direct relationship with tumour grade and is therefore inversely correlated with differentiation. The increase in induced at a pretranscriptional level and is apparently specific to brain tumours of neuroepithelial origin. Approximately 30% of grade IV tumours display low levels of MnSOD content, and preoperative radiotherapy and brachytherapy result in low amounts of enzyme. Based upon these observations, we suggest that MnSOD cannot be considered a classical tumour-suppressor gene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8980385

Landriscina, M.; Remiddi, F.; Ria, F.; Palazzotti, B.; De Leo, M. E.; Iacoangeli, M.; Rosselli, R.; Scerrati, M.; Galeotti, T.

1996-01-01

47

Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned  

E-print Network

and Ravi V. Bellamkonda1 * Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated

Cai, Long

48

Growth and puberty after growth hormone treatment after irradiation for brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of treatment with either cranial or craniospinal irradiation with or without cytotoxic chemotherapy for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was assessed in 29 children who had reached final height. All had received growth hormone treatment for radiation induced growth hormone deficiency. Final height, segmental growth during puberty, and duration of puberty were studied. Both craniospinal

A L Ogilvy-Stuart; S M Shalet

1995-01-01

49

Tissue Tracking: Applications for Brain MRI Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bayesian classification methods have been extensively used in a variety of image processing applications, including medical image analysis. The basic procedure is to combine data-driven knowledge in the likelihood terms with clinical knowledge in the prio...

A. Tannenbaum, J. Melonakos, Y. Gao

2007-01-01

50

Imaging patients with suspected brain tumour: guidance for primary care  

PubMed Central

The number of referrals by primary care practitioners to secondary care neurology services, particularly for headache, may be difficult to justify. Access to imaging by primary care practitioners could avoid referral without compromising patient outcomes, but the decision to refer is based on a number of complex factors. Due to the paucity of rigorous evidence in this area, available data are combined with expert opinion to offer support for GPs. The study suggests management for three levels of risk of tumour: red flags >1%; orange flags 0.1–1%; and yellow flags <0.1% but above the background population rate of 0.01%. Clinical presentations are stratified into these three groups. Important secondary causes of headache where imaging is normal should not be overlooked, and normal investigation does not eliminate the need for follow-up or appropriate management of headache. PMID:19068162

Kernick, David P; Ahmed, Fayyaz; Bahra, Anish; Dowson, Andrew; Elrington, Giles; Fontebasso, Manuela; Giffin, Nicola J; Lipscombe, Sue; MacGregor, Anne; Peatfield, Richard; Weatherby, Stuart; Whitmarsh, Tom; Goadsby, Peter J

2008-01-01

51

Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary.  

PubMed

Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma) associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary. PMID:22182218

Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell; Hardell, Lennart

2011-01-01

52

Radiobiological and Magnetic Resonance Studies of Combined Radiation and Cisplatin Therapy in the 9l Rat Brain Tumour Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prognosis for adult patients with primary malignant brain tumours is poor. Radiation therapy is a standard adjutant to surgery in the treatment of these patients, but is rarely curative. The extreme radio-resistance of primary malignant brain tumours is due in part to their enhanced capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage. The chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin has been shown to inhibit repair of radiation damage. Therefore combined cisplatin and radiation therapy could be a key to enhanced therapeutic gain in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumours. In this project, the 9L rat brain tumour model was used to investigate combined radiation and cisplatin treatments. In vitro experiments showed the 9L cell line to be highly radioresistant and, like human malignant brain tumour cells, to have a high capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage. These cells were found to be moderately resistant to the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In vitro exposure to cisplatin at clinically relevant concentrations caused inhibition of potentially lethal damage repair, with the amount of inhibition depending on cisplatin dose and treatment sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor the effects of combined radiation and cisplatin treatments of implanted intracranial 9L tumours in rats. A new technique for implanting experimental tumours was developed which resulted in more uniform tumour growth, and methods for radiation and cisplatin treatment of experimental intracranial tumours were developed and evaluated. Non-invasive measurements of tumour size using MRI were found to correlate well with measurements made from histological sections. Intraperitoneal administration of gadolinium contrast agent immediately before T1-weighted MRI was shown to be the most accurate and reliable method for MRI measurement of intracranial tumour size. The capability of MRI to provide early indications of radiation injury to normal brain tissue was evaluated in the rat, and MRI changes were found to occur on average 130 days following partial brain irradiation. Combined radiation and cisplatin treatments of intracranial 9L tumours did not result in tumour regression observable by MRI, despite histopathological evidence of increased tumour necrosis compared with radiation or cisplatin treatments alone.

Wilkins, David E.

1993-01-01

53

E-Cadherin in human brain tumours: loss of immunoreactivity in malignant meningiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadherins are a family of glycoproteins that are associated with cell adhesion mechanisms. They are divided into subclasses.\\u000a The E- and P-cadherins are regarded as the epithelial subtype. Their expression has been demonstrated in many different carcinoma\\u000a types. Using immunomorphological techniques, we studied the expression of E-cadherin in a series of 145 human brain tumours\\u000a with the monoclonal antibody 5H9.

K. Schwechheimer; Lepu Zhou; Walter Birchmeier

1998-01-01

54

Characterizing brain connectivity using -radial nodes: application to autism classification  

E-print Network

Characterizing brain connectivity using -radial nodes: application to autism classification Nagesh tractography in a normalized space. We then apply the constructed graphs in a classifi- cation setting connectivity has been shown to be abnormal for example in regions like corpus callosum, in various autism stud

Chung, Moo K.

55

Plasma platelet-derived growth factor-B chain is elevated in patients with extensively large brain tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The plasma concentration of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B chain and the plasma platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured in 17 healthy controls and 55 brain tumour patients. In the 17 normal controls, the plasma PDGF-B and PF4 levels were 523 ± 157 pg\\/ml (mean ± SD) and 84 ± 37 ng\\/ml, respectively. In the brain tumour patients,

M. Kurimoto; M. Nishijima; Y. Hirashima; S. Endo; A. Takaku

1995-01-01

56

Multidisciplinary assessment of fitness to drive in brain tumour patients in southwestern Ontario: a grey matter  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognitive impairments from brain tumours may interfere with the ability to drive safely. In 9 of 13 Canadian provinces and territories, physicians have a legal obligation to report patients who may be medically unfit to drive. To complicate matters, brain tumour patients are managed by a multidisciplinary team; the physician most responsible to make the report of unfitness is often not apparent. The objective of the present study was to determine the attitudes and reporting practices of physicians caring for these patients. Methods A 17-question survey distributed to physicians managing brain tumour patients elicited Respondent demographicsKnowledge about legislative requirementsExperience of reportingBarriers and attitudes to reporting Fisher exact tests were performed to assess differences in responses between family physicians (fps) and specialists. Results Of 467 physicians sent surveys, 194 responded (42%), among whom 81 (42%) were specialists and 113 (58%) were fps. Compared with the specialists, the fps were significantly less comfortable with reporting, less likely to consider reporting, less likely to have patients inquire about driving, and less likely to discuss driving implications. A lack of tools, concern for the patient–physician relationship, and a desire to preserve patient quality of life were the most commonly cited barriers in determining medical fitness of patients to drive. Conclusions Legal requirements to report medically unfit drivers put physicians in the difficult position of balancing patient autonomy and public safety. More comprehensive and definitive guidelines would be helpful in assisting physicians with this public health issue. PMID:23443064

Chan, E.; Louie, A.V.; Hanna, M.; Bauman, G.S.; Fisher, B.J.; Palma, D.A.; Rodrigues, G.B.; Sathya, A.; D'Souza, D.P.

2013-01-01

57

Uptake and retention of estramustine and the presence of estramustine binding protein in malignant brain tumours in humans.  

PubMed

Estraumustine phosphate (EMP), a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma, has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects on glioma cells in vitro. The drug uptake is assumed to depend on a specific estramustine binding protein (EMBP). One of the main difficulties in achieving cytotoxic effect in malignant brain tumours is believed to be due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic drugs into tumour tissue. In patients with malignant supratentorial brain tumours we have analysed the uptake of EMP metabolites in tumour tissue after oral administration and demonstrated EMBP in the same tissue specimens. Sixteen patients were given 280 mg EMP orally 14 h prior to surgery. Specimens from brain tumour tissue, cystic fluid, and serum were collected during surgery. Using gas chromatography the metabolites of EMP, estramustine (EaM) and estromustine (EoM), were quantified, EMBP was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EaM and EoM, expressed in ng g-1, were 60.3 and 38.4 in tumour tissue and 3.5 and 56.3 in serum, respectively. An accumulation of EaM in tumour tissue was found with a mean concentration gradient of 16.1 versus serum, while the gradient for EoM was 0.76. EMBP was demonstrated with a high degree of staining in all but one tumour. The high concentrations of EaM and EoM found in malignant brain tumour tissue correspond to potentially cytotoxic levels. The present results as well as the earlier in vitro demonstrated cytotoxic effects on glioma cells strengthen the possibility of a therapeutic effect of EMP in the treatment of malignant brain tumours. PMID:8431366

Bergenheim, A T; Gunnarsson, P O; Edman, K; von Schoultz, E; Hariz, M I; Henriksson, R

1993-02-01

58

Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Design Nationwide cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All Danes aged ?30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Main outcome measures Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. Results 358?403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10?729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use—that is, ?13 years of subscription—the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ?10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour—that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. Conclusions In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association. PMID:22016439

2011-01-01

59

Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours  

PubMed Central

While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity. We used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity to probe motor networks in control subjects and patients with brain tumours (n?=?22). Using a control dataset, we developed a method for automated detection of key nodes in the motor network, including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, premotor area and superior parietal lobule, based on the anatomic location of the hand-motor knob in the primary motor cortex. We then calculated functional connectivity between motor network nodes in control subjects, as well as patients with and without brain masses. We used this information to construct weighted, undirected graphs, which were then compared to variables of interest, including performance on a motor task, the grooved pegboard. Strong connectivity was observed within the identified motor networks between all nodes bilaterally, and especially between the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area. Reduced connectivity was observed in subjects with motor weakness versus subjects with normal strength (P?brain tumours were followed longitudinally, and the subject who recovered showed reconstitution of her motor network at follow-up. The subject who was persistently weak did not reconstitute his motor network. Motor weakness in subjects with brain tumours that do not involve primary motor structures is associated with decreased connectivity within motor functional networks, particularly interhemispheric connections. Motor networks become weaker as the subjects become weaker, and may become strong again during motor recovery. PMID:22408270

Mikell, Charles B.; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

2012-01-01

60

Assessing fitness to drive in brain tumour patients: a grey matter of law, ethics, and medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognitive deficits from brain tumours may impair the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle. Although certain jurisdictions in Canada legally require that physicians report patients who are unfit to drive, criteria for determining fitness are not clearly defined for brain tumours. Methods Patients receiving brain radiotherapy at our institution from January to June 2009 were identified using the Oncology Patient Information System. In addition to descriptive statistics, details of driving assessment were reviewed retrospectively. The Fisher exact test was used to determine factors predictive of reporting a patient to the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (mto) as unfit to drive. A logistic regression model was constructed to further determine factors predictive of reporting. Results Of the 158 patients available for analysis, 48 (30%) were reported to the mto, and 64 (41%) were advised to stop driving. With respect to the 53 patients with seizures, a report was submitted to the mto for 30 (57%), and a documented discussion about the implications of driving was held with 35 (66%). On univariate analysis, younger age, a central nervous system primary, higher brain radiotherapy dose, unifocal disease, and the presence of seizures were predictive of physician reporting (p < 0.05). On logistic regression modelling, the presence of seizures (odds ratio: 3.9) and a higher radiotherapy dose (odds ratio: 1.3) remained predictive of reporting. Interpretation Physicians frequently do not discuss the implications of driving with brain tumour patients or are not properly documenting such advice (or both). Clear and concise reporting guidelines need to be drafted given the legal, medical, and ethical concerns surrounding this public health issue. PMID:23559871

Louie, A.V.; Chan, E.; Hanna, M.; Bauman, G.S.; Fisher, B.J.; Palma, D.A.; Rodrigues, G.B.; Warner, A.; D'Souza, D.P.

2013-01-01

61

Alterations in the basal ganglia in patients with brain tumours may be due to excessive iron deposition  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of iron in the brain is a common physiological process. However, alterations in the deposition of iron or other paramagnetic substances are associated with various diseases. In the present study, the deposition of paramagnetic substances in patients with brain tumours was evaluated using T2 relaxometry. A total of 23 patients with untreated tumours or with recurrent tumours following treatment, together with a group of 19 age-matched healthy controls, were examined using T2 relaxometry at 3T. The relaxation times in the basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter were evaluated. Significantly lower T2 relaxation times were identified in the basal ganglia and thalamus of the patients with tumours, as compared with those of the controls (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was identified between patients with untreated or recurrent brain tumours. The reduction in T2 relaxation times in the brain tumour patients was possibly caused by the accumulation of iron, since iron homeostasis is known to be altered in patients with tumours. We propose that increased iron deposition is a consequence of a higher risk of oxidative stress caused by an increased iron concentration in the plasma or cerebrospinal fluid.

HERYNEK, VÍT; WAGNEROVÁ, DITA; MALUCELLI, ALBERTO; VYMAZAL, JOSEF; SAMEŠ, MARTIN; HÁJEK, MILAN

2015-01-01

62

Walker 256 tumour cells increase substance P immunoreactivity locally and modify the properties of the blood-brain barrier during extravasation and brain invasion.  

PubMed

It is not yet known how tumour cells traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to form brain metastases. Substance P (SP) release is a key component of neurogenic inflammation which has been recently shown to increase the permeability of the BBB following CNS insults, making it a possible candidate as a mediator of tumour cell extravasation into the brain. This study investigated the properties of the BBB in the early stages of tumour cell invasion into the brain, and the possible involvement of SP. Male Wistar rats were injected with Walker 256 breast carcinoma cells via the internal carotid artery and euthanised at 1, 3, 6 and 9 days post tumour inoculation. Culture medium-injected animals served as controls at 1 and 9 days. Evidence of tumour cell extravasation across the BBB was first observed at 3 days post-inoculation, which corresponded with significantly increased albumin (p < 0.05) and SP immunoreactivity (p < 0.01) and significantly reduced endothelial barrier antigen labelling of microvessels when compared to culture medium control animals (p < 0.001). By day 9 after tumour cell inoculation, 100 % of animals developed large intracranial neoplasms that had significantly increased albumin in the peri-tumoral area (p < 0.001). The increased SP immunoreactivity and altered BBB properties at 3 days post-inoculation that coincided with early tumour invasion may be indicative of a mechanism for tumour cell extravasation into the brain. Thus, extravasation of tumour cells into the brain to form cerebral metastases may be a SP-mediated process. PMID:22610781

Lewis, Kate M; Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Vink, Robert; Nimmo, Alan J; Ghabriel, Mounir N

2013-01-01

63

Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR values were below 0.1?W?kg?1, far lower than the level at which thermal effects may occur, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for regular mobile phone users being 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–2.37) for glioma and 0.70 (0.42–1.16) for meningioma. When the maximal SAR value inside the tumour tissue was accounted for in the exposure indices, the overall OR was again not increased and there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to SAR-derived exposure indices. A non-significant increase in OR among glioma patients in the heavily exposed group may reflect recall bias. PMID:18256587

Takebayashi, T; Varsier, N; Kikuchi, Y; Wake, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N

2008-01-01

64

Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies.  

PubMed

The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials. PMID:18627252

Saatman, Kathryn E; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Bullock, Ross; Maas, Andrew I R; Valadka, Alex; Manley, Geoffrey T

2008-07-01

65

Classification of Traumatic Brain Injury for Targeted Therapies  

PubMed Central

Abstract The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, convened a workshop to outline the steps needed to develop a reliable, efficient and valid classification system for TBI that could be used to link specific patterns of brain and neurovascular injury with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Currently, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary selection criterion for inclusion in most TBI clinical trials. While the GCS is extremely useful in the clinical management and prognosis of TBI, it does not provide specific information about the pathophysiologic mechanisms which are responsible for neurological deficits and targeted by interventions. On the premise that brain injuries with similar pathoanatomic features are likely to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms, participants proposed that a new, multidimensional classification system should be developed for TBI clinical trials. It was agreed that preclinical models were vital in establishing pathophysiologic mechanisms relevant to specific pathoanatomic types of TBI and verifying that a given therapeutic approach improves outcome in these targeted TBI types. In a clinical trial, patients with the targeted pathoanatomic injury type would be selected using an initial diagnostic entry criterion, including their severity of injury. Coexisting brain injury types would be identified and multivariate prognostic modeling used for refinement of inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient stratification. Outcome assessment would utilize endpoints relevant to the targeted injury type. Advantages and disadvantages of currently available diagnostic, monitoring, and assessment tools were discussed. Recommendations were made for enhancing the utility of available or emerging tools in order to facilitate implementation of a pathoanatomic classification approach for clinical trials. PMID:18627252

Saatman, Kathryn E.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Bullock, Ross; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Valadka, Alex

2008-01-01

66

Value of serial stereotactic biopsies and impedance monitoring in the treatment of deep brain tumours.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-five patients with deep brain tumours have been submitted to transtumoral stereotactic impedance monitoring and serial biopsy. The direct examination of the biopsy samples confirmed the presumptive clinical and neuroradiological diagnosis in 25 patients, but in 10 patients the histological diagnosis differed from the presumptive one. In this second group the treatment was changed as a result of the histological findings. Stereotactic biopsy avoided the risks of "blind" management. The technique, the indications and the diagnostic advantages of stereotactic biopsy are reported with two illustrative cases. Images PMID:7021770

Broggi, G; Franzini, A

1981-01-01

67

Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case-control study with incidence data.  

PubMed

The first case-control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study) has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case-control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case-control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted. PMID:22607537

Aydin, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Röösli, Martin

2012-01-01

68

Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case-control study with incidence data  

PubMed Central

The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study) has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted. PMID:22607537

2012-01-01

69

Ongoing transitions: the impact of a malignant brain tumour on patient and family.  

PubMed

Although primary malignant brain tumours represent only 1.4% of all cancers, it is considered one of the most devastating types of cancers in adults. From the time of diagnosis, the patient and family embark on a "roller coaster" ride of uncertainty, fear and hope. Despite improved medical outcomes, patients often experience severe functional impairment, as well as behavioural and cognitive dysfunction. Subsequently, they suffer from greater dependency and hopelessness than other cancer patients. The family caregivers are faced with multiple demands such as taking on new roles within the family and caring for their loved one while grieving the loss of the person they knew. The role of the nurse is to support the patient and the family throughout the illness trajectory, identify and promote their strengths and mobilize the necessary resources to facilitate patient and family coping. The purpose of this paper is to present, via a detailed case study, the impact of a malignant brain tumour on the patient and the family. The nursing strategies used to help them make the necessary transitions throughout the illness trajectory are discussed. PMID:17682686

Khalili, Yasmin

2007-01-01

70

Brain tumours and cigarette smoking: analysis of the INTERPHONE Canada case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the associations between cigarette smoking and glioma or meningioma. Our purpose is to provide further evidence on these possible associations. Methods We conducted a set of case–control studies in three Canadian cities, Montreal, Ottawa and Vancouver. The study included 166 subjects with glioma, 93 subjects with meningioma, and 648 population-based controls. A lifetime history of cigarette smoking was collected and various smoking indices were computed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) between smoking and each of the two types of brain tumours. Results Adjusted ORs between smoking and each type of brain tumour were not significantly elevated for all smokers combined or for smokers with over 15 pack-years ((packs / day) x years) accumulated. We tested for interactions between smoking and several sociodemographic variables; the interaction between smoking and education on glioma risk was significant, with smoking showing an elevated OR among subjects with lower education and an OR below unity among subjects with higher education. Conclusion Except for an unexplained and possibly artefactual excess risk in one population subgroup, we found little or no evidence of an association between smoking and either glioma or meningioma. PMID:24972852

2014-01-01

71

Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

2014-03-01

72

Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array.  

PubMed

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

2014-03-01

73

Compatibility between 3T  1 H SV-MRS data and automatic brain tumour diagnosis support systems based on databases of 1.5T 1 H SV-MRS spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  This study demonstrates that 3T SV-MRS data can be used with the currently available automatic brain tumour diagnostic classifiers\\u000a which were trained on databases of 1.5T spectra. This will allow the existing large databases of 1.5T MRS data to be used\\u000a for diagnostic classification of 3T spectra, and perhaps also the combination of 1.5T and 3T databases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Brain

Elies Fuster-Garcia; Clara Navarro; Javier Vicente; Salvador Tortajada; Juan M. García-Gómez; Carlos Sáez; Jorge Calvar; John Griffiths; Margarida Juliŕ-Sapé; Franklyn A. Howe; Jesús Pujol; Andrew C. Peet; Arend Heerschap; Ŕngel Moreno-Torres; M. C. Martínez-Bisbal; Beatriz Martínez-Granados; Pieter Wesseling; Wolfhard Semmler; Jaume Capellades; Carles Majós; Ŕngel Alberich-Bayarri; Antoni Capdevila; Daniel Monleón; Luis Martí-Bonmatí; Carles Arús; Bernardo Celda; Montserrat Robles

2011-01-01

74

Segmentation, feature extraction, and multiclass brain tumor classification.  

PubMed

Multiclass brain tumor classification is performed by using a diversified dataset of 428 post-contrast T1-weighted MR images from 55 patients. These images are of primary brain tumors namely astrocytoma (AS), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), childhood tumor-medulloblastoma (MED), meningioma (MEN), secondary tumor-metastatic (MET), and normal regions (NR). Eight hundred fifty-six regions of interest (SROIs) are extracted by a content-based active contour model. Two hundred eighteen intensity and texture features are extracted from these SROIs. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) is used for reduction of dimensionality of the feature space. These six classes are then classified by artificial neural network (ANN). Hence, this approach is named as PCA-ANN approach. Three sets of experiments have been performed. In the first experiment, classification accuracy by ANN approach is performed. In the second experiment, PCA-ANN approach with random sub-sampling has been used in which the SROIs from the same patient may get repeated during testing. It is observed that the classification accuracy has increased from 77 to 91 %. PCA-ANN has delivered high accuracy for each class: AS-90.74 %, GBM-88.46 %, MED-85 %, MEN-90.70 %, MET-96.67 %, and NR-93.78 %. In the third experiment, to remove bias and to test the robustness of the proposed system, data is partitioned in a manner such that the SROIs from the same patient are not common for training and testing sets. In this case also, the proposed system has performed well by delivering an overall accuracy of 85.23 %. The individual class accuracy for each class is: AS-86.15 %, GBM-65.1 %, MED-63.36 %, MEN-91.5 %, MET-65.21 %, and NR-93.3 %. A computer-aided diagnostic system comprising of developed methods for segmentation, feature extraction, and classification of brain tumors can be beneficial to radiologists for precise localization, diagnosis, and interpretation of brain tumors on MR images. PMID:23645344

Sachdeva, Jainy; Kumar, Vinod; Gupta, Indra; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Ahuja, Chirag Kamal

2013-12-01

75

A new shape diffusion descriptor for brain classification.  

PubMed

In this paper, we exploit spectral shape analysis techniques to detect brain morphological abnormalities. We propose a new shape descriptor able to encode morphometric properties of a brain image or region using diffusion geometry techniques based on the local Heat Kernel. Using this approach, it is possible to design a versatile signature, employed in this case to classify between normal subjects and patients affected by schizophrenia. Several diffusion strategies are assessed to verify the robustness of the proposed descriptor under different deformation variations. A dataset consisting of MRI scans from 30 patients and 30 control subjects is utilized to test the proposed approach, which achieves promising classification accuracies, up to 83.33%. This constitutes a drastic improvement in comparison with other shape description techniques. PMID:21995057

Castellani, Umberto; Mirtuono, Pasquale; Murino, Vittorio; Bellani, Marcella; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

2011-01-01

76

Brain and spinal tumours in children aged under two years: incidence and survival in Britain, 1971-85.  

PubMed Central

There were 548 children aged under two with brain and spinal tumours diagnosed during 1971-85 in Great Britain and included in the population-based National Registry of Childhood Tumours. Children aged under two accounted for 12% of all children registered with tumours in these sites. The annual incidence was 25.0 per million. Ependymoma, astrocytoma and medulloblastoma (including primitive neuroectodermal tumour) each accounted for around a quarter of the total. Five-year survival rates were 20% for ependymoma, 43% for astrocytoma and 13% for medulloblastoma, each significantly lower than for children aged 2-14 in the corresponding diagnostic group. Mortality in the first year after diagnosis was very high but there were also substantial numbers of later deaths. There was no significant trend in survival rates during the period under review. PMID:1503926

Stiller, C. A.; Bunch, K. J.

1992-01-01

77

Directed progression brain networks in Alzheimer's disease: properties and classification.  

PubMed

This article introduces a new approach in brain connectomics aimed at characterizing the temporal spread in the brain of pathologies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main instrument is the development of "directed progression networks" (DPNets), wherein one constructs directed edges between nodes based on (weakly) inferred directions of the temporal spreading of the pathology. This stands in contrast to many previously studied brain networks where edges represent correlations, physical connections, or functional progressions. In addition, this is one of a few studies showing the value of using directed networks in the study of AD. This article focuses on the construction of DPNets for AD using longitudinal cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance imaging data. The network properties are then characterized, providing new insights into AD progression, as well as novel markers for differentiating normal cognition (NC) and AD at the group level. It also demonstrates the important role of nodal variations for network classification (i.e., the significance of standard deviations, not just mean values of nodal properties). Finally, the DPNets are utilized to classify subjects based on their global network measures using a variety of data-mining methodologies. In contrast to most brain networks, these DPNets do not show high clustering and small-world properties. PMID:24901258

Friedman, Eric J; Young, Karl; Asif, Danial; Jutla, Inderjit; Liang, Michael; Wilson, Scott; Landsberg, Adam S; Schuff, Norbert

2014-06-01

78

Clinical indicators contributing to I.C.U. length of stay in elective craniotomy patients with brain tumour.  

PubMed

The immediate purposes of this study are (a) to indicate the I.C.U. and hospital length of stay in elective craniotomy patients with brain tumour, and (b) to identify the clinical indicators that contribute to the I.C.U. length of stay. The ultimate purpose is to contribute to a growing body of knowledge in providing quality and cost effective patient outcomes by creating appropriate vehicles for further research in the field of neuroscience. The following clinical indicators are identified: pre-op patient admission to ward or same day admit unit, O.R. cancellations, type of tumour, nursing staff availability, intubation on admission, I.C.U. length of stay, and post-op complications. The results of this pilot study, with sample size of 55 patients, could assist us in the nursing profession to develop an appropriate Care Map for craniotomy patients with brain tumour. PMID:8695536

Sarkissian, S; Wallace, C

1995-12-01

79

Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase and creatine kinase activity and isoenzymes in human brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1, PGM), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.13, BPGP) and creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2, CK) activity and isoenzymes in various regions of adult human brain and in brain tumours (astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas and meningiomas) has been determined using electrophoresis. PGM and cytosolic CK exist in mammalian tissues as three isoenzymes that result from the homodimeric

N Durany; J Joseph; FF Cruz-Sánchez; J Carreras

1997-01-01

80

OPTIMIZING BRAIN CONNECTIVITY NETWORKS FOR DISEASE CLASSIFICATION USING EPIC  

PubMed Central

We propose a method to adaptively select an optimal cortical segmentation for brain connectivity analysis that maximizes feature-based disease classification performance. In standard structural connectivity analysis, the cortex is typically subdivided (parcellated) into N anatomical regions. White matter fiber pathways from tractography are used to compute an N × N matrix, which represents the pairwise connectivity between those regions. We optimize this representation by sampling over the space of possible region combinations and represent each configuration as a set partition of the N anatomical regions. Each partition is assigned a score using accuracy from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier of connectivity matrices in a group of patients and controls. We then define a high-dimensional optimization problem using simulated annealing to identify an optimal partition for maximum classification accuracy. We evaluate the results separately on test data using cross-validation. Specifically, we demonstrate results on the ADNI-2 dataset, where we optimally parcellate the cortex to yield an 85% classification accuracy using connectivity information alone. We refer to our method as evolving partitions to improve connectomics (EPIC).

Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Thompson, Paul M.

2014-01-01

81

Oculo-bulbar myasthenic symptoms as the sole sign of tumour involving or compressing the brain stem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with tumours involving or compressing the brain stem are described whose initial clinical symptoms of fluctuating paresis of the external ocular muscles and\\/or the pharyngeal muscles without other neurological deficits led to the primary diagnosis of focal myasthenia. The combination of an unusual clinical pattern, involvement of muscles of only one ocular nerve or severe dysphagia\\/dysarthria without extension

A. Straube; T. N. Witt

1990-01-01

82

Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents  

PubMed Central

Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

Lavender, J. P.

1973-01-01

83

Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

2012-01-01

84

DNA-microarray analysis of brain cancer: molecular classification for therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary brain tumours are among the most lethal of all cancers, largely as a result of their lack of responsiveness to current therapy. Numerous new therapies hold great promise for the treatment of patients with brain cancer, but the main challenge is to determine which treatment is most likely to benefit an individual patient. DNA-microarray-based technologies, which allow simultaneous analysis

Timothy F. Cloughesy; Stanley F. Nelson; Paul S. Mischel

2004-01-01

85

Feature Selection and Classification in Brain Computer Interfaces by a Genetic Algorithm  

E-print Network

investigated as well [5]. In the present study, we aimed at simultaneously selecting P300-based features1 Feature Selection and Classification in Brain Computer Interfaces by a Genetic Algorithm Luca in a wrapper-based selection of features and the classification of P300 signals in Brain Computer Interfaces

Poli, Riccardo

86

Automated Model-Based Tissue Classification of MR Images of the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a fully automated method for model- based tissue classification of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. The method interleaves classification with estimation of the model parameters, improving the classification at each iteration. The algorithm is able to segment single- and multi- spectral MR images, corrects for MR signal inhomogeneities, and incorporates contextual information by means of Markov

Koen Van Leemput; Frederik Maes; Dirk Vandermeulen; Paul Suetens

1999-01-01

87

Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families.  

PubMed

Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities. PMID:25265763

Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena

2014-01-01

88

“Now we have to cope with the rest of our lives”. Existential issues related to parenting a child surviving a brain tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of the paper was to explore the existential issues expressed by parents of children who had been treated for brain\\u000a tumours.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  A brain tumour in childhood is an event that triggers acute traumatic stress and it has long-term consequences for the child\\u000a as well as for the parents. Due to advanced treatment techniques, more children survive brain tumours

Ulla Forinder; Annika Lindahl Norberg

2010-01-01

89

Endocrine Tumours  

PubMed Central

The paper opens with a short historical survey of the evidence that the cells of tumours, including cancers, may manifest functional, secretory or other activity (ścology) of the same nature as that of the normal glandular or other cells from which they have arisen. This is followed by a short consideration of the classification and the acknowledged and doubtful endocrine or hormonic effects of primary tumours and tumour-like hyperplasias of the various endocrine glands of the body. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:19986834

Weber, F. Parkes

1929-01-01

90

Classification and Mining of Brain Image Data Using Adaptive Recursive Partitioning Methods: Application to Alzheimer Disease and Brain Activation Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To effectively identify discriminative spatial areas in MRI and fMRI and make image classification, similarity searches and mining of associations between spatial distributions and other clinical assessment feasible we have developed brain informatics tools that are based on adaptive recursive partitioning and use of statistical tests. Method We developed a methodology for classification and association mining that is based

Vasileios Megalooikonomou; Despina Kontos; Dragoljub Pokrajac; Aleksandar Lazarevic; Zoran Obradovic; Orest Boyko; Andrew Saykin; James Ford; Fillia Makedon

2003-01-01

91

Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for ?10 years  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate brain tumour risk among long?term users of cellular telephones. Methods Two cohort studies and 16 case–control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for use of mobile phone for ?10?years and ipsilateral exposure if presented. Results The cohort study was of limited value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 16 case–control studies, 11 gave results for ?10?years' use or latency period. Most of these results were based on low numbers. An association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies in the group with at least 10?years' use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Six studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased odd ratios (OR), especially for ipsilateral exposure. In a meta?analysis, ipsilateral cell phone use for acoustic neuroma was OR?=?2.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.3) and OR?=?2.0, (1.2 to 3.4) for glioma using a tumour latency period of ?10?years. Conclusions Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for ?10?years give a consistent pattern of increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure. PMID:17409179

Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Soderqvist, Fredrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

2007-01-01

92

Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations of brain tumours with radio frequency (RF) fields from mobile phones. Methods Patients with brain tumour from the Australian, Canadian, French, Israeli and New Zealand components of the Interphone Study, whose tumours were localised by neuroradiologists, were analysed. Controls were matched on age, sex and region and allocated the ‘tumour location’ of their matched case. Analyses included 553 glioma and 676 meningioma cases and 1762 and 1911 controls, respectively. RF dose was estimated as total cumulative specific energy (TCSE; J/kg) absorbed at the tumour's estimated centre taking into account multiple RF exposure determinants. Results ORs with ever having been a regular mobile phone user were 0.93 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.18) for glioma and 0.80 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.96) for meningioma. ORs for glioma were below 1 in the first four quintiles of TCSE but above 1 in the highest quintile, 1.35 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.90). The OR increased with increasing TCSE 7+ years before diagnosis (p-trend 0.01; OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.47 in the highest quintile). A complementary analysis in which 44 glioma and 135 meningioma cases in the most exposed area of the brain were compared with gliomas and meningiomas located elsewhere in the brain showed increased ORs for tumours in the most exposed part of the brain in those with 10+ years of mobile phone use (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.94 for glioma). Patterns for meningioma were similar, but ORs were lower, many below 1.0. Conclusions There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made. PMID:21659469

Armstrong, B K; Bowman, J D; Giles, G G; Hours, M; Krewski, D; McBride, M; Parent, M E; Sadetzki, S; Woodward, A; Brown, J; Chetrit, A; Figuerola, J; Hoffmann, C; Jarus-Hakak, A; Montestruq, L; Nadon, L; Richardson, L; Villegas, R; Vrijheid, M

2011-01-01

93

Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for ?10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones.Methods: Two cohort studies and 16 case–control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for use of mobile phone for ?10 years and ipsilateral exposure if presented.Results: The cohort study was of limited value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 16 case–control studies, 11

Lennart Hardell; Michael Carlberg; Fredrik So?derqvist; Kjell Hansson Mild; L. Lloyd Morgan

2007-01-01

94

Perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with craniotomy for brain tumours: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events are frequent in neurooncological patients in perioperative period thus increasing mortality and morbidity. The role of prophylaxis has not yet been established with certainty, and in various neurosurgery and intensive care units the practice is inconsistent. A better definition of the risk/cost/benefit ratio of the various methods, both mechanical (intermittent pneumatic compression-IPC, graduated compression stockings-GCS) and pharmacological (unfractionated heparin-UFH or low molecular weight heparin-LMWH), is warranted. We aim to define the optimal prophylactic treatment in the perioperative period in neurooncological patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, in which physical methods (IPC or GCS) and/or drugs (UFH or LMWHs) were evaluated in perioperative prophylaxis of neurological patients, mostly with brain cancer not treated with anticoagulants for other diseases. The analysis was conducted on a total of 1,932 randomized patients of whom 1,558 had brain tumours. Overall data show a trend of reduction of VTE in patients treated with mechanical methods (IPC or GCS) that should be initiated preoperatively and continued until discharge or longer in case of persistence of risk factors. The addition of enoxaparin starting the day after surgery, significantly reduces clinically manifest VTE, despite an increase in major bleeding events. Further studies are needed to delineate the types of patients with an increase of VTE risk and risk/benefits ratio of physical and pharmacological treatments in the perioperative period. PMID:23543244

Salmaggi, Andrea; Simonetti, Giorgia; Trevisan, Elisa; Beecher, Deirdre; Carapella, Carmine Maria; DiMeco, Francesco; Conti, Laura; Pace, Andrea; Filippini, Graziella

2013-06-01

95

Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection  

PubMed Central

Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full-term infants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible effects of various clinical parameters were tested by multiple regression analysis. DMBT1 levels increased significantly with lung maturity (P < 0·0001 for both gestational and postnatal age) and in small-for-gestational-age infants (P = 0·0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P < 0·0001). These results were supported by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical analyses of archived newborn lung sections (n = 17) demonstrated high concentrations of DMBT1 in lungs of neonates with bacterial infections. Our data show that preterm infants are able to up-regulate DMBT1 in infection as an unspecific immune reaction. PMID:17991292

Muller, H; End, C; Weiss, C; Renner, M; Bhandiwad, A; Helmke, B M; Gassler, N; Hafner, M; Poustka, A; Mollenhauer, J; Poeschl, J

2008-01-01

96

Evolutionary hypothesis of telomere length in primary breast cancer and brain tumour patients: a tracer for genomic-tumour heterogeneity and instability.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that tumour samples had shorter telomeres than the surrounding normal tissue. Hereby, the initial sign of correlation between malignant tissue and telomere behaviour could be noticed. Bridging knowledge between germ and somatic cells could facilitate understanding cellular evolution. The aim of our investigation was to provide evidence for the evolutionary hypothesis of TL (telomere length) in primary BC (breast cancer) and BTs (brain tumours), which might be applied as a prognostic and/or predictive marker. DNA extraction from the frozen tissues was performed using high pure PCR template preparation kit. Standard protocol of Telo TTAGGG Telomere Length Assay kit, a non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay, was used. The protein expression in extracted cells was analysed by immunofluorescence. We also detected telomerase activity. The G/T (genomic/tumour ratio) for TL in two groups of patients affected with primary BC and primary BT revealed significant differences in both BC patients (P?=?0.025) and in BTs (P?=?0.001). The pattern of telomere signals by Q-FISH (quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization) show that in all samples, except one, SI (signal intensity) has been significantly decreased in tissue related to blood, either in BC patients or in patients with BTs (0.041?P?0.001). However, the data achieved by Q-FISH support the results of Southern blot. These data reflect a significant diversity either in BC or in BT patients, providing evidence for the evolutionary hypothesis of TL in cancer development and progression. PMID:21385157

Mehdipour, Parvin; Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Atri, Morteza

2011-09-01

97

Correlation of nodal mast cells with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour and a proposed classification system for the evaluation of node metastasis.  

