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Sample records for brainstem evoked potentials

  1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C.

    2015-01-01

    Background To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. Material/Methods This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment – research groups I and II, respectively – and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. Results There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:26485202

  2. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials applied to clinical neurology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ebner, A; Scherg, M; Dietl, H

    1980-12-01

    Pathological alterations of the brainstem auditory evoked potential in 5 patients suffering from different kinds of brainstem diseases (reversible tumorous infiltration of the brainstem, multiple sclerosis, mesodiencephalic syndrome, apallic syndrome, braindeath) are shown. The alterations resemble the findings of animal experiments reported by Buchwald and Huang 1975: The particular components of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (waves IV-V, III, II and I) may decrease in amplitude or even completely disappear. The components are affected in a sequential reversed order, i.e. if a particular component has disappeared or shows a significant latency increase, the subsequent components are similarly affected. These observations suggest that the particular components are generated by different structures of the afferent acoustic pathway. This underlines the usefulness of brainstem auditory evoked potential recordings in detecting brainstem disorders. PMID:6781864

  3. Normal brainstem auditory evoked potentials in adult hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vanasse, M; Fischer, C; Berthezène, F; Roux, Y; Volman, G; Mornex, R

    1989-03-01

    Nervous system dysfunction and hearing loss are part of the clinical picture of hypothyroidism. Several studies on visual evoked potential and two brainstem auditory evoked potential studies have shown abnormalities in this disease that are reversible with treatment. It has been suggested that visual evoked potential and brainstem auditory evoked potential could be useful to evaluate the effects of hypothyroidism on the central nervous system and to monitor the response to treatment. We recorded brainstem auditory evoked potentials in 15 adult hypothyroid patients immediately before treatment. All patients were women, ranging in age from 34 to 82 years. Fourteen also had an audiometric study. In five patients, both tests were repeated 20 to 22 months after treatment. Audiometry showed that hearing loss increased with age, suggesting that hearing loss in these patients could be secondary more to aging than to hypothyroidism. When compared to sex-matched controls of similar ages, our patients showed no statistically significant differences in brainstem auditory evoked potentials before treatment. Brainstem auditory evoked potential values were not modified in the five patients whose tests were repeated after treatment. The normality of these results raises serious objections to the clinical use of brainstem auditory evoked potential for central nervous system evaluation and therapy monitoring in adult hypothyroidism. PMID:2918801

  4. Brainstem auditory evoked potential in clinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kumar, Naresh; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Das, Sibadatta; Madan, Harnam Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The association of hypothyroidism with impairment of hearing is known to occur. It may be of any kind i. e., conductive, sensorineural or mixed. The aim of this study is to assess auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in newly diagnosed patients of clinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed clinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired Student's t test. Results: There was a significant increase in wave IV (5.16 ± 0.85 ms) and wave V (6.17 ± 0.89 ms) latencies of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to wave IV (4.66 ± 0.39 ms) and wave V (5.49 ± 0.26 ms) of Group I. Wave V of left ear BAEP of Group II was also prolonged (6 ± 0.61 ms) in comparison to Group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was a significant difference in inter-peak latencies IPL I -V (4.44 ± 0.66 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.5 ms) of right ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.94 ± 0.31 ms) and IPL III -V (1.84 ± 0.34 ms) of Group I. A significant prolongation was also found of IPL I -V (4.36 ± 0.59 ms) and IPL III -V (2.2 ± 0.42 ms) of left ear BAEP of Group II in comparison to IPL I -V (3.89 ± 0.3 ms) and IPL III -V (1.85 ± 0.3 ms) of Group I. Conclusion: Prolongation of wave IV and V along with inter-peak latencies in BAEP of both ears suggests that central auditory pathway is affected significantly in clinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:26229759

  5. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials among rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, O P; Gupta, P; Bhargava, S K; Chaswal, M

    1999-04-01

    The study was conducted on 27 rubber factory workers for the functional assessment of brainstem auditory pathway. Neurobehavioural questionnaire was administered to the workers and the personal sampler was used to evaluate the respirable particulate load inhaled per day of each worker along with qualitative analysis for PAH compounds. Evoked potential recording was carried out for brainstem auditory responses. Chest X-rays of workers exhibited varied abnormal features. Multiple regression analysis of data showed definite prolongation of latencies with increasing concentration of respirable particulate load though it was not statistically significant. Comparison with normative data indicated prolongation of latencies of rubber factory workers. PMID:10365313

  6. Brain-stem evoked potentials and noise effects in seagulls.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A

    1985-01-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) recorded from the seagull were large-amplitude, short-latency, vertex-positive deflections which originate in the eighth nerve and several brain-stem nuclei. BAEP waveforms were similar in latency and configurations to that reported for certain other lower vertebrates and some mammals. BAEP recorded at several pure tone frequencies throughout the seagull's auditory spectrum showed an area of heightened auditory sensitivity between 1 and 3 kHz. This range was also found to be the primary bandwidth of the vocalization output of young seagulls. Masking by white noise and pure tones had remarkable effects on several parameters of the BAEP. In general, the tone- and click-induced BAEP were either reduced or obliterated by both pure tone and white noise maskers of specific signal to noise ratios and high intensity levels. The masking effects observed in this study may be related to the manner in which seagulls respond to intense environmental noise. One possible conclusion is that intense environmental noise, such as aircraft engine noise, may severely alter the seagull's localization apparatus and induce sonogenic stress, both of which could cause collisions with low-flying aircraft. PMID:2863073