PubMed

Lymph node metastasis in dogs with mast cell tumour has been reported as a negative prognostic indicator; however, no standardized histological criteria exist to define metastatic disease. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different histological patterns of node-associated mast cells correlate with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour. A secondary goal was to propose a criteria-defined classification system for histological evaluation of lymph node metastasis. The Colorado State University Diagnostic Medicine Center database was searched for cases of canine mast cell tumours with reported lymph node metastasis or evidence of node-associated mast cells. Additional cases were obtained from a clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node mapping and node extirpation in dogs with mast cell neoplasia. Forty-one cases were identified for inclusion in the study. Demographic data, treatment and clinical outcome were collected for each case. Lymph nodes were classified according to a novel classification system (HN0-HN3) based on the number of, distribution of, and architectural disruption by, nodal mast cells. The findings of this study indicate that characterization of nodal mast cells as proposed by this novel classification system correlates with, and is prognostic for, clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumours. PMID:25172053

Weishaar, K M; Thamm, D H; Worley, D R; Kamstock, D A

2014-11-01

98

Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. Methods In our retrospective cohort study, we included patients without previous cancer diagnoses who were first examined with CT in National Health Service (NHS) centres in England, Wales, or Scotland (Great Britain) between 1985 and 2002, when they were younger than 22 years of age. We obtained data for cancer incidence, mortality, and loss to follow-up from the NHS Central Registry from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2008. We estimated absorbed brain and red bone marrow doses per CT scan in mGy and assessed excess incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours cancer with Poisson relative risk models. To avoid inclusion of CT scans related to cancer diagnosis, follow-up for leukaemia began 2 years after the first CT and for brain tumours 5 years after the first CT. Findings During follow-up, 74 of 178?604 patients were diagnosed with leukaemia and 135 of 176?587 patients were diagnosed with brain tumours. We noted a positive association between radiation dose from CT scans and leukaemia (excess relative risk [ERR] per mGy 0·036, 95% CI 0·005–0·120; p=0·0097) and brain tumours (0·023, 0·010–0·049; p<0·0001). Compared with patients who received a dose of less than 5 mGy, the relative risk of leukaemia for patients who received a cumulative dose of at least 30 mGy (mean dose 51·13 mGy) was 3·18 (95% CI 1·46–6·94) and the relative risk of brain cancer for patients who received a cumulative dose of 50–74 mGy (mean dose 60·42 mGy) was 2·82 (1·33–6·03). Interpretation Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10?000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate. Funding US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health. PMID:22681860

Pearce, Mark S; Salotti, Jane A; Little, Mark P; McHugh, Kieran; Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Howe, Nicola L; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rajaraman, Preetha; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

2012-01-01

99

A review of classification algorithms for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review classification algorithms used to design brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on electroencephalography (EEG). We briefly present the commonly employed algorithms and describe their critical properties. Based on the literature, we compare them in terms of performance and provide guidelines to choose the suitable classification algorithm(s) for a specific BCI.

100

A Review of Classification Algorithms for EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review classification algorithms used to design Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) systems based on ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG). We briefly present the commonly employed algorithms and describe their critical properties. Based on the literature, we compare them in terms of performance and provide guidelines to choose the suitable classification algorithm(s) for a specific BCI.

F Lotte; M Congedo; A Lecuyer; F Lamarche

101

3-D MRI Brain Scan Feature Classification Using an Oct-tree Representation  

E-print Network

) a frequent sub-graph mining based feature space mechanism to support classification. The proposed process a feature space that is compatible with the application of data mining (classification) techniques. #12 MRI brain scan features. Keywords: Image mining, 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Image

Coenen, Frans

102

Rarely metastasizing soft tissue tumours.  

PubMed

Soft tissue tumours that rarely metastasize have been afforded their own subcategory in recent WHO classifications. This review discusses the nature of these tumours and the difficulty in constructing usefully simple classifications for heterogeneous and complex groups of tumours. We also highlight the specific rarely metastasizing soft tissue tumours that have been recently added to the WHO classification (phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma) and those entities where there have been recent important defining genetic discoveries (myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumour, myoepitheliomas). PMID:24117966

Mangham, D Chas; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar

2014-01-01

103

Synergy between CD8 T Cells and Th1 or Th2 Polarised CD4 T Cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy of Brain Tumours  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of cancer immunotherapy mediated by T lymphocytes is now a clinical reality. Indeed, many tumour associated antigens have been identified for cytotoxic CD8 T cells, which are believed to be key mediators of tumour rejection. However, for aggressive malignancies in specialised anatomic sites such as the brain, a limiting factor is suboptimal tumour infiltration by CD8 T cells. Here we take advantage of recent advances in T cell biology to differentially polarise CD4 T cells in order to explore their capacity to enhance immunotherapy. We used an adoptive cell therapy approach to work with clonal T cell populations of defined specificity. Th1 CD4 T cells preferentially homed to and accumulated within intracranial tumours compared with Th2 CD4 T cells. Moreover, tumour-antigen specific Th1 CD4 T cells enhanced CD8 T cell recruitment and function within the brain tumour bed. Survival of mice bearing intracranial tumours was significantly prolonged when CD4 and CD8 T cells were co-transferred. These results should encourage further definition of tumour antigens recognised by CD4 T cells, and exploitation of both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets to optimise T cell therapy of cancer. PMID:23717511

Hoepner, Sabine; Loh, Jacelyn M. S.; Riccadonna, Cristina; Derouazi, Madiha; Maroun, Celine Yacoub; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Walker, Paul R.

2013-01-01

104

Factors that Affect Classification Performance in EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the factors that affect classification performance of EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) is studied. Study is specified on P300 speller system which is also an EEG based BCI system. P300 is a physiological signal that represents a response of brain to a given stimulus which occurs right 300 ms after the stimulus onset. When this

A. O. Argunsah; A. B. Curuklu; M. Cetin; A. Ercil

2007-01-01

105

TENSOR CLASSIFICATION FOR P300-BASED BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Akinari Onishi  

E-print Network

TENSOR CLASSIFICATION FOR P300-BASED BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Akinari Onishi Anh Huy Phan-based BCI algorithms. Index Terms-- Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), P300- based BCI, facial image methods for P300-based BCIs extract features based on temporal structure related to P300 components

Cichocki, Andrzej

106

Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours.  

PubMed

In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against gamma-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 +/- 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as approximately 10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema). PMID:15843741

Medina, Daniel C; Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S

2005-05-01

107

NK1 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone as anticancer agents in vitro and in a model of brain tumours secondary to breast cancer.  

PubMed

Emend, an NK1 antagonist, and dexamethasone are used to treat complications associated with metastatic brain tumours and their treatment. It has been suggested that these agents exert anticancer effects apart from their current use. The effects of the NK1 antagonists, Emend and N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, and dexamethasone on tumour growth were investigated in vitro and in vivo at clinically relevant doses. For animal experiments, a stereotaxic injection model of Walker 256 rat breast carcinoma cells into the striatum of Wistar rats was used. Emend treatment led to a decrease in tumour cell viability in vitro, although this effect was not replicated by N-acetyl-L-tryptophan. Dexamethasone did not decrease tumour cell viability in vitro but decreased tumour volume in vivo, likely to be through a reduction in tumour oedema, as indicated by the increase in tumour cell density. None of the agents investigated altered tumour cell replication or apoptosis in vivo. Inoculated animals showed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 immunoreactivity indicative of astrocytes and microglia in the peritumoral area, whereas treatment with Emend and dexamethasone reduced the labelling for both glial cells. These results do not support the hypothesis that NK1 antagonists or dexamethasone exert a cytotoxic action on tumour cells, although these conclusions may be specific to this model and cell line. PMID:23407059

Lewis, Kate M; Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Vink, Robert; Ghabriel, Mounir N

2013-04-01

108

Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns  

E-print Network

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

Balc?, Serdar Kemal

2008-01-01

109

Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

2008-03-01

110

Assessing occupational exposure to chemicals in an international epidemiological study of brain tumours.  

PubMed

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case-control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960-1984) was split into two periods (1960-1974 and 1975-1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

van Tongeren, Martie; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Kauppinen, Timo; Lakhani, Ramzan; Lavoué, Jérôme; McLean, Dave; Plato, Nils; Cardis, Elisabeth

2013-06-01

111

Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours  

PubMed Central

The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

van Tongeren, Martie

2013-01-01

112

Mir-34a Mimics Are Potential Therapeutic Agents for p53-Mutated and Chemo-Resistant Brain Tumour Cells  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma) and adult (glioblastoma) brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1). Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells. PMID:25250818

Fan, Yuen Ngan; Meley, Daniel; Pizer, Barry; See, Violaine

2014-01-01

113

FUZZY ARTMAP CLASSIFICATION FOR MOTOR IMAGINARY BASED BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid advancement of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) or Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research over the recent years is concentrated to the development of new technologies which adopts the easiest procedures since the expected beneficiaries are of disabled in nature. Most of the locked-in patients possess strong mental ability in terms of imagining and thinking but they are extremely unable

Vickneswaran Jeyabalan; Andrews Samraj; Loo Chu Kiong

114

Primary malignant rhabdoid tumours of brain, clinicoradiological findings of two cases.  

PubMed

Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRT) are extremely malignant, highly aggressive and uncommon renal neoplasms of childhood with very poor prognosis. About fifteen cases of primary intracranial MRT (with their clinical details) are reported in English literature, following the recognition of this entity in 1978. Two cases of MRT are reported here. The first case, one year male baby was admitted with a very large, infiltrative, posterior fossa mass. He required elective ventilation, following the tumour decompression but ultimately died of respiratory failure during the process of weaning from the ventilator. The second child was operated for an extremely vascular, very friable, solid and lobulated tumour of temporal lobe. Radical microsurgical decompression of mass was achieved, however the child developed massive recurrence, documented five weeks after the surgery while on radiotherapy. His recurrence showed partial response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The child is alive at 8 month's follow up, but probably passing the terminal days of his life. Hence the recognition of this entity is very essential for the aggressive management and prognostication of the patient, which obviously seems to be different from primitive neuroectodermal tumour. PMID:10625907

Kumar, R

1999-12-01

115

Cellular telephone use and time trends for brain, head and neck tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The objective of this study was to determine whether incidence rates of head and neck malignancies in New Zealand have varied since the introduction of cellular telephones in 1987. In particular, we sought to compare trends in tumour rates in anatomical sites that receive high, medium and low levels of cellular telephone radiation (based on dosimetry data). Methods We

Angus Cook; Alistair Woodward; Neil Pearce; Cara Marshall

116

Brain Activity-Based Image Classification From Rapid Serial Visual Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the design and performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific dynamic brain response signatures in high-density (128-channel) electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquired during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Image clips were selected from a broad area image and presented in rapid succession (12\\/s) in 4.1-s bursts.

Nima Bigdely-Shamlo; Andrey Vankov; Rey R. Ramirez; Scott Makeig

2008-01-01

117

Semi-supervised discriminative classification with application to tumorous tissues segmentation of MR brain images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the large data size of 3D MR brain images and the blurry boundary of the pathological tissues, tumor segmentation work\\u000a is difficult. This paper introduces a discriminative classification algorithm for semi-automated segmentation of brain tumorous\\u000a tissues. The classifier uses interactive hints to obtain models to classify normal and tumor tissues. A non-parametric Bayesian\\u000a Gaussian random field in the

Yangqiu Song; Changshui Zhang; Jianguo Lee; Fei Wang; Shiming Xiang; Dan Zhang

2009-01-01

118

An antigen associated with mesenchyme in human tumours that cross-reacts with brain glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

Anti-NSA3 antiserum was found to react with many kinds of benign and malignant tumours, as well as foetal skin and intestinal extracts. The corresponding antigens isolated from nervous tissue, benign breast adenoma, and a fibrosarcoma were compared. Immunoprecipitation cannot distinguish between these antigens, and their amino-acid contents were comparable. However, immuno-absorption identified an antigenic determinant that was confined to nervous tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence further confirmed the validity of the concept of a nervous form vs a mesenchymal form of the antigen. Furthermore, immunofluorescence enabled the localization of the antigen found in non-nervous tissue to mesenchyme (mesenchyme-associated antigen: MAA), whether the mesenchymal tissue be normal (foetal organs), tumoral (fibrosarcoma) or reactional (connective-tissue stroma of epithelial tumours). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:89856

Delpech, B.; Delpech, A.; Girard, N.; Chauzy, C.; Laumonier, R.

1979-01-01

119

The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces calreticulin exposure in childhood brain tumour cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  It has recently been recognised that anticancer chemotherapy can elicit an immunogenic form of apoptosis characterised by\\u000a the exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the surface of dying tumour cells, entailing an immune response that contributes to\\u000a the therapeutic outcome. CRT exposure has been found to be induced by anthracyclins and oxaliplatin, but not by other proapoptotic\\u000a antineoplastic agents including etoposide,

Jürgen Sonnemann; Stephanie Greßmann; Sabine Becker; Susan Wittig; Mareike Schmudde; James F. Beck

2010-01-01

120

Reliability of the ECASS Radiological Classification of Postthrombolysis Brain Haemorrhage: A Comparison of CT and Three MRI Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postthrombolysis brain haemorrhagic transformations (HT) are often categorized with the CT-based classification of the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). However, little is known about the reliability of this classification and its extension to MRI. Our objective was to compare the inter- and intraobserver reliability of this classification on CT and 3 MRI sequences. Methods: Forty-three patients with postthrombolysis

P. Renou; I. Sibon; T. Tourdias; F. Rouanet; C. Rosso; D. Galanaud; A. Drier; M. Coudert; S. Deltour; S. Crozier; D. Dormont; Y. Samson

2010-01-01

121

Lipopolysaccharide induces expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rat brain: inhibition by methylprednisolone and by rolipram  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type IV inhibitor rolipram and of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on the induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) mRNA and protein in brains of rats after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).After intravenous administration of LPS, a similar time-dependent induction of both TNF-? mRNA and protein was observed in rat brain. Peak mRNA and protein levels were found 7?h after administration of LPS.In situ hybridization experiments with a specific antisense TNF-? riboprobe suggested that the cells responsible for TNF-? production in the brain were microglia.Intraperitoneal administration of methylprednisolone inhibited the induction of TNF-? protein in a dose-dependent manner. A maximal inhibition of TNF-? protein production by 42.9±10.2% was observed at a dose regimen consisting of two injections of each 30?mg?kg?1 methylprednisolone.Intraperitoneal administration of rolipram also inhibited the induction of TNF-? protein in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal inhibition of TNF-? protein production was 96.1±12.2% and was observed at a dose regimen of three separate injections of each 3?mg?kg?1 rolipram.In situ hybridization experiments showed that the level of TNF-? mRNA induced in rat brain by LPS challenge was reduced by intraperitoneal administration of methylprednisolone (2×15?mg?kg?1) and of rolipram (3×3?mg?kg?1).We suggest that peripheral administration of LPS induces a time-dependent expression of TNF-? in rat brain, presumably in microglial cells, and that methylprednisolone and rolipram inhibit LPS-induced expression of TNF-? in these cells via a decrease of TNF-? mRNA stability and/or TNF-? gene transcription. PMID:9421299

Buttini, M; Mir, A; Appel, K; Wiederhold, K H; Limonta, S; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Boddeke, H W G M

1997-01-01

122

On the effect of data set size on bias and variance in classification learning Damien Brain  

E-print Network

On the effect of data set size on bias and variance in classification learning Damien Brain With the advent of data mining, machine learning has come of age and is now a critical technology in many of designing algorithms specifically for large data sets. Specifically, the paper looks at how increasing data

Webb, Geoff

123

Schizophrenia Classification Using Regions of Interest in Brain MRI D. S. Cheng1  

E-print Network

Schizophrenia Classification Using Regions of Interest in Brain MRI D. S. Cheng1 , M. Bicego1 , U by schizophrenia and other mental illnesses traditionally diagnosed by self-reports and behavioral observations encouraging agreements with previous medical studies in schizophrenia research. 1 Introduction Computational

Castellani, Umberto

124

Pattern Classification of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks: Identification of Informative Neuroimaging Markers for Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate prediction of general neuropsychiatric disorders, on an individual basis, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging task of great clinical significance. Despite the progress to chart the differences between the healthy controls and patients at the group level, the pattern classification of functional brain networks across individuals is still less developed. In this paper we

Jie Zhang; Wei Cheng; ZhengGe Wang; ZhiQiang Zhang; WenLian Lu; GuangMing Lu; Jianfeng Feng

2012-01-01

125

A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the 10B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the 10B concentration, the RBE factors for 10B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour.

Nievaart, V. A.; Moss, R. L.; Kloosterman, J. L.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; van Dam, H.

2004-09-01

126

A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours.  

PubMed

The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the 10B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the 10B concentration, the RBE factors for 10B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour. PMID:15509065

Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L; Kloosterman, J L; van der Hagen, T H J J; van Dam, H

2004-09-21

127

An experimental environment for the production, exchange and discussion of fused radiology images, for the management of patients with residual brain tumour disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to display the use of groupware as a tool for better management of the available resources (human, computing and imaging) within the University Hospital of Patras, Greece for the task of managing patients with postoperative residual brain tumour. Emphasis is given to the additional information that can be revealed and taken into account from novel image

G. C. SAKELLAROPOULOS; G. C. KAGADIS; C. KARYSTIANOS; D. KARNABATIDIS; C. CONSTANTOYANNIS; G. C. NIKIFORIDIS

2003-01-01

128

Real-time support vector classification and feedback of multiple emotional brain states.  

PubMed

An important question that confronts current research in affective neuroscience as well as in the treatment of emotional disorders is whether it is possible to determine the emotional state of a person based on the measurement of brain activity alone. Here, we first show that an online support vector machine (SVM) can be built to recognize two discrete emotional states, such as happiness and disgust from fMRI signals, in healthy individuals instructed to recall emotionally salient episodes from their lives. We report the first application of real-time head motion correction, spatial smoothing and feature selection based on a new method called Effect mapping. The classifier also showed robust prediction rates in decoding three discrete emotional states (happiness, disgust and sadness) in an extended group of participants. Subjective reports ascertained that participants performed emotion imagery and that the online classifier decoded emotions and not arbitrary states of the brain. Offline whole brain classification as well as region-of-interest classification in 24 brain areas previously implicated in emotion processing revealed that the frontal cortex was critically involved in emotion induction by imagery. We also demonstrate an fMRI-BCI based on real-time classification of BOLD signals from multiple brain regions, for each repetition time (TR) of scanning, providing visual feedback of emotional states to the participant for potential applications in the clinical treatment of dysfunctional affect. PMID:20692351

Sitaram, Ranganatha; Lee, Sangkyun; Ruiz, Sergio; Rana, Mohit; Veit, Ralf; Birbaumer, Niels

2011-05-15

129

Abstract. Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however, molecular classification of  

E-print Network

Abstract. Brain tumors are one of the leading causes of death in adults with cancer; however inoperable patients with high accuracy in vivo. Introduction Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer and a robust classification strategy. We used ~2 mg of tissue at -8°C from each of 55 brain biopsies

Blekas, Konstantinos

130

Development of a new autofluorescence probe for the analysis of normal and tumour brain tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence spectroscopy of endogenous emission of brain tumors, in particular glioblastoma multiforme, will be used for intraoperative localization of brain tumor margins. Our future surgeon's probe aims to discriminate tumor from normal brain tissues using beta and autofluorescence detection at the same time. Within this study we have implemented C6 glioma cells into rat brains to analyze the endogenous fluorescence of tumor and normal rat brain tissue. Systematic differences have been observed when comparing the autofluorescence spectra obtained from white and grey matters: both the fluorescence intensity and the shape of the spectra differ. These results were obtained by means of a 2-fiber probe, one used to guide the laser to the tissue, the other for fluorescence light collection. Excitation light was delivered by a 405 nm picosecond laser and fluorescence detection was realized by a CCD-camera. In parallel we have developed brain phantoms allowing systematic analysis of fiber - sample geometries. Based on gelatin gels, they include silica particles with 235 and 329 nm diameters to simulate the diffusion characteristics of the tissue, ink for the absorption characteristics of the tissue and organic dyes like Rhodamin B to replace biofluorophores.

Siebert, R.; Vu Thi, M. H.; Jean, F.; Charon, Y.; Collado-Hilly, M.; Duval, M. A.; Mandat, T.; Menard, L.; Palfi, S.; Tordjmann, T.

2008-04-01

131

Spatially Aggregated Multi-Class Pattern Classification in Functional MRI using Optimally Selected Functional Brain Areas  

PubMed Central

In previous works, boosting aggregation of classifier outputs from discrete brain areas has been demonstrated to reduce dimensionality, and improve the robustness and accuracy of fMRI classification. However, dimensionality reduction and classification of mixed activation patterns of multiple classes remain challenging. In the present study, the goals were (a) to reduce dimensionality by combining feature reduction at the voxel level and backward elimination of optimally aggregated classifiers at the region level, (b) to compare region selection for spatially aggregated classification using boosting and partial least squares regression methods and (c) to resolve mixed activation patterns using probabilistic prediction of individual tasks. Brain activation maps from interleaved visual, motor, auditory and cognitive tasks were segmented into 144 functional regions. Feature selection reduced the number of feature voxels by more than 50%, leaving 95 regions. The two aggregation approaches further reduced the number of regions to 30, resulting in more than 75% reduction of classification time and misclassification rates of less than 3%. Boosting and partial least squares (PLS) were compared to select the most discriminative and the most task correlated regions, respectively. Successful task prediction in mixed activation patterns was feasible within the first block of task activation in real time fMRI experiments. This methodology is suitable for sparsifying activation patterns in real-time fMRI and for neurofeedback from distributed networks of brain activation. PMID:22902471

Zheng, Weili; Ackley, Elena S.; Martinez-Ramon, Manel; Posse, Stefan

2012-01-01

132

From genotypes to phenotypes: classification of the tumour profiles for different variants of the cadherin adhesion pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The E-cadherin adhesive profile expressed by a tumour is a characterization of the intracellular and intercellular protein interactions that control cell-cell adhesion. Within the intracellular proteins that determine the tumour adhesive profile, Src and PI3 are two essentials to initiate the formation of the E-cadherin adhesion complex. On the other hand, Src has also the capability of disrupting the ?-catenin-E-cadherin complex and down-regulating cell-cell adhesion. In this paper, using a multi-scale mathematical model, we study the role of each of these proteins in the adhesive profile and invasive properties of the tumour. To do this, we create three versions of an intracellular model that explains the interplay between the proteins E-cadherin, ?-catenin, Src and PI3; and we couple them to the strength of the cell-cell adhesion forces within an individual-cell-based model. The simulation results show how the tumour profile and its aggressive potential may change depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the protein pathways, and how these pathways may influence the early stages of cancer invasion. Our major findings may be summarized as follows. (1) Intermediate levels of Src synthesis rates generate the least invasive tumour phenotype. (2) Conclusions drawn from findings obtained from the intracellular molecular dynamics (here cadherin-catenin binding complexes) to the multi-cellular invasive potential of a tumour may be misleading or erroneous. The conclusions should be validated in a multi-cellular context on timescales relevant for population growth. (3) Monoclonal populations of more cohesive cells with otherwise equal properties tend to grow slower. (4) Less cohesive cells tend to outcompete more cohesive cells. (5) Less cohesive cells have a larger probability of invasion as migration forces can more easily outbalance cohesive forces.

Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Drasdo, Dirk

2012-06-01

133

Brain volumetry: an active contour model-based segmentation followed by SVM-based classification.  

PubMed

In this paper a novel automatic approach to identify brain structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented for volumetric measurements. The method is based on the idea of active contour models and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The main contributions of the presented method are effective modifications on brain images for active contour model and extracting simple and beneficial features for the SVM classifier. The segmentation process starts with a new generation of active contour models, i.e., vector field convolution (VFC) on modified brain images. VFC results are brain images with the least non-brain regions which are passed on to the SVM classification. The SVM features are selected according to the structure of brain tissues, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SVM classifiers are trained for each brain tissue based on the set of extracted features. Although selected features are very simple, they are both sufficient and tissue separately effective. Our method validation is done using the gold standard brain MRI data set. Comparison of the results with the existing algorithms is a good indication of our approach's success. PMID:21679935

Tanoori, Betsabeh; Azimifar, Zohreh; Shakibafar, Alireza; Katebi, Sarajodin

2011-08-01

134

Classification of Alzheimer's disease using regional saliency maps from brain MR volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the complex alteration of patterns in brain anatomy that could indicate the presence or absence of the pathology. Currently, an effective approach that allows to interpret the disease in terms of global and local changes is not available in the clinical practice. In this paper, we propose an approach for classification of brain MR images, based on finding pathology-related patterns through the identification of regional structural changes. The approach combines a probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) technique, which allows to identify image regions through latent topics inferred from the brain MR slices, with a bottom-up Graph-Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) model, which calculates maps of relevant information per region. Regional saliency maps are finally combined into a single map on each slice, obtaining a master saliency map of each brain volume. The proposed approach includes a one-to-one comparison of the saliency maps which feeds a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, to group test subjects into normal or probable AD subjects. A set of 156 brain MR images from healthy (76) and pathological (80) subjects, splitted into a training set (10 non-demented and 10 demented subjects) and one testing set (136 subjects), was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Preliminary results show that the proposed method reaches a maximum classification accuracy of 87.21%.

Pulido, Andrea; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

2013-02-01

135

UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Tumours of the central nervous system are the second most common group of childhood cancers in 0–14 year olds (24% of total cancers) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15–24 year olds. The pilot case–control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults. Methods Eligible cases were newly diagnosed with an intracranial tumour of neuroepithelial tissue aged 0–24 years. The pilot recruited patients through Leeds and Manchester Principal Treatment Centres. Controls were drawn from general practice lists. Controls were frequency matched by age and gender. Results We interviewed 49 cases and 78 controls comprising 85% of the target sample size. Response rates were 52% for cases and 32% for controls. Completion of the questionnaire was successful, with a very small proportion of missing data being reported (5-10%). The age distribution of cases and controls was similar with around three-quarters of interviewed subjects aged 0–14. Half of cases and almost two-thirds of controls reported using a mobile phone with the majority starting between 10–14 years of age. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in cases than controls (Odds Ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.2), whilst cases were more likely to be delivered by caesarean section (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.6-4.4). Cases were significantly more likely to have a birthweight >?3.5 kg compared to controls. Cases were also more likely to come from a family with 3 or more siblings than controls (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.7-13.6). The majority of participants (>80%) were in favour of taking either blood or saliva to aid molecular epidemiological research. Conclusions Successful methods were established for identifying and recruiting a high proportion of case subjects, exploiting strong links with the clinical teams at the treatment centres. Control procedures proved more difficult to implement. However, working closely with national clinical and professional research networks will enable improved control identification and recruitment, with good prospects for collecting biological samples in the future. PMID:24398074

2014-01-01

136

Classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Supervised Learning of Brain Connectivity Measures Extracted from Synchrostates  

E-print Network

Objective. The paper investigates the presence of autism using the functional brain connectivity measures derived from electro-encephalogram (EEG) of children during face perception tasks. Approach. Phase synchronized patterns from 128-channel EEG signals are obtained for typical children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The phase synchronized states or synchrostates temporally switch amongst themselves as an underlying process for the completion of a particular cognitive task. We used 12 subjects in each group (ASD and typical) for analyzing their EEG while processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. The minimal and maximally occurring synchrostates for each subject are chosen for extraction of brain connectivity features, which are used for classification between these two groups of subjects. Among different supervised learning techniques, we here explored the discriminant analysis and support vector machine both with polynomial kernels for the classification task. Main results. The leave ...

Jamal, Wasifa; Oprescu, Ioana-Anastasia; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico

2014-01-01

137

Extreme Learning Machine-Based Classification of ADHD Using Brain Structural MRI Data  

PubMed Central

Background Effective and accurate diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently of significant interest. ADHD has been associated with multiple cortical features from structural MRI data. However, most existing learning algorithms for ADHD identification contain obvious defects, such as time-consuming training, parameters selection, etc. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) Propose an ADHD classification model using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for automatic, efficient and objective clinical ADHD diagnosis. (2) Assess the computational efficiency and the effect of sample size on both ELM and support vector machine (SVM) methods and analyze which brain segments are involved in ADHD. Methods High-resolution three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 55 ADHD subjects and 55 healthy controls. Multiple brain measures (cortical thickness, etc.) were calculated using a fully automated procedure in the FreeSurfer software package. In total, 340 cortical features were automatically extracted from 68 brain segments with 5 basic cortical features. F-score and SFS methods were adopted to select the optimal features for ADHD classification. Both ELM and SVM were evaluated for classification accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results We achieved ADHD prediction accuracies of 90.18% for ELM using eleven combined features, 84.73% for SVM-Linear and 86.55% for SVM-RBF. Our results show that ELM has better computational efficiency and is more robust as sample size changes than is SVM for ADHD classification. The most pronounced differences between ADHD and healthy subjects were observed in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe and insular. Conclusion Our ELM-based algorithm for ADHD diagnosis performs considerably better than the traditional SVM algorithm. This result suggests that ELM may be used for the clinical diagnosis of ADHD and the investigation of different brain diseases. PMID:24260229

Peng, Xiaolong; Lin, Pan; Zhang, Tongsheng; Wang, Jue

2013-01-01

138

Heavy element enhanced synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy as a promising brain tumour treatment.  

PubMed

Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSR) is a treatment that involves selective accumulation of high-Z elements in tumours followed by stereotactic irradiation, in CT mode, with monochromatic X-rays from a synchrotron source, tuned at an optimal energy. The irradiation geometry, characteristic X-rays, photoelectrons, and Auger electrons generated on high-Z atoms by kilovoltage X-rays produce a localized dose enhancement. Two complimentary SSR approaches have been successfully developed in the past 5 years in our team, and may be promising in high-grade glioma management: iodine-enhanced SSR, with an iodinated contrast agent; and Pt-enhanced SSR; a concomitant radio-chemotherapy treatment with locoregional injection of platinated chemotherapy drugs. The results for iodine-enhanced SSR using contrast agents are presented in this paper. IUdR-enhanced SSR was also tested in this study. Up to 15 Gy, intracarotid infusion of iodine significantly improved the rats' survival compared to irradiation alone. SSR provides the most protracted survivals of F98 glioma-bearing rats. The technique is currently transferred to clinical trials. Iodine-enhanced SSR will be implemented first, because of its simplicity; and pave the way for Pt-enhanced SSR, the most efficient technique, but still needing to be improved in terms of intrinsic toxicity. PMID:18407772

Adam, J F; Biston, M C; Rousseau, J; Boudou, C; Charvet, A M; Balosso, J; Estčve, F; Elleaume, H

2008-06-01

139

Wireless brain-machine interface using EEG and EOG: brain wave classification and robot control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brain-machine interface (BMI) links a user's brain activity directly to an external device. It enables a person to control devices using only thought. Hence, it has gained significant interest in the design of assistive devices and systems for people with disabilities. In addition, BMI has also been proposed to replace humans with robots in the performance of dangerous tasks like explosives handling/diffusing, hazardous materials handling, fire fighting etc. There are mainly two types of BMI based on the measurement method of brain activity; invasive and non-invasive. Invasive BMI can provide pristine signals but it is expensive and surgery may lead to undesirable side effects. Recent advances in non-invasive BMI have opened the possibility of generating robust control signals from noisy brain activity signals like EEG and EOG. A practical implementation of a non-invasive BMI such as robot control requires: acquisition of brain signals with a robust wearable unit, noise filtering and signal processing, identification and extraction of relevant brain wave features and finally, an algorithm to determine control signals based on the wave features. In this work, we developed a wireless brain-machine interface with a small platform and established a BMI that can be used to control the movement of a robot by using the extracted features of the EEG and EOG signals. The system records and classifies EEG as alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. The classified brain waves are then used to define the level of attention. The acceleration and deceleration or stopping of the robot is controlled based on the attention level of the wearer. In addition, the left and right movements of eye ball control the direction of the robot.

Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

2012-04-01

140

New KF-PP-SVM classification method for EEG in brain-computer interfaces.  

PubMed

Classification methods are a crucial direction in the current study of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To improve the classification accuracy for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, a novel KF-PP-SVM (kernel fisher, posterior probability, and support vector machine) classification method is developed. Its detailed process entails the use of common spatial patterns to obtain features, based on which the within-class scatter is calculated. Then the scatter is added into the kernel function of a radial basis function to construct a new kernel function. This new kernel is integrated into the SVM to obtain a new classification model. Finally, the output of SVM is calculated based on posterior probability and the final recognition result is obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed KF-PP-SVM method, EEG data collected from laboratory are processed with four different classification schemes (KF-PP-SVM, KF-SVM, PP-SVM, and SVM). The results showed that the overall average improvements arising from the use of the KF-PP-SVM scheme as opposed to KF-SVM, PP-SVM and SVM schemes are 2.49%, 5.83 % and 6.49 % respectively. PMID:25227081

Yang, Banghua; Han, Zhijun; Zan, Peng; Wang, Qian

2014-01-01

141

Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the uk adult brain tumour study: results of a feasibility study.  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 micro T), secretaries (AM: 0.48 micro T) and dentists (AM: 0.42 micro T). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. PMID:15031444

van Tongeren, Martie; Mee, Terry; Whatmough, Pamela; Broad, Lisa; Maslanyj, Myron; Allen, Stuart; Muir, Ken; McKinney, Patricia

2004-01-01

142

Integrative genomic analyses identify LIN28 and OLIG2 as markers of survival and metastatic potential in childhood central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood Central Nervous System Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal brain Tumours (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive brain tumours for which molecular features and best therapeutic strategy remains unknown. We interrogated a large cohort of these rare tumours in order to identify molecular markers that will enhance clinical management of CNS-PNET. Methods Transcriptional and copy number profiles from primary hemispheric CNS-PNETs were examined using clustering, gene and pathways enrichment analyses to discover tumour sub-groups and group-specific molecular markers. Immuno-histochemical and/or gene expression analyses were used to validate and examine the clinical significance of novel sub-group markers in 123 primary CNS-PNETs. Findings Three molecular sub-groups of CNS-PNETs distinguished by primitive neural (Group 1), oligo-neural (Group 2) and mesenchymal lineage (Group 3) gene expression signature were identified. Tumour sub-groups exhibited differential expression of cell lineage markers, LIN28 and OLIG2, and correlated with distinct demographics, survival and metastatic incidence. Group 1 tumours affected primarily younger females; male: female ratios were respectively 0.61 (median age 2.9 years; 95% CI: 2.4–5.2; p? 0.005), 1.25 (median age 7.9 years; 95% CI: 6–9.7) and 1.63 (median age 5.9 years; 95% CI: 4.9–7.8) for group 1, 2 and 3 patients. Overall outcome was poorest in group 1 patients which had a median survival of 0.8 years (95% CI: 0.47–1.2; p=0.019) as compared to 1.8 years (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) and 4.3 years; (95% CI: 0.82–7.8) respectively for group 2 and 3 patients. Group 3 tumours had the highest incidence of metastases at diagnosis; M0: M+ ratio were respectively 0.9 and 3.9 for group 3, versus group 1 and 2 tumours combined (p=0.037). Interpretation LIN28 and OLIG2 represent highly promising, novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for CNS PNET that warrants further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:22691720

Picard, Daniel; Miller, Suzanne; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Bouffet, Eric; Rogers, Hazel A; Chan, Tiffany SY; Kim, Seung-Ki; Ra, Young-Shin; Fangusaro, Jason; Korshunov, Andrey; Toledano, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Hayden, James T; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Hu, Ping X; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Pomeroy, Scott L; Lau, Ching C; Ng, Ho-Keung; Jones, Chris; Meter, Timothy Van; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles; Gajjar, Amar; Pfister, Stefan M; Grundy, Richard G; Huang, Annie

2013-01-01

143

Change detection and classification in brain MR images using change vector analysis.  

PubMed

The automatic detection of longitudinal changes in brain images is valuable in the assessment of disease evolution and treatment efficacy. Most existing change detection methods that are currently used in clinical research to monitor patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases--such as Alzheimer's--focus on large-scale brain deformations. However, such patients often have other brain impairments, such as infarcts, white matter lesions and hemorrhages, which are typically overlooked by the deformation-based methods. Other unsupervised change detection algorithms have been proposed to detect tissue intensity changes. The outcome of these methods is typically a binary change map, which identifies changed brain regions. However, understanding what types of changes these regions underwent is likely to provide equally important information about lesion evolution. In this paper, we present an unsupervised 3D change detection method based on Change Vector Analysis. We compute and automatically threshold the Generalized Likelihood Ratio map to obtain a binary change map. Subsequently, we perform histogram-based clustering to classify the change vectors. We obtain a Kappa Index of 0.82 using various types of simulated lesions. The classification error is 2%. Finally, we are able to detect and discriminate both small changes and ventricle expansions in datasets from Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. PMID:22256148

Simőes, Rita; Slump, Cornelis

2011-01-01

144

Imaging of sinonasal tumours  

PubMed Central

Abstract More than 70 benign and malignant sinonasal tumours and tumour-like conditions have been described. However, sinonasal tumours are rare, and sinonasal cancers comprise only 3% of all head and neck cancers and 1% of all malignancies, with a peak incidence in the 5th to 7th decades and with a male preponderance. The early symptoms and imaging findings of sinonasal tumours are similar to rhinosinusitis with runny and stuffy nose, lacrimation and epistaxis and therefore neglected both by the patients and doctors. When late symptoms such as anosmia, visual disturbances, cranial neuropathy (Cn II, IV, V, VI) or facial swelling appear, the patient is referred to sinonasal endoscopy or imaging. At the time of correct diagnosis more than half of the tumours have reached an advanced stage with a poor prognostic outcome. Even if imaging is performed in the early stages, a radiologist inexperienced with sinonasal anatomy and tumour features may easily interpret early signs of a malignant tumour as rhinosinusitis or a lesion that does not require follow-up. This article presents the imaging findings in some of the most common benign and malignant sinonasal tumours, and the TNM classification and staging of sinonasal carcinomas. PMID:22571851

2012-01-01

145

Adaptive classification for Brain Computer Interface systems using Sequential Monte Carlo sampling.  

PubMed

Adaptive classification is a key function of Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI) systems. This paper proposes robust mathematical frameworks and their implementation for the on-line sequential classification of EEG signals in BCI systems. The proposed algorithms are extensions to the basic method of Andrieu et al. [Andrieu, C., de Freitas, N., and Doucet, A. (2001). Sequential bayesian semi-parametric binary classification. In Proc. NIPS], modified to be suitable for BCI use. We focus on the inference and prediction of target labels under a non-linear and non-Gaussian model. In this paper we introduce two new algorithms to handle missing or erroneous labeling in BCI data. One algorithm introduces auxiliary labels to process the uncertainty of the labels and the other modifies the optimal proposal functions to allow for uncertain labels. Although we focus on BCI problems in this paper, the algorithms can be generalized and applied to other application domains in which sequential missing labels are to be imputed under the presence of uncertainty. PMID:19608382

Yoon, Ji Won; Roberts, Stephen J; Dyson, Matt; Gan, John Q

2009-11-01

146

Voxel-based discriminant map classification on brain ventricles for Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major hallmark of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of neurons in the brain. In many cases, medical experts use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to qualitatively measure the neuronal loss by the shrinkage or enlargement of the structures-of-interest. Brain ventricle is one of the popular choices. It is easily detectable in clinical MR images due to the high contrast of the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) with the rest of the parenchyma. Moreover, atrophy in any periventricular structure will directly lead to ventricle enlargement. For quantitative analysis, volume is the common choice. However, volume is a gross measure and it cannot capture the entire complexity of the anatomical shape. Since most existing shape descriptors are complex and difficult-to-reproduce, more straightforward and robust ways to extract ventricle shape features are preferred in the diagnosis. In this paper, a novel ventricle shape based classification method for Alzheimer's disease has been proposed. Training process is carried out to generate two probability maps for two training classes: healthy controls (HC) and AD patients. By subtracting the HC probability map from the AD probability map, we get a 3D ventricle discriminant map. Then a matching coefficient has been calculated between each training subject and the discriminant map. An adjustable cut-off point of the matching coefficients has been drawn for the two classes. Generally, the higher the cut-off point that has been drawn, the higher specificity can be achieved. However, it will result in relatively lower sensitivity and vice versa. The benchmarked results against volume based classification show that the area under the ROC curves for our proposed method is as high as 0.86 compared with only 0.71 for volume based classification method.

Wang, Jingnan; de Haan, Gerard; Unay, Devrim; Soldea, Octavian; Ekin, Ahmet

2009-02-01

147

Production of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator (u-PA) and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor1 (PAI-1) in Human Brain Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   We investigated the role of plasminogen activators (PAs) and their inhibitor (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI-1) in\\u000a human brain tumours. The amounts of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA),\\u000a and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and the activity of u-PA and t-PA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay (ELISA), and u-PA and PAI-1 were immunolocalized using monoclonal antibodies in

Y. Arai; T. Kubota; T. Nakagawa; M. Kabuto; K. Sato; H. Kobayashi

1998-01-01

148

ADHD classification by a texture analysis of anatomical brain MRI data  

PubMed Central

The ADHD-200 Global Competition provides an excellent opportunity for building diagnostic classifiers of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and structural MRI data. Here, we introduce a simple method to classify ADHD based on morphological information without using functional data. Our test results show that the accuracy of this approach is competitive with methods based on rs-fMRI data. We used isotropic local binary patterns on three orthogonal planes (LBP-TOP) to extract features from MR brain images. Subsequently, support vector machines (SVM) were used to develop classification models based on the extracted features. In this study, a total of 436 male subjects (210 with ADHD and 226 controls) were analyzed to show the discriminative power of the method. To analyze the properties of this approach, we tested disparate LBP-TOP features from various parcellations and different image resolutions. Additionally, morphological information using a single brain tissue type (i.e., gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and CSF) was tested. The highest accuracy we achieved was 0.6995. The LBP-TOP was found to provide better discriminative power using whole-brain data as the input. Datasets with higher resolution can train models with increased accuracy. The information from GM plays a more important role than that of other tissue types. These results and the properties of LBP-TOP suggest that most of the disparate feature distribution comes from different patterns of cortical folding. Using LBP-TOP, we provide an ADHD classification model based only on anatomical information, which is easier to obtain in the clinical environment and which is simpler to preprocess compared with rs-fMRI data. PMID:23024630

Chang, Che-Wei; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

149

A dual neural network ensemble approach for multiclass brain tumor classification.  

PubMed

The present study is conducted to develop an interactive computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in multiclass classification of brain tumors. In this paper, primary brain tumors such as astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, childhood tumor-medulloblastoma, meningioma and secondary tumor-metastases along with normal regions are classified by a dual level neural network ensemble. Two hundred eighteen texture and intensity features are extracted from 856 segmented regions of interest (SROIs) and are taken as input. PCA is used for reduction of dimensionality of the feature space. The study is performed on a diversified dataset of 428 post contrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 55 patients. Two sets of experiments are performed. In the first experiment, random selection is used which may allow SROIs from the same patient having similar characteristics to appear in both training and testing simultaneously. In the second experiment, not even a single SROI from the same patient is common during training and testing. In the first experiment, it is observed that the dual level neural network ensemble has enhanced the overall accuracy to 95.85% compared with 91.97% of single level artificial neural network. The proposed method delivers high accuracy for each class. The accuracy obtained for each class is: astrocytoma 96.29%, glioblastoma multiforme 96.15%, childhood tumor-medulloblastoma 90%, meningioma 93.00%, secondary tumor-metastases 96.67% and normal regions 97.41%. This study reveals that dual level neural network ensemble provides better results than the single level artificial neural network. In the second experiment, overall classification accuracy of 90.4% was achieved. The generalization ability of this approach can be tested by analyzing larger datasets. The extensive training will also further improve the performance of the proposed dual network ensemble. Quantitative results obtained from the proposed method will assist the radiologist in forming a better decision for classifying brain tumors. PMID:23109381

Sachdeva, Jainy; Kumar, Vinod; Gupta, Indra; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Ahuja, Chirag Kamal

2012-11-01

150

Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training, and characterization of non-stationarities such that ECoG could be a viable signal source for grasp control for amputees or individuals with paralysis.

Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

2013-04-01

151

Improved CSF classification and lesion detection in MR brain images with multiple sclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study deals with the challenging task of automatic segmentation of MR brain images with multiple sclerosis lesions (MSL). Multi-Channel data is used, including "fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery" (fast FLAIR or FF), and statistical modeling tools are developed, in order to improve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification and to detect MSL. Two new concepts are proposed for use within an EM framework. The first concept is the integration of prior knowledge as it relates to tissue behavior in different MRI modalities, with special attention given to the FF modality. The second concept deals with running the algorithm on a subset of the input that is most likely to be noise- and artifact-free data. This enables a more reliable learning of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) parameters for brain tissue statistics. The proposed method focuses on the problematic CSF intensity distribution, which is a key to improved overall segmentation and lesion detection. A level-set based active contour stage is performed for lesion delineation, using gradient and shape properties combined with previously learned region intensity statistics. In the proposed scheme there is no need for preregistration of an atlas, a common characteristic in brain segmentation schemes. Experimental results on real data are presented.

Wolff, Yulian; Miron, Shmuel; Achiron, Anat; Greenspan, Hayit

2007-03-01

152

The safety and effectiveness of low field intraoperative MRI guidance in frameless stereotactic biopsies of brain tumours-design and interim analysis of a prospective randomized trial.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of stereotactic brain tumour biopsy (STx biopsy) guided by low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) in comparison with its frameless classic analogue based on a prospective randomized trial. A pilot group of 42 brain tumour patients was prospectively randomized into a low-field iMRI group and a control group that underwent a frameless STx biopsy. The primary endpoints of the analysis were postoperative complication rate and diagnostic yield, and the secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay and duration of operation. The iMRI group (21 patients) and the control group (21 patients) did not differ significantly according to demographic and epidemiological data. No major postoperative complications were noted in either group. In addition, no significant differences in the diagnostic yield (p?=?1.00) and length of hospital stay (p?=?0.16) were observed. The mean total OR time was 111?±?24 min in iMRI and 78?±?29 min in the control group (p?=?0.0001). Usage of iMRI may prolong the time of the procedure but seems to be comparable in safety and effectiveness to the standard frameless STx biopsy. PMID:23821131

Czy?, M; Tabakow, P; Weiser, A; Lechowicz-G?ogowska, B E; Zub, L W; Jarmundowicz, W

2014-01-01

153

Comparison of classification methods for P300 brain-computer interface on disabled subjects.  

PubMed

We report on tests with a mind typing paradigm based on a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) on a group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, suffering from motor and speech disabilities. We investigate the achieved typing accuracy given the individual patient's disorder, and how it correlates with the type of classifier used. We considered 7 types of classifiers, linear as well as nonlinear ones, and found that, overall, one type of linear classifier yielded a higher classification accuracy. In addition to the selection of the classifier, we also suggest and discuss a number of recommendations to be considered when building a P300-based typing system for disabled subjects. PMID:21941530

Manyakov, Nikolay V; Chumerin, Nikolay; Combaz, Adrien; Van Hulle, Marc M

2011-01-01

154

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

155

Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04?3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:24064953

Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson

2013-12-01

156

Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the hand-held phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a ‘possible’ human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18–75 years and diagnosed during 2007–2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6–6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996–2.7, increasing with latency >15–20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.9, and, for latency of 15–20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20–25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1–5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15–20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. PMID:24064953

HARDELL, LENNART; CARLBERG, MICHAEL; SODERQVIST, FREDRIK; MILD, KJELL HANSSON

2013-01-01

157

Robust volumetric texture classification of magnetic resonance images of the brain using local frequency descriptor.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for robust volumetric texture classification. It also proposes 2D and 3D gradient calculation methods designed to be robust to imaging effects and artifacts. Using the proposed 2D method, the gradient information is extracted on the XYZ orthogonal planes at each voxel and used to form a local coordinate system. The local coordinate system and the local 3D gradient computed by the proposed 3D gradient calculator are then used to define volumetric texture features. It is shown that the presented gradient calculation methods can be efficiently implemented by convolving with 2D and 3D kernels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed gradient operators and the texture features are robust to imaging effects and artifacts, such as blurriness and noise in 2D and 3D images. The proposed method is compared with three state-of- the-art volumetric texture classification methods the 3D gray level cooccurance matrix, 3D local binary patterns, and second orientation pyramid on magnetic resonance imaging data of the brain. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method in accuracy, robustness, and speed. PMID:25167550

Maani, Rouzbeh; Kalra, Sanjay; Yang, Yee-Hong

2014-10-01

158

CLASSIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Overview: Classification is grouping similar objects together. When you go into a grocery store, you see fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen food, cereal, and pet suplies in different aisles. Imagine how difficult life would be if you went into a store, and the aisles were not labeled to tell you where to find the items! You don't have to be a scientist to use classification! You use classification when you group your IPOD music into different genres and when you divide your dark colored clothing from light colors to do laundry. You might even use it to sort Halloween candy into 4 groups: chocolate candy, hard candy, chewy candy, and gum. The science of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on evolutionary relationships and describes and names organisms with a two-part name: genus and species. Scientists use taxonomy to identify unknown organisms by using books called field guides or by using taxonomic keys (also called dichomotous keys). Project Objective: As a class,you will be previewing and answering some questions about some classification resources to learn how to use a dichotomous key, how to key a specimen, and to help you write your own dichotomous key for school items. Project: Get a sheet of notebook paper and pencil and refer to the websites to find the answers to the questions. One way to classify objects is to create a "tree" to group similar objects together.Open hierarchical classfication of objects to the second page and find the diagram of common household objects. See how all the ...

Ballew, Mrs.

2010-10-17

159

Phyllodes tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial lesions that account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. With the non-operative management of fibroadenomas widely adopted, the importance of phyllodes tumours today lies in the need to differentiate them from other benign breast lesions. All breast lumps should be triple assessed and the diagnosis of a phyllodes tumour considered in women, particularly

S J Parker; S A Harries

2001-01-01

160

Melatonin-induced methylation of the ABCG2/BCRP promoter as a novel mechanism to overcome multidrug resistance in brain tumour stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Current evidence indicates that a stem cell-like sub-population within malignant glioblastomas, that overexpress members of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) family transporters, is responsible for multidrug resistance and tumour relapse. Eradication of the brain tumour stem cell (BTSC) compartment is therefore essential to achieve a stable and long-lasting remission. Methods: Melatonin actions were analysed by viability cell assays, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR for mRNA expression, western blot for protein expression and quantitative and qualitative promoter methylation methods. Results: Combinations of melatonin and chemotherapeutic drugs (including temozolomide, current treatment for malignant gliomas) have a synergistic toxic effect on BTSCs and A172 malignant glioma cells. This effect is correlated with a downregulation of the expression and function of the ABC transporter ABCG2/BCRP. Melatonin increased the methylation levels of the ABCG2/BCRP promoter and the effects on ABCG2/BCRP expression and function were prevented by preincubation with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Conclusion: Our results point out a possible relationship between the downregulation of ABCG2/BCRP function and the synergistic toxic effect of melatonin and chemotherapeutic drugs. Melatonin could be a promising candidate to overcome multidrug resistance in the treatment of glioblastomas, and thus improve the efficiency of current therapies. PMID:23632480

Martín, V; Sanchez-Sanchez, A M; Herrera, F; Gomez-Manzano, C; Fueyo, J; Alvarez-Vega, M A; Antolín, I; Rodriguez, C

2013-01-01

161

Multiclass classification of hemodynamic responses for performance improvement of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interface.  

PubMed

We improved the performance of a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based brain-computer interface based on relatively short task duration and multiclass classification. A custom-built eight-channel fNIRS system was used over the motor cortex areas in both hemispheres to measure the hemodynamic responses evoked by four different motor tasks (overt execution of arm lifting and knee extension for both sides) instead of finger tapping. The hemodynamic responses were classified using the naive Bayes classifier. Among the mean, max, slope, variance, and median of the signal amplitude and the time lag of the signal, several signal features are chosen to obtain highest classification accuracy. Ten runs of threefold cross-validation were conducted, which yielded classification accuracies of 87.1%±2.4% to 95.5%±2.4%, 77.5%±1.9% to 92.4%±3.2%, and 73.8%±3.5% to 91.5%±1.4% for the binary, ternary, and quaternary classifications, respectively. Eight seconds of task duration for obtaining sufficient quaternary classification accuracy was suggested. The bit transfer rate per minute (BPM) based on the quaternary classification accuracy was investigated. A BPM can be achieved from 2.81 to 5.40 bits/min. PMID:24967916

Shin, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Jichai

2014-06-01

162

Multiclass classification of hemodynamic responses for performance improvement of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We improved the performance of a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based brain-computer interface based on relatively short task duration and multiclass classification. A custom-built eight-channel fNIRS system was used over the motor cortex areas in both hemispheres to measure the hemodynamic responses evoked by four different motor tasks (overt execution of arm lifting and knee extension for both sides) instead of finger tapping. The hemodynamic responses were classified using the naive Bayes classifier. Among the mean, max, slope, variance, and median of the signal amplitude and the time lag of the signal, several signal features are chosen to obtain highest classification accuracy. Ten runs of threefold cross-validation were conducted, which yielded classification accuracies of 87.1%±2.4% to 95.5%±2.4%, 77.5%±1.9% to 92.4%±3.2%, and 73.8%±3.5% to 91.5%±1.4% for the binary, ternary, and quaternary classifications, respectively. Eight seconds of task duration for obtaining sufficient quaternary classification accuracy was suggested. The bit transfer rate per minute (BPM) based on the quaternary classification accuracy was investigated. A BPM can be achieved from 2.81 to 5.40 bits/min.

Shin, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Jichai

2014-06-01

163

Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.  

PubMed

Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala lesions and Task 2 (found to be a 'basic' Theory of Mind task involving only limited mentalization) being mostly impaired by posterior temporoparietal lesions. Tasks relying on higher-level mentalization (Tasks 3 and 4) were maximally affected by prefrontal lesions, with the alexithymia scale (Task 3) being mostly associated with anterior/medial lesions and the self-maturity measure (Task 4) with lateral prefrontal ones. PMID:25027503

Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

2014-09-01

164

Midline cystic malformations of the brain: imaging diagnosis and classification based on embryologic analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes a classification and imaging diagnosis of intracranial midline cystic malformations based on neuroembryologic analysis. Midline cystic malformations are classified into two categories from an embryologic point of view. In one category, the cyst represents expansion of the roof plate of the brain vesicle, and in the other the cyst consists of extraaxial structures such as an arachnoid membrane or migrating ependymal cells. Infratentorial cysts, such as the Dandy-Walker cyst or Blake's pouch cyst, and supratentorial cysts, such as a communicating interhemispheric cyst with callosal agenesis or a dorsal cyst with holoprosencephaly, are included in the first category. Infratentorial arachnoid cavities, such as the arachnoid cyst, arachnoid pouch, and mega cisterna magna, are in the second category. Noncommunicating interhemispheric cysts, such as interhemispheric arachnoid cyst or ependymal cyst, with callosal agenesis are also in the second category. A careful review of embryologic development is essential for understanding these midline cysts and for making a more accurate radiologic diagnosis. PMID:16958432

Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Yamashita, Shinichi; Takano, Koichi; Ueda, Yukiyo; Fujii, Akira

2006-07-01

165

In vivo PET evaluation in tumour-bearing rats of 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine as a new potential tracer for molecular imaging of brain and extra-cranial tumours in humans with PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Na +-independent L-type LAT1 amino acid transport system for large and neutral amino acids has been shown to be expressed higher in tumour tissue relative to normal tissue and has been regarded as a key point for the development of new amino acid based tumour tracers for molecular imaging. We developed a new fluorinated phenylalanine analogue, 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine, considering that the spatial volume of FCH 3 is comparable with that of the iodine atom in 2-I- L-phenylalanine, of which we have proven that it is taken up excellently in tumours by the LAT1 system. The substrate molecule for radiolabeling, Boc-2-bromomethyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester, was prepared by radical bromination of Boc-2-methyl- L-phenylalanine- tButylester. [ 18F -] for bromine exchange is performed within 3 min in conditions comparable to the [ 18F]FDG synthesis with a radiochemical yield of at least 85%. After deprotection and semi-preparative HPLC purification, the 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine is recovered n.c.a. (57%) with a high purity and 3.7 MBq were injected into R1M rhabdomyosarcoma tumour-bearing rats. Imaging was performed with a human PET camera from 5 to 45 min p.i. The tumour/background and tumour/blood ratios obtained from PET acquisition were at least 2.5. DUR values for the tumours were at least about 5. Furthermore, a small tumour implanted near a kidney could be well visualized completely separated from this kidney. Moreover in all tumours the "active" tumour tissue can clearly be differentiated from less active tumour tissue. This proves that 2-[ 18F]fluoromethyl- L-phenylalanine has a great potential as a new tracer for specific tumour diagnosis with PET.

Kersemans, Ken; Bauwens, Matthias; Lahoutte, Tony; Bossuyt, Axel; Mertens, John

2007-02-01

166

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain InjuryClassification Accuracy in Known Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate\\/severe (M\\/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A

Kelly L. Curtis; Kevin W. Greve; Kevin J. Bianchini

2009-01-01

167

Defining traumatic brain injury in children and youth using International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define traumatic brain injury among children and youth. This protocol is for a systematic review of the literature to explore the range of International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes that are used to define traumatic brain injury in this population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews will be systematically searched. Grey literature will be searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles will also be searched. Articles will be screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and all full-text articles that meet the predefined inclusion criteria will be included for analysis. The study selection process and reasons for exclusion at the full-text level will be presented using a PRISMA study flow diagram. Information on the data source of included studies, year and location of study, age of study population, range of incidence, and study purpose will be abstracted into a separate table and synthesized for analysis. All International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes will be listed in tables and the codes that are used to define concussion, acquired traumatic brain injury, head injury, or head trauma will be identified. Discussion The identification of the optimal International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. It also allows for comparisons across countries and studies. This protocol is for a review that identifies the range and most common diagnoses used to conduct surveillance for traumatic brain injury in children and youth. This is an important first step in reaching an appropriate definition using International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes and can inform future work on reaching consensus on the codes to define traumatic brain injury for this vulnerable population. PMID:24219843

2013-01-01

168

Validation of the RTOG recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification for small-cell lung cancer-only brain metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) developed a prognostic classification based on a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patient pretreatment characteristics from three completed brain metastases randomized trials. Clinical trials for patients with brain metastases generally exclude small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cases. We hypothesize that the RPA classes are valid in the setting of SCLC brain metastases. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 154 SCLC patients with brain metastases treated between April 1983 and May 2005 was performed. RPA criteria used for class assignment were Karnofsky performance status (KPS), primary tumor status (PT), presence of extracranial metastases (ED), and age. Results: Median survival was 4.9 months, with 4 patients (2.6%) alive at analysis. Median follow-up was 4.7 months (range, 0.3-40.3 months). Median age was 65 (range, 42-85 years). Median KPS was 70 (range, 40-100). Number of patients with controlled PT and no ED was 20 (13%) and with ED, 27 (18%); without controlled PT and ED, 34 (22%) and with ED, 73 (47%). RPA class distribution was: Class I: 8 (5%); Class II: 96 (62%); Class III: 51 (33%). Median survivals (in months) by RPA class were: Class I: 8.6; Class II: 4.2; Class III: 2.3 (p = 0.0023). Conclusions: Survivals for SCLC-only brain metastases replicate the results from the RTOG RPA classification. These classes are therefore valid for brain metastases from SCLC, support the inclusion of SCLC patients in future brain metastases trials, and may also serve as a basis for historical comparisons.

Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)]. E-mail: videtig@ccf.org; Adelstein, David J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mekhail, Tarek M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rice, Thomas W. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2007-01-01

169

Tumours of the thymus  

PubMed Central

Eighty-eight cases of thymoma are discussed with the object of trying to co-ordinate the histological and clinical features. The pathological specimens were in all cases obtained at operation. The pathology classification introduced by Thomson and Thackray in 1957 has been found to correspond adequately with the clinical pattern. The most common groups of tumours are basically epithelial and can be separated into five or six subdivisions, each of which has a separate pattern of behaviour. Lymphoid and teratomatous tumours also occur, but there were only two examples in this series. Clinically, separation of patients who suffered from myasthenia (38) and those who did not (50) affords the first main grouping. The majority of patients who had myasthenia gravis had tumours classified as epidermoid (19) and lymphoepithelial (14), the former with a more malignant appearance and behaviour than the latter. Removal of the tumour with or without radiation gave considerable and sometimes complete relief from myasthenic symptoms. Non-myasthenic thymoma (50) was usually discovered as a result of pressure signs or in the course of routine radiography. Spindle or oval celled tumours followed a benign pattern whereas undifferentiated thymoma was in every sense malignant, as also were teratomatous growths. Granulomatous or Hodgkin-like thymomas were of special interest and had an unpredictable course, some patients surviving many years after what was regarded as inadequate treatment. The place of radiotherapy as a pre- or post-operative agent complementary to surgery is discussed. Images PMID:6033387

Sellors, T. Holmes; Thackray, A. C.; Thomson, A. D.

1967-01-01

170

Brain metastases in malignant teratoma: a review of four years' experience and an assessment of the role of tumour markers.  

PubMed Central

Between 1973 and 1977, 247 patients with malignant teratoma have been treated in two units in London. Seventeen have developed brain metastases, an overall incidence of 6.2%. The median survival from diagnosis of cerebral metastases is 6 weeks and all patients except one have died. The survivor is disease-free 12 months after completing treatment, which included extensive use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Serum gonadotrophin (HCG) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) estimations have been performed in 264 patients as a means of monitoring the effects of therapy. In 42 patients (37 of whom had Stage IV disease) the peak HCG level was greater than 10(4) iu/l, and the incidence of brain metastases in this group was 26%, significantly higher than in the group with HCG levels below 10(4) iu/l, for which the incidence of cerebral deposits was 1.8% (P less than 0.0001). No significant correlation was seen between peak AFP levels and the incidence of brain metastasis. With the aim of improving results by earlier diagnosis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens have been examined for HCG and AFP levels in 56 subjects, 9 of whom had brain metastases. A serum: CSF HCG ratio less than 40 is an accurate indication of the presence of brain metastases, and may have considerable predictive value. However, false-negative serum: CSF HCG rations (greater than 40) frequently occur in patients with proven brain deposits. Estimation of AFP in spinal fluid has not contributed to the early diagnosis of brain metastases in malignant teratoma. PMID:88952

Kaye, S. B.; Bagshawe, K. D.; McElwain, T. J.; Peckham, M. J.

1979-01-01

171

A comparison of classification techniques for a gaze-independent P300-based brain-computer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This off-line study aims to assess the performance of five classifiers commonly used in the brain-computer interface (BCI) community, when applied to a gaze-independent P300-based BCI. In particular, we compared the results of four linear classifiers and one nonlinear: Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SWLDA), Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA), linear support vector machine (LSVM) and Gaussian supported vector machine (GSVM). Moreover, different values for the decimation of the training dataset were tested. The results were evaluated both in terms of accuracy and written symbol rate with the data of 19 healthy subjects. No significant differences among the considered classifiers were found. The optimal decimation factor spanned a range from 3 to 24 (12 to 94 ms long bins). Nevertheless, performance on individually optimized classification parameters is not significantly different from a classification with general parameters (i.e. using an LDA classifier, about 48 ms long bins).

Aloise, F.; Schettini, F.; Aricň, P.; Salinari, S.; Babiloni, F.; Cincotti, F.

2012-08-01

172

A comparison of classification techniques for a gaze-independent P300-based brain-computer interface.  

PubMed

This off-line study aims to assess the performance of five classifiers commonly used in the brain-computer interface (BCI) community, when applied to a gaze-independent P300-based BCI. In particular, we compared the results of four linear classifiers and one nonlinear: Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SWLDA), Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA), linear support vector machine (LSVM) and Gaussian supported vector machine (GSVM). Moreover, different values for the decimation of the training dataset were tested. The results were evaluated both in terms of accuracy and written symbol rate with the data of 19 healthy subjects. No significant differences among the considered classifiers were found. The optimal decimation factor spanned a range from 3 to 24 (12 to 94 ms long bins). Nevertheless, performance on individually optimized classification parameters is not significantly different from a classification with general parameters (i.e. using an LDA classifier, about 48 ms long bins). PMID:22832242

Aloise, F; Schettini, F; Aricň, P; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F

2012-08-01

173

Irradiation characteristics of BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons: application to intra-operative BNCT for malignant brain tumours.  