  7. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p<0.0001) and wave V (t(50)=19.730; p<0.0001) but no delay in wave I (p=0.548). They also had significantly longer latencies than controls for interwave intervals I–III, III–V, and I–V (all t(50)> 7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated ? synuclein and/or ? amyloid 1–42. Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children’s exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. PMID:21458557

  8. Brainstem Evoked Potential in Newly Diagnosed Patients of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Sood, Sushma; Madan, Harnam Singh; Das, Sibadatta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with impairment of hearing. The hearing impairment may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. Aims: The aim is to assess the auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in newly diagnosed patients of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy sex- and age-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. The unpaired Student's t-test was used and a P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Wave V of right ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (6 ± 0.62 ms) compared to group I (5.49 ± 0.26 ms), and wave V of left ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (5.84 ± 0.57 ms) compared to group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was no significant coefficient of correlation between wave V and inter-peak latency (IPL) I-V compared to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of both the ears. Conclusion: The prolongation of wave V in BAEPs of both ears suggests that the central auditory pathway is affected significantly in subclinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:25973399

  9. Acoustically evoked potentials in two cephalopods inferred using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Yan, Hong Young; Chung, Wen-Sung; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2009-07-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether cephalopods can detect sound frequencies above 400 Hz. So far there is no proof for the detection of underwater sound above 400 Hz via a physiological approach. The controversy of whether cephalopods have a sound detection ability above 400 Hz was tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach, which has been successfully applied in fish, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles and birds. Using ABR we found that auditory evoked potentials can be obtained in the frequency range 400 to 1500 Hz (Sepiotheutis lessoniana) and 400 to 1000 Hz (Octopus vulgaris), respectively. The thresholds of S. lessoniana were generally lower than those of O. vulgaris. PMID:19275944

  10. Auditory brainstem evoked potentials peak identification by finite impulse response digital filters.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H; Urbach, D; Bleich, N

    1989-01-01

    Linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filtering can be used to differentiate auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP) components. The power spectrum of ABEP at high intensities indicates that they contain 3 frequency bands that can be distinguished by applying appropriate digital filters with the following characteristics: up to 240 Hz (revealing slow components), 240-483 Hz (resulting in medium components) and above 500 Hz (leaving only fast components). The results using these filters, indicate that the medium components coincide with peaks I, III and V and that the slow filter results in a 'pedestal' whose peak coincides with peak V. These findings were used for automatic identification of ABEP peaks. A coincidence of the 'pedestal' peak with a medium component was sought and labelled peak V. The preceding medium peaks were labelled, in order of decreasing latency, III and I. Validation of this procedure was conducted on ABEP from normal subjects, using different stimulus rates and intensities, as well as from selected neurological patients with lesions affecting the brainstem. Provided the waveform included a 'pedestal', the results proved this procedure to be reliable and in very good agreement with manual identification and measurement of ABEP peaks. PMID:2803115

  11. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Boys with Autism: Still Searching for the Hidden Truth

    PubMed Central

    VERVERI, Athina; VARGIAMI, Euthymia; PAPADOPOULOU, Vassiliki; TRYFONAS, Dimitrios; ZAFEIRIOU, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) have long been utilized in the investigation of auditory modulation and, more specifically, auditory brainstem functions in individuals with autism. Although most investigators have reported significant abnormalities, no single BAEPs pattern has yet been identified. The present study further delineates the BAEPs deficits among subjects with autism. Materials & Methods BAEPs were recorded in 43 male patients, aged 35–104 months, who underwent standard evaluations after receiving a diagnosis of autism. The control group consisted of 43 age-matched typically developing boys. The study took place in a tertiary neurodevelopmental center over a period of two years. Results The mean values of all absolute and/or interpeak latencies were longer in patients when compared to controls, albeit the differences were not significant for any of the parameters. Prolonged or shortened absolute/interpeak latencies (control group mean ± 2.5SD) were unilaterally or bilaterally identified in 33% of patients, compared to 9% of controls. The most frequent findings included prolongation of absolute latencies I, V and III, followed by shortening of interpeak latency I-V. In addition, abnormalities (either shortening or prolongation) of absolute latencies I and V, as well as interpeak latency I-V, were significantly more common among patients. Taken together, BAEPs in 23% of patients were indicative of a clinically abnormal response in 32% of patients. Conclusion As can be easily concluded, BAEPs abnormalities characterize only a subset of subjects with autism, who may be important to identify clinically. The latter individuals may benefit from targeted intervention to utilize brainstem plasticity. PMID:26221159

  12. [Development of auditory evoked potentials of the brainstem in relation to age].

    PubMed

    Tarantino, V; Stura, M; Vallarino, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the various changes which occur in the waveform, latency and amplitude of the auditory brainstem evoked response (BSER) as a function of age, the authors recorded the BSER from the scalp's surface of 20 newborns and 50 infants, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years old as well as from 20 normal adults. The data obtained show that the most reliable waves during the first month of life are waves I, III, V, which is often present even when other vertex-positive peaks are absent. The latencies of the various potential components decreased with maturation. Wave V, evoked by 90 dB sensation level clicks, changed in latency from 7, 12 msec at 1-4 weeks of age to 5,77 msec at 3 years of life. The auditory processes related to peripheral and central transmission were shown to mature at differential rates during the first period of life. By the 6th month, in fact, wave I latency had reached the adult value; in contrast, wave V latency did match that of the adult until approximately 1 year old. One obvious explanation for the age-related latency shift is progressive myelination of the auditory tract in infants, for this is know to occur. The authors conclude that the clinical application of this technique in paediatric patients couldn't provide reliable informations about auditory brain stem activity regardless of evaluation of the relationship between age and characteristics of BSER. PMID:3287352

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a case of 'Manto syndrome', or spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M; Pavani, M

    1982-12-01

    A case of spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome observed for over 18 months is presented and discussed. Maximal head rotation (determining backward gaze) was associated with compression of the brachial plexus between the scaleni muscles and motor, sensory and trophic troubles in the hand. This new syndrome is called after the diviner Manto, quoted by Dante Alighieri in his 'Divina Commedia' (Inferno, XX, 52-56). The etiology was ascribed to subacute toxic effects of methylparathion. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) demonstrated severe brainstem involvement, maximal in the mesencephalic structures. Clinical and neurophysiological data improved on treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Finally, BAEPs returned to normal. PMID:6984700

  14. Alterations in brain-stem auditory evoked potentials among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sonia; Sharma, Rajeev; Mittal, Shilekh; Thapar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the absolute latencies, the interpeak latencies, and amplitudes of different waveforms of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in different drug abusers and controls, and to identify early neurological damage in persons who abuse different drugs so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, BAEP’s were assessed by a data acquisition and analysis system in 58 male drug abusers in the age group of 15-45 years as well as in 30 age matched healthy controls. The absolute peak latencies and the interpeak latencies of BAEP were analyzed by applying one way ANOVA and student t-test. The study was carried out at the GGS Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India between July 2012 and May 2013. Results: The difference in the absolute peak latencies and interpeak latencies of BAEP in the 2 groups was found to be statistically significant in both the ears (p<0.05). However, the difference in the amplitude ratio in both the ears was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Chronic intoxication by different drugs has been extensively associated with prolonged absolute peak latencies and interpeak latencies of BAEP in drug abusers reflecting an adverse effect of drug dependence on neural transmission in central auditory nerve pathways. PMID:26166594

  15. Effect of Prolonged Use of Mobile Phone on Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Darshan; Sharma, Rajiv; Arora, Khushdeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mobile phones are being widely used throughout the world. Electromagnetic waves generated from mobile phones have raised concerns as these may have adverse effects on human auditory system owing to the daily use of mobile phones. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the effects of long term mobile phone usage on auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR). Materials and Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional, case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Total 100 healthy subjects aged 18 to 30 years of both the genders were selected, out of which 67 subjects were long-term GSM mobile phone users (using mobile phone for more than 1 year) and 33 were controls who were mobile phone non users. Both the groups were investigated for ABR and changes were studied in both the ears of cases and controls to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic exposure. Results No significant difference (p>0.05) was found in latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes of ABR waves between cases and controls. Conclusion Our study shows that long term usage of mobile phones does not affect propagation of electrical stimuli along the auditory nerve to auditory brainstem centres. PMID:26155473

  16. Somatosensory and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials Assessed between 4 and 7 Days after Severe Stroke Onset Predict Unfavorable Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Su, Ying Ying; Xiao, Shu Ying; Liu, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the best predictive timing of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SLSEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for unfavorable outcomes in patients with early stage severe stroke. One hundred fifty-six patients with acute severe supratentorial stroke were monitored according to SLSEP, BAEP, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 1–3 days and 4–7 days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up for outcomes at 6 months after onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with a score of 5-6 considered unfavorable. The predictive values of SLSEP, BAEP, and the GCS at 1–3 days were compared with 4–7 days after onset. Our results show that, according to the analysis of prognostic authenticity, the predictive values of SLSEP and BAEP at 4–7 days after stroke onset improved when compared with the values at 1–3 days for unfavorable outcomes. Most of the patients with change of worsening evoked potentials from 1–3 days to 4–7 days after onset had unfavorable outcomes. In conclusion, SLSEP and BAEP assessed at 4–7 days after onset predicted unfavorable outcomes for acute severe stroke patients. The worsening values of SLSEP and BAEP between 1–3 days and 4–7 days also present a prognostic value. PMID:26798633

  17. Speech evoked auditory brainstem response in stuttering.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40?ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency. PMID:25215262

  18. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40?ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency. PMID:25215262

  19. Analysis of auditory function using brainstem auditory evoked potentials and auditory steady state responses in infants with perinatal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Porras-Kattz, Eneida

    2010-02-01

    Approximately 2-4 % of newborns with perinatal risk factors present hearing loss. The aim of this study was to analyse the auditory function in infants with perinatal brain injury (PBI). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), auditory steady state responses (ASSRs), and tympanometry studies were carried out in 294 infants with PBI (586 ears, two infants had unilateral microtia-atresia). BAEPs were abnormal in 158 (27%) ears, ASSRs in 227 (39%), and tympanometry anomalies were present in 131 (22%) ears. When ASSR thresholds were compared with BAEPs, the assessment yielded 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity. When ASSR thresholds were compared with tympanometry results as an indicator of middle-ear pathology, the assessment gave 96% sensitivity and 77% specificity. When BAEP thresholds were compared with tympanometry results, sensitivity was 35% and specificity 95%. In conclusion, BAEPs are useful test for neonatal auditory screening; they identify with more accuracy sensorineural hearing losses. ASSRs are more pertinent for identifying conductive hearing loss associated with middle-ear pathology. The consistency and accuracy of these results could be considered in additional studies. PMID:20151885

  20. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses in Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Phan, Ha T. T.; Gardner, Judith M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Gordon, Anne; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were compared in 15 newborns with Down syndrome and 15 sex-, age-, and weight-matched control newborns. Participants had normal ABRs based upon values specific to 32- to 42-weeks postconceptional age. Although Wave III and Wave V component latencies and the Wave I-III interpeak latency (IPL) were shorter…

  1. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses in Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Phan, Ha T. T.; Gardner, Judith M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Gordon, Anne; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were compared in 15 newborns with Down syndrome and 15 sex-, age-, and weight-matched control newborns. Participants had normal ABRs based upon values specific to 32- to 42-weeks postconceptional age. Although Wave III and Wave V component latencies and the Wave I-III interpeak latency (IPL) were shorter…

  2. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli.