PubMed

A calculation method for the dosage of neutrons by near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be and gamma rays by 7Li(p, p'gamma)7Li was validated through experiments with variable distance between the Li target and the phantom, focusing on large angular dependence. The production of neutrons and gamma rays in the Li target was calculated by Lee's method and their transport in the phantom was calculated using the MCNP-4B code. The dosage in intra-operative boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons was evaluated using the validated calculation method. The effectiveness of the usage of the direct neutrons was confirmed from the existence of the region satisfying the requirements of the protocol utilized in intra-operative BNCT for brain tumours in Japan. The boron-dose enhancer (BDE) introduced in this paper to increase the contribution of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li dose in the living body was effective. The void utilized to increase the dose in deep regions was also effective with BDE. For the investigation of 1.900 MeV proton beams, for example, it was found that intraoperative BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons is feasible. PMID:12222863

Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Masayori; Hoshi, Masaharu

2002-08-21

174

The expression of CMP-NeuAc: Gal?1,4GlcNAc ?2,6 sialyltransferase [EC 2.4.99.1] and glycoproteins bearing ?2,6-linked sialic acids in human brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of CMP-NeuAc: Gal?1,4GlcNAc ?2,6 sialyltransferase (?2,6-ST) [EC 2.4.99.1] and glycoproteins bearing ?2,6-linked sialic acids were examined in primary human brain tumours and cell lines. 79% (19\\/24) of the meningiomas expressed ?2,6-ST mRNA, 42% (10\\/24) of which showed very high expression. ?2,6-ST mRNA expression was undetectable in normal brain tissue. In contrast, only 1\\/13 of the gliomas examined expressed

Hirotaka Yamamoto; Yoichi Kaneko; David Vandermulen; Donna Kersey; Edward Mkrdichian; Leonard Cerullo; Jan Leestma; Joseph R. Moskal

1995-01-01

175

O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

Background The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. Methods A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Results Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Conclusions Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably. PMID:21269507

2011-01-01

176

Classification of wheelchair commands using brain computer interface: comparison between able-bodied persons and patients with tetraplegia.  

PubMed

This paper presents a three-class mental task classification for an electroencephalography based brain computer interface. Experiments were conducted with patients with tetraplegia and able bodied controls. In addition, comparisons with different time-windows of data were examined to find the time window with the highest classification accuracy. The three mental tasks used were letter composing, arithmetic and imagery of a Rubik's cube rolling forward; these tasks were associated with three wheelchair commands: left, right and forward, respectively. An eyes closed task was also recorded for the algorithms testing and used as an additional on/off command. The features extraction method was based on the spectrum from a Hilbert-Huang transform and the classification algorithm was based on an artificial neural network with a fuzzy particle swarm optimization with cross-mutated operation. The results show a strong eyes closed detection for both groups with average accuracy at above 90%. The overall result for the combined groups shows an improved average accuracy of 70.6% at 1s, 74.8% at 2s, 77.8% at 3s, 79.6% at 4s and 81.4% at 5s. The accuracy for individual groups were lower for patients with tetraplegia compared to the able-bodied group, however, does improve with increased duration of the time-window. PMID:24109856

Chai, Rifai; Ling, Sai Ho; Hunter, Gregory P; Tran, Yvonne; Nguyen, Hung T

2013-01-01

177

kNN-based multi-spectral MRI brain tissue classification: manual training versus automated atlas-based training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional k-Nearest-Neighbor (kNN) classification, which has been successfully applied to classify brain tissue, requires laborious training on manually labeled subjects. In this work, the performance of kNN-based segmentation of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using manual training is compared with a new method, in which training is automated using an atlas. From 12 subjects, standard T2 and PD scans and a high-resolution, high-contrast scan (Siemens T1-weighted HASTE sequence with reverse contrast) were used as feature sets. For the conventional kNN method, manual segmentations were used for training, and classifications were evaluated in a leave-one-out study. The performance as a function of the number of samples per tissue, and k was studied. For fully automated training, scans were registered to a probabilistic brain atlas. Initial training samples were randomly selected per tissue based on a threshold on the tissue probability. These initials were processed to keep the most reliable samples. Performance of the method for varying the threshold on the tissue probability method was studied. By measuring the percentage overlap (SI), classification results of both methods were validated. For conventional kNN classification, varying the number of training samples did not result in significant differences, while increasing k gave significantly better results. In the method using automated training, there is an overestimation of GM at the expense of CSF at higher thresholds on the tissue probability maps. The difference between the conventional method (k=45) and the observers was not significantly larger than inter-observer variability for all tissue types. The automated method performed slightly worse and performed equal to the observers for WM, and less for CSF and GM. From these results it can be concluded that conventional kNN classification may replace manual segmentation, and that atlas-based kNN segmentation has strong potential for fully automated segmentation, without the need of laborious manual training.

Vrooman, Henri A.; Cocosco, Chris A.; Stokking, Rik; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.; Breteler, Monique M.; Niessen, Wiro J.

2006-03-01

178

An Ensemble-of-Classifiers Based Approach for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: Classification Using Structural Features of Brain Images  

PubMed Central

Structural brain imaging is playing a vital role in identification of changes that occur in brain associated with Alzheimer's disease. This paper proposes an automated image processing based approach for the identification of AD from MRI of the brain. The proposed approach is novel in a sense that it has higher specificity/accuracy values despite the use of smaller feature set as compared to existing approaches. Moreover, the proposed approach is capable of identifying AD patients in early stages. The dataset selected consists of 85 age and gender matched individuals from OASIS database. The features selected are volume of GM, WM, and CSF and size of hippocampus. Three different classification models (SVM, MLP, and J48) are used for identification of patients and controls. In addition, an ensemble of classifiers, based on majority voting, is adopted to overcome the error caused by an independent base classifier. Ten-fold cross validation strategy is applied for the evaluation of our scheme. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of proposed approach, individual features and combination of features are fed to individual classifiers and ensemble based classifier. Using size of left hippocampus as feature, the accuracy achieved with ensemble of classifiers is 93.75%, with 100% specificity and 87.5% sensitivity.

Farhan, Saima; Tauseef, Huma

2014-01-01

179

Partial volume effect modeling for segmentation and tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images: A review  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images are facilitated by the development of automated segmentation algorithms. A single image voxel may contain of several types of tissues due to the finite spatial resolution of the imaging device. This phenomenon, termed partial volume effect (PVE), complicates the segmentation process, and, due to the complexity of human brain anatomy, the PVE is an important factor for accurate brain structure quantification. Partial volume estimation refers to a generalized segmentation task where the amount of each tissue type within each voxel is solved. This review aims to provide a systematic, tutorial-like overview and categorization of methods for partial volume estimation in brain MRI. The review concentrates on the statistically based approaches for partial volume estimation and also explains differences to other, similar image segmentation approaches.

Tohka, Jussi

2014-01-01

180

EEG Tabanli Beyin-Bilgisayar Arayüzü Sistemlerinde Siniflandirmayi Etkileyen Faktörler Factors that Affect Classification Performance in EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the factors that affect classification performance of EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) is studied. Study is specified on P300 speller system which is also an EEG based BCI system. P300 is a physiological signal that represents a response of brain to a given stimulus which occurs right 300ms after the stimulus onset. When this signal

Ali Özgür; Ali Baran Çürüklü; Müjdat Çetin; Aytül Erçil

181

Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours.  

PubMed

The need for prognostic parameters in testicular germ cell tumours is sometimes questioned based on an overall cure rate of more than 80% of the patients regardless of tumour stage. However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors. This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly. Traditional prognostic factors, on which most classification systems are based, include large tumour volume, the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, grossly elevated tumour markers and an extragonadal primary site, particularly in the mediastinum. Novel prognostic factors are either (1) independent from the patient and his disease, (2) inherent on the patient's characteristics or (3) based on tumour biology. Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres. Patients with higher socio-economic status, willing to travel and well educated enough to be worried about their diseases status apparently gain access to expert centres more easily (see 2), translating into an upgrade on prognosis. Finally, biologic factors (see 3) such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin or MAGE epitopes in seminoma or the percentage of embryonal carcinoma components orvascular invasion mayor may not inversely influence the prognosis and need further assessment in prospective trials. However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options. PMID:11005453

Mickisch, G H

2000-09-01

182

[Tumour recurrence].  

PubMed

In Chap. 6 the German S3 guideline on prostate cancer addresses the issue of tumour recurrence following primary local treatment with curative intent, i.e. after radical prostatectomy or a form of radiotherapy. PSA recurrence after radical surgery is defined as a rising PSA of 0.2 ng/ml and after radiotherapy as an increase of at least 2 ng/ml above the individual nadir. Factors for the clinical judgement that a local recurrence is likely are empirical indicators from the primary tumour diagnosis and the PSA course after primary treatment. Salvage external beam radiotherapy after radical surgery does not require the histological proof of a local recurrence and should be initiated early (PSA < 0.5 ng/ml). Before salvage radical prostatectomy, which carries a higher complication rate, the presence of a local recurrence should be histologically verified. PMID:20180064

Hakenberg, O W; Sedlmayer, F

2010-02-01

183

Support vector machine-based classification of Alzheimer’s disease from whole-brain anatomical MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We present and evaluate a new automated method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification of whole-brain anatomical\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate between patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and elderly control subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We studied 16 patients with AD [mean age?±?standard deviation (SD)?=?74.1?±?5.2 years, mini-mental score examination (MMSE)?=?23.1?±?2.9]\\u000a and 22 elderly controls (72.3?±?5.0 years, MMSE?=?28.5?±?1.3). Three-dimensional T1-weighted MR images of

Benoît Magnin; Lilia Mesrob; Serge Kinkingnéhun; Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac; Olivier Colliot; Marie Sarazin; Bruno Dubois; Stéphane Lehéricy; Habib Benali

2009-01-01

184

Classification effects of real and imaginary movement selective attention tasks on a P300-based brain-computer interface.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on various electroencephalography methodologies that allow the user to convey their desired control to the machine. Common approaches include the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the P300 and modulation of the beta and mu rhythms. All of these methods have their benefits and drawbacks. In this paper, three different selective attention tasks were tested in conjunction with a P300-based protocol (i.e. the standard counting of target stimuli as well as the conduction of real and imaginary movements in sync with the target stimuli). The three tasks were performed by a total of 10 participants, with the majority (7 out of 10) of the participants having never before participated in imaginary movement BCI experiments. Channels and methods used were optimized for the P300 ERP and no sensory-motor rhythms were explicitly used. The classifier used was a simple Fisher's linear discriminant. Results were encouraging, showing that on average the imaginary movement achieved a P300 versus No-P300 classification accuracy of 84.53%. In comparison, mental counting, the standard selective attention task used in previous studies, achieved 78.9% and real movement 90.3%. Furthermore, multiple trial classification results were recorded and compared, with real movement reaching 99.5% accuracy after four trials (12.8 s), imaginary movement reaching 99.5% accuracy after five trials (16 s) and counting reaching 98.2% accuracy after ten trials (32 s). PMID:20811088

Salvaris, Mathew; Sepulveda, Francisco

2010-10-01

185

WAIS Digit Span-Based Indicators of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Classification Accuracy in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study determined specificity and sensitivity to malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) for several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span scores. TBI patients (n = 344) were categorized into one of five groups: no incentive, incentive only, suspect, probable MND, and definite MND.…

Heinly, Matthew T.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Brennan, Adrianne

2005-01-01

186

CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR AUTISTIC VS. TYPICALLY DEVELOPING BRAIN USING MRI DATA  

E-print Network

and Image Processing Laboratory (CVIP Lab.), University of Louisville 2 Bioengineering Department structural imaging studies on the abnormal anatomy of the white matter (WM) in autistic brains. In addi- tion no racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic distinctions, and is four times more likely to occur in boys than girls

Farag, Aly A.

187

Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter…

Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

2004-01-01

188

Urogenital tumours in childhood  

PubMed Central

Abstract The commonest urogenital tumours in childhood are Wilms tumour of the kidney and rhabdomyosarcoma in the pelvis. We review these tumours along with other primary renal tumours and less common ovarian and testicular tumours in childhood. Current clinical concepts, relevant staging investigations and imaging features are described. PMID:22187115

Swinson, S.

2011-01-01

189

Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to magnetic resonance images  

E-print Network

74 TABLE VIII PHANTOM VOLUME ESTIMATES FOR EGG PHANTOM SECTIONS 75 TABLE IX ORIGINAL COLOR DESIGNATION FOR PHANTOM THEME MAPS. 76 TABLE X CLASSIFICATION RATES FOR THE SUPERVISED NEURAL NETWORKS. 78 TABLE XI COLOR DESIGNATION FOR PATIENT THEME... MAPS. . . . 79 LIST OP FXGURES Fig. 1. System block diagram. Page 32 Fig. 2. Architecture of the BPN. 54 Fig. 3. MR images and theme maps for selected phantom image section Fig. 4. MR images and theme maps for patient B. . 81 Fig. 5, MR images...

Kischell, Eric Robert

2012-06-07

190

Brain Tumor Classification Using AFM in Combination with Data Mining Techniques  

PubMed Central

Although classification of astrocytic tumors is standardized by the WHO grading system, which is mainly based on microscopy-derived, histomorphological features, there is great interobserver variability. The main causes are thought to be the complexity of morphological details varying from tumor to tumor and from patient to patient, variations in the technical histopathological procedures like staining protocols, and finally the individual experience of the diagnosing pathologist. Thus, to raise astrocytoma grading to a more objective standard, this paper proposes a methodology based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) derived images made from histopathological samples in combination with data mining techniques. By comparing AFM images with corresponding light microscopy images of the same area, the progressive formation of cavities due to cell necrosis was identified as a typical morphological marker for a computer-assisted analysis. Using genetic programming as a tool for feature analysis, a best model was created that achieved 94.74% classification accuracy in distinguishing grade II tumors from grade IV ones. While utilizing modern image analysis techniques, AFM may become an important tool in astrocytic tumor diagnosis. By this way patients suffering from grade II tumors are identified unambiguously, having a less risk for malignant transformation. They would benefit from early adjuvant therapies. PMID:24062997

Huml, Marlene; Silye, Rene; Zauner, Gerald

2013-01-01

191

A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average Dice coefficients of 0.93 ± 0.03 (WM) and 0.90 ± 0.05 (GM) on simulated mono-spectral and 0.94 ± 0.02 (WM) and 0.92 ± 0.04 (GM) on simulated multi-spectral data from the BrainWeb repository. The scores are 0.81 ± 0.09 (WM) and 0.82 ± 0.06 (GM) and 0.87 ± 0.05 (WM) and 0.83 ± 0.12 (GM) for the two collections of real-world data sets—consisting of 20 and 18 volumes, respectively—provided by the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository.

Wels, Michael; Zheng, Yefeng; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

2011-06-01

192

EEG brain mapping and brain connectivity index for subtypes classification of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children during the eye-opened period.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders. It is classified by the DSM-IV into three subtypes, i.e. 1) predominately inattentive type, 2) predominately hyperactive-impulsive type, and (3) combined type. In order to make the treatment via the neurofeedback or the occupational therapy, quantitative evaluations as well as ADHD subtype classification are the important problems to be solved to enhance an alternative way to treat ADHD. Hence, in this paper, we systematically classify all of these three subtypes by the 19-channel EEG data. Three brain mapping (QEEG) techniques, i.e. absolute power of frequency bands, coherence, and phase lag, are employed to visualize each type of the ADHD. ADHD children with combined type have deficit in delta theta and alpha activity. For the inattentive type, there are excessive delta and theta absolute power in the frontal area as well as the excessive coherence in beta and high beta frequency bands. For the hyperactivity and impulsive type, the behavior is dominated by the slow wave. This information will give benefits to the psychiatrist, psychologist, neurofeedback therapist as well as the occupational therapist for quantitatively planning and analyzing the treatment. PMID:24111455

Rodrak, Supassorn; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

2013-01-01

193

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and malingering in traumatic brain injury: classification accuracy in known groups.  

PubMed

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate/severe (M/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A sample of 80 general clinical patients was used for comparison. Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, and Working Memory Index detected approximately 25% of malingerers with a false positive (FP) error rate of approximately 5% in the mild TBI group. Comparable FP rates were obtained in M/S TBI. FP rates for Performance IQ, Perceptual Organization Index, and Processing Speed Index were acceptable in mild TBI but too high in M/S TBI. Previously studied specialized indicators (Vocabulary minus Digit Span and the Mittenberg formula) failed to differentiate malingerers from nonmalingerers. The clinical application of these findings is discussed. PMID:19797328

Curtis, Kelly L; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J

2009-12-01

194

Assignment of the 2.03 ppm resonance in in vivo 1 H MRS of human brain tumour cystic fluid: contribution of macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI and MRS are established techniques for the evaluation of intracranial mass lesions and cysts. The 2.03 ppm signal recorded in their 1H-MRS spectra is often assigned to NAA from outer volume contamination, although it has also been detected in non-infiltrating tumours and large cysts. We have investigated the molecular origin of this resonance in ten samples of cystic fluids

A. P. Candiota; C. Majós; A. Bassols; M. E. Cabańas; J. J. Acebes; M. R. Quintero; C. Arús

2004-01-01

195

Spatial patterns of brain atrophy in MCI patients, identified via high-dimensional pattern classification, predict subsequent cognitive decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were measured via methods of computational neuroanatomy. These patterns were spatially complex and involved many brain regions. In addition to the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe gray matter, a number of other regions displayed significant atrophy, including orbitofrontal and medial-prefrontal grey matter, cingulate (mainly posterior),

Yong Fan; Nematollah Batmanghelich; Chris M. Clark; Christos Davatzikos

2008-01-01

196

New frontiers for astrocytic tumours.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumour, remains an unsolved clinical problem. A great deal of work has been done in an effort to understand the biology and genetics of glioblastoma multiforme, but clinically effective treatments remain elusive. It is well known that malignant gliomas develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In this review we evaluated the literature data regarding therapeutic progress for the treatment of astrocytic tumours, focusing our attention on new frontiers for glioblastoma. The research studies performed in in vitro and in vivo models show that the application of hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is safe and could be a promising tool in the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Our efforts are focused towards new fields of research, for example nanomedicine and the study of the uptake and cytotoxic effects of magnetic nanoparticles. The improvement of the quality of life of patients, by increasing their survival rate is the best result to be pursued, since these tumours are considered as ineradicable. PMID:22753735

Nano, Rosanna; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio; Paolini, Alessandro; Pasi, Francesca; Corbella, Franco; DI Liberto, Riccardo

2012-07-01

197

Tumours of the lung  

PubMed Central

Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

Stunzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

1974-01-01

198

Imaging of sacral tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign\\u000a or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma\\u000a are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological\\u000a types have a predilection for the sacrum,

S. Gerber; L. Ollivier; J. Leclčre; D. Vanel; G. Missenard; H. Brisse; G. de Pinieux; S. Neuenschwander

2008-01-01

199

Primary Bone Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary bone tumours of the sternocostoclavicular region include a diverse group of lesions of osseous and cartilaginous origin.\\u000a Radiological assessment is an essential component of the management of these tumours. Evaluation usually includes conventional\\u000a chest radiography to detect and localise the lesion, cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) to further characterise and define\\u000a tumour extent, and anatometabolic correlations with FDG PET\\/CT.

Ukihide Tateishi; Umio Yamaguchi; Mototaka Miyake; Tetsuo Maeda; Hirokazu Chuman; Yasuaki Arai

200

DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase is phosphorylated by two distinct and novel protein kinases in human brain tumour cells.  

PubMed Central

We showed recently that human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), an important target for improving cancer chemotherapy, is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation inhibits its activity [Srivenugopal, Mullapudi, Shou, Hazra and Ali-Osman (2000) Cancer Res. 60, 282-287]. In the present study we characterized the cellular kinases that phosphorylate AGT in the human medulloblastoma cell line HBT228. Crude cell extracts used Mg(2+) more efficiently than Mn(2+) for phosphorylating human recombinant AGT (rAGT) protein. Both [gamma-(32)P]ATP and [gamma-(32)P]GTP served as phosphate donors, with the former being twice as efficient. Specific components known to activate protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent kinases did not stimulate the phosphorylation of rAGT. Phosphoaminoacid analysis after reaction in vitro with ATP or GTP showed that AGT was modified at the same amino acids (serine, threonine and tyrosine) as in intact HBT228 cells. Although some of these properties pointed to casein kinase II as a candidate enzyme, known inhibitors and activators of casein kinase II did not affect rAGT phosphorylation. Fractionation of the cell extracts on poly(Glu/Tyr)-Sepharose resulted in the adsorption of an AGT kinase that modified the tyrosine residues and the exclusion of a fraction that phosphorylated AGT on serine and threonine residues. In-gel kinase assays after SDS/PAGE and non-denaturing PAGE revealed the presence of two AGT kinases of 75 and 130 kDa in HBT228 cells. The partly purified tyrosine kinase, identified as the 130 kDa enzyme by the same assays, was strongly inhibited by tyrphostin 25 but not by genestein. The tyrosine kinase used ATP or GTP to phosphorylate the AGT protein; this reaction inhibited the DNA repair activity of AGT. Evidence that the kinases might physically associate with AGT in cells was also provided. These results demonstrate that two novel cellular protein kinases, a tyrosine kinase and a serine/threonine kinase, both capable of using GTP as a donor, phosphorylate the AGT protein and affect its function. The new kinases might serve as potential targets for strengthening the biochemical modulation of AGT in human tumours. PMID:11023825

Mullapudi, S R; Ali-Osman, F; Shou, J; Srivenugopal, K S

2000-01-01

201

Monitoring tumour response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring response to treatment of tumours is an increasingly important aspect of cancer radiology for several reasons. Firstly, the incidence of cancer is increasing and, furthermore, there have been major advances in treatment which have resulted in a larger number of patients surviving with treated tumours. Equally important is that there have been enormous advances in imaging over the past

J. E. Husband

1996-01-01

202

The perivascular niche regulates breast tumour dormancy.  

PubMed

In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what wakes them up, are fundamental problems in tumour biology. To address these questions, we used metastasis assays in mice and showed that dormant DTCs reside on microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-?1 and periostin as tumour-promoting factors derived from endothelial tip cells. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a dormant niche, whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

Ghajar, Cyrus M; Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R; Evason, Kimberley J; Brazier, Hélčne; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A; Stainier, Didier Y R; Chen, Emily I; Lyden, David; Bissell, Mina J

2013-07-01

203

Bilateral multifocal Warthin tumours.  

PubMed

Warthin tumour, also known as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, is the second most frequent benign tumour of the parotid gland after pleomorphic adenoma. A 57-year-old man was referred to our hospital with bilateral buccal masses without pain. He presented with a 1-year history of the condition and stated that growth of the mass has accelerated during the last 6 months. Ultrasonography examination showed two heterogeneous solid masses. Axial contrast-enhanced CT image revealed bilateral heterogeneous solid masses. The masses showed enhancement after contrast administration (95 HU). Fine needle aspiration cytology was recommended for further analysis and typical benign features of Warthin tumour was obtained. Right parotid gland including the masses was resected completely. 5 weeks later superficial parotidectomy was performed to the left parotid gland. Histological examination revealed cystic tumour in the parenchyma of parotid gland, composed of prominent lymphoid stroma and large epithelial cells with oncocytic features covering it consistent with Warthin tumour. PMID:23704438

Deveer, Mehmet; Sahan, Murat; Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Celik, Ozgür Ilhan

2013-01-01

204

Classification of the Medical Images by the Kohonen Network SOM and LVQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study fits within the framework of the diagnosis assistance and deals with the MR brain image types. To highlight the possibility of cerebral pathology such as tumours, one of the newest techniques of pattern recognition which exploits SOM (Self Organization Map) and LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) algorithms of Kohonen is proposed. A short outline on these algorithms is brought back. Pre-processing adopted method is presented describing the training basis construction. Three classification approaches are carried out, comparative studies are conducted. The algorithm`s proprieties are verified according to the iteration number and the maps size. The classification quality is expressed via two parameters: the quantization error (QE%) and the good classification rate (CR%). Five pathological images and a healthy one are tested. The obtained results are in accordance with those of the results presented in the referred bibliographic.

Chalabi, Z.; Berrached, N.; Kharchouche, N.; Ghellemallah, Y.; Mansour, M.; Mouhadjer, H.

205

Gene expression profiling of gliomas: merging genomic and histopathological classification for personalised therapy.  

PubMed

The development of DNA microarray technologies over the past decade has revolutionised translational cancer research. These technologies were originally hailed as more objective, comprehensive replacements for traditional histopathological cancer classification systems, based on microscopic morphology. Although DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling (GEP) remains unlikely in the near term to completely replace morphological classification of primary brain tumours, specifically the diffuse gliomas, GEP has confirmed that significant molecular heterogeneity exists within the various morphologically defined gliomas, particularly glioblastoma (GBM). Herein, we provide a 10-year progress report on human glioma GEP, with focus on development of clinical diagnostic tests to identify molecular subtypes, uniquely responsive to adjuvant therapies. Such progress may lead to a more precise classification system that accurately reflects the cellular, genetic, and molecular basis of gliomagenesis, a prerequisite for identifying subsets uniquely responsive to specific adjuvant therapies, and ultimately in achieving individualised clinical care of glioma patients. PMID:21119666

Vitucci, M; Hayes, D N; Miller, C R

2011-02-15

206

Brain metastases.  

PubMed

Brain metastases are the most frequent neurological complication of cancer and the most common brain tumour type. Lung and breast cancers, and melanoma are responsible for up to three-quarters of metastatic brain lesions. Most patients exhibit either headache, seizures, focal deficits, cognitive or gait disorders, which severely impair the quality of life. Brain metastases are best demonstrated by MRI, which is sensitive but non-specific. The main differential diagnosis includes primary tumours, abscesses, vascular and inflammatory lesions. Overall prognosis is poor and depends on age, extent and activity of the systemic disease, number of brain metastases and performance status. In about half of the patients, especially those with widespread and uncontrolled systemic malignancy, death is heavily related to extra-neural lesions, and treatment of cerebral disease doesn't significantly improve survival. In such patients the aim is to improve or stabilize the neurological deficit and maintain quality of life. Corticosteroids and whole-brain radiotherapy usually fulfill this purpose. By contrast, patients with limited number of brain metastases, good performance status and controlled or limited systemic disease, may benefit from aggressive treatment as both quality of life and survival are primarily related to treatment of brain lesions. Several efficacious therapeutic options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are available for these patients. PMID:24365409

Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Hildebrand, Jerzy

2014-01-01

207

Temporal classification of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy signals of motor imagery for developing a brain–computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an increase in research interest for brain–computer interface (BCI) technology as an alternate mode of communication and environmental control for the disabled, such as patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke and spinal cord injury. Disabled patients with appropriate physical care and cognitive ability to communicate with their social environment continue to live with a

Ranganatha Sitaram; Haihong Zhang; Cuntai Guan; Manoj Thulasidas; Yoko Hoshi; Akihiro Ishikawa; Koji Shimizu; Niels Birbaumer

2007-01-01

208

USING MULTIRESOLUTION SPACE-TIME-FREQUENCY FEATURES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION MOTOR IMAGERY EEG RECORDINGS IN A BRAIN COMPUTER  

E-print Network

Engineering, University of Cukurova, Turkey 2 e-mail: firat@umn.edu, arica@cu.edu.tr, tewfik@umn.edu ABSTRACT RECORDINGS IN A BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE TASK N. Firat INCE1,2 , Sami ARICA2 , Ahmed H. TEWFIK1,2 Department

Minnesota, University of

209

Small intestinal tumours.  

PubMed

Objective. Balloon enteroscopy (BE) and capsule enteroscopy (CE) are enteroscopy methods that allow examination and treatment of the small bowel. Before the CE and BE era, the small intestine was difficult to access for investigation. Small intestinal tumours are infrequent conditions, but about half of them are malignant. Materials and Methods. A total of 303 BEs were performed in 179 patients. Oral insertion was performed in 240 and anal in 63 BEs. Indications for the procedure in our patients with small bowel tumours were anaemia and/or bleeding, obstruction, suspicion of carcinoid tumour, or suspicion of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Results. In 50 of our 179 patients (28%), we diagnosed some small intestinal tumours: hamartomas in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in 16 patients, adenocarcinoma in 7, lymphoma in 6, carcinoid tumour in 4, melanoma and stromal tumour in 3, adenoma, lipoma, and inflammatory polyps in 2, and granular cell tumour, cavernous lymphangioma, fibrolipoma, Cronkhite-Canada polyps, and metastatic involvement in individual cases. Conclusion. BE facilitates exploration and treatment of the small intestine. The procedure is generally safe and useful. BE and CE are essential modalities for the management of small intestinal diseases. PMID:24348540

Kopá?ová, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

2013-01-01

210

Factors affecting platinum concentrations in human surgical tumour specimens after cisplatin.  

PubMed Central

We assessed factors which affect cisplatin concentrations in human surgical tumour specimens. Cisplatin 10 mg m-2 was given i.v. to 45 consenting patients undergoing surgical resection of neoplasms, and platinum was assayed in resected tumour and in deproteinated plasma by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. By multiple stepwise regression analysis of normalised data, patient characteristics that emerged as being most closely associated (P < 0.05) with tumour platinum concentrations (after correcting for associations with other variables) were tumour 'source' [primary brain lymphomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas ('type LMM') > 'others' > lung cancer > head/neck cancer > gliomas) or tumour 'type' (LMM > brain metastases > extracerebral tumours > gliomas), serum calcium and chloride (positive correlations) and bilirubin (negative). Tumour location (intracranial vs extracranial) did not correlate with platinum concentrations. If values for a single outlier were omitted, high-grade gliomas had significantly higher platinum concentrations (P < 0.003) than low-grade gliomas. For intracranial tumours, the computerised tomographic scan feature that correlated most closely with platinum concentrations in multivariate analysis was the darkness of peritumoral oedema. Tumour source or type is a much more important correlate of human tumour cisplatin concentrations than is intracranial vs extracranial location. Serum calcium, chloride and bilirubin levels may affect tumour cisplatin uptake or retention. CT scan characteristics may help predict cisplatin concentrations in intracranial tumours. PMID:7880744

Stewart, D. J.; Molepo, J. M.; Green, R. M.; Montpetit, V. A.; Hugenholtz, H.; Lamothe, A.; Mikhael, N. Z.; Redmond, M. D.; Gadia, M.; Goel, R.

1995-01-01

211

Recruitment feasibility to a cohort study of endocrine and metabolic health among survivors of childhood brain tumours: a report from the Canadian study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in ChIlDrEn (CanDECIDE)  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of recruitment and performance of study procedures of the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in ChIlDrEn (CanDECIDE) study, which was designed to assess the determinants of endocrine and metabolic health in survivors of childhood brain tumours. Setting A single paediatric tertiary care centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Participants We included boys and girls, aged 5?years and older, who were lean (body mass index (BMI) below 85th centile for age and gender) or overweight/obese (BMI 85th centile or above for age and gender). We excluded children on steroids or immunosuppressant therapy, smokers and those who had an active infection for the 2?weeks prior to participation. Outcomes Feasibility targets included recruitment rate of at least 50%, the consenting of 80% of participants to provide biological samples, 90% questionnaire completion rate and the ability to process biological samples from at least 80% of participants. Results We approached 210 potential participants, and of the 112 (53%) who agreed to participate, 30 (26.8%) completed the study visit over 7?months. All participants agreed to fast, provide biological samples and complete the questionnaires. Sample collection was successful in 97% (29/30) of participants and laboratory procedures were feasible in 100% of collected samples. We also tested resources required for the conduct of the full study including personnel, space, laboratory equipment and procedures and determined that they are all feasible. Conclusions Recruitment and consenting of patients for the CanDECIDE study may be feasible. However, we are considering prolonging recruitment duration and collaboration with other centres to meet recruitment targets due to lower than expected recruitment rate. Completion of questionnaires and implementation of sample processing protocols are feasible. PMID:24969784

Samaan, M Constantine; Scheinemann, Katrin; Burrow, Sarah; Dillenburg, Rejane F; Barr, Ronald D; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Valencia, Marlie; Thabane, Lehana

2014-01-01

212

A comparison of classification techniques for a gaze-independent P300-based brain–computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This off-line study aims to assess the performance of five classifiers commonly used in the brain–computer interface (BCI) community, when applied to a gaze-independent P300-based BCI. In particular, we compared the results of four linear classifiers and one nonlinear: Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SWLDA), Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA), linear support vector machine (LSVM) and

F Aloise; F Schettini; P Aricň; S Salinari; F Babiloni; F Cincotti

2012-01-01

213

Classification effects of real and imaginary movement selective attention tasks on a P300-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on various electroencephalography methodologies that allow the user to convey their desired control to the machine. Common approaches include the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the P300 and modulation of the beta and mu rhythms. All of these methods have their benefits and drawbacks. In this paper, three different selective attention tasks were tested

Mathew Salvaris; Francisco Sepulveda

2010-01-01

214

Disrupting tumour blood vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-molecular-weight vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) cause a pronounced shutdown in blood flow to solid tumours, resulting in extensive tumour-cell necrosis, while they leave the blood flow in normal tissues relatively intact. The largest group of VDAs is the tubulin-binding combretastatins, several of which are now being tested in clinical trials. DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid) — one of a structurally distinct group of

Chryso Kanthou; Bruce C. Baguley; Gillian M. Tozer

2005-01-01

215

Brain source localization: a new method based on MUltiple SIgnal Classification algorithm and spatial sparsity of the field signal for electroencephalogram measurements.  

PubMed

Brain activity can be recorded by means of EEG (Electroencephalogram) electrodes placed on the scalp of the patient. The EEG reflects the activity of groups of neurons located in the head, and the fundamental problem in neurophysiology is the identification of the sources responsible of brain activity, especially if a seizure occurs and in this case it is important to identify it. The studies conducted in order to formalize the relationship between the electromagnetic activity in the head and the recording of the generated external field allow to know pattern of brain activity. The inverse problem, that is given the sampling field at different electrodes the underlying asset must be determined, is more difficult because the problem may not have a unique solution, or the search for the solution is made difficult by a low spatial resolution which may not allow to distinguish between activities involving sources close to each other. Thus, sources of interest may be obscured or not detected and known method in source localization problem as MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) could fail. Many advanced source localization techniques achieve a best resolution by exploiting sparsity: if the number of sources is small as a result, the neural power vs. location is sparse. In this work a solution based on the spatial sparsity of the field signal is presented and analyzed to improve MUSIC method. For this purpose, it is necessary to set a priori information of the sparsity in the signal. The problem is formulated and solved using a regularization method as Tikhonov, which calculates a solution that is the better compromise between two cost functions to minimize, one related to the fitting of the data, and another concerning the maintenance of the sparsity of the signal. At the first, the method is tested on simulated EEG signals obtained by the solution of the forward problem. Relatively to the model considered for the head and brain sources, the result obtained allows to have a significant improvement compared to the classical MUSIC method, with a small margin of uncertainty about the exact location of the sources. In fact, the constraints of the spatial sparsity on the signal field allow to concentrate power in the directions of active sources, and consequently it is possible to calculate the position of the sources within the considered volume conductor. Later, the method is tested on the real EEG data too. The result is in accordance with the clinical report even if improvements are necessary to have further accurate estimates of the positions of the sources. PMID:24007117

Vergallo, P; Lay-Ekuakille, A

2013-08-01

216

Texture analysis of T1 - and T2 -weighted MR images and use of probabilistic neural network to discriminate posterior fossa tumours in children.  

PubMed

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children, representing 20% of all cancers. The most frequent posterior fossa tumours are medulloblastomas, pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas. Texture analysis (TA) of MR images can be used to support the diagnosis of these tumours by providing additional quantitative information. MaZda software was used to perform TA on T1 - and T2 -weighted images of children with pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas of the posterior fossa, who had MRI at Birmingham Children's Hospital prior to treatment. The region of interest was selected on three slices per patient in Image J, using thresholding and manual outlining. TA produced 279 features, which were reduced using principal component analysis (PCA). The principal components (PCs) explaining 95% of the variance were used in a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to classify the cases, using DTREG statistics software. PCA of texture features from both T1 - and T2 -weighted images yielded 13 PCs to explain >95% of the variance. The PNN classifier for T1 -weighted images achieved 100% accuracy on training the data and 90% on leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV); for T2 -weighted images, the accuracy was 100% on training the data and 93.3% on LOOCV. A PNN classifier with T1 and T2 PCs achieved 100% accuracy on training the data and 85.8% on LOOCV. LDA classification accuracies were noticeably poorer. The features found to hold the highest discriminating potential were all co-occurrence matrix derived, where adjacent pixels had highly correlated intensities. This study shows that TA can be performed on standard T1 - and T2 -weighted images of childhood posterior fossa tumours using readily available software to provide high diagnostic accuracy. Discriminatory features do not correspond to those used in the clinical interpretation of the images and therefore provide novel tumour information. PMID:24729528

Orphanidou-Vlachou, Eleni; Vlachos, Nikolaos; Davies, Nigel P; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Grundy, Richard G; Peet, Andrew C

2014-06-01

217

Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.  

PubMed

Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2?Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

2013-02-01

218

Warthin's tumour - Resolution following FNA.  

PubMed

This case report describes the acute presentation of a patient with a Warthin's tumour in his right parotid gland and complete resolution of the tumour following fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:24973530

Mann, Lorna; Crosher, Richard; Steel, Clare

2014-01-01

219

Warthin's tumour - Resolution following FNA  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the acute presentation of a patient with a Warthin's tumour in his right parotid gland and complete resolution of the tumour following fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:24973530

Mann, Lorna; Crosher, Richard; Steel, Clare

2014-01-01

220

Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients(Podcast)(e–Pub ahead of print)(LOE Classification)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Motor recovery after stroke depends on the integrity of ipsilesional motor circuits and interactions between the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. In this sham-controlled randomized trial, we investigated whether noninvasive modulation of regional excitability of bilateral motor cortices in combination with physical and occupational therapy improves motor outcome after stroke. Methods: Twenty chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to receive 5 consecutive sessions of either 1) bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal tDCS to upregulate excitability of ipsilesional motor cortex and cathodal tDCS to downregulate excitability of contralesional motor cortex) with simultaneous physical/occupational therapy or 2) sham stimulation with simultaneous physical/occupational therapy. Changes in motor impairment (Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer) and motor activity (Wolf Motor Function Test) assessments were outcome measures while functional imaging parameters were used to identify neural correlates of motor improvement. Results: The improvement of motor function was significantly greater in the real stimulation group (20.7% in Fugl-Meyer and 19.1% in Wolf Motor Function Test scores) when compared to the sham group (3.2% in Fugl-Meyer and 6.0% in Wolf Motor Function Test scores). The effects outlasted the stimulation by at least 1 week. In the real-stimulation group, stronger activation of intact ipsilesional motor regions during paced movements of the affected limb were found postintervention whereas no significant activation changes were seen in the control group. Conclusions: The combination of bihemispheric tDCS and peripheral sensorimotor activities improved motor functions in chronic stroke patients that outlasted the intervention period. This novel approach may potentiate cerebral adaptive processes that facilitate motor recovery after stroke. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for adult patients with ischemic stroke treated at least 5 months after their first and only stroke, bihemispheric tDCS and simultaneous physical/occupational therapy given over 5 consecutive sessions significantly improves motor function as measured by the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment (raw change treated 6.1 ± 3.4, sham 1.2 ± 1.0). GLOSSARY CST = corticospinal tract; FLAIR = fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; LI = laterality index; MRC = Medical Research Council; PT/OT = physical/occupational therapy; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; UE-FM = Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment; WMFT = Wolf Motor Function Test. PMID:21068427

Lindenberg, R.; Renga, V.; Zhu, L.L.; Nair, D.; Schlaug, G.

2010-01-01

221

Classification 1: Classification Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson, first of a two-part series will show students that many kinds of living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things belong to which group and that classification schemes will vary with purpose.ContextThis lesson is the first of a two-part series on classification. This lesson is intended to supplement students' direct investigations by using the Internet to expose students to a variety of living organisms, as well as encourage them to start developing classification schemes of their own.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

222

Coupled modelling of tumour angiogenesis, tumour growth and blood perfusion.  

PubMed

We propose a mathematical modelling system to investigate the dynamic process of tumour cell proliferation, death and tumour angiogenesis by fully coupling the vessel growth, tumour growth and blood perfusion. Tumour growth and angiogenesis are coupled by the chemical microenvironment and the cell-matrix interaction. The haemodynamic calculation is carried out on the updated vasculature. The domains of intravascular, transcapillary and interstitial fluid flow were coupled in the model to provide a comprehensive solution of blood perfusion variables. An estimation of vessel collapse is made according to the wall shear stress criterion to provide feedback on vasculature remodelling. The simulation can show the process of tumour angiogenesis and the spatial distribution of tumour cells for periods of up to 24 days. It can show the major features of tumour and tumour microvasculature during the period such as the formation of a large necrotic core in the tumour centre with few functional vessels passing through, and a well circulated tumour periphery regions in which the microvascular density is high and associated with more aggressive proliferating cells of the growing tumour which are all consistent with physiological observations. The study also demonstrated that the simulation results are not dependent on the initial tumour and networks, which further confirms the application of the coupled model feedback mechanisms. The model enables us to examine the interactions between angiogenesis and tumour growth, and to study the dynamic response of a solid tumour to the changes in the microenvironment. This simulation framework can be a foundation for further applications such as drug delivery and anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:21392511

Cai, Yan; Xu, Shixiong; Wu, Jie; Long, Quan

2011-06-21

223

Imaging of anterior mediastinal tumours  

PubMed Central

Abstract Anterior mediastinal tumours include primary and secondary tumours. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms related to local tumour invasion or systemic symptoms due to release of hormones/cytokines or antibodies. The most common symptoms at presentation include chest pain, dyspnoea, cough, fever and chills. Despite rapid developments in imaging techniques, accurate staging of anterior mediastinal tumours remains a diagnostic quandary. Multimodality imaging plays an important role in determining surgical resectability and/or impact on subsequent management. This article briefly discusses the epidemiology and incidence of anterior mediastinal tumours and describes the role of imaging in tumour characterization and staging in detail. We focus on the more commonly encountered anterior mediastinal tumours. PMID:23131900

Ching Ong, Ching

2012-01-01

224

Classification of binary intentions for individuals with impaired oculomotor function: ‘eyes-closed’ SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Some patients suffering from severe neuromuscular diseases have difficulty controlling not only their bodies but also their eyes. Since these patients have difficulty gazing at specific visual stimuli or keeping their eyes open for a long time, they are unable to use the typical steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for SSVEP-based BCI, which can be potentially suitable for disabled individuals with impaired oculomotor function. Approach. The proposed electroencephalography (EEG)-based BCI system allows users to express their binary intentions without needing to open their eyes. A pair of glasses with two light emitting diodes flickering at different frequencies was used to present visual stimuli to participants with their eyes closed, and we classified the recorded EEG patterns in the online experiments conducted with five healthy participants and one patient with severe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Main results. Through offline experiments performed with 11 participants, we confirmed that human SSVEP could be modulated by visual selective attention to a specific light stimulus penetrating through the eyelids. Furthermore, the recorded EEG patterns could be classified with accuracy high enough for use in a practical BCI system. After customizing the parameters of the proposed SSVEP-based BCI paradigm based on the offline analysis results, binary intentions of five healthy participants were classified in real time. The average information transfer rate of our online experiments reached 10.83 bits min-1. A preliminary online experiment conducted with an ALS patient showed a classification accuracy of 80%. Significance. The results of our offline and online experiments demonstrated the feasibility of our proposed SSVEP-based BCI paradigm. It is expected that our ‘eyes-closed’ SSVEP-based BCI system can be potentially used for communication of disabled individuals with impaired oculomotor function.

Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Han, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ki-Young; Im, Chang-Hwan

2013-04-01

225

Facial reflex examination for assessment of trigeminal nerve involvement in pituitary fossa tumours.  

PubMed Central

Sixteen patients with pituitary fossa tumours with different intrasellar extension have been studied by facial reflex examination, a neurophysiological test for the trigemino-facial pathway. Impaired transmission along the reflex path was shown in patients with proved encroachments on the flexible walls of the cavernous sinuses, but with no tumour spread to the brain stem and facial nerve. The findings were consistent with a subclinical involvement of the first trigeminal division. Tumour removal resulted in recovery in nerve conduction. It is concluded that facial reflex examination is a valuable test for detecting cavernous sinus involvement in pituitary fossa tumours. Images PMID:2993529

Bynke, O

1985-01-01

226

Pineal Parenchymal Tumours: I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineocytoma and pineoblastoma are now recognised as a spectrum of the same disease. Three cases of pineocytoma (grade I–II) are presented, in which platinum-based chemotherapy was used with some success, either as part of primary therapy or at the time of relapse. With the recent reclassification of pineal parenchymal tumours into a grade I–IV continuum, the place of chemotherapy,previously only

A. S. N. Jackson; P. N. Plowman

2004-01-01

227

Histopathological patterns of papillary tumour of the pineal region.  

PubMed

Papillary tumour of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neoplasm that has been formally included in the 2007 WHO classification of central nervous system tumours. The critical diagnosis of this neoplasm is often difficult because of its similarity to other primary or secondary papillary lesions of the pineal region, including parenchymal pineal tumours, papillary ependymoma, papillary meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and metastatic papillary carcinoma. We present the variability of the histopathological pattern in three cases of PTPR. All cases showed predominant epithelial-like morphology but with various degrees of papillary formation and intensity of cellular pleomorphism. One tumour was highly cystic and exhibited cellular sheets containing vessels covered by several layers of uniform columnar to cuboidal tumour cells. The second tumour showed distinct papillae covered by layers of polymorphous cells with atypical, often hyperchromatic nuclei. Numerous cells displayed foamy, eosinophilic or clear, sometimes vacuolated cytoplasm. The third case consisted of solid cellular areas composed of pseudostratified columnar cells, most often arranged in perivascular pseudorosette formations. The cells lining papillary structures exhibited marked polymorphism with atypical, often plump nuclei. Mitotic figures were rare and areas of necrosis were observed only in one case. Immunohistochemical staining showed diffuse immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein, cyto-keratin and vimentin. Focal reaction for synaptophysin and chromogranin A and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were observed. The tumours lacked expression of GFAP. The Ki-67 labelling index was relatively low but its focal increase was noted in two cases. The final diagnosis of PTPR was based on both predominant papillary morphology and immunohistochemical results. PTPR should be considered in diagnosis of pineal tumours but their natural history, therapeutic strategy and prognosis remain controversial. PMID:22101951

Matyja, Ewa; Grajkowska, Wies?awa; Nauman, Pawe?; Bonicki, Wies?aw

2011-01-01

228

Comparative aspects of tumours of the central nervous system in the dog.  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of tumours of the brain occur in the dog, most commonly in the Boxer breed. Tumours may arise from the subependymal plate which may influence the parts of the brain destroyed and hence the pattern of clinical signs. Because of the small capacity of the dog's skull, vital neurological structures are quickly destroyed and the time course of these events is much shorter than in man. The high incidence of tumours in the Boxer would suggest that this breed might afford a useful model for clinical treatment using, for instance, cytotoxic agents. PMID:935161

Palmer, A. C.

1976-01-01

229

Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.  

PubMed

In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours. PMID:11734406

Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

2001-12-01

230

Classification 1: Classification Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson shows students that living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things belong to which group and that classification schemes will vary with purpose. It is the first of a two-part series on classification. At this grade level, students should have the opportunity to learn about an increasing variety of living organisms, both the familiar and the exotic, and should become more precise in identifying similarities and differences among them. Firsthand observation of the living environment is essential for students to gain an understanding of the differences among organisms. This lesson is intended to supplement direct investigations made by students by using the Internet to expose them to a variety of living organisms, as well as encourage them to start developing classification schemes of their own.

231

Mesenchymal tumours of the bladder and prostate: an update.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder and prostate are infrequent neoplasms. The body of literature is growing with isolated case reports and short series, and the majority of cases are benign neoplasms. Other than stromal tumour of uncertain malignant potential and prostatic stromal sarcoma, both neoplasms derived from the specific prostatic stroma, the mesenchymal neoplasms in these locations are identical to their counterparts seen in other organs. However, the limited amount of tissue generated by biopsy and rarity of mesenchymal lesions in these sites create unique diagnostic difficulties, while correct classification of the neoplasm often bears significant impact on prognosis and therapeutic strategy. In this review we summarise the diagnostic features, focus on the differential diagnosis, and highlight the potential diagnostic pitfalls of mesenchymal tumours of the bladder and prostate. PMID:23250042

Tavora, Fabio; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Epstein, Jonathan I

2013-02-01

232

[Hereditary syndromes of neuroendocrine tumours].  

PubMed

Diffuse localised neuroendocrinal cells represent the largest population of endocrinally active cells and can degenerate to malignant neuroendocrine tumours (NET). In this review the most important hereditary syndromes that predispose for endocrine and neuroendocrine tumours are presented and discussed. NET occur mainly as sporadic tumours. Current investigations on the pathogenesis of sporadic neuroendocrine tumours have revealed a close relationship between hereditary and sporadic neuroendocrine tumours. In the course of hereditary syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, endocrine and neuroendocrine tumours as well as non-endocrine neoplasias can occur. In order to recognise these syndromes in good time a knowledge of the predisposing syndromes and their cardinal symptoms is essential. In this way not only individualised diagnosis and therapy can be planned but also an appropriate early management of first degree relatives can be initiated. PMID:24327486

Kaemmerer, D; Posorski, N; Hommann, M; Baum, R P; Hörsch, D

2014-08-01

233

Experimental Tumour Models in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The complex multistage processes of tumour initiation, progression and metastasis challenge the methods that are used in basic\\u000a cancer biology research and anticancer drug development. Experimental tumour modelling in mice provides means for observing\\u000a tumour development, identifying target molecules and pathways and designing and testing novel strategies for diagnosing and\\u000a treating cancer in a manner that is not possible in

Ritva Heljasvaara; Taina Pihlajaniemi

234

Network-Based High Level Data Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional supervised data classification considers only physical features (e.g., distance or similarity) of the input data. Here, this type of learning is called low level classification. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low and high orders of learning and it has facility in identifying patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. Data classification

Thiago Christiano Silva; Liang Zhao

2012-01-01

235

8 107 9654321Issue 07 April 2010 This issue: 1 Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain tumours with just one scan 3 CLASP Challenge Led Knowledge Exchange call to meet Challenges  

E-print Network

8 107 9654321Issue 07 April 2010 This issue: 1 Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain of Liverpool with the Nuclear Physics Group and Technology departments at the Science and Technology Facilities developed its technology based on what is known as the Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain

236

Survival of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a review of the IGCC classification by Cox regression and recursive partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility.

M R van Dijk; E W Steyerberg; S P Stenning; E Dusseldorp; J D F Habbema; van Dijk

2004-01-01

237

Complications of mediastinal neural tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two mediastinal neural tumours were seen in the East Anglian Regional Thoracic Surgical Unit at Cambridge between October 1952 and July 1970. The descending order of frequency was neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma, neurilemmoma, neurofibrosarcoma, and neuroblastoma. The literature relating to these tumours is reviewed and the pathological and clinical complications encountered in this series and in the literature are described.

Christopher Parish

1971-01-01

238

Multimodality imaging of testicular tumours  

PubMed Central

Testicular tumours are an important group of tumours because the majority are curable. Imaging with computed tomography is pivotal to patient management but other techniques including magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and plain films are also useful for staging and follow-up. Positron emission tomography with 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose has a growing and unique role in the management of testicular cancer.

Husband, Janet E; Koh, Dow-Mu

2004-01-01

239

Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

2007-01-01

240

'Tumour-induced osteomalacia'  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old man presented 2 years before his diagnosis with long-standing muscle cramping, progressive generalised weakness and chronic hip pain. The patient was found to have bilateral femoral neck pathologic fractures therefore, underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of both femurs. Laboratory studies showed hypophosphataemia. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy. Positron emission tomography demonstrated fludeoxyglucose uptake only in the posterior neck. Bone scan showed innumerable foci of increased activity throughout the skeleton consistent with pseudofractures seen in osteomalacia. Fine needle aspiration from the mass in the neck revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of mixed connective tissue type. Resection of the mass in the neck resulted in resolution of generalised complaints with no evidence of recurrence with a follow-up of 12 months. PMID:22736784

Munoz, Javier; Michel Ortega, Rosa; Celzo, Florence; Donthireddy, Vijayalakshmi

2012-01-01

241

'Tumour-induced osteomalacia'.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man presented 2 years before his diagnosis with long-standing muscle cramping, progressive generalised weakness and chronic hip pain. The patient was found to have bilateral femoral neck pathologic fractures therefore, underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of both femurs. Laboratory studies showed hypophosphataemia. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy. Positron emission tomography demonstrated fludeoxyglucose uptake only in the posterior neck. Bone scan showed innumerable foci of increased activity throughout the skeleton consistent with pseudofractures seen in osteomalacia. Fine needle aspiration from the mass in the neck revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of mixed connective tissue type. Resection of the mass in the neck resulted in resolution of generalised complaints with no evidence of recurrence with a follow-up of 12 months. PMID:22736784

Munoz, Javier; Michel Ortega, Rosa; Celzo, Florence; Donthireddy, Vijayalakshmi

2012-01-01

242

Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas.  

PubMed

Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patients with pineal region tumours and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shunting with biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiopsied tumours is about 6% after cranial radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate. 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. PMID:2813835

Glanzmann, C; Seelentag, W

1989-09-01

243

Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth  

SciTech Connect

Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)] [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France) [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen (France); Marteau, Lena [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)] [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Bernaudin, Jean-Francois [Service d'Histologie-Biologie Tumorale, ER2UPMC, Universite Paris 6, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France)] [Service d'Histologie-Biologie Tumorale, ER2UPMC, Universite Paris 6, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Roussel, Simon [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)] [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France) [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen (France); Bernaudin, Myriam [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)] [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)] [CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)

2011-10-01

244

Quantifying tumour heterogeneity with CT  

PubMed Central

Abstract Heterogeneity is a key feature of malignancy associated with adverse tumour biology. Quantifying heterogeneity could provide a useful non-invasive imaging biomarker. Heterogeneity on computed tomography (CT) can be quantified using texture analysis which extracts spatial information from CT images (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced and derived images such as CT perfusion) that may not be perceptible to the naked eye. The main components of texture analysis can be categorized into image transformation and quantification. Image transformation filters the conventional image into its basic components (spatial, frequency, etc.) to produce derived subimages. Texture quantification techniques include structural-, model- (fractal dimensions), statistical- and frequency-based methods. The underlying tumour biology that CT texture analysis may reflect includes (but is not limited to) tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis. Emerging studies show that CT texture analysis has the potential to be a useful adjunct in clinical oncologic imaging, providing important information about tumour characterization, prognosis and treatment prediction and response. PMID:23545171

Miles, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

245

Surgical management of adrenocortical tumours.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of adrenal tumours has evolved over the past century, as has our understanding of which hormones are secreted by the adrenal glands and what these hormones do. This article reviews the preoperative evaluation of patients with adrenal tumours that could be benign or malignant, including metastases. The biochemical evaluation of excess levels of hormones is discussed, as are imaging characteristics that differentiate benign tumours from malignant tumours. The options for surgical management are outlined, including the advantages and disadvantages of various open and laparoscopic approaches. The surgical management of adrenocortical carcinoma is specifically reviewed, including controversies in operative approaches as well as surgical management of invasive or recurrent disease. PMID:24637859

Miller, Barbra S; Doherty, Gerard M

2014-05-01

246

Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features  

PubMed Central

Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

2012-01-01

247

Classification of Meningiomas using Discriminant Wavelet Packets and Learning Vector Quantization  

E-print Network

the cells of the meningeal covering of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningiomas account for 20% of all brain tumours and exist in the three membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord. The World Health- sification of brain tumors. One such effort in the domain of meningiomas was carried out by Lessman et al. [1

Qureshi, Hammad

248

Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours.  

PubMed

Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumours that are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographical and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically five- to eightfold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries, with peak incidence near the time of puberty. About half of the tumours are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3-4:1 overall, but is even higher for tumours located in the pineal region. Owing to the scarcity of tumour specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signalling pathway frequently mutated in more than 50% of IGCTs, including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gains of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional co-repressor and tumour suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, which codes for a histone demethylase and is a coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway. PMID:24896186

Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Leal, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David A; Lau, Ching C

2014-07-10

249

Unsupervised medical image classification by combining case-based classifiers Thien Anh Dinha  

E-print Network

. In this paper we study automated knowledge extraction based on the images of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which of the brain are widely used for the clinical diagnosis of TBI. Automatic classification of TBI brain images

Tan, Chew Lim

250

Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.  

PubMed

Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

2013-02-01

251

Fingerprint classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fingerprint classification algorithm is presented in this paper. Fingerprints are classified into five categories: arch, tented arch, left loop, right loop and whorl. The algorithm extracts singular points (cores and deltas) in a fingerprint image and performs classification based on the number and locations of the detected singular points. The classifier is invariant to rotation, translation and small amounts

Kalle Karu; Anil K. Jain

1996-01-01

252

[The probability of developing brain tumours among users of cellular telephones (scientific information to the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced on May 31, 2011)].  

PubMed

The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has made May 31 2011 PRESS RELEASE No 208 which classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The decision is based on an increased risk of glioma, i.e., a malignant type of brain cancer associated with the wireless phone use. This paper reports the analysis of the long-term research on the issue in question that had been carried out in many countries around the world before the decision was made. PMID:22279776

Grigor'ev, Iu G

2011-01-01

253

A rare urinary bladder tumour.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

2014-01-01

254

Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours  

E-print Network

). The transition of CTVT from growth to regression is characterised by infiltration of CD8+ T cells (and other immune cells) into the tumour, as would be expected for an anti-graft response (56- 58). Even when CTVT is actively growing there is tumour infiltration... for conserving Australia's marsupial carnivores. Jones M, Dickman C, Archer M, editors. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing; 2003. pp. 422-34 p. 49. Hamede RK, McCallum H, Jones M. Seasonal, demographic and density-related patterns of contact between...

Siddle, Hannah V.; Kaufman, Jim

2014-09-04

255

Imaging biomarkers of angiogenesis and the microvascular environment in cerebral tumours  

PubMed Central

Conventional contrast-enhanced CT and MRI are now in routine clinical use for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of diseases in the brain. The presence of contrast enhancement is a proxy for the pathological changes that occur in the normally highly regulated brain vasculature and blood-brain barrier. With recognition of the limitations of these techniques, and a greater appreciation for the nuanced mechanisms of microvascular change in a variety of pathological processes, novel techniques are under investigation for their utility in further interrogating the microvasculature of the brain. This is particularly important in tumours, where the reliance on angiogenesis (new vessel formation) is crucial for tumour growth, and the resulting microvascular configuration and derangement has profound implications for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. In addition, novel therapeutic approaches that seek to directly modify the microvasculature require more sensitive and specific biological markers of baseline tumour behaviour and response. The currently used imaging biomarkers of angiogenesis and brain tumour microvascular environment are reviewed. PMID:22433824

Thompson, G; Mills, S J; Coope, D J; O'connor, J P B; Jackson, A

2011-01-01

256

Transferrin receptor expression in tumours of the human nervous system: relation to tumour type, grading and tumour growth fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The expression of transferrin receptor (Tr) was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry in 101 tumours of the human central and peripheral nervous system. The results were compared with the proliferative activity of the tumours, determined by immunostaining for the proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67. In addition to immunostaining of normal and proliferated blood vessel endothelium and of a fraction of tumour

Reinhard Prior; Guido Reifenberger; Wolfgang Wechsler

1990-01-01

257

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumour: minimally invasive treatment of a rare bladder tumour CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumours are extremely rare neoplastic growths con- sidered to be members of the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas), which have in common the coexpression of melanocytic and smooth muscle immunohistochemical markers. These tumours are known to be ubiquitous with uncertain tumour biology and to have unpredictable clin- ical behaviour. They have been reported in the

Michael L. Pianezza; Jack Slatnik; Howard J. Evans

2008-01-01

258

Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter

K Binley; Z Askham; L Martin; H Spearman; D Day; S Kingsman; S Naylor

2003-01-01

259

Spinal cord tumours: advances in genetics and their implications for treatment  

PubMed Central

Tumours of the spinal cord, although rare, are associated with high morbidity. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for patients with this disease, and offers the best chance for cure. Such surgical procedures, however, carry substantial risks such as worsening of neurological deficit, paralysis and death. New therapeutic avenues for spinal cord tumours are needed, but genetic studies of the molecular mechanisms governing tumourigenesis in the spinal cord are limited by the scarcity of high-quality human tumour samples. Many spinal cord tumours have intracranial counterparts that have been extensively studied, but emerging data show that the tumours are genetically and biologically distinct. The differences between brain and spine tumours make extrapolation of data from one to the other difficult. In this Review, we describe the demographics, genetics and current treatment approaches for the most commonly encountered spinal cord tumours—namely, ependymomas, astrocytomas, haemangioblastomas and meningiomas. We highlight advances in understanding of the biological basis of these lesions, and explain how the latest progress in genetics and beyond are being translated to improve patient care. PMID:23528542

Zadnik, Patricia L.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Burger, Peter C.; Bettegowda, Chetan

2014-01-01

260

Contribution of platelets to tumour metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive experimental evidence shows that platelets support tumour metastasis. The activation of platelets and the coagulation system have a crucial role in the progression of cancer. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard tumour cells from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting the establishment of secondary lesions. These contributions of platelets to tumour cell survival and spread

Laurie J. Gay; Brunhilde Felding-Habermann

2011-01-01

261

Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones  

PubMed Central

Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer. PMID:17034627

Hardell, Lennart; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Carlberg, Michael; Soderqvist, Fredrik

2006-01-01

262

Ageing is the biggest risk factor for cancer; the majority of tumours (in developed coun-  

E-print Network

, for example, prostate cancer incidence accelerating much faster than brain cancer (FIG. 1b). Some cancers haveAgeing is the biggest risk factor for cancer; the majority of tumours (in developed coun- tries). The connection between cancer and ageing has been well-documented in numerous epidemiological studies4 . After

de MagalhĂŁes, JoĂŁo Pedro

263

Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of clavicle  

PubMed Central

Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of the clavicle are very rare, and little literature is available regarding their characteristics and outcome. We studied the clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and outcome of management of patients with primary tumours of the clavicle presenting to us from 1996–2005. Twelve cases of primary tumours of the clavicle presented during the above period. Seven patients were treated with partial or complete claviculectomy, and no reconstruction was done. These seven patients were evaluated for functional results with AMSTS scoring. Eight patients out of twelve had a primary malignant bone tumour, four of these being Ewing’s sarcoma. No particular predilection of location of the tumour within the clavicle was seen. Functional and oncological results of claviculectomy were good. The distribution of types of tumours in the clavicle is quite different from long-bone tumours. No reconstruction is required following partial or total claviculectomy. PMID:17583813

Tiwari, Akshay; Kapoor, Saurabh

2007-01-01

264

Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?  

PubMed Central

Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Results Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Conclusions Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency. PMID:21679472

2011-01-01

265

Chemotherapy for upper gastrointestinal tumours  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to identify current chemotherapy treatment for tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, and liver. The role of both neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative chemotherapy regimens will be discussed. This review will be of interest to oncologists in clarifying current issues regarding chemotherapy, and to physicians in other medical specialties, to increase their general understanding of benefits and drawbacks of chemotherapy in this patient group.???Keywords: cancer; oesophagus; stomach; pancreas; chemotherapy PMID:10824043

Thomas, A; O'Byrne, K; Steward, W

2000-01-01

266

Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head\\u000a tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires\\u000a a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A close examination of the protocols and

Angelo G Levis; Nadia Minicuci; Paolo Ricci; Valerio Gennaro; Spiridione Garbisa

2011-01-01

267

Form classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

2008-01-01

268

Classification Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taxonomic information shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. In this lesson plan, students will classify organisms by kingdom and apply their own understanding of classification to identify organisms. The students should already have an understanding of the basics of the five kindoms and the seven categories of classification. The document includes a pre-test on the topic to gauge student understanding and two classroom activities. The activity is intended for sixth grade students, and should take three to four class periods to complete.

Shubinski, Carol

2012-06-11

269

[Mobile phones and head tumours: it is time to read and highlight data in a proper way].  

PubMed

The uncertainty about the relationship between the use of mobile phones (MPs: analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and the increase of head tumour risk can be solved by a critical analysis of the methodological elements of both the positive and the negative studies. Results by Hardell indicate a cause/effect relationship: exposures for or latencies from ? 10 years to MPs increase by up to 100% the risk of tumour on the same side of the head preferred for phone use (ipsilateral tumours) - which is the only one significantly irradiated - with statistical significance for brain gliomas, meningiomas and acoustic neuromas. On the contrary, studies published under the Interphone project and others produced negative results and are characterised by the substantial underestimation of the risk of tumour. However, also in the Interphone studies a clear and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumours (gliomas, neuromas and parotid gland tumours) is quite common in people having used MPs since or for ? 10 years. And also the metaanalyses by Hardell and other Authors, including only the literature data on ipsilateral tumours in people having used MPs since or for ? 10 years - and so also part of the Interphone data - still show statistically significant increases of head tumours. PMID:21914915

Levis, Angelo G; Minicucci, Nadia; Ricci, Paolo; Gennaro, Valerio; Garbisa, Spiridione

2011-01-01

270

The role of tumour-derived iNOS in tumour progression and angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Progressive tumour growth is dependent on the development of a functional tumour vasculature and highly regulated by growth factors and cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, produced both by tumour and host cells, and functions as a signalling molecule downstream of several angiogenic factors. Both pro- and antitumourigenic properties have been attributed to NO. Methods: The expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was knocked down in the C6 glioma cell line using constitutive expression of antisense RNA, and the effect of tumour-derived NO on tumour progression and angiogenesis was investigated. Results: Tumours in which iNOS expression was decreased displayed significantly reduced growth rates compared with tumours derived from parental C6 cells. Quantitative non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy of tumour uptake of Hoechst 33342, and haematoxylin and eosin staining, revealed significantly impaired vascular development and function in antisense iNOS tumours compared with control in vivo, primarily associated with the more necrotic tumour core. Decreased iNOS expression had no effect on tumour VEGF expression. Conclusion: Nitric oxide derived from tumour iNOS is an important modulator of tumour progression and angiogenesis in C6 gliomas and further supports the therapeutic strategy of inhibiting iNOS for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21139581

Kostourou, V; Cartwright, J E; Johnstone, A P; Boult, J K R; Cullis, E R; Whitley, GStJ; Robinson, S P

2011-01-01

271

Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of clavicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary tumours and tumorous lesions of the clavicle are very rare, and little literature is available regarding their characteristics\\u000a and outcome. We studied the clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics, and outcome of management of patients\\u000a with primary tumours of the clavicle presenting to us from 1996–2005. Twelve cases of primary tumours of the clavicle presented\\u000a during the above period. Seven

Sudhir Kapoor; Akshay Tiwari; Saurabh Kapoor

2008-01-01

272

Primary lung tumour visualised by transthoracic echocardiography  

PubMed Central

We present images of a rare case where a primary lung tumour was visualised by transthoracic echocardiography. The patient was a 78-year-old male where Chest X-ray had revealed a tumour-suspected structure in the left lung. Both transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images showed a large tumour located close to the heart. Fine-needle biopsy showed non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:19087342

Dencker, Magnus; Cronberg, Carin; Damm, Sabine; Valind, Sven; Wadbo, Monica

2008-01-01

273

Colonic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting as Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare in paediatric patients and have a discrete clinicopathological and molecular divergence from that observed in adults. In the present report we present a case of a 2-month-old female in whom colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour acted as a lead point of colocolic intussusception. Laparoscopically assisted reduction of the intussusception and resection of tumour was done. PMID:24040597

Goel, Garima; Sobti, Parul; Khurana, Nita; Mathur, Mohit; Sinha, Shandip K; Aggarwal, Satish K

2013-01-01

274

NANOPARTICLE ASSEMBLY: Building blocks for tumour delivery  

PubMed Central

Standfirst Supramolecular structures composed of inorganic nanoparticles and DNA strands can efficiently target tumours and then be disassembled in order to ease elimination from the body. PMID:24463360

Choi, Hak Soo

2014-01-01

275

Current review of in vivo GBM rodent models: emphasis on the CNS-1 tumour model  

PubMed Central

GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is a highly aggressive brain tumour with very poor prognosis despite multi-modalities of treatment. Furthermore, recent failure of targeted therapy for these tumours highlights the need of appropriate rodent models for preclinical studies. In this review, we highlight the most commonly used rodent models (U251, U86, GL261, C6, 9L and CNS-1) with a focus on the pathological and genetic similarities to the human disease. We end with a comprehensive review of the CNS-1 rodent model. PMID:21740400

Jacobs, Valerie L; Valdes, Pablo A; Hickey, William F; De Leo, Joyce A

2011-01-01

276

Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes infiltrating paediatric tumours, with a characterization of the tumour phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) of paediatric tumours obtained from 37 lesions of different histo-type (12 osteosarcomas, 5 Wilms' tumours, 7 soft-tissue sarcomas, 5 neuroblastomas and 8 miscellaneous) were studied to establish their potential for therapy. Fresh isolated TIL were cultured for the first 2 weeks with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2) (20 Cetus U\\/ml) to select for “tumour-specific” lymphocytes potentially

Licia Rivoltinil; Flavio Arientil; Attilio Orazi; Graziella Cefalo; Marco Gasparini; Carlo Gambacorti-Passerinil; Franca Fossati-Bellani; Giorgio Parmianil

1992-01-01

277

[Evaluation of emergency surgery in gestational trophoblastic tumours].  