    PubMed

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James; Elberling, Claus

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to tone pulses, clicks, and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the "humanized" nonlinear auditory-nerve model of Zilany and Bruce [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 402-417 (2007)] and an empirically derived unitary response function which is assumed to reflect contributions from different cell populations within the auditory brainstem, recorded at a given pair of electrodes on the scalp. It is shown that the model accounts for the decrease of tone-pulse evoked wave-V latency with frequency but underestimates the level dependency of the tone-pulse as well as click-evoked latency values. Furthermore, the model correctly predicts the nonlinear wave-V amplitude behavior in response to the chirp stimulation both as a function of chirp sweeping rate and level. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the pattern of ABR generation is strongly affected by the nonlinear and dispersive processes in the cochlea. PMID:22559366

  3. [Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

    1982-01-01

    A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.). PMID:6985243

  4. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been used by neuroscientists for many years. The versatility of the method is attested to be the differing purposes to which it has been applied. Initially, SEPs were used to uncover basic principles of sensory processing. A casual glan...

  5. Motor evoked potential polyphasia

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A.; Ceronie, Bryan; Nashef, Lina; Elwes, Robert D.C.; Richardson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We compared the motor evoked potential (MEP) phases using transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), their relatives, and healthy controls, hypothesizing that patients and their unaffected relatives may share a subtle pathophysiologic abnormality. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 23 patients with IGE, 34 first-degree relatives, and 30 matched healthy controls. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed to produce a series of suprathreshold single-pulse MEPs. A semiautomated method was used to count phases. We compared between groups the mean number of MEP phases, the stimulus-to-stimulus variability in MEP phases, and the proportion of polyphasic MEPs within subjects. Results: Patients with IGE and their relatives had a significantly increased number of MEP phases (median for patients 2.24, relatives 2.17, controls 2.01) and a significantly higher proportion of MEPs with more than 2 phases than controls (median for patients 0.118, relatives 0.088, controls 0.013). Patients had a greater stimulus-to-stimulus variability in number of MEP phases than controls. There were no differences between patients and relatives. Conclusion: Increased MEP polyphasia in patients with IGE and their first-degree relatives may reflect transient abnormal evoked oscillations. The presence of polyphasic MEPs in relatives as well as patients suggests that MEP polyphasia is not related to treatment, and is in isolation insufficient to predispose to epilepsy. Polyphasic MEP may be a novel endophenotype in IGE. PMID:25740859

  6. UNRECOGNIZED ERRORS DUE TO ANALOG FILTERING OF THE BRAIN-STEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is used as a tool both in clinical evaluation and in toxicological research, where the subject is most often the laboratory rat. As in other species, interpretation of the rat BAER waveform is based on the latencies and amplitudes of ...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF HYPOTHERMIA AND PENTOBARBITAL ON BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hypothermia and pentobarbital anesthesia, alone and in combination, on the brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) of rats. n experiment I, unanesthetized rats were cooled to colonic temperatures 0.5 and 1.0 degrees C...

  8. SUPERIOR COLLICULUS LESIONS AND FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM RAT CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally assumed that the primary response of the rat flash evoked potential (FEP) is activated by a retino-geniculate pathway, and that the second response reflects input to the cortex by way of the superior colliculus (SC) or other brainstem structures. In the present st...

  9. Effect of Repetition Rate on Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Younger and Middle Aged Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Neupane, Anuj; Gururaj, Krithika; Mehta, Garvita; Sinha, Sujeet Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Speech evoked auditory brainstem responses depicts the neural encoding of speech at the level of brainstem. This study was designed to evaluate the neural encoding of speech at the brainstem in younger population and middle-aged population at three different repetition rates (6.9, 10.9 and 15.4). Speech evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded from 84 participants (young participants=42, middle aged participants=42) with normal hearing sensitivity. The latency of wave V and amplitude of the fundamental frequency, first formant frequency and second formant frequency was calculated. Results showed that the latency of wave V was prolonged for middle-aged individuals for all three-repetition rates compared to the younger participants. The results of the present study also revealed that there was no difference in encoding of fundamental frequency between middle aged and younger individuals at any of the repetition rates. However, increase in repetition rate did affect the encoding of the fundamental frequency in middle-aged individuals. The above results suggest a differential effect of repetition rate on wave V latency and encoding of fundamental frequency. Further, it was noticed that repetition rate did not affect the amplitude of first formant frequency or second formant frequency in middle aged participants compared to the younger participants. PMID:26557355

  10. Evoked potentials in chronic n-hexane intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S. )

    1989-07-01

    Somatosensory, brainstem auditory and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (SEP, BAEP and PVEP) were studied in 5 patients with n-hexane polyneuropathy to determine if the CNS was affected. In SEPs, the median central conduction (N13-to-N20) was normal but the tibial central conduction (N22-to-P40) was delayed. The central conduction time (I-to-V interval) of the BAEP was also prolonged. However, the P100 latency of the PVEP was normal. The present data indicate that the spinal cord and the brainstem are primarily affected in chronic n-hexane intoxication.

  11. Somatosensory evoked potentials in syringomyelia.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, N E; Frith, R W; Synek, V M

    1986-01-01

    The two types of upper limb somatosensory evoked potential abnormality observed in nine patients with syringomyelia were reduced amplitude or absent cervical potentials and an abnormal central conduction time. Although this pattern of abnormalities resembles that observed in other intrinsic spinal cord lesions, it differs from peripheral nerve diseases and cervical radiculopathy in which the central conduction time is normal. PMID:3806117

  12. Auditory and Visual Evoked Potentials in Individuals with Organic and Cultural-Familial Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurron, Montserrat; Diaz, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    Brainstem, middle-latency, and long-latency auditory-evoked potentials and visual-evoked potentials were recorded for 66 individuals (ages 9-19) in the following comparison groups: cultural-familial mentally retarded, organically mentally retarded, and nonretarded. Target stimuli were evaluated more slowly by both groups with mental retardation.…

  13. Evoked Potentials and Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, John P.; Schafer, Edward W. P.

    Evidence of a relationship between the electrical responses of the human brain and psychometric measure of intelligence is presented. These involuntary cortical responses, known as average evoked potentials are considered to be the electrical signs of information processing by the brain. The time delays of these responses from presentation of a…

  14. Toneburst-evoked auditory brainstem response in a leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx.

    PubMed

    Tripovich, J S; Purdy, S C; Hogg, C; Rogers, T L

    2011-01-01

    Toneburst-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded in a captive subadult male leopard seal. Three frequencies from 1 to 4 kHz were tested at sound levels from 68 to 122 dB peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL). Results illustrate brainstem activity within the 1-4 kHz range, with better hearing sensitivity at 4 kHz. As is seen in human ABR, only wave V is reliably identified at the lower stimulus intensities. Wave V is present down to levels of 82 dB peSPL in the right ear and 92 dB peSPL in the left ear at 4 kHz. Further investigations testing a wider frequency range on seals of various sex and age classes are required to conclusively report on the hearing range and sensitivity in this species. PMID:21303028

  15. Electrically-Evoked Frequency-Following Response (EFFR) in the Auditory Brainstem of Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies. PMID:25244253

  16. Evidence from Auditory Nerve and Brainstem Evoked Responses for an Organic Brain Lesion in Children with Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student, M.; Sohmer, H.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve the question as to whether children with autistic traits have an organic nervous system lesion, auditory nerve and brainstem evoked responses were recorded in a group of 15 children (4 to 12 years old) with autistic traits. (Author)

  17. Human auditory evoked potentials. I - Evaluation of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.; Krausz, H. I.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen distinct components can be identified in the scalp recorded average evoked potential to an abrupt auditory stimulus. The early components occurring in the first 8 msec after a stimulus represent the activation of the cochlea and the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The middle latency components occurring between 8 and 50 msec after the stimulus probably represent activation of both auditory thalamus and cortex but can be seriously contaminated by concurrent scalp muscle reflex potentials. The longer latency components occurring between 50 and 300 msec after the stimulus are maximally recorded over fronto-central scalp regions and seem to represent widespread activation of frontal cortex.

  18. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Murad; Bay?r, Ömer; Yüceege, Melike B; Karagöz, Tu?ba; F?rat, Hikmet; Özdek, Ali; Ak?n, ?stemihan; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2015-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) provokes oxidative stress and ischemia, which affects the central nervous system. The degeneration of neurons in the brainstem due to periodic hypoxia can be evaluated by vestibular and audiologic tests. The objective of this study is to determine brainstem damage in severe OSAS patients with the help of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses. Prospective, randomize, double-blind. Research-training hospital. We compared cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) responses between severe OSAS patients and a control group. 54 patients were included and divided into the OSAS group, with severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI >70), and a control group with snoring without OSAS (AHI <5). Both groups underwent cVEMP. Bilateral recordings with simultaneous binaural logon stimulations were used during VEMP recordings. The existing p1n1 and n2p2 responses, p1, n1, n2, and p2 latencies and amplitudes, and p1n1 and n2p2 intervals were measured. Statistically significant differences were revealed between patients and controls for the response rate of the p1n1, n2p2 and p1n1, n2p2 amplitudes. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the latencies of p1, n1, n2 and p2, or the p1n1 and n2p2 intervals. The VEMP response rate was lower in severe OSAS patients, and all amplitudes were shorter than in healthy subjects. VEMP recordings in severe OSAS subjects demonstrates abnormalities in brainstem pathways. It appears that brainstem damage in severe OSAS can be detected by cVEMP recordings. PMID:25288372

  19. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  20. The clinical significance of the P15 wave of the somatosensory evoked potential in tentorial herniation.

    PubMed

    Momma, F; Tsutsui, T; Symon, L; Ono, M

    1987-09-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation and auditory brainstem evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded in 16 comatose patients who had suffered transtentorial herniation (TH) due to intracranial haematoma, hydrocephalus or tumour. An attempt was made to correlate the changes in the N14-P15 component of the central conduction time (CCT) and the I-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) of the BAEP with the clinical severity of TH. The N14-P15 component was not affected in seven patients at the diencephalic or early third-nerve stage, and six of these seven showed normal I-V IPLs. All six patients at the late third-nerve/midbrain stage or worse, however, showed abnormalities in the N14-P15 components. Interestingly, five patients showed dissociation of SEP and BAEP abnormalities suggesting a differential sensitivity of the medial and lateral lemnisci in the brainstem to ischaemia and/or compression. All five patients in whom the P15 potential was absent on either side had a poor outcome and there was a correlation between the electrical failure in the N14-P15 component and the degree of brainstem damage caused by TH as assessed clinically. Reversible loss of the P15 potential by brainstem retraction has been shown in intraoperative SEP monitoring during aneurysm surgery. Prolonged compression of the upper brainstem seems to cause irreversible loss of the P15 which should be regarded as being due to irrecoverable brainstem dysfunction. PMID:2891061

  1. SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP III: EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of visual (VEP) and chemosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) in occupational and environmental health is briefly reviewed. VEPs have been used extensively in experimental neurotoxicology and play an increasing role in human neurotoxicity testing. The similarity of VE...