PubMed

We retrospectively analyzed 27 cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia treated by emergency surgery from 1985-1996 at PUMC hospital. Seventeen cases were diagnosed of choriocarcinoma and 10 were invasive mole. Sixteen out of 27 patients were subjected to hysterectomy because of uterine perforation or severe uterine bleeding; 4 cases received unilateral oophorectomy because of torsion of theca lutein cyst. Emergency open surgery and excision of the metastatic brain tumour were undertaken in 3 patients with elevated intracranial pressure caused by brain edema and haemorrhage; 2 patients showed lifethreatening haemorrhage from vaginal metastatic tumour and were managed by operative intervention. Partial jejunectomy was performed in 2 patients due to rupture of jejunal metastatic mass. Of these 27 cases, 17 hadn't been treated with chemical reagents and 6 cases had received one course of chemotherapy before surgical procedures. After multiple courses of combined chemotherapy postoperatively, 23 patients had achieved complete remission. It is concluded that surgical intervention plays an important role in patients with trophoblastic disease when emergency situations (e.g. life-threatening haemorrhages) occur; early diagnosis and prompt initiation of chemotherapy might have rendered surgery unnecessary. PMID:10453523

Xiang, Y; Yang, X; Zhang, L; Song, H

1997-10-01

278

Resveratrol, a Natural Product Present in Wine, Decreases Tumour Growth in a Rat Tumour Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol administration to rats inoculated with a fast growing tumour (the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma) caused a very significant decrease (25%) in the tumour cell content. The effects of this diphenol were associated with an increase in the number of cells in the G2\\/M cell cycle phase. Interestingly, flow cytometric analysis of the tumour cell population revealed the existence of

Neus Carbó; Paola Costelli; Francesco M. Baccino; Francisco J. López-Soriano; Josep M. Argilés

1999-01-01

279

A gene expression profile for detection of sufficient tumour cells in breast tumour tissue: microarray diagnosis eligibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microarray diagnostics of tumour samples is based on measurement of prognostic and\\/or predictive gene expression profiles. Typically, diagnostic profiles have been developed using bulk tumour samples with a sufficient amount of tumour cells (usually >50%). Consequentially, a diagnostic results depends on the minimal percentage of tumour cells within a sample. Currently, tumour cell percentage is assessed by conventional histopathological

Paul Roepman; Arenda Schuurman; Leonie JMJ Delahaye; Anke T Witteveen; Arno N Floore; Annuska M Glas

2009-01-01

280

Tumour-associated transcripts and EGFR deletion variants in colorectal cancer in primary tumour, metastases and circulating tumour cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical relevance of circulating tumour cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has been described as an independent prognostic factor useful to monitor drug effects and clinical status. The aim of the present study was to compare the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status of primary tumour, related metastases and CTC of patients with CRC.

Silke Lankiewicz; Silke Zimmermann; Christiane Hollmann; Firouzeh Korangy; Tim F. Greten

281

Electrochemotherapy on liver tumours in rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic approach combining the effects of a low-permeant cytotoxic drug, bleomycin (BLM), administered i.v. and cell-permeabilizing electric pulses (EPs) locally delivered to tumours. The transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by the EPs allows free access of BLM to its intracellular targets, largely enhancing BLM's cytotoxic effects. ECT efficacy has been proved so far on transplanted subcutaneous murine tumours and on subcutaneous metastases in humans. Here, we present the first study of the effects of ECT on tumours transplanted to livers in rabbits. We used a recently developed EP applicator consisting of an array of parallel and equidistant needles to be inserted in tissues. Effects of EPs alone or of ECT were assessed by histological analysis, tumour growth rates and survival of the treated animals. A transient blood hypoperfusion was seen in the electropulsed areas, with or without BLM, related to EP-dependent vasoconstriction but this had no major effects on cell survival. Long-term effects depended on the presence of BLM at the time of EP delivery. Almost complete tumour necrosis was observed after ECT, resulting from both BLM direct cytotoxic effects on electropermeabilized tumour cells and indirect effects on the tumour vessels. A large reduction in tumour growth rate and significantly longer survival times were scored in comparison with control rabbits. Moreover, ECT of liver tumours was well tolerated and devoid of systemic side-effects. When ECT was associated with a local interleukin 2-based immunotherapy, increased local anti-tumour effectiveness as well as a large decrease in the number of metastases were observed. Thus, ECT could become a novel treatment modality for liver tumours and other solid internal malignancies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9649121

Ramirez, L. H.; Orlowski, S.; An, D.; Bindoula, G.; Dzodic, R.; Ardouin, P.; Bognel, C.; Belehradek, J.; Munck, J. N.; Mir, L. M.

1998-01-01

282

The brain-computer interface cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted much attention recently, triggered by new scientific progress in understanding brain function and by impressive applications. The aim of this review is to give ail overview of the various steps in the BCI cycle, i.e., the loop from the measurement of brain activity, classification of data, feedback to the subject and the effect of feedback

M. van Gerven; J. D. R. Farquhar; R. S. Schaefer; R. J. Vlek; J. Geuze; A. Nijholt; N. F. Ramsey; W. F. G. Haselager; L. G. Vuurpijl; S. C. A. M. Gielen; P. W. M. Desain

2009-01-01

283

The Brain-Computer Interface Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted much attention recently, triggered by new scientific progress in understanding brain function and by impressive applications. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various steps in the BCI cycle, i.e., the loop from the measurement of brain activity, classification of data, feedback to the subject and the effect of feedback

Marcel Gerven; Jason Farquhar; Rebecca Schaefer; Rutger Vlek; Jeroen Geuze; Anton Nijholt; Nick Ramsay; Pim Haselager; Louis Vuurpijl; Stan Gielen; Peter Desain

2009-01-01

284

Primate Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn how classification of organisms is based on evolutionary relationships. They will also learn how primates are categorized, and how they are related. Students transfer examples (names) of primates from their location in an outline hierarchy of primate groups into a set of nested boxes reflecting that same hierarchy. A cladogram can then be drawn illustrating how these groups are related in an evolutionary way.

285

CANCER METABOLISM Tumour friend or foe  

E-print Network

suppressor: muta- tions that inactivate this gene are among the most common causes of human lung cancerCANCER METABOLISM Tumour friend or foe Elucidation of a signalling pathway that promotes tumour-cell survival during metabolic stress reveals that a protein called AMPK may both hinder and enhance cancer

Cai, Long

286

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-associated tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological changes of tumours associated with the two main MEN syndromes, types 1 and 2, and their relation with the genetic defects responsible for the individual syndromes are reviewed. MEN 1-associated tumours, affecting mainly the pituitary, the parathyroids and the pancreas, are due to inactivation of the MEN 1 oncosuppressor gene located in 11q13. Although at least one peculiar

C Bordi

2004-01-01

287

Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura are rare. They are mesenchymal in origin. Initially, they were described in the pleura, but lately they have been reported in many other sites. Although the majority of these tumours are benign, some of them are malignant. Their unpredictable clinical course is probably related to their histological and morphological characteristics. The benign tumours may remain unproblematic for several years before changing into a malignant form. In order to define more accurately the clinical behaviour, diagnosis, management and outcome of these rare tumours, we reviewed the literature with particular attention to clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, a modified algorithm was proposed for the management of these tumours. PMID:22345180

Abu Arab, Walid

2012-03-01

288

Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.  

PubMed

Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. PMID:24428620

Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

2014-03-01

289

Neuroblastoma tumour genetics: clinical and biological aspects  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma tumour cells show complex combinations of acquired genetic aberrations, including ploidy changes, deletions of chromosome arms 1p and 11q, amplification of the MYCN oncogene, and—most frequently—gains of chromosome arm 17q. Despite intensive investigation, the fundamental role of these features in neuroblastoma initiation and progression remains to be understood. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in relating tumour genetic abnormalities to tumour behaviour and to clinical outcome; indeed, neuroblastoma provides a paradigm for the clinical importance of tumour genetic abnormalities. Knowledge of MYCN status is increasingly being used in treatment decisions for individual children, and the clinical value of 1p and 17q data as adjuncts or refinements in risk stratification is under active investigation. Reliable detection of these molecular cytogenetic features should be regarded as mandatory for all new cases at presentation. Key Words: neuroblastoma genetics • 17q gain in neuroblastoma • neuroblastoma: 1p and MYCN • tumour genetics and prognosis PMID:11729208

Bown, N

2001-01-01

290

Mobile phones and brain tumours: a review of epidemiological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of public concern regarding the possibility that the use of mobile phone-related technologies\\u000a might result in adverse health effects. Corresponding to this, there has been substantial epidemiological research designed\\u000a to determine whether the use of mobile phones (MP) has any effect on health, and in particular whether it increases the risk\\u000a of developing head

R. J. Croft; R. J. McKenzie; I. Inyang; G. P. Benke; V. Anderson; M. J. Abramson

2008-01-01

291

Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2013-01-01

292

Isolated Whipple disease of the brain resembling a tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Isolated Whipple disease of the central nervous system is a rare occurrence. Migratory arthralgias and gastrointestinal problems,\\u000a including malabsorption, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss, are common presenting symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  For those patients with systemic signs and symptoms of Whipple disease, 6% to 43% will have clinically manifested CNS involvement\\u000a that may include alterations in personality, ataxia, and dementia. We report

James L. Frazier; Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa

2009-01-01

293

Tumour-stroma Signalling in Cancer Cell Motility and Metastasis.  

E-print Network

??The tumour-associated stroma, consisting of fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, vasculature and extracellular matrix proteins, plays a critical role in tumour growth, but how it regulates cancer… (more)

Luga, Valbona

2014-01-01

294

Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities and guarantee a high safety for both therapies, FNT and BNCT.

Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.

2012-03-01

295

Ensemble Sparse Classification of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The high-dimensional pattern classification methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM), have been widely investigated for analysis of structural and functional brain images (such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Most existing classification methods extract features from neuroimaging data and then construct a single classifier to perform classification. However, due to noise and small sample size of neuroimaging data, it is challenging to train only a global classifier that can be robust enough to achieve good classification performance. In this paper, instead of building a single global classifier, we propose a local patch-based subspace ensemble method which builds multiple individual classifiers based on different subsets of local patches and then combines them for more accurate and robust classification. Specifically, to capture the local spatial consistency, each brain image is partitioned into a number of local patches and a subset of patches is randomly selected from the patch pool to build a weak classifier. Here, the sparse representation-based classification (SRC) method, which has shown effective for classification of image data (e.g., face), is used to construct each weak classifier. Then, multiple weak classifiers are combined to make the final decision. We evaluate our method on 652 subjects (including 198 AD patients, 225 MCI and 229 normal controls) from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using MR images. The experimental results show that our method achieves an accuracy of 90.8% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94.86% for AD classification and an accuracy of 87.85% and an AUC of 92.90% for MCI classification, respectively, demonstrating a very promising performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods for AD/MCI classification using MR images. PMID:22270352

Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

2012-01-01

296

Functional polarization of tumour-associated macrophages by tumour-derived lactic acid.  

PubMed

Macrophages have an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. To perform this function, macrophages must have the capacity to monitor the functional states of their 'client cells': namely, the parenchymal cells in the various tissues in which macrophages reside. Tumours exhibit many features of abnormally developed organs, including tissue architecture and cellular composition. Similarly to macrophages in normal tissues and organs, macrophages in tumours (tumour-associated macrophages) perform some key homeostatic functions that allow tumour maintenance and growth. However, the signals involved in communication between tumours and macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show that lactic acid produced by tumour cells, as a by-product of aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, has a critical function in signalling, through inducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the M2-like polarization of tumour-associated macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this effect of lactic acid is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?). Finally, we show that the lactate-induced expression of arginase 1 by macrophages has an important role in tumour growth. Collectively, these findings identify a mechanism of communication between macrophages and their client cells, including tumour cells. This communication most probably evolved to promote homeostasis in normal tissues but can also be engaged in tumours to promote their growth. PMID:25043024

Colegio, Oscar R; Chu, Ngoc-Quynh; Szabo, Alison L; Chu, Thach; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Jairam, Vikram; Cyrus, Nika; Brokowski, Carolyn E; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Phillips, Gillian M; Cline, Gary W; Phillips, Andrew J; Medzhitov, Ruslan

2014-09-25

297

Malignant tumours of the small intestine.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumours, sarcomas and lymphomas are the four most common malignant tumours arising in the small intestine, although over forty different histological subtypes are described. Collectively these account for only 2% of cancers of the digestive system. The incidence of small bowel cancer has increased in recent decades with a four-fold increase in carcinoid tumours. Risk factors for small bowel tumours include coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and a number of genetic abnormalities. The non-specific nature of their symptoms and the difficulty in visualising these tumours with normal endoscopic techniques often results in late diagnosis. Furthermore the paucity of literature on this topic has made it difficult to standardise management. There has however been marked improvement in imaging methods resulting in earlier diagnosis in many cases. As expected, early detection of localised, well differentiated tumours followed by surgical resection with negative margins offers the best chance of long term survival. Better adjuvant treatment, notably for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, has improved 5-year survival rates significantly. Development of surveillance guidelines for at risk populations may be a valuable way of improving early diagnosis of this challenging group of conditions. PMID:24637026

Reynolds, Ian; Healy, Paul; Mcnamara, Deborah A

2014-10-01

298

Neural frame classification 1 Walter J Freeman Origin, structure, and role of background EEG activity  

E-print Network

. The rabbit EEG data used in this study are available to scientists associated with The Brain Resource International Database BrainResource.com> and Brain Dynamics Centre #12;Neural frame classification 2 Walter J Freeman Brain-Dynamics.org>. This report is dedicated to the memory of Linda

Freeman, Walter J.

299

Surgical treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer: retrospective analysis of 89 cases.  

PubMed Central

The records of 89 patients who underwent surgery for solitary or multiple parenchymal brain metastases of lung cancer at the Osaka Center for Adult Diseases between 1978 and 1990 were reviewed with follow up until March 1992. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to identify prognostic features that were associated with a favourable outcome. The benefits of brain tumour surgery were evaluated in terms of the cause of death (brain metastasis, tumour in another organ, or treatment related) as well as the postoperative changes in functional state indicated by the Karnofsky scale. The overall mean survival time was 11.6 months, and the one and two year survival rates were 24% and 8%. The brain lesion itself was the cause of death in only 19% of the patients; the other 81% died of systemic disease. Functional state improved after surgical excision of the brain tumour in 36%, remained unchanged in 53%, and worsened in 11%. These data suggest that surgical intervention is beneficial for patients with parenchymal brain metastases. Variables significantly associated with a favourable prognosis included surgical excision of the primary lesion, adenocarcinoma as the histological diagnosis, the use of adjuvant treatment, especially chemotherapy, a preoperative score of over 80% on the Karnofsky scale, and metastasis confined to the brain with no extracranial metastatic foci or residual primary tumour. Additional but non-significant contributors to a good prognosis included age under 65 or 70 years, early tumour stage (stage 1), curative lung cancer surgery, a single metastatic brain tumour (v multiple lesions), a solid tumour (v cystic), and a supratentorial location of the brain metastasis. The disease free interval and the cerebrospinal fluid cytology were not significant prognostic factors. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the surgical removal of brain metastases of lung cancer should be undertaken if the primary tumour has already been removed whether or not there are extracranial metastases, and that postoperative chemotherapy should generally be given. PMID:8057119

Nakagawa, H; Miyawaki, Y; Fujita, T; Kubo, S; Tokiyoshi, K; Tsuruzono, K; Kodama, K; Higashiyama, M; Doi, O; Hayakawa, T

1994-01-01

300

Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

301

Oestrogen Metabolism in Cultured Human Breast Tumours  

PubMed Central

The interconversion of tritium labelled oestrone and oestradiol-17? has been investigated in human breast tumours maintained in organ culture for 3 days. Benign tumours were significantly different from scirrhous carcinomata both in the concentration of radioactivity taken up by the tissue and in the ratios of oestradiol-17?/oestrone achieved. The fact that malignant tumours were able to convert oestrone to oestradiol-17? is of interest in view of the relatively high plasma levels of oestrone in post-menopausal women. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4345953

Willcox, P. A.; Thomas, G. H.

1972-01-01

302

October 24 - 25, 2005:MR Spectroscopic Analysis of Tumour Metabolic Phenotype Changes in Response to Therapy, Risto A. Kauppinen  

Cancer.gov

MR Spectroscopic Analysis of Tumour Metabolic Phenotype Changes in Response to Therapy Risto A. Kauppinen University of Birmingham U.K. R.A.Kauppinen@bham.ac.uk 2 NAA Cr Cho Cr Glx Tau Myo-ins Glx/NAA Myo-ins MM/ Lip/ Lac 2 PPM 3 4 1 0 5 Rat brain LASER TR

303

Classification and knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

Kurtz, Michael J.

1989-01-01

304

Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence.  

PubMed

The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalŕ, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

2014-01-01

305

CT appearance of primary peritoneal serous borderline tumour: a rare epithelial tumour of the peritoneum  

PubMed Central

Primary peritoneal serous borderline tumour (PPSBT) is a rare epithelial neoplasm which is histologically identical to serous borderline tumour of the ovary. PPSBT is distinguishable from primary peritoneal serous carcinoma because the tumour cells do not invade the underlying tissue and affected patients have a good prognosis. We report the CT findings of surgically proven PPSBT in which multiple peritoneal cysts were seen. Although rare, PPSBT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary peritoneal tumours. Since the prognosis of the disease is good, conservation of the uterus and ovaries should be a consideration in young female patients during surgery. PMID:22190758

Go, H S; Hong, H S; Kim, J W; Woo, J Y

2012-01-01

306

Case Series of Skin Adnexal Tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Skin adnexal tumours (SATs) are a large and diverse group of benign and malignant neoplasms. They are uncommon. They can be single or multiple, sporadic or familial and they might be markers for syndromes associated with internal malignancies. Benign adnexal tumours are more common and malignant SATs are rare and are locally aggressive and have the potential for nodal involvement and distant metastasis with a poor clinical outcome.Therefore recognition of SATs and establishing a diagnosis of malignancy in SATs is important for therapeutic and prognostic reasons. Aims and Objectives: SATs are rare benign and malignant neoplasms. They are not commonly encountered in the routine surgical pathology practice.Hence this study aims at finding the frequency, clinical presentation and the histopathological appearances of SATS, and the differentiating features between benign and malignant tumours. Materials and Methods: This is partly a retrospective and partly a prospective study done in a tertiary care hospital over a period of four years .All the SATs reported during this period are analysed for their clinical features, age, sex incidence and their gross and histopathological features. Results: In the four years period 1,64,220 patients attended the hospital. The total number of SATS reported during this period were 21 cases (0.0128 %) Benign tumours were 19 (90.48%). Malignant tumours were 2(9.52%) The mean age for males 36.9 years and for females 35. Two years. There were 11 male patients and 10 female patients. Tumours of hair follicular differentiation were 7 (33.33%). Tumour like lesion of sebaceous origin was 1 (4.76%). Tumours of sweat gland origin were 11 (52.38%). Malignant tumours of eccrine origin were 2 (9.52%). Conclusion: SATs are not common. Their incidence in our study is only 0.0128 % of all cases. Eventhough benign SATs are more common than the malignant tumours, malignant SATs can occur both in young and elderly patients and they are aggressive and the SATs should be excised with wide tumour free margins. PMID:25386438

Selvakumar, Sathish; Rajeswari, K.; Meenakshisundaram, K.; G, Veena; Ramachandran, Padmini

2014-01-01

307

Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

2011-01-01

308

The hypoxic tumour microenvironment and metastatic progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microenvironment of solid tumours contains regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity. Growing evidence from clinical\\u000a and experimental studies points to a fundamental role for hypoxia in metastatic progression. Prolonged hypoxia increases genomic\\u000a instability, genomic heterogeneity, and may act as a selective pressure for tumour cell variants. Hypoxia can also act in\\u000a an epigenetic fashion, altering the expression of

Patrick Subarsky; Richard P. Hill

2003-01-01

309

Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity  

E-print Network

within the cellular genomes of an organism. As a result, when advanced disease is diagnosed, the cells comprising the tumour show a great amount of variability on the genomic level, a phenomenon termed intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity. Heterogeneity... discussed here. Before going through the three steps of the reconstruction process in detail it is necessary to introduce some terminology; for a more thorough introduction into transducer theory see [30,34,35] and references therein. The MEDICC modelling...

Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

2014-04-17

310

Ensemble sparse classification of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The high-dimensional pattern classification methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM), have been widely investigated for analysis of structural and functional brain images (such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) including its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Most existing classification methods extract features from neuroimaging data and then construct a single classifier to perform classification. However, due to noise and small sample size of neuroimaging data, it is challenging to train only a global classifier that can be robust enough to achieve good classification performance. In this paper, instead of building a single global classifier, we propose a local patch-based subspace ensemble method which builds multiple individual classifiers based on different subsets of local patches and then combines them for more accurate and robust classification. Specifically, to capture the local spatial consistency, each brain image is partitioned into a number of local patches and a subset of patches is randomly selected from the patch pool to build a weak classifier. Here, the sparse representation-based classifier (SRC) method, which has shown to be effective for classification of image data (e.g., face), is used to construct each weak classifier. Then, multiple weak classifiers are combined to make the final decision. We evaluate our method on 652 subjects (including 198 AD patients, 225 MCI and 229 normal controls) from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using MR images. The experimental results show that our method achieves an accuracy of 90.8% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94.86% for AD classification and an accuracy of 87.85% and an AUC of 92.90% for MCI classification, respectively, demonstrating a very promising performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods for AD/MCI classification using MR images. PMID:22270352

Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

2012-04-01

311

A dynamical model of tumour immunotherapy.  

PubMed

A coupled ordinary differential equation model of tumour-immune dynamics is presented and analysed. The model accounts for biological and clinical factors which regulate the interaction rates of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on the surface of the tumour mass. A phase plane analysis demonstrates that competition between tumour cells and lymphocytes can result in tumour eradication, perpetual oscillations, or unbounded solutions. To investigate the dependence of the dynamic behaviour on model parameters, the equations are solved analytically and conditions for unbounded versus bounded solutions are discussed. An analytic characterisation of the basin of attraction for oscillatory orbits is given. It is also shown that the tumour shape, characterised by a surface area to volume scaling factor, influences the size of the basin, with significant consequences for therapy design. The findings reveal that the tumour volume must surpass a threshold size that depends on lymphocyte parameters for the cancer to be completely eliminated. A semi-analytic procedure to calculate oscillation periods and determine their sensitivity to model parameters is also presented. Numerical results show that the period of oscillations exhibits notable nonlinear dependence on biologically relevant conditions. PMID:24759513

Frascoli, Federico; Kim, Peter S; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

2014-07-01

312

The application of the movement classification system in the diagnosis of children with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral Palsy is mean damage to the brain, causing non-progressive brain injury, such as hemiplegia, limbs palsy, epilepsy, involuntary movements, poor coordination. This paper proposes a movement evaluation and classification system, in view Cerebral Palsy children hand movement smoothness evaluation. In addition, the application of the movement classification system in the diagnosis of children with cerebral palsy is also discussed.

Tzyh-Chyang Chang; Jiann-Der Lee; Kai-Wei Wang; Li-Chang Liu; Ching-Yi Wu

2008-01-01

313

[Treatment of intracranial germ cell tumours and other tumours of the pineal region].  

PubMed

The management of patients with central nervous system germ-cell tumours is evolving, and a definitive standard has not been achieved. A large amount of data indicate that radiotherapy alone results in long-term relapse free survival rates of about 90% in patients with germinoma. Various prospective trials evaluated the results of combinations of chemotherapy and reduced dose and/or volume radiotherapy. The survival rates of combined treatment approaches were similar to the rates achieved with craniospinal radiotherapy alone. Nevertheless, the relapse rates were probably higher due to the significant number of relapses that arouse outside the volume treated with radiotherapy. Additional studies are necessary to determine the appropriate radiotherapy volumes and the role of combined treatments. Chemotherapy alone results in high relapse rates and can not be recommended. Mature teratomas are benign germ cell tumours that can be controlled with complete surgical resection in over 90% of cases. Non-germinoma germ cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of tumours that includes very aggressive tumours such as mixed and pure choriocarcinomas, yolk sac tumours, and embryonal carcinomas; and tumours with intermediate aggressiveness such as mixed tumours with germinoma and teratoma, immature teratomas and teratomas with malignant transformation. Both radiotherapy alone and chemotherapy alone result in quite low rates of tumour control and current treatment approaches include chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with surgical removal of the tumour in some patients. Pineocytomas are benign tumours that are controlled in most cases by complete surgical resection or partial surgical resection and local field irradiation. Current treatment approaches for pineoblastomas include surgery, chemotherapy, and craniospinal irradiation with a local boost. Chemotherapy alone was used to delay irradiation in infants with very little success. PMID:12754642

Regueiro, C A

2003-04-01

314

Convolutional Neural Network with embedded Fourier Transform for EEG classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In BCI (brain - computer interface) systems, brain signals must be processed to identify distinct activities that convey different mental states. We propose a new technique for the classification of electroencephalographic (EEG) steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) activity for non-invasive BCI. The proposed method is based on a convolutional neural network that includes a Fourier transform between hidden layers in

Hubert Cecotti; Axel Graeser

2008-01-01

315

Automatic segmentation of MR images of the developing newborn brain q  

E-print Network

Automatic segmentation of MR images of the developing newborn brain q Marcel Prastawa a,*, John H: Automatic brain MRI classification; Automatic brain MRI segmentation; Early brain development; Kernel of early brain development in normal and high risk children (Zhai et al., 2003; Gilmore et al., 2004

Prastawa, Marcel

316

ICGC PedBrain: Dissecting the genomic complexity underlying medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Medulloblastoma is an aggressively-growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and displays tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity1. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently discriminated2,3. WNT tumours, displaying activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens4. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis2. Group 3 & 4 tumours are molecularly less well-characterised, and also present the greatest clinical challenges2,3,5. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 & 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA-sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of the first medulloblastoma fusion genes. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 & 4 patients. PMID:22832583

Jones, David TW; Jäger, Natalie; Kool, Marcel; Zichner, Thomas; Hutter, Barbara; Sultan, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pugh, Trevor J; Hovestadt, Volker; Stütz, Adrian M; Rausch, Tobias; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Ryzhova, Marina; Bender, Sebastian; Sturm, Dominik; Pleier, Sabrina; Cin, Huriye; Pfaff, Elke; Sieber, Laura; Wittmann, Andrea; Remke, Marc; Witt, Hendrik; Hutter, Sonja; Tzaridis, Theophilos; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Raeder, Benjamin; Avci, Meryem; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Zapatka, Marc; Weber, Ursula D; Wang, Qi; Lasitschka, Bärbel; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Ast, Volker; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Kabbe, Rolf; Benes, Vladimir; van Sluis, Peter; Koster, Jan; Volckmann, Richard; Shih, David; Betts, Matthew J; Russell, Robert B; Coco, Simona; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Schüller, Ulrich; Hans, Volkmar; Graf, Norbert; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Monoranu, Camelia; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Unterberg, Andreas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Milde, Till; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Maass, Eberhard; Rössler, Jochen; Ebinger, Martin; Schuhmann, Martin U; Frühwald, Michael C; Hasselblatt, Martin; Jabado, Nada; Rutkowski, Stefan; von Bueren, André O; Williamson, Dan; Clifford, Steven C; McCabe, Martin G; Collins, V. Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Lehrach, Hans; Brors, Benedikt; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Northcott, Paul A; Taylor, Michael D; Meyerson, Matthew; Pomeroy, Scott L; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Korbel, Jan O; Korshunov, Andrey; Eils, Roland; Pfister, Stefan M; Lichter, Peter

2013-01-01

317

Inhibition of apoptosis in human tumour cells by the tumour-associated serpin, SCC antigen-1  

PubMed Central

The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) is a tumour-associated protein and a member of theserineproteaseinhibitor (serpin) family. The SCC Ag has been used as a serologic tumour marker for SCC progression, and its elevated serum levels are a risk factor for disease relapse. However, the biologic significance of this intracytoplasmic protein in cancer cells remains unknown. In this report, we demonstrated that apoptosis induced by 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) or interleukin (IL)-2-activated natural killer (NK) cells was significantly inhibited in tumour cells transduced with the SCC Ag-1 cDNA, as compared to control cells in vitro. Also, inhibition of the SCC Ag-1 expression in tumour cells by transfection of antisense SCC Ag-1 cDNA was accompanied by significantly increased sensitivity of these cells to apoptosis induced by etoposide or TNF-?. The mechanism of protection of tumour cells from apoptosis involved inhibition of caspase-3 activity and/or upstream proteases. In vivo, tumour cells overexpressing the SCC Ag-1 formed significantly larger tumours in nude mice than the SCC Ag-1-negative controls. Thus, overexpression of the SCC Ag-1, a member of the serpin family, in human cancer cells contributed to their survival by mediating protection from drug-, cytokine- or effector cell-induced apoptosis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10732775

Suminami, Y; Nagashima, S; Vujanovic, N L; Hirabayashi, K; Kato, H; Whiteside, T L

2000-01-01

318

Proton pump inhibitors may reduce tumour resistance.  

PubMed

Resistance to cytotoxic agents is a major problem in treating cancer. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon appear to take advantage of functions involved in the control of cell homeostasis. A mechanism of resistance may be alteration of the tumour microenvironment via changes in the pH gradient between the extracellular environment and the cell cytoplasm. The extracellular pH of solid tumours is significantly more acidic than that of normal tissues, thus impairing the uptake of weakly basic chemotherapeutic drugs and reducing their effect on tumours. An option to revert multi-drug resistance is the use of agents that disrupt the pH gradient in tumours by inhibiting the function of pumps generating the pH gradient, such as vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-H(+)-ATPases). V-H(+)-ATPases pump protons across the plasma membrane and across the membranes of various intracellular compartments. Some human tumour cells, particularly those selected for multi-drug resistance, exhibit enhanced V-H(+)-ATPase activity. A class of V-H(+)-ATPase inhibitors, called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), have emerged as the drug class of choice for treating patients with peptic diseases. These drugs inhibit gastric acid secretion by targeting the gastric acid pump, but they also directly inhibit V-H(+)-ATPases. PPIs (including omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole) are protonable weak bases which selectively accumulate in acidic spaces. Recent findings from our group have shown that PPI pretreatment sensitised tumour cell lines to the effect of cisplatin, 5-fluoro-uracil and vinblastine. PPI pretreatment was associated with the inhibition of V-H(+)-ATPase activity and an increase of both extracellular pH and the pH of lysosomal organelles, consistent with a cytoplasmic retention of the cytotoxic drugs and targeting to the nucleus in the case of doxorubicin. In vivo experiments showed that oral pretreatment with omeprazole induced a sensitivity of the human solid tumours to anticancer drugs. PMID:15957961

De Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano

2005-06-01

319

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumour: minimally invasive treatment of a rare bladder tumour  

PubMed Central

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumours are extremely rare neoplastic growths considered to be members of the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas), which have in common the coexpression of melanocytic and smooth muscle immunohistochemical markers. These tumours are known to be ubiquitous with uncertain tumour biology and to have unpredictable clinical behaviour. They have been reported in the genitourinary tract, including the kidney and prostate. There are only 3 reported cases of clear cell myomelanocytic tumours originating in the urinary bladder. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman with chronic pelvic pain who underwent laparoscopic partial cystectomy and total excision of a bladder mass. Pathological examination revealed primary PEComa of the urinary bladder. Subsequent follow-up procedures, including cystoscopy and imaging, have not revealed any evidence of disease recurrence. The patient remains clinically free of disease 3 months after surgery. PMID:18682770

Pianezza, Michael L; Slatnik, Jack; Evans, Howard J

2008-01-01

320

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumour: minimally invasive treatment of a rare bladder tumour.  

PubMed

Clear cell myomelanocytic tumours are extremely rare neoplastic growths considered to be members of the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas), which have in common the coexpression of melanocytic and smooth muscle immunohistochemical markers. These tumours are known to be ubiquitous with uncertain tumour biology and to have unpredictable clinical behaviour. They have been reported in the genitourinary tract, including the kidney and prostate. There are only 3 reported cases of clear cell myomelanocytic tumours originating in the urinary bladder. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman with chronic pelvic pain who underwent laparoscopic partial cystectomy and total excision of a bladder mass. Pathological examination revealed primary PEComa of the urinary bladder. Subsequent follow-up procedures, including cystoscopy and imaging, have not revealed any evidence of disease recurrence. The patient remains clinically free of disease 3 months after surgery. PMID:18682770

Pianezza, Michael L; Slatnik, Jack; Evans, Howard J

2008-06-01

321

Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.  

PubMed

The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

2014-01-01

322

Human tumour-associated and tumour-specific antigens: some concepts in relation to clinical oncology.  