  2. Association of Hemoglobin levels and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses in Lead-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Decreased blood hemoglobin (HbB) levels and anemia have been associated with abnormal brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Lead (Pb) exposure has also been associated with anemia and aberrant BAER. This study investigated the relationship between HbB level and BAER wave latency and amplitude in Pb-exposed Andean children. Design and methods Sixty-six children aged 2 to 15 years (mean age: 9.1; SD: 3.3) living in Pb-contaminated villages were screened for HbB levels, blood Pb (PbB) levels and BAER latencies and amplitudes. Results The mean HbB level observed in the study group was 11.9 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 8.6–14.8 g/dL). The mean HbB level corrected for altitude was 10.3 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 6.9–13.1 g/dL), and suggestive of anemia. The mean PbB level was 49.3 ?g/dL (SD: 30.1; range: 4.4–119.1 ?g/dL) and indicative of Pb poisoning. Spearman Rho correlation analyses revealed significant associations between the BAER absolute latencies and HbB level, indicating that as the HbB level decreased, the BAER wave latency increased. Children with low HbB levels (?11 g/dL) showed significantly prolonged absolute latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and V compared to the children with normal HbB levels. Although a significant relationship between HbB and BAER waves was observed, no significant associations between PbB level and BAER parameters were found. Conclusion Low hemoglobin levels may diminish auditory sensory-neural function, and is therefore an important variable to consider when assessing BAER in children with anemia and/or Pb exposure. PMID:22735387

  3. Canine brainstem auditory evoked responses are not clinically impacted by head size or breed.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Debra L; Scheifele, Peter M; Clark, John Greer

    2013-02-17

    Accurate assessment of canine hearing is essential to decrease the incidence of hereditary deafness in predisposed breeds and to substantiate hearing acuity. The Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) is a widely accepted, objective test used in humans and animals for estimation of hearing thresholds and deafness diagnosis. In contrast to humans, testing and recording parameters for determination of normal values for canine hearing are not available. Conflicting information concerning breed and head size effects on canine BAER tests are major contributors preventing this normalization. The present study utilized standard head measurement techniques coupled with BAER testing and recording parameters modeled from humans to examine the effect canine head size and breed have on BAER results. Forty-three adult dogs from fourteen different breeds had head size measurements and BAER tests performed. The mean latencies compared by breed for waves I, II, III, IV, and V were as follows: 1.46±0.49 ms, 2.52±0.54 ms, 3.45±0.41 ms, 4.53±0.83 ms and 5.53±0.43 ms, respectively. The mean wave I-V latency interval for all breeds was 3.69 ms. All dogs showed similar waveform morphology, structures, including the presence of five waves occurring within 11 ms after stimulus presentation and a significant trough occurring after Wave V. All of the waveform morphology for our subjects occurred with consistent interpeak latencies as shown by statistical testing. All animals had diagnostic results within the expected ranges for each wave latency and interwave interval allowing diagnostic evaluation. Our results establish that neither differences in head size nor breed impact determination of canine BAER waveform morphology, latency, or hearing sensitivity for diagnostic purposes. The differences in canine head size do not have a relevant impact on canine BAERs and are not clinically pertinent to management or diagnostic decisions. PMID:23262145

  4. Evoked potential application to study of echolocation in cetaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supin, Alexander Ya.; Nactigall, Paul E.; Pawloski, Jeffrey; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2002-05-01

    The evoked-potential (EP) method is effective in studies of hearing capabilities of cetaceans. However, until now EP studies in cetaceans were performed only in conditions of passive hearing by recording EP to external stimuli. Can this method be applied to study active echolocation in odontocetes? To answer this question, auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR) were recorded in a false killer whale while the animal echolocated a target within an experiment in which the animal reported the target present or absent. The ABR collection was triggered by echolocation clicks. In these conditions, the recorded ABR pattern contained a duplicate set of waves. A comparison of ABR wave delays recorded during echolocation with those recorded during regular external stimulation has shown that the first set of waves is a response to the emitted click whereas the second one is a response to the echo. Both responses, to the emitted click and to the echo, were of comparable amplitude in spite of the intensity difference of these two sounds of more than 40 dB near the animal's head. This finding indicates some mechanisms releasing responses to echoes from masking by loud emitted clicks. The evoked-potential method may be productive to investigate these mechanisms.

  5. [Multimodal evoked potentials in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Somma-Mauvais, H; Régis, H; Gastaut, J L; Gastaut, J A; Farnarier, G

    1990-01-01

    We have studied 95 HIV seropositive patients (77 males and 18 females; mean age: 31 years): 67 had no neurological symptoms or signs, 28 had various neurological symptoms and signs. This study included a full multimodal evoked potentials (MEP) assessment: visual evoked potentials by flash and reversal checkerboard; brainstem auditory evoked potentials; somatosensory evoked potentials obtained by stimulation of the median nerve. Patient evaluation further included: electroencephalography, electromyography with measurement of conduction velocities and neuroimaging (brain CT scan and/or MRI). We found abnormal MEP for all modalities. The prevalence of abnormal results was high in neurological symptomatic patients; in non neurological ones, the changes tended to be more frequent with the progression of the HIV infection. Whatever the stage of the disease, the various modes were equally affected. MEP were abnormal in 54.7 p. 100 of the cases: in 41.8 p. 100 (28/67) of patient without neurological signs (in 4/12 of fully asymptomatic subjects, 11/34 ARC patients and 13/21 AIDS patients) vs 85.7 p. 100 of neurological symptomatic patients. In neurological asymptomatic patients, a similar proportion of abnormal MEP was found in asymptomatic and ARC patients, while the evolution into AIDS was associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal MEP. In the latter group, MEP changes were nearly as frequent as in neurological symptomatic patients. Comparison between MEP and other electrophysiological procedures (EEG, EMG) and with neuroimaging techniques (CT Scan, MRI) showed the high sensitivity of the MEP technique at all stages of the disease. EMG was a sensitive method and complementary to MEP. The EEG and neuroimaging techniques showed abnormalities principally at the neurological symptomatic stage. Previous studies could not be properly compared.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2184485

  6. Startle evoked movement is delayed in older adults: implications for brainstem processing in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tresch, Ursina A.; Perreault, Eric J.; Honeycutt, Claire F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little attention has been given to how age affects the neural processing of movement within the brainstem. Since the brainstem plays a critical role in motor control throughout the whole body, having a clear understanding of deficits in brainstem function could provide important insights into movement deficits in older adults. A unique property of the startle reflex is its ability to involuntarily elicit planned movements, a phenomenon referred to as startReact. The noninvasive startReact response has previously been used to probe both brainstem utilization and motor planning. Our objective was to evaluate deficits in startReact hand extension movements in older adults. We hypothesized that startReact hand extension will be intact but delayed. Electromyography was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle to detect startle and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) to quantify movement onset in both young (24 ± 1) and older adults (70 ± 11). Subjects were exposed to a startling loud sound when prepared to extend their hand. Trials were split into those where a startle did (SCM+) and did not (SCM?) occur. We found that startReact was intact but delayed in older adults. SCM+ onset latencies were faster than SCM? trials in both the populations, however, SCM+ onset latencies were slower in older adults compared to young (? = 8 msec). We conclude that the observed age?related delay in the startReact response most likely arises from central processing delays within the brainstem. PMID:24907294

  7. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  8. Color Evoked Potentials in Adults and Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carroll T.; And Others

    This paper discusses recent studies of the adult visual evoked potential (VEP) which have indicated that specific components of the complex waveform obtained are related to the three basic color processes, and that these components interact in ways that seem to agree with opponent-colors phenomena. The components identified as being related to the…

  9. [Monitoring somatosensory evoked potentials during carotid endarterectomy].

    PubMed

    Fetter, T; Horsch, S; Haupt, W F; Ktenidis, K

    1995-10-01

    The tromboembolic and ischemic events during carotid endarterectomy can be avoided or detected with appropriate monitoring. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from the parietal cortex correlate with the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery. The good evoked responses after cross-clamping of the carotid artery indicate a sufficient collateral circulation, enabling a surgery without shunt, thus minimizing the risk of embolisation. Insufficient collateral circulation after cross-camping results in an amplitude reduction of the parietal N20-P25 complex of more than 50%. In this case an ischemic event can be prevented by shunting. As a total 83 carotid endarterectomies were done. In 65 cases (78.3%) the evoked potentials showed no significant alteration, and no postoperative neurological deficit occurred. Seven patients (8.45%) needed to be operated with a shunt, because of cross-clamping ischaemia. One of them presented a transient postoperative hemiparesis, which was predicted by the long-term loss of the SEP-s, and which resolved within 4 hours. Seven further patients (8.45%)--operated primarily with shunt, and 4 patients (4.8%)--monitored with transcranial Doppler sonography, showed no postoperative neurological deficit. We found that median nerve somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during carotid endarterectomy is a simple, sensitive and reliable method. PMID:7478464

  10. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Akin, F W; Murnane, O D

    2001-10-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency electromyograms evoked by high-level acoustic stimuli recorded from surface electrodes over the tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. These responses are presumed to originate in the saccule. The purpose of this preliminary report is to provide an overview of our initial experience with the VEMP by describing the responses obtained in five subjects. Click-evoked VEMPs were present at short latencies in two normal-hearing subjects, one patient with profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and one patient with a severe sensorineural hearing loss due to Meniere's disease. Additionally, VEMPs were absent in a patient with profound sensorineural hearing loss following removal of a cerebellopontine angle tumor. The amplitude of the VEMP was influenced by the amount of background activity of the SCM muscle, stimulus level, and stimulus frequency. Tone-burst evoked responses showed an inverse relationship between stimulus frequency and response latency. VEMPs may prove to be a reliable technique in the clinical assessment of vestibular function. PMID:11699815

  11. Laterality of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Murofushi, Toshihisa; Ochiai, Atsushi; Ozeki, Hidenori; Iwasaki, Shinichi

    2004-02-01

    To clarify the laterality of acoustically evoked vestibulocollic reflexes with a short latency (vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, VEMPs). responses on the bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs) to unilateral acoustic stimulation were studied. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were enrolled. Surface electrodes were placed on the upper half of each SCM (active) and on the lateral end of the upper sternum (reference). Clicks and 500-Hz tone-bursts (95dB nHL) were used. All subjects showed positive-negative biphasic responses on the ipsilateral SCM by clicks and tone-bursts. Click-stimulation of 41 of the 42 ears did not evoke any response on the contralateral SCM. However, in one ear, positive-negative biphasic responses were evoked on the contralateral SCM. Recordings on the contralateral SCM by tone-bursts showed no response in 32 ears, small positive-negative biphasic responses in four ears, and small negative-positive biphasic responses in six ears. These findings show that VEMPs are ipsilateral-dominant, basically consistent with the hypothesis that they are of saccular origin. PMID:15035558