PubMed Central

The concept of tumour-specific antigens is constantly undergoing reappraisal with the development of more sensitive methods for their detection. This has resulted in the finding that the many 'new' antigens produced by human tumours or materials immunologically closely related to them are also present in non-neoplastic tissues, albeit in small amounts. However, other antigens still appear to exist almost entirely in or on tumour cells so that the antigens of human tumours may be subdivided into either tumour-associated macromolecules or tumour-specific antigens. The elucidation of the chemical nature of the tumour-specific antigens may result in important advances in cancer diagnosis and therapy. As many are organ specific, it should be possible to evolve test systems which will enable tumours to be diagnosed and located before they become apparent clinically. On the other hand the tumour-associated macromolecules, of which the oncofetal antigens are the principal examples, are found in elevated amounts in some non-neoplastic disorders. It is now clear that serial estimation of the levels of these macromolecules is of considerably more diagnostic value than single random measurements. Current work is establishing their value in the detection of recurrent and metastatic tumours before they become apparent by other methods, which is probably their most important role, and also their value as aids to monitor therapeutic efficacy. The future use of both types of antigen may unfold a new era in cancer detection and therapy but many basic chemical and immunological studies are needed before their clinical use can be fully defined. PMID:95631

Neville, A M; Mackay, A M; Westwood, J; Turberville, C; Laurence, D J

1975-01-01

323

Non-invasive assessment of human tumour hypoxia with 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside: preliminary report of a clinical study.  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive predictive assays which can confirm the presence or absence of hypoxic cells in human tumours show promise for understanding the natural history of tumour oxygenation, and improving the selection of patient subsets for novel radiotherapeutic strategies. Sensitiser adducts have been proposed as markers for hypoxic cells. Misonidazole analogues radiolabelled with iodine-123 have been developed for the detection of tumour hypoxia using conventional nuclear medicine techniques. In this pilot study, we have investigated one such potential marker, 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside (123I-IAZA). Patients with advanced malignancies have undergone planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging after intravenous administration of 123I-IAZA. We have observed radiotracer avidity in three out of ten tumours studied to date. Normal tissue activity of variable extent was also seen in the thyroid and salivary glands, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, intestine, and urinary bladder. Quantitative analysis of those images showing radiotracer avidity revealed tumour/normal tissue (T/N) ratios of 2.3 (primary small cell lung carcinoma), 1.9 (primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and 3.2 (brain metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma) at 18-24 h post injection. These preliminary data suggest that the use of gamma-emitter labelled 2-nitroimidazoles as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and safe, and that metabolic binding of 123I-IAZA is observed in some, but not all tumours. The inference that tumour 123I-IAZA avidity could be a non-invasive measure of tumour hypoxia deserves independent confirmation with needle oximetry. Images p92-a Figure 2 PMID:1310253

Parliament, M. B.; Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; McEwan, A. J.; Golberg, L.; Mercer, J. R.; Mannan, R. H.; Wiebe, L. I.

1992-01-01

324

The Nature and Classification of Ovarian Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

The classification of ovarian neoplasms on a histogenetic basis according to presentday concepts of development and structure of the ovary is considered. There are four histogenetic categories of primary ovarian tumours: neoplasms of germ cell origin, neoplasms of celomic (germinal) epithelium and its derivatives, neoplasms of specialized gonadal stroma (sex cords and mesenchyme), and neoplasms of non-specialized gonadal stromal and heterotopic elements. In patients of all ages, 70% of ovarian neoplasms were of celomic epithelial origin, 16% of germ-cell origin, 5% of specialized gonadal stromal origin, and 9% arose from the non-specialized stroma and heterotopic elements. Before 20 years of age, 59% of ovarian neoplasms were of germ cell origin and before puberty they accounted for 90% of all ovarian tumours. The different structural types of neoplasms within the four categories are described. Accurate classification of ovarian neoplasms on a histogenetic basis is stressed if proper treatment is to be given and intelligent assessment of end results is to be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30 PMID:4286898

Abell, M. R.

1966-01-01

325

Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis  

PubMed Central

Jackson, J. W., and Bennett, M. H. (1973).Thorax, 28, 788-793. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis. A man of 37 had an iodized talc pleurodesis carried out for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. There was no history of industrial exposure to asbestos. Two years later he presented with pain in the right chest and radiographs at that time showed some localized pleural thickening at the site of the thoracoscopy cannulation for introduction of talc. A provisional diagnosis of talc granuloma, chemical abscess or tumour was made and exploratory thoracotomy revealed a tumour involving the chest wall, lung, and pleura which, on histological examination, showed adenocarcinoma of varying degrees of differentiation and in some parts also presenting a more squamoid appearance. Numerous doubly refractile talc particles were intimately associated with the tumour and fibrous tissue. Shortly after excision the patient developed evidence of systemic dissemination of the disease and died four months later. The possibility of this tumour being induced by the talc is discussed. A brief review is made of the various forms of talc used in surgery over the past 40 years and attention is drawn to the significance of the proportion of asbestos mineral which is present in talc as mined in various parts of the world. We do not consider that this is a case of mesothelioma of the pleura. Images PMID:4787992

Jackson, John W.; Bennett, M. H.

1973-01-01

326

Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

2014-01-01

327

Tumour suppressor genes in chemotherapeutic drug response  

PubMed Central

Since cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is an urgent need to find better treatments. Currently, the use of chemotherapeutics remains the predominant option for cancer therapy. However, one of the major obstacles for successful cancer therapy using these chemotherapeutics is that patients often do not respond or eventually develop resistance after initial treatment. Therefore identification of genes involved in chemotherapeutic response is critical for predicting tumour response and treating drug-resistant cancer patients. A group of genes commonly lost or inactivated are tumour suppressor genes, which can promote the initiation and progression of cancer through regulation of various biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell death and cell migration/invasion. Recently, mounting evidence suggests that these tumour suppressor genes also play a very important role in the response of cancers to a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how major tumour suppressor genes [Rb (retinoblastoma), p53 family, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, BRCA1 (breast-cancer susceptibility gene 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), Hippo pathway, etc.] are involved in chemotherapeutic drug response and discuss their applications in predicting the clinical outcome of chemotherapy for cancer patients. We also propose that tumour suppressor genes are critical chemotherapeutic targets for the successful treatment of drug-resistant cancer patients in future applications. PMID:22762204

Lai, Dulcie; Visser-Grieve, Stacy; Yang, Xiaolong

2012-01-01

328

Heart failure: TNM-like classification.  

PubMed

Staging of heart failure represents a major issue in clinical practice. In this setting, the MOGE(S) classification was designed to be similar to the TNM classification used in oncology. Nevertheless, MOGE(S) nosology differs greatly from the key elements of the TNM classification, as well as its simplicity and clinical applicability. In fact, MOGE(S) acronym stands for morphofunctional characteristics (M), organ involvement (O), genetic or familial inheritance pattern (G), etiological information (E), and functional status (S). Recently, a new TNM-like classification for heart failure was proposed. This classification, named HLM, refers to heart damage arising from an initial stage of impaired systolic or diastolic function, without structural injury, to an advanced stage of biventricular dysfunction (H), different stages of lung involvement (L), and malfunction of peripheral organs such as the kidney, liver, and brain (M). HLM classification was influenced by the key elements of TNM staging: simplicity, clinical usefulness, efficacy for planning a therapeutic strategy, and ability to determine patient prognosis. HLM classification seems to be easily applied in the real world and valuable for balancing economic resources with the clinical complexity of patients. PMID:24657683

Fedele, Francesco; Severino, Paolo; Calcagno, Simone; Mancone, Massimo

2014-05-20

329

Clinical and biological significance of aneuploidy in human tumours.  

PubMed Central

Aneuploidy is a well recognised feature of human tumours, but the investigation of its biological and clinical significance has been hampered by technological constraints. Quantitative DNA analysis reflects the total chromosomal content of tumour cells and can now be determined rapidly and reliably using flow cytometry; this has resulted in renewed interest in its potential clinical applications. This article reviews the accumulating evidence that tumour ploidy reflects the biological behaviour of a large number of tumour types and that diploid tumours in particular have a relatively good prognosis. The measurement of tumour ploidy is likely to become a valuable adjunct to the clinical and histopathological assessment of cancers. PMID:6381555

Friedlander, M L; Hedley, D W; Taylor, I W

1984-01-01

330

Epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of vascular tumours and malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular tumours and vascular malformations are common vasculose anomalies characteristic for dissimilar clinical course, specific biological as well as immune cytological and histological properties. Vascular lesions classification system and their detailed division into groups and subgroups were elaborated and implemented in Rome, in 1996, during meeting of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). It was based on modification of an earlier going division by Mullikien and G?owacki from 1982. Infantile hemangiomas are the most numerous group of benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. Vascular malformations appear definitely less often. They are composed of normal endothelium lined displastic vessels which originate from vascular tissue abnormal morphogenesis. In contrast, in hemangiomas, at the proliferation stage, increased, multiplication of endothelial cells is observed as well as of fibroblasts, mastocytes and macrophages. Infantile hemangiomas are usually not present at the moment of birth and white chloasma with superficial teleangiectasis appears which increases within 3-4 weeks and gets bright red colour and reveal very characteristic clinical course basing on intensive growth period and involution long process. Vascular malformations are observed most often at the delivery moment or they may appear at an early childhood. They enlarge proportionally along with the child's growth and their sudden expansion may be triggered by an infection, hormonal changes or trauma. Contrary to hemangiomas, they do not subside spontaneously and their abrupt increase may result in impairment or deformation of important anatomical structures. Infantile hemangiomas and vascular malformations require different and individual treatments which are often multi-stage procedures carried on in specialistic centres of plastic surgery, vascular surgery or maxillofacial surgery. PMID:24979522

Wójcicki, Piotr; Wójcicka, Karolina

2014-01-01

331

Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Giulio Sandini  

E-print Network

1 Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Scienecs Giulio Sandini IIT- RBCSGiulio Sandini Italian Institute of Technology Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department Genoa January 22nd, 2008 Which technologies are missing in today's humanoid robots? · Technologies supporting learning, recognition and classification

Sandini, Giulio

332

Survival of non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients according to the IGCC classification: An update based on meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) Classification distinguishes patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) with a good, intermediate or poor prognosis, with a reported 5-year overall survival of 92%, 80% and 48%, respectively. Since the IGCC classification was based on patients treated between 1975 and 1990, we aimed to investigate whether survival has improved for more recently treated patients.

Merel R. van Dijk; Ewout W. Steyerberg; J. Dik F. Habbema

2006-01-01

333

Parapharyngeal space benign tumours: our experience.  

PubMed

Only about 0.5% of all head and neck neoplasms occur in the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and approximately 80% of these tumours are benign lesions. Various surgical approaches some of which are associated with mandibulotomy to increase exposure have been described. This article describes our 16-years' experience in treating 60 PPS benign tumours with special focus on our surgical techniques intended to ensure adequate mass exposure and structure safety. On the basis of our experience we assert that mandibulotomy is currently not advocated in the surgical management of benign PPS tumours i.e. not even in very select cases. The transparotid approach is the treatment of choice for parotid gland lesions involving PPS and in cases of multinodular or uninodular pleomorphic adenoma relapse involving the PPS. The transcervical approach is suitable for the safe removal of even large PPS masses in most cases. PMID:23684528

Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Della Monaca, Marco; Bartoli, Davina; Battisti, Andrea; Rajabtork Zadeh, Oriana; Valentini, Valentino

2014-03-01

334

Investigating citrullinated proteins in tumour cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background The conversion of arginine into citrulline, termed citrullination, has important consequences for the structure and function of proteins. Studies have found PADI4, an enzyme performing citrullination, to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumours and have shown that PADI4 participates in the process of tumorigenesis. However, as citrullinated proteins have not been systematically investigated in tumours, the present study aimed to identify novel citrullinated proteins in tumours by 2-D western blotting (2-D WB). Methods Two identical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were prepared using extracts from ECA, H292, HeLa, HEPG2, Lovo, MCF-7, PANC-1, SGC, and SKOV3 tumour cell lines. The expression profiles on a 2-DE gel were trans-blotted to PVDF membranes, and the blots were then probed with an anti-citrulline antibody. By comparing the 2-DE profile with the parallel 2-D WB profile at a global level, protein spots with immuno-signals were collected from the second 2-DE gel and identified using mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation was used to verify the expression and citrullination of the targeted proteins in tumour cell lines. Results 2-D WB and mass spectrometry identified citrullinated ?-enolase (ENO1), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), keratin 8 (KRT8), tubulin beta (TUBB), T cell receptor chain and vimentin in these cell lines. Immunoprecipitation analyses verified the expression and citrullination of ENO1, HSP60, KRT8, and TUBB in the total protein lysates of the tumour cell lines. Conclusions The citrullination of these proteins suggests a new mechanism in the tumorigenic process. PMID:24099319

2013-01-01

335

Primary bone tumours of the thoracic skeleton: an audit of the Leeds regional bone tumour registry.  

PubMed Central

An audit of the Leeds regional bone tumour registry found that primary bone tumours of the thoracic skeleton constituted 90 of the 2004 cases (4.5%). Thirty seven per cent occurred in the ribs, 32% in the scapulae, 11% in the thoracic vertebrae, 11% in the sternum, and 9% in the clavicles. Malignant tumours were more common than benign (54 v 36) and occurred in an older population (mean ages 47 and 31 years). The scapula was the most common site for malignant lesions and the ribs the most common site for benign tumours. Chondrosarcoma was the commonest tumour in older patients, fibrous dysplasia and plasmacytoma in the middle age group, and eosinophilic granuloma in children. Presenting symptoms were a poor guide to whether the lesion was malignant or not. This and the small proportion of correct preoperative diagnoses indicate the need for early biopsy. Bone tumour registries provide a valuable source of cumulative information about uncommon tumours and facilitate accurate diagnosis, teaching, and research. PMID:2256013

Waller, D A; Newman, R J

1990-01-01

336

Multicellular tumour spheroids: a model for combined in vivo/in vitro assay of tumour immunity.  

PubMed Central

Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) from 4 mouse tumours (Line 1 lung carcinoma; a fibrosarcoma, FSA; a mammary carcinoma, MCa-11; and SV40-transformed fibroblasts, SV-A31) WEre injected into the abdominal cavity of normal, immunized or tumour-bearing syngeneic mice, recovered after 4-48 h, and their growth measured in vitro for 7-16 days. Both normal and immunized mice inhibited MTS growth, but there was no correlation between the two types of inhibition, suggesting that different immunological processes were involved. For example, the greatest inhibition by normal mice was seen for the weakly immunogenic MCa-11, and the highly immunogenic tumour, SV-A31, was only moderately inhibited. However, the summed inhibition of MTS growth in normal and sensitized hosts corresponded to the behaviour of tumours as s.c. transplants; i.e., was inversely related to the malignancy of the same tumours. The inhibition of MTS by mice bearing identical early tumours (FSA or MCa-11) was comparable to that in immunized mice. Histological sections of SV-A31 MTS in normal or immunized hosts revealed the infiltration of MTS by various types of host cells, mostly polymorphonuclears, macrophages and lymphocytes. PMID:7362771

Culo, F.; Yuhas, J. M.; Ladman, A. J.

1980-01-01

337

Benign endometrioid tumours of the ovary and the Müllerian concept of ovarian epithelial tumours.  

PubMed

The difficulties of a consistent Müllerian interpretation of the epithelial ovarian tumours include their inconstant hormonal responsiveness, the doubtful nature of the clear cell tumour and the apparent rarity of benign endometrioid forms. The reported frequency figures for the different types of endometrioid tumour suggest that their nature is made evident by proliferation. The appearance of indolent forms is explored by a study of inactive neoplastic areas associated with endometrioid carcinomas, or with proliferating endometrioid tumours or arising in endometriosis. These jointly suggest that most such tumours are identical with inactive 'serous' adenofibromas of glandular pattern and have senile endometrium as their prototype. Increasing proliferation develops more overt endometrioid forms which, if luxuriant, may be associated with corpus carcinoma. The endometrium of pregnancy is probably the prototype of the clear cell tumour, with a corresponding range of cell types. There is tenuous evidence that tumours may respond to steroid hormones if they arise in endometriosis and a difficulty of deducing such an origin is noted. The term 'serous' may be generic and comprise several different tissue types. PMID:6526392

Hughesdon, P E

1984-11-01

338

Anti-tumour strategies aiming to target tumour-associated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a predominant population of inflammatory cells that present in solid tumours. TAMs are mostly characterized as alternatively activated M2-like macrophages and are known to orchestrate nearly all stages of tumour progression. Experimental investigations indicate that TAMs contribute to drug-resistance and radio-protective effects, and clinical evidence shows that an elevated number of TAMs and their M2 profile are correlated with therapy failure and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Recently, many studies on TAM-targeted strategies have made significant progress and some pilot works have achieved encouraging results. Among these, connections between some anti-tumour drugs and their influence on TAMs have been suggested. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in TAM-targeted strategies for tumour therapy. Based on the proposed mechanisms, those strategies are grouped into four categories: (i) inhibiting macrophage recruitment; (ii) suppressing TAM survival; (iii) enhancing M1-like tumoricidal activity of TAMs; (iv) blocking M2-like tumour-promoting activity of TAMs. It is desired that further attention be drawn to this research field and more effort be made to promote TAM-targeted tumour therapy. PMID:23113570

Tang, Xiaoqiang; Mo, Chunfen; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Hengyi

2013-01-01

339

Incidence, histopathologic analysis and distribution of tumours of the hand  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this large collective and meticulous study of primary bone tumours and tumourous lesions of the hand was to enhance the knowledge about findings of traumatological radiographs and improve differential diagnosis. Methods This retrospective study reviewed data collected from 1976 until 2006 in our Bone Tumour Registry. The following data was documented: age, sex, radiological investigations, tumour location, histopathological features including type and dignity of the tumour, and diagnosis. Results The retrospective analysis yielded 631 patients with a mean age of 35.9?±?19.2 years. The majority of primary hand tumours were found in the phalanges (69.7%) followed by 24.7% in metacarpals and 5.6% in the carpals. Only 10.6% of all cases were malignant. The major lesion type was cartilage derived at 69.1%, followed by bone cysts 11.3% and osteogenic tumours 8.7%. The dominant tissue type found in phalanges and metacarpals was of cartilage origin. Osteogenic tumours were predominant in carpal bones. Enchondroma was the most commonly detected tumour in the hand (47.1%). Conclusions All primary skeletal tumours can be found in the hand and are most often of cartilage origin followed by bone cysts and osteogenic tumours. This study furthermore raises awareness about uncommon or rare tumours and helps clinicians to establish proper differential diagnosis, as the majority of detected tumours of the hand are asymptomatic and accidental findings on radiographs. PMID:24885007

2014-01-01

340

Malignant tumours in patients with HIV infection.  

PubMed Central

One of the most important though somewhat neglected aspects of research in HIV infection concerns the development, clinicopathological characteristics, and treatment of malignant tumours in infected patients. With the improved survival of patients with AIDS owing to the better prevention and treatment of infectious complications there may well be an increase in AIDS related malignancies. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathology, and treatment of malignant tumours in patients with HIV. Images p1149-a p1149-b p1149-c FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 p1151-a p1151-b p1151-c PMID:8173459

Tirelli, U.; Franceschi, S.; Carbone, A.

1994-01-01

341

Thoracic Wall Reconstruction in Advanced Breast Tumours  

PubMed Central

In advanced mammary tumours, extensive resections, sometimes involving sections of the thoracic wall, are often necessary. Plastic surgery reconstruction procedures offer sufficient opportunities to cover even large thoracic wall defects. Pedicled flaps from the torso but also free flap-plasties enable, through secure defect closure, the removal of large, ulcerated, painful or bleeding tumours with moderate donor site morbidity. The impact of thoracic wall resection on the respiratory mechanism can be easily compensated for and patients? quality of life in the palliative stage of disease can often be improved. PMID:24976636

Daigeler, A.; Harati, K.; Goertz, O.; Hirsch, T.; Behr, B.; Lehnhardt, M.; Kolbenschlag, J.

2014-01-01

342

Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour. PMID:19960152

Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

2009-11-01

343

Effect of ploidy, recruitment, environmental factors, and tamoxifen treatment on the expression of sigma-2 receptors in proliferating and quiescent tumour cells.  

PubMed

Recently, we demonstrated that sigma-2 receptors may have the potential to be a biomarker of tumour cell proliferation (Mach et al (1997) Cancer Res 57: 156-161). If sigma-2 receptors were a biomarker of tumour cell proliferation, they would be amenable to detection by non-invasive imaging procedures, thus eliminating many of the problems associated with the flow cytometric measures of tumour cell proliferation presently used in the clinic. To be a good biomarker of tumour cell proliferation, the expression of sigma-2 receptors must be essentially independent of many of the biological, physiological, and/or environmental properties that are found in solid tumours. In the investigation reported here, the mouse mammary adenocarcinoma lines, 66 (diploid) and 67 (aneuploid), 9L rat brain tumour cells, and MCF-7 human breast tumour cells were used to study the extent and kinetics of expression of sigma-2 receptors in proliferative (P) and quiescent (Q) tumour cells as a function of species, cell type, ploidy, pH, nutrient depletion, metabolic state, recruitment from the Q-cell compartment to the P-cell compartment, and treatment with tamoxifen. In these experiments, the expression of sigma-2 receptors solely reflected the proliferative status of the tumour cells. None of the biological, physiological, or environmental properties that were investigated had a measurable effect on the expression of sigma-2 receptors in these model systems. Consequently, these data suggest that the proliferative status of tumours and normal tissues can be non-invasively assessed using radiolabelled ligands that selectively bind sigma-2 receptors. PMID:10576647

Al-Nabulsi, I; Mach, R H; Wang, L M; Wallen, C A; Keng, P C; Sten, K; Childers, S R; Wheeler, K T

1999-11-01

344

Ileocaecal intussusception secondary to metastatic phyllodes tumour of the breast.  

PubMed

A patient with phyllodes tumour of the breast is discussed. During follow-up, she presented with intestinal obstruction caused by ileocaecal intussusception. The cause of the intussusception was metastatic phyllodes tumour, which is a unique presentation. PMID:20573310

Morcos, Basem B; Baker, Bilal; Hashem, Sameh A

2010-09-01

345

TOPICAL REVIEW: The brain-computer interface cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted much attention recently, triggered by new scientific progress in understanding brain function and by impressive applications. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various steps in the BCI cycle, i.e., the loop from the measurement of brain activity, classification of data, feedback to the subject and the effect of feedback

Marcel van Gerven; Jason Farquhar; Rebecca Schaefer; Rutger Vlek; Jeroen Geuze; Anton Nijholt; Nick Ramsey; Pim Haselager; Louis Vuurpijl; Stan Gielen; Peter Desain

2009-01-01

346

Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital exenteration aims at local control of disease invading the orbit that is potentially fatal or relentlessly progressive. Of all exenterations presenting to ophthalmologists, 40–50% are required for tumours in the eyelid or periocular skin. 99% of these are basal cell carcinomas and 4–6% each are squamous cell carcinomas or sebaceous gland carcinomas. Orbital invasion results in progressive fixation of

A G Tyers

2006-01-01

347

Nucleophosmin delocalization in thyroid tumour cells.  

PubMed

Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multifunctional nucleolar protein that, depending on the context, can act as oncogene or tumour suppressor. Mutations of the NPM1 gene induce delocalization of NPM in acute myeloid leukaemia. Differently, in solid tumours, only NPM overexpression, but not delocalization, has been so far reported. Here, NPM localization in thyroid tumours was investigated. By using immunohistochemistry, we show increase of NPM cytoplasmic localization in follicular adenomas and papillary carcinomas compared to normal thyroid tissue (p?=?0.0125 and <0.0001, respectively). NPM1 mutations commonly found in human leukaemia are not present in thyroid tumours. Immunofluorescence in cultured cell lines was utilized to discriminate between nucleolar and nuclear localization. We show that in thyroid cancer cell lines NPM localizes both in the nucleolus and in nucleus, while in non-tumorigenic thyroid cell lines localizes only in nucleolus. Either presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A or absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone induces NPM nuclear localization in non-tumorigenic thyroid cell lines. PMID:21258971

Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Romanello, Milena; Tell, Gianluca; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

2011-03-01

348

Does tumour dormancy offer a therapeutic target?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of cancer survivors is cause for celebration, but this expanding population has highlighted the problem of tumour dormancy, which can lead to relapse. As we start to understand more about the biology of dormant cancer cells, we can begin to address how best to treat this form of disease. Preclinical models and initial clinical trials, as exemplified

Paul E. Goss; Ann F. Chambers

2010-01-01

349

Histone methyltransferases, diet nutrients and tumour suppressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that an insufficiency of dietary methyl-group donors can cause cancer, and that a deficiency in methylation is characteristic of cancer, but how carcinogenesis results from abnormal methyl-donor metabolism has long remained a matter of speculation. Recently, however, it has been found that some histone methyltransferases, which require methyl donors for activity, are tumour suppressors.

Shi Huang

2002-01-01

350

Definitions and terminology in cancer (tumour) etiology  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to overcome the confusion that exists in the terminology of cancer (tumour) etiology, the author has analysed the current situation and proposed terms which, he hopes, will stimulate international discussion and lead eventually to an agreed standard terminology. PMID:1087583

Hecker, Erich

1976-01-01

351

Epilepsy surgery in children with developmental tumours.  

PubMed

We report our experience regarding evaluation, surgical treatment and outcomes in a population of 21 children with histopathologically confirmed developmental tumours [nine dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET), ten gangliogliomas (GG) and two gangliocytomas (GC)] and related epilepsy, analyzing video-EEG, MRI and neuropsychological data, before and after surgery. Most children had focal epilepsy correlating well with lesion location. One patient had epileptic spasms and generalized discharges. Tumours were located in the temporal lobe in 13 patients. Mean age at surgery was 11.16 years. Postsurgical MRI showed residual tumour growth in one DNET. One child had a recurrent ganglioglioma with anaplastic transformation. At latest follow-up (mean 4.68 years) 95.2% of patients were seizure-free and no significant neuropsychological declines were observed. Evidence from our study suggests that, in this setting, surgery should be performed before criteria for refractory epilepsy are met, particularly in cases with early seizure onset, in order to optimize cognitive outcome. PMID:21741275

García-Fernández, Marta; Fournier-Del Castillo, Concepción; Ugalde-Canitrot, Arturo; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángeles; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; De Prada-Vicente, Inmaculada; Suárez-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bernabeu-Verdú, Jordi; Villarejo-Ortega, Francisco

2011-10-01

352

Surgical Treatment of Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine pancreatic tumours (EPTs) are uncommon, with a major challenge to alert physicians to their recognition and requirements of treatment. Functioning EPTs cause well-known clinical syndromes of hormone excess. Insulinomas, gastrinomas and glucagonomas are most common; vipomas and somatostatinomas are rare. EPTs also occur as non-functioning lesions without symptoms of hormone excess occasionally with ectopic hormone, such as ACTH and

Göran Ĺkerström; Per Hellman; Ola Hessman; Liliana Osmak

2004-01-01

353

Fibrous pleural tumour producing 171 litres of transudate.  

PubMed

Localized fibrous tumours of the pleura (or localized benign mesothelioma) are rare, and in most cases, asymptomatic. This report describes a 48 yr old female with a right-sided fibrous pleural tumour, which produced 171 L of transudate before a correct diagnosis was reached. The tumour was surgically removed and the transudation stopped immediately. PMID:9864026

Ulrik, C S; Viskum, K

1998-11-01

354

[Oncogenic osteomalacia due to phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour in infratemporal fossa].  

PubMed

Oncogenic osteomalacia is an uncommon syndrome characterized by phosphaturic tumours that produce mineral metabolism abnormalities. Head and neck is the second most frequent location of these tumours. We describe a case of a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour in the infratemporal fossa that caused oncogenic osteomalacia, resolved by means of surgical excision. PMID:20172500

Viscasillas, Guillem; Maiz, Javier; Lao, Xavier; Zschaeck, Christiane; Sanz, Juan José

2010-01-01

355

The roles of TGF? in the tumour microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The influence of the microenvironment on tumour progression is becoming clearer. In this Review we address the role of an essential signalling pathway, that of transforming growth factor-?, in the regulation of components of the tumour microenvironment and how this contributes to tumour progression. PMID:24132110

Pickup, Michael; Novitskiy, Sergey; Moses, Harold L.

2014-01-01

356

Prognostic impact of chromosomal aberrations in Ewing tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although greater than 50% of Ewing tumours contain non-random cytogenetic aberrations in addition to the pathognomonic 22q12 rearrangements, little is known about their prognostic significance. To address this question, tumour samples from 134 Ewing tumour patients were analysed using a combination of classical cytogenetics, comparative genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The evaluation of the compiled data revealed that gain

C M Hattinger; U Pötschger; M Tarkkanen; J Squire; M Zielenska; S Kiuru-Kuhlefelt; L Kager; P Thorner; S Knuutila; F K Niggli; P F Ambros; H Gadner; D R Betts

2002-01-01

357

Xenografting Tumour beneath the Renal Capsule Using Modern Surgical Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The growth of human tumours under the renal capsule in animal models has been performed in the past. However, the use of modern surgical equipment has not always been translated into the laboratory. We report on a novel method for human renal tumour transplants using an automated biopsy gun to obtain tumour tissue and an epidural needle with introducer

Nathan Lawrentschuk; Angela Rigopoulos; Fook-Thean Lee; Ian D. Davis; Andrew M. Scott; Damien M. Bolton

2006-01-01

358

[Malignant germinal tumours of the mediastinum: diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Mediastinal germinal tumours are composed of tissues resembling those that follow one another during embryo development, by differentiation of the primordial and extraembryonic layers. Such practice separates the mature teratomas (benign), seminomas and non-seminomatous germinal tumours (NSGT). Platin-based chemotherapy has shattered the prognosis of such tumours. PMID:15536359

Lemarié, E

2004-11-01

359

The Natural History of Disappearing Bone Tumours and Tumour-like Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8–16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence

Takashi Yanagawa; Hideomi Watanabe; Tetsuya Shinozaki; Adel Refaat Ahmed; Kenji Shirakura; Kenji Takagishi

2001-01-01

360

AN ANTIBODY FOR MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR SUPPRESSES TUMOUR GROWTH AND INHIBITS TUMOUR-ASSOCIATED ANGIOGENESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tumourigenesis, we examined the effect of an anti-MIF antibody on tumour growth and angiogenesis. We inoculated murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line colon 26 cells subcutaneously into the flank in BALB\\/c mice. After nine days, we treated tumour-bearing mice with an anti-rat MIF antibody by intraperitoneal injection on days 9,

Hideaki Ogawa; Jun Nishihira; Yuji Sato; Masao Kondo; Norihiko Takahashi; Takahiro Oshima; Satoru Todo

2000-01-01

361

DNA profile and tumour progression in patients with superfical bladder tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

229 patients with Grade 1–2 tumours (WHO), all category Ta or T1 (UICC) and surgically treated, were followed clinically and by flowcytofluorometric DNA-analysis (FCM). The tumours were characterised by their DNA profile. 175 cases were found to be diploid and fiftyfour cases showed aneuploidy. The mean follow-up time with continous FCM analysis was 2.6 years. During this period 19 patients

H. Gustafson; B. Tribukait; P. L. Esposti

1982-01-01

362

Mechanisms of organ selective tumour growth by bloodborne cancer cells.  

PubMed Central

The sites of tumour development for 6 rat tumours injected into syngeneic rats via different vascular routes was determined. Xenografts of human tumours were also injected intra-arterially (i.a.) into immunosuppressed rats. Following intravenous (i.v.) and intraportal (i.ptl.) injection of cells tumour colonies localized in lung and liver respectively due to tumour cell arrest. Arterially injected radiolabelled cells disseminated and arrested in a similar distribution to cardiac output and did not 'home' to any organs. Following arterial injection of unlabelled tumour cells colonies grew in many organs. While the pattern of growth for a particular tumour varied with the cell dose, the 'arterial patterns' for all of the tumours studied followed a similar pattern. Some organs (eg adrenals, ovaries and periodontal ligament) were consistently preferred, others (eg skin and skeletal muscle) only supported tumour growth following the delivery of large numbers of cells, while in some tissues (eg spleen and intestines) tumour never grew. Viable tumour cells could be demonstrated by bioassay in many organs for up to 24h after i.a. injection. However tumour growth only occurred in certain organs and the pattern of this growth was not related to the number of tumour cells arrested or their rate of autolysis. This site preference could be expressed quantitatively as the probability of an arrested cell developing into a tumour and was considered a 'soil effect'. Site preference was not directly related to organ vascularity. Organ colonisation was promoted by steroid treatment but the mechanism was unclear and was not secondary to T-cell immunosuppression or prostaglandin synthesis suppression. The adrenal glands were preferred sites of tumour growth but pharmacological manipulation of adrenal function did not alter tumour growth to this organ. Sites of injury and healing were preferred sites of tumour colonisation and this could not be accounted for by increased delivery of tumour cells to these regions. The possibility that the macrophage component of the inflammatory response promoted tumour growth was suggested from studies in which the interval between trauma and inoculation of tumour cells was varied as well as by promotion of intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumour growth by a macrophage infiltrate. PMID:3348947

Murphy, P.; Alexander, P.; Senior, P. V.; Fleming, J.; Kirkham, N.; Taylor, I.

1988-01-01

363

Classification Line-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to organize an interactive model for learning the classification system (taxonomy) of living things. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can explore the classification categories (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) and practice the classification of organisms.

Blind, Perkins S.

2011-11-16

364

Structured Multimedia Document Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification

Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

2003-01-01

365

Government Classification: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

Brown, Karen M.

366

The role of MR imaging in the diagnostic characterisation of appendicular bone tumours and tumour-like conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI has an established role in the local staging of primary bone tumours. However, as the majority of tumours have non-specific\\u000a appearances on MRI, the diagnosis is usually established on the basis of clinical history, plain film findings and biopsy.\\u000a This article reviews the value of MRI in the further characterisation of appendicular bone tumours and tumour-like lesions,\\u000a with particular

F. Alyas; S. L. James; A. M. Davies; A. Saifuddin

2007-01-01

367

A chemically modified antibody mediates complete eradication of tumours by selective disruption of tumour blood vessels  

PubMed Central

Background: The possibility of eradicating cancer by selective destruction of tumour blood vessels may represent an attractive therapeutic avenue, but most pharmaceutical agents investigated so far did not achieve complete cures and are not completely specific. Antibody conjugates now allow us to evaluate the impact of selective vascular shutdown on tumour viability and to study mechanisms of action. Methods: We synthesised a novel porphyrin-based photosensitiser suitable for conjugation to antibodies and assessed anticancer properties of its conjugate with L19, a clinical-stage human monoclonal antibody specific to the alternatively spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. Results: Here we show in two mouse model of cancer (F9 and A431) that L19 is capable of highly selective in vivo localisation around tumour blood vessels and that its conjugate with a photosensitiser allows selective disruption of tumour vasculature upon irradiation, leading to complete and long-lasting cancer eradication. Furthermore, depletion experiments revealed that natural killer cells are essential for the induction of long-lasting complete responses. Conclusions: These results reinforce the concept that vascular shutdown can induce a curative avalanche of tumour cell death. Immuno-photodynamic therapy may be particularly indicated for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, which we show to be strongly positive for markers of angiogenesis. PMID:21386847

Palumbo, A; Hauler, F; Dziunycz, P; Schwager, K; Soltermann, A; Pretto, F; Alonso, C; Hofbauer, G F; Boyle, R W; Neri, D

2011-01-01

368

Allelic loss of 10q23, the PTEN tumour suppressor gene locus, in Barrett's oesophagus-associated adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

PTEN is a putative tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome band 10q23. Mutations in PTEN have been identified in numerous human malignancies, including cancers of the brain, endometrium, ovary, and prostate. In this study, we screened 80 Barrett's oesophagus-associated adenocarcinomas (BOAd) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 10q23, using the microsatellite markers D10S541, D10S219, and D10S551. Tumours demonstrating LOH were then screened for the presence or absence of PTEN mutations. LOH at one or more loci was identified in 17/80 (21%) cases. In none of these cases did we detect mutations in PTEN. The presence of LOH did not correlate with patient age, tumour stage, degree of differentiation, presence of perineural or vascular invasion, or overall survival. We conclude that LOH at chromosome 10q23 is uncommon in BOAd, is not associated with mutations in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene, and does not correlate with the clinical or pathologic features of these tumours. It is possible that PTEN is inactivated through other mechanisms in BOAd. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11259087

Kulke, M H; Odze, R D; Thakore, K S; Thomas, G; Wang, H; Loda, M; Eng, C

2001-01-01

369

Systemic Analysis of Brain Mechanisms Underlying Learning Disabilities: An Introduction to the Brain Behavior Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a discussion of human mental processes as they relate to learning disabilities. Pathognomonic symptoms associated with disturbances to brain areas or functional systems are discussed, as well as treatment procedures. This brain behavior relationship is offered as a basis for a classification system that is seen to more clearly…

Scaramella-Nowinski, Valerie L.

370

Surgical access to parapharyngeal space tumours--the Manipal experience.  

PubMed

A few series of parapharyngeal space tumours have been reported earlier but recently not many series have been published in English literature. It is rare for any medical center, let alone an individual surgeon, to develop sufficient experience in evaluating these tumours. We present our experience in the treatment of 41 cases of parapharyngeal tumours from January 1992 to December 2001. FNAC, ultrasound and CT scan of the presenting mass was done in most of the patients as the main pre-operative work-up. The strategic location and extension of the tumour may occasionally alter the surgical approach for tumour excision. PMID:15727377

Hazarika, P; Dipak, R N; Parul, P; Kailesh, P

2004-08-01

371

In vivo photoacoustic imaging of tyrosinase expressing tumours in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two human tumour cell lines (K562, 293T) were stably transfected to achieve the genetic expression of tyrosinase, which is involved in the production of the pigment eumelanin. The cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to form tumour xenografts, which were imaged over a period of up to 26 days using an all-optical photoacoustic imaging system. 3D photoacoustic images of the tumours and the surrounding vasculature were acquired at excitation wavelengths ranging from 600nm to 770nm. The images showed tumour growth and continued tyrosinase expression over the full 26 day duration of the study. These findings were confirmed by histological analysis of excised tumour samples.

Laufer, Jan; Jathoul, Amit; Johnson, Peter; Zhang, Edward; Lythgoe, Mark; Pedley, R. Barbara; Pule, Martin; Beard, Paul

2012-02-01

372

Previous tumour as a prognostic factor in stage I non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of comorbidity as an independent prognostic factor in lung cancer. Method Data on 2991 consecutive cases of lung cancer were collected prospectively from 19 Spanish hospitals between 1993 and 1997 by the Bronchogenic Carcinoma Cooperative Group of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (GCCB?S). To evaluate the effect of comorbidity on survival, 1121 patients with non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in pathological stage I who underwent complete resection were selected, excluding operative mortality. The presence of specific comorbidities at the time of thoracotomy was registered prospectively. Results Cox regression analysis showed that tumour size (0–2, 2–4, 4–7, >7?cm) (HR 1.45 95% CI 1.08 to 1.95), 1.86 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.51), 2.84 (95% CI 1.98 to 4.08)), the presence of a previous tumour (HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.79)) and age (HR 1.02 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.03)) had a significant prognostic association with survival. This study excluded the presence of visceral pleural involvement or other comorbidities as independent variables. Conclusion The presence of a previous tumour is an independent prognostic factor in pathological stage I NSCLC with complete resection, increasing the probability of death by 1.5 times at 5?years. It is independent of other comorbidities, TNM classification and age. PMID:16449263

Lopez-Encuentra, Angel; de la Camara, Agustin Gomez; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Duque-Medina, Jose Luis; de Nicolas, Jose Luis Martin; Sayas, Javier

2007-01-01

373

Clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of keratocystic odontogenic tumours: a study over a decade  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with the potential for recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) still remain to be clearly determined and no consensus exists concerning the management of KCOT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different clinical factors associated with KCOT and its treatment methods. A retrospective review was performed of 55 cases treated from 2001 to 2010. Of the 55 cases, 27% were associated with an impacted or semi-impacted tooth. The majority of the lesions (82%) were located in tooth-bearing areas, and the overall mandibular to maxilla ratio of tumour occurrence was 5:1. The treatment options included enucleation, marsupialisation, or peripheral ostectomy, with or without the use of Carnoy´s solution. Recurrence was found in 14 cases (25%). No significant association was seen between recurrence and age, symptomatic cases, location of the lesion, or unilocular or multilocular appearance. The recurrence rate was higher in the group with tooth involvement, more marked in cases with third molar involvement. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between recurrence and the type of treatment, with higher rates in cases treated with enucleation associated with tooth extraction. In our series, those cases with a closer relation with dental tissues showed a higher risk of recurrence, suggesting the need for a distinct classification for peripheral variants of KCOT. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, Odontogenic keratocyst, Odontogenic cysts, Keratocyst, Carnoy’s solution. PMID:25136427

Gonzalez-Martin-Moro, Javier; Perez-Fernandez, Elia; Burgueno-Garcia, Miguel

2014-01-01

374

HLA-dependent tumour development: a role for tumour associate macrophages?  

PubMed Central

HLA abnormalities on tumour cells for immune escape have been widely described. In addition, cellular components of the tumour microenvironment, in particular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and alternatively activated M2 tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), are involved in tumour promotion, progression, angiogenesis and suppression of anti-tumour immunity. However, the role of HLA in these activities is poorly understood. This review details MHC class I characteristics and describes MHC class I receptors functions. This analysis established the basis for a reflection about the crosstalk among the tumour cells, the TAMs and the cells mediating an immune response. The tumour cells and TAMs exploit MHC class I molecules to modulate the surrounding immune cells. HLA A, B, C and G molecules down-regulate the macrophage myeloid activation through the interaction with the inhibitory LILRB receptors. HLA A, B, C are able to engage inhibitory KIR receptors negatively regulating the Natural Killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes function while HLA-G induces the secretion of pro-angiogenic cytokines and chemokine thanks to an activator KIR receptor expressed by a minority of peripheral NK cells. The open conformer of classical MHC-I is able to interact with LILRA receptors described as being associated to the Th2-type cytokine response, triggering a condition for the M2 like TAM polarization. In addition, HLA-E antigens on the surface of the TAMs bind the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A expressed by a subset of NK cells and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes protecting from the cytolysis. Furthermore MHC class II expression by antigen presenting cells is finely regulated by factors provided with immunological capacities. Tumour-associated macrophages show an epigenetically controlled down-regulation of the MHC class II expression induced by the decoy receptor DcR3, a member of the TNFR, which further enhances the M2-like polarization. BAT3, a positive regulator of MHC class II expression in normal macrophages, seems to be secreted by TAMs, consequently lacking its intracellular function, it looks like acting as an immunosuppressive factor. In conclusion HLA could cover a considerable role in tumour-development orchestrated by tumour-associated macrophages. PMID:24093459

2013-01-01

375

Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER?) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER? breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood. Results: DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLEHRAS xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLEHRAS cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours. Conclusion: Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation. PMID:23403820

Pervin, S; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Parveen, M; Li, S A; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

2013-01-01

376

Automatic Bayesian Classification of Healthy Controls, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia Using Intrinsic Connectivity Maps From fMRI Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for supervised, automatic, and reliable classification of healthy controls, patients with bipolar disorder, and patients with schizophrenia using brain imaging data. The method uses four supervised classification learning machines trained with a stochastic gradient learning rule based on the minimization of Kullback-Leibler divergence and an optimal model complexity search through posterior probability estimation. Prior to classification,

Juan I. Arribas; Vince D. Calhoun

2010-01-01

377

Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences  

PubMed Central

Tumour cells release an abundance of microvesicles containing a selected set of proteins and RNAs. Here, we show that tumour microvesicles also carry DNA, which reflects the genetic status of the tumour, including amplification of the oncogene c-Myc. We also find amplified c-Myc in serum microvesicles from tumour-bearing mice. Further, we find remarkably high levels of retrotransposon RNA transcripts, especially for some human endogenous retroviruses, such as LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposon elements, in tumour microvesicles and these transposable elements could be transferred to normal cells. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of tumour microvesicles to include: elevated levels of specific coding and non-coding RNA and DNA, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences and transposable elements. Thus, tumour microvesicles contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer. PMID:21285958

Balaj, Leonora; Lessard, Ryan; Dai, Lixin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan

2011-01-01

378

Caspase-2 as a tumour suppressor.  

PubMed

Ever since its discovery 20 years ago, caspase-2 has been enigmatic and its function somewhat controversial. Although many in vitro studies suggested that caspase-2 was important for apoptosis, demonstrating an in vivo cell death role for this caspase has been more problematic, with caspase-2-deficient mice showing limited, tissue-specific cell death defects. Recent results from different laboratories suggest that at least one of its physiological roles in animals is to protect against cellular stress and transformation. As such, loss of caspase-2 augments tumorigenesis in some mouse models of cancer, assigning a tumour suppressor function to this enigmatic caspase. This review focuses on this seemingly non-apoptotic function of caspase-2 as a tumour suppressor and reconciles some of the recent findings in the field. PMID:23811850

Puccini, J; Dorstyn, L; Kumar, S

2013-09-01

379

Caspase-2 as a tumour suppressor  

PubMed Central

Ever since its discovery 20 years ago, caspase-2 has been enigmatic and its function somewhat controversial. Although many in vitro studies suggested that caspase-2 was important for apoptosis, demonstrating an in vivo cell death role for this caspase has been more problematic, with caspase-2-deficient mice showing limited, tissue-specific cell death defects. Recent results from different laboratories suggest that at least one of its physiological roles in animals is to protect against cellular stress and transformation. As such, loss of caspase-2 augments tumorigenesis in some mouse models of cancer, assigning a tumour suppressor function to this enigmatic caspase. This review focuses on this seemingly non-apoptotic function of caspase-2 as a tumour suppressor and reconciles some of the recent findings in the field. PMID:23811850

Puccini, J; Dorstyn, L; Kumar, S

2013-01-01

380

Humoral mediated macrophage response during tumour growth.  

PubMed Central

Reticuloendothelial (RE) phagocytic and circulating plasma opsonic activity was evaluated in rats transplanted with the Walker 256 carcinoma tumour in an attempt to evaluate the role of opsonic protein in governing the functional state of the macrophage system. Animals transplanted intramuscularly with 2 X 10(4) viable tumour cells manifested 2 peaks of RE stimulation at 6 and 14 days post-transplantation with a subsequent decline in the phagocytic activity over the 14-30 day period. Increased phagocytic activity as determined by colloid clearance was primarily a reflection of hepatic Küpffer cell hyperphagocytosis while the decline in phagocytic activity was related to a decrease in Küpffer cell function. The initial peak of RE stimulation was associated with an elevation in the blood opsonin level and no significant enlargement of the liver and spleen. In contrast, the second peak of RE stimulation at 14 days was associated with both an elevation in opsonin levels and an associated hepatic and splenic enlargement. The decline in phagocytic activity over the 14-30 day interval was associated with a progressive decline in the plasma opsonic activity, a return of the spleen to its normal size in relationship to the body weight, and a persistent hepatomegaly. These findings suggest that the alterations in macrophage function during tumour growth may be mediated in part by changes in the opsonic or phagocytosis promoting capacity of plasma. Since opsonic protein contributes to the discriminatory capacity of macrophages, it is suggested that changes in the blood opsonin level may condition the anti-tumour capacity of the macrophage system with respect to host defence aginst malignant disease. PMID:1212411

Saba, T. M.; Antikatzides, T. G.

1975-01-01

381

[Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the bladder].  

PubMed

The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the bladder is a rare benign affection that interests mainly young adults. Its etiopathogeny remains unknown, but its tumoral origin was evocated recently by Griffin (1999), incriminating a chromosomic abnormality involving the ALK gene. We will discuss the etiopathogenic, anatopathological and therapeutical aspects of this lesion for which the diagnosis is histological and the treatment remains conservative with a good prognosis. PMID:15751423

Dakir, Mohamed; Taha, Abdellatif; Attar, Hicham; Sarf, Ismail; Aboutaib, Rachid; Moussaoui, Ali; Meziane, Fathi

2004-12-01

382

MR monitoring of tumour thermal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal therapy of tumour including hyperthermia and thermal ablation by heat or cold delivery requires on line monitoring.\\u000a Due to its temperature sensitivity, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows thermal mapping at the time of the treatment.\\u000a The different techniques of MR temperature monitoring based on water proton resonance frequency (PRF), longitudinal relaxation\\u000a time Tl, diffusion coefficient and MR Spectroscopic Imaging

D. Germain; P. Chevallier; A. Laurent; H. Saint-Jalmes

2001-01-01

383

Pulmonary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) may occur in any peripheral nerve. They are often found in the chest wall and the posterior mediastinum. On the other hand, primary pulmonary MPNST is extremely rare, and surgically treated cases have been reported. Here, we present 3 cases of primary MPNST originating from the pulmonary parenchyma who underwent surgery in our institution. We discuss the possible clinical and pathological associations in the view of the literature. PMID:24282191

Inci, Ilhan; Soltermann, Alex; Schneiter, Didier; Weder, Walter

2014-08-01

384

Security classification of information  

SciTech Connect

This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

Quist, A.S.

1993-04-01

385

Cell metabolism, tumour diagnosis and multispectral FLIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence guided diagnosis of tumour tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results are interfering with the outcome. Discrimination between tumour and inflammation could be therefore difficult. Improvement of fluorescence diagnosis through observation of cell metabolism could be the solution, which needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. However, a complex combination of fluorophores give rise to the emission signal. Also in PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) different photosensitizer metabolites contribute to the fluorescence signal. Therefore, the fluorescence decay in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. The discussion will focus on the detection of NADH, FAD and 5-ALA induced porphyrins. With respect to NADH and FAD the discrimination between protein bound and free coenzyme was investigated with multispectral FLIM in normal oral keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells from different origin. The redox ratio, which can be correlated with the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD changed depending on the state of the cells. Most of the investigations were done in monolayer cell cultures. However, in order to get information from a more realistic in vivo situation additionally the chorioallantoismembrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs was used where tumour cells or biopsies were allowed to grow. The results of theses measurements will be discussed as well.

Rück, A.; Hauser, C.; Lorenz, S.; Mosch, S.; Rotte, S.; Kessler, M.; Kalinina, S.

2013-02-01

386

Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor.  

PubMed

Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C. PMID:25344755

Li, Na; Fassl, Anne; Chick, Joel; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiaoyu; Mansour, Marc R; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Haizhen; King, Bryan; Shaik, Shavali; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ordureau, Alban; Otto, Tobias; Kreslavsky, Taras; Baitsch, Lukas; Bury, Leah; Meyer, Clifford A; Ke, Nan; Mulry, Kristin A; Kluk, Michael J; Roy, Moni; Kim, Sunkyu; Zhang, Xiaowu; Geng, Yan; Zagozdzon, Agnieszka; Jenkinson, Sarah; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Zhao, Jean J; Mullighan, Charles G; Harper, J Wade; Aster, Jon C; Aifantis, Iannis; von Boehmer, Harald; Gygi, Steven P; Wei, Wenyi; Look, A Thomas; Sicinski, Piotr

2014-11-01

387

The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions.  

PubMed

We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 +/- 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. PMID:11603890

Yanagawa, T; Watanabe, H; Shinozaki, T; Ahmed, A R; Shirakura, K; Takagishi, K

2001-11-01

388

Older adults with acquired brain injury: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Acquired brain injury (ABI), which includes traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI), is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the trends, characteristics, cause of brain injury, and discharge destination of hospitalized older adults aged 65 years and older with an ABI diagnosis in a population with universal access to hospital care. The profile of characteristics of patients with TBI and nTBI causes of injury was also compared. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study design with healthcare administrative databases was used. Data on acute care admissions were obtained from the Discharge Abstract Database and patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases – Version 10 codes for Ontario, Canada from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2010. Older adults were examined in three age groups – 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. Results From 2003/04 to 2009/10, there were 14,518 episodes of acute care associated with a TBI code and 51, 233 episodes with a nTBI code. Overall, the rate of hospitalized TBI and nTBI episodes increased with older age groups. From 2007/08 to 2009/10, the percentage of patients that stayed in acute care for 12 days or more and the percentage of patients with delayed discharge from acute care increased with age. The most common cause of TBI was falls while the most common type of nTBI was brain tumours. The percentage of patients discharged to long term care and complex continuing care increased with age and the percentage discharged home decreased with age. In-hospital mortality also increased with age. Older adults with TBI and nTBI differed significantly in demographic and clinical characteristics and discharge destination from acute care. Conclusions This study showed an increased rate of acute care admissions for both TBI and nTBI with age. It also provided additional support for falls prevention strategies to prevent injury leading to cognitive disability with costly human and economic consequences. Implications for increased numbers of people with ABI are discussed. PMID:24060144

2013-01-01

389

Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression  

PubMed Central

Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies. PMID:23889169

Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

2013-01-01

390

Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens.  

PubMed

The immune system influences the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter that facilitates cellular transformation, promotes tumour growth and sculpts tumour cell immunogenicity, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion. Yet, clinically apparent cancers still arise in immunocompetent individuals in part as a consequence of cancer-induced immunosuppression. In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells. Monoclonal-antibody-based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits-including durable responses--to patients with different malignancies. However, little is known about the identity of the tumour antigens that function as the targets of T cells activated by checkpoint blockade immunotherapy and whether these antigens can be used to generate vaccines that are highly tumour-specific. Here we use genomics and bioinformatics approaches to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T-cell rejection antigens following anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA-4 therapy of mice bearing progressively growing sarcomas, and we show that therapeutic synthetic long-peptide vaccines incorporating these mutant epitopes induce tumour rejection comparably to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Although mutant tumour-antigen-specific T cells are present in progressively growing tumours, they are reactivated following treatment with anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA-4 and display some overlapping but mostly treatment-specific transcriptional profiles, rendering them capable of mediating tumour rejection. These results reveal that tumour-specific mutant antigens are not only important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy, but they can also be used to develop personalized cancer-specific vaccines and to probe the mechanistic underpinnings of different checkpoint blockade treatments. PMID:25428507

Gubin, Matthew M; Zhang, Xiuli; Schuster, Heiko; Caron, Etienne; Ward, Jeffrey P; Noguchi, Takuro; Ivanova, Yulia; Hundal, Jasreet; Arthur, Cora D; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Mulder, Gwenn E; Toebes, Mireille; Vesely, Matthew D; Lam, Samuel S K; Korman, Alan J; Allison, James P; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Pearce, Erika L; Schumacher, Ton N; Aebersold, Ruedi; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Melief, Cornelis J M; Mardis, Elaine R; Gillanders, William E; Artyomov, Maxim N; Schreiber, Robert D

2014-11-27

391

Influence of honey bee products on transplantable murine tumours.  

PubMed

The effect of propolis [it is a water-soluble derivative (WSDP)] and related polyphenolic compounds of propolis (caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin), honey, royal jelly and bee venom on tumour growth, metastasizing ability and induction of apoptosis and necrosis in murine tumour models (mammary carcinoma and colon carcinoma) was investigated. WSDP and related polyphenolic compounds showed significant anti-metastatic effect (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) given either before or after tumour-cell inoculation. Oral or systemic application of WSDP or caffeic acid significantly reduced subcutaneous tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice. Honey also exerted pronounced anti-metastatic effect (P < 0.05) when applied before tumour-cell inoculation (peroral 2 g kg(-1) for mice or 1 g kg(-1) for rats, once a day for 10 consecutive days). Royal jelly did not affect metastasis formation when given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. However, intravenous administration of royal jelly before tumour-cell inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited metastasis formation. When mice were given 10(5) tumour cells intravenously immediately after bee venom injection, the number of tumour nodules in the lung was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in untreated mice or mice treated with bee venom subcutaneously. Local presence of bee venom in the tissue caused significant delay in subcutaneous tumour formation. These findings clearly demonstrate that anti-tumour and anti-metastatic effects of bee venom are highly dependent on the route of injection and on close contact between components of the bee venom and tumour cells. These data show that honey bee products given orally or systemically may have an important role in the control of tumour growth and tumour metastasizing ability. PMID:19379183

Orsoli?, N; Knezevi?, A; Sver, L; Terzi?, S; Hackenberger, B K; Basi?, I

2003-12-01

392

Tumour cells engineered to secrete interleukin-15 augment anti-tumour immune responses in vivo  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of interleukin-15 (IL-15) gene transfer into tumour cells on the host's anti-tumour response. In BALB/c mice IL-15 producing Meth-A cells (Meth-A/IL-15) underwent complete rejection, in a response characterized by massive infiltration of CD4+ T-cells and neutrophils. In contrast, Meth-A cells transfected with vector alone (Meth-A/Neo) grew rapidly. Moreover, rechallenged parental cells also were rejected in association with CD8+ T-cell infiltration. However, in nude mice there was no drastic difference between Meth-A/IL-15 and Meth-A/Neo cells. These results demonstrate that IL-15-secreting tumour cells can stimulate local and systemic T-cell-dependent immunity and therefore may have a potential role in cancer therapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10424745

Hazama, S; Noma, T; Wang, F; Iizuka, N; Ogura, Y; Yoshimura, K; Inoguchi, E; Hakozaki, M; Hirose, K; Suzuki, T; Oka, M

1999-01-01

393

Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

394

Brain Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... from Mayo Clinic Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Brain tumor This shows a tumor that likely began ... Make a difference today. Learn more Give now Brain tumor Overview Symptoms & causes Diagnosis and treatment at ...

395

Angiogenesis inhibitors in cancer therapy: mechanistic perspective on classification and treatment rationales  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation, is a prerequisite for tumour growth to supply the proliferating tumour with oxygen and nutrients. The angiogenic process may contribute to tumour progression, invasion and metastasis, and is generally accepted as an indicator of tumour prognosis. Therefore, targeting tumour angiogenesis has become of high clinical relevance. The current review aimed to highlight mechanistic details of anti-angiogenic therapies and how they relate to classification and treatment rationales. Angiogenesis inhibitors are classified into either direct inhibitors that target endothelial cells in the growing vasculature or indirect inhibitors that prevent the expression or block the activity of angiogenesis inducers. The latter class extends to include targeted therapy against oncogenes, conventional chemotherapeutic agents and drugs targeting other cells of the tumour micro-environment. Angiogenesis inhibitors may be used as either monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer drugs. In this context, many preclinical and clinical studies revealed higher therapeutic effectiveness of the combined treatments compared with individual treatments. The proper understanding of synergistic treatment modalities of angiogenesis inhibitors as well as their wide range of cellular targets could provide effective tools for future therapies of many types of cancer. PMID:23962094

El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; El-Remessy, Azza B

2013-01-01

396

Synthesis and biological characterisation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, novel and high selectivity ?2 radiotracers, for tumour imaging properties  

PubMed Central

Background Sigma2 (?2) receptors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines and in tumours. Two novel selective 18F-phthalimido ?2 ligands, 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, were prepared and characterised for their potential tumour imaging properties. Methods Preparation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353 was achieved via nucleophilic substitution of their respective nitro precursors. In vitro studies including radioreceptor binding assays in the rat brain membrane and cell uptake studies in the A375 cell line were performed. In vivo studies were carried out in mice bearing A375 tumours including positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, biodistribution, blocking and metabolite studies. Results In vitro studies showed that SIG343 and SIG353 displayed excellent affinity and selectivity for ?2 receptors (Ki(?2)?=?8 and 3 nM, ?2:?1?=?200- and 110-fold, respectively). The ?2 selectivity of 18F-SIG343 was further confirmed by blocking studies in A375 cells, however, not noted for 18F-SIG353. Biodistribution studies showed that both radiotracers had similar characteristics including moderately high tumour uptake (4%ID/g to 5%ID/g); low bone uptake (3%ID/g to 4%ID/g); and high tumour-to-muscle uptake ratios (four- to sevenfold) up to 120 min. Although radiotracer uptake in organs known to express ? receptors was significantly blocked by pre-injection of competing ? ligands, the blocking effect was not observed in the tumour. PET imaging studies indicated major radioactive localisation in the chest cavity for both ligands, with approximately 1%ID/g uptake in the tumour at 120 min. Metabolite studies showed that the original radiotracers remained unchanged 65% to 80% in the tumour up to 120 min. Conclusions The lead ligands showed promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. However, PET imaging indicated low tumour-to-background ratios. Furthermore, we were unable to demonstrate that uptake in the A375 tumour was ?2-specific. 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG343 do not display ideal properties for imaging the ?2 receptor in the A375 tumour model. However, since the radiotracers show promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics, longer scans using appropriate half-life isotopes and alternative tumour models will be carried out in future studies to fully validate the imaging characteristics of these radiotracers. PMID:24330526

2013-01-01

397

Survival of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a review of the IGCC classification by Cox regression and recursive partitioning.  

PubMed

The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility. We aimed to examine the extent of any loss in discrimination within the IGCC classification in comparison with alternative modelling by formal weighing of the risk factors. We analysed survival of 3048 NSGCT patients with Cox regression and recursive partitioning for alternative classifications. Good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups were based on predicted 5-year survival. Classifications were further refined by subgrouping within the poor prognosis group. Performance was measured primarily by a bootstrap corrected c-statistic to indicate discriminative ability for future patients. The weights of the risk factors in the alternative classifications differed slightly from the implicit weights in the IGCC classification. Discriminative ability, however, did not increase clearly (IGCC classification, c=0.732; Cox classification, c=0.730; Recursive partitioning classification, c=0.709). Three subgroups could be identified within the poor prognosis groups, resulting in classifications with five prognostic groups and slightly better discriminative ability (c=0.740). In conclusion, the IGCC classification in three prognostic groups is largely supported by Cox regression and recursive partitioning. Cox regression was the most promising tool to define a more refined classification. British Journal of Cancer (2004) 90, 1176-1183. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601665 www.bjcancer.com Published online 24 February 2004 PMID:15026798

van Dijk, M R; Steyerberg, E W; Stenning, S P; Dusseldorp, E; Habbema, J D F

2004-03-22

398

An unusual case of extra-abdominal desmoid tumour.  

PubMed

Desmoid tumour is relatively rare and generally non-metastatisizing lesion of mesenchymal origin composed of fibrous tissue and fitting in the group of aggressive fibromatosis; it is a locally aggressive proliferative soft-tissue lesion with controversial nature. This tumour accounts for 0.03% of all tumours and 3% of soft-tissue tumours with annual incidence of two to four cases per million. Although desmoid tumours are more common in persons aged 10-40 years than in others, they do occur in young children and older adults; in children the sex incidence is equal. This is a rare case of extra-abdominal desmoid tumour in a 14-year-old girl affected by spastic tetraparesis. To our knowledge no similar cases are present in literature to date. PMID:19709174

Zampieri, N; Cecchetto, M; Zorzi, M G; Pietrobelli, A; Ottolenghi, A; Camoglio, F

2010-05-01

399

Giant lipomatous tumours of the hand and forearm.  

PubMed

This study examines the presentation, management and outcomes of a series of 10 patients with giant lipomatous tumours (defined as greater than 5 cm diameter) of the hand and forearm who presented to our orthopaedic oncology service. All patients underwent local staging and were discussed at our multidisciplinary tumour meeting prior to definitive surgery. In all cases, neurovascular structures required mobilization in order to excise the tumour. Seven of the tumours were benign lipomas and one was a neural fibrolipoma. The other two were well differentiated lipoma-like liposarcomas/atypical lipomatous tumours. Giant lipomas and well differentiated lipoma-like liposarcomas/atypical lipomatous tumours of the hand and forearm present infrequently and a multidisciplinary approach is recommended in the investigation and surgical management of these patients. PMID:15992974

Cribb, G L; Cool, W P; Ford, D J; Mangham, D C

2005-10-01

400

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:24744936

Sahai, Puja; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Nath, Devajit; Bhasker, Suman; Chander, Subhash; Bakhshi, Sameer; Singh, Chirom Amit

2014-01-01

401

Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour  

PubMed Central

Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co?occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

2006-01-01

402

Reduced Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor in Pancreatic and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma Signifies Tumour Progression and Poor Prognosis  

PubMed Central

The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001–2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n?=?175) and paired lymph node metastases (n?=?105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p?=?0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p<0.001), perineural growth (p?=?0.027), lymphatic invasion (p?=?0.016), vascular invasion (p?=?0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p?=?0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR?=?2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–5.25) and early recurrence (HR?=?2.89, 95% CI 1.67–4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR?=?1.98, 95% CI 1.10–3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high tumour-specific pIgR expression signifies a more favourable tumour phenotype and that low expression independently predicts a shorter survival in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. The mechanistic basis for the putative tumour suppressing properties of pIgR in these cancers merits further study. PMID:25397670

Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

2014-01-01

403

Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

Farmer, Lesley S. J.

2004-01-01

404

Bone tumours induced in rats with radioactive cerium.  

PubMed Central

A technique is described for the induction of metastasizing bone tumours in rats by local inoculation of 144cerium. Bone sarcomas develop in 90% of the animals and 74% of these had lung metastases. The tumours can be easily cultured and maintained by serial transplantations. Preliminary data of clinical, histological and kinetic characteristics of these bone tumours are given. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6932906

Delbruck, H. G.; Allouche, M.; Jasmin, C.; Morin, M.; Deml, F.; Anghileri, L.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

1980-01-01

405

Photodynamic therapy of tumours and other diseases using porphyrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with porphyrins and red light (620–630 nm) is finding increasing clinical application for both\\u000a the eradication of relatively small tumours and the palliation of inoperable or obstructive tumours. PDT also shows some promise\\u000a for the sterilization of the tumour bed after surgical removal of neoplastic masses. Several porphyrins have been found to\\u000a be accumulated and retained by

John D. Spikes; Giulio Jori

1987-01-01

406

Case report Solitary fibrous tumour of the epididymis: MRI features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a solitary fibrous tumour, located at the epididymis, in a 65-year-old man, presented with a scrotal mass. Ultrasound and MRI of the scrotum revealed a paratesticular mass, with rich vascularity, arising in the left epididymis. Radiological findings were non-specific and the patient underwent surgery. Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare mesothelial tumour that was

C TSAMPOULAS; X GIANNAKOPOULOS; A BATISTATOU; E ARKOUMANI; N SOFIKITIS; S C EFREMIDIS

407

Pathology of primary malignant bone and cartilage tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone- and cartilage-forming tumours (osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas) are rare malignant neoplasms. These tumours are clinically aggressive and often need extensive local and\\/or systemic treatment. Whereas no other treatment but surgery is currently available for chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas show an approximately 50–80% response rate to adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical removal of these tumours is currently mostly performed with limb salvage, but amputation may

L. B. Rozeman; A. M. Cleton-Jansen; P. C. W. Hogendoorn

2006-01-01

408

Fas Ligand Expression in Lynch Syndrome-Associated Colorectal Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fas Ligand (FasL) expression by cancer cells may contribute to tumour immune escape via the Fas counterattack against tumour-infiltrating\\u000a lymphocytes (TILs). Whether this plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome was examined studying FasL expression,\\u000a tumour cell apoptosis and number of TILs in colorectal neoplasms from Lynch syndrome patients (50 adenomas, 20 carcinomas)\\u000a compared with sporadic cases (69

Jan J. Koornstra; Steven de Jong; Wietske Boersma-van Eck; Nynke Zwart; Harry Hollema; Elisabeth G. E. de Vries; Jan H. Kleibeuker

2009-01-01

409

Temozolomide for treatment of brain metastases: A review of 21 clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Brain metastases from solid tumours are associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Temozolomide can be used for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme as well as melanoma. It has also been shown to have activity in patients with brain metastases from various malignancies, since it can cross the blood-brain barrier. To better understand the efficacy of temozolomide in the treatment of brain metastases, we carried out a review of 21 published clinical trials to determine whether temozolomide would benefit patients with brain metastases from solid tumours. Information regarding complete response, partial response, stable disease, objective response and objective response rate were collected to assess clinical outcomes. A modest therapeutic effect was observed when temozolomide was used as a single agent, however, the combination of temozolomide with whole-brain radiotherapy and/or other anticancer drugs exhibited encouraging activity. Thus, future high quality studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:24527399

Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Li; Qian, Jia-Qi; Qiu, Tian-Zhu; Shu, Yong-Qian; Liu, Ping

2014-01-01

410

Relaxins enhance growth of spontaneous murine breast cancers as well as metastatic colonization of the brain.  

PubMed

Relaxins are known for their tissue remodeling capacity which is also a hallmark of cancer progression. However, their role in the latter context is still unclear, particularly in breast cancer. In a mouse model with spontaneously arising breast cancer due to erbB2-overexpression we show that exposure to porcine relaxin results in significantly enhanced tumour growth as compared to control animals. This is accompanied by increased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol as well as elevated expression of the respective receptors and the relaxin receptor RXFP1 in the tumour tissue. It is also associated with enhanced infiltration by tumour-associated macrophages which are known to promote tumour progression. Additionally, we show in an ex vivo model of metastatic brain colonization that porcine relaxin as well as human brain-specific relaxin-3 promotes invasion into the brain tissue and enhance interaction of breast cancer cells with the resident brain macrophages, the microglia. Relaxin signaling is mediated via RXFP1, since R 3/I5, a specific agonist of the relaxin-3 receptor RXFP3 in the brain, does not significantly enhance invasion. Taken together, these findings strongly support a role of relaxins in the progression of breast cancer where they foster primary tumour growth as well as me