  12. Mobile-phone pulse triggers evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Simona; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L; Marino, Andrew A

    2010-01-18

    If mobile-phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are hazardous, as suggested in the literature, processes or mechanisms must exist that allow the body to detect the fields. We hypothesized that the low-frequency pulses produced by mobile phones (217 Hz) were detected by sensory transduction, as evidenced by the ability of the pulses to trigger evoked potentials (EPs). Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from six standard locations in 20 volunteers and analyzed to detect brain potentials triggered by a pulse of the type produced by mobile phones. Evoked potentials having the expected latency were found in 90% of the volunteers, as assessed using a nonlinear method of EEG analysis. Evoked potentials were not detected when the EEG was analyzed using time averaging. The possibility of systematic error was excluded by sham-exposure analyses. The results implied that mobile-phones trigger EP at the rate of 217 Hz during ordinary phone use. Chronic production of the changes in brain activity might be pertinent to the reports of health hazards among mobile-phone users. PMID:19961898

  13. Evaluation of sensory evoked potentials in Long Evans rats gestationally exposed to mercury (Hg0) vapor.

    PubMed

    Herr, David W; Chanda, Sushmita M; Graff, Jaimie E; Barone, Stanley S; Beliles, Robert P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2004-11-01

    Mercury is known to alter neuronal function and has been shown to cross the placental barrier. These experiments were undertaken to examine if gestational exposure to mercury vapor (Hg(0)) would result in alterations in sensory neuronal function in adult offspring. Dams were exposed to 0 or 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) for 2 h/day from gestational days 6-15. This exposure paradigm has been shown to approximate a maximal tolerated dose of Hg(0) for the dams. Between postnatal days 140-168, male and female offspring (one of each gender/dam) were examined using a battery of sensory evoked potentials. Peripheral nerve action potentials, nerve conduction velocity, somatosensory evoked responses (cortical and cerebellar), brainstem auditory evoked responses, pattern evoked potentials, and flash evoked potentials were quantified. Gestational exposure to 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) did not significantly alter any of the evoked responses, although there was a suggestion of a decrease in compound nerve action potential (CNAP) amplitudes in male animals for the 3 mA stimulus condition. However, this possible change in CNAP amplitudes was not replicated in a second experiment. All evoked potentials exhibited predictable changes as the stimulus was modified. This shows conclusively that the evoked responses were under stimulus control, and that the study had sufficient statistical power to detect changes of these magnitudes. These results indicate that gestational exposure to 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) did not result in changes in responses evoked from peripheral nerves, or the somatosensory, auditory, or visual modalities. PMID:15310857

  14. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in central vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short latency manifestations of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulocollic reflexes that originate from the utricle and saccule. Although cervical and ocular VEMPs have mostly been applied to peripheral vestibular disorders, the characteristics and the diagnostic values of VEMPs have been expanded to assess the function of the central otolithic pathways. In the central nervous system, the cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) are mediated by the vestibular nuclei and uncrossed medial vestibulospinal tract descending in the lower brainstem and spinal cord. In contrast, the ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs) reflect the function of the vestibular nuclei and the crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) pathways, mostly contained in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Therefore, lesions involving the vestibular nuclei can present abnormalities of both cVEMPs and oVEMPs. The medullary lesions involving the descending MLF or the spinal accessory nucleus impair cVEMPs. In contrast, the lesions involving the MLF, the crossed ventral tegmental tract, oculomotor nuclei and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal can impair oVEMPs. Patients with unilateral cerebellar infarctions may show abnormal VEMPs especially when they have the ocular tilt reaction. Delayed responses of VEMPs are characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS). Reduced VEMP responses can be observed in patients with vestibular migraine. VEMPs are useful in evaluating central as well as peripheral otolithic function that are not readily defined by conventional vestibular function tests, and can aid in detecting and localizing central lesions, especially silent brainstem lesions such as tiny infarctions or MS plaques. PMID:26239221

  15. Far-field brainstem responses evoked by vestibular and auditory stimuli exhibit increases in interpeak latency as brain temperature is decreased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. F.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreasing of brain temperature on the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in rats was investigated. Voltage pulses, applied to a piezoelectric crystal attached to the skull, were used to evoke stimuli in the auditory system by means of bone-conducted vibrations. The responses were recorded at 37 C and 34 C brain temperatures. The peaks of the BAER recorded at 34 C were delayed in comparison with the peaks from the 37 C wave, and the later peaks were more delayed than the earlier peaks. These results indicate that an increase in the interpeak latency occurs as the brain temperature is decreased. Preliminary experiments, in which responses to brief angular acceleration were used to measure the brainstem vestibular evoked response (BVER), have also indicated increases in the interpeak latency in response to the lowering of brain temperature.

  16. Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man.

    PubMed Central

    Delbeke, J; McComas, A J; Kopec, S J

    1978-01-01

    Surface electrodes have been used to record potentials evoked in the lumbosacral region of 15 healthy volunteers after tibial nerve stimulation. By monitoring the M waves and H reflexes in the triceps surae muslces and by comparing the responses recorded over the roots with those over the lower cord, it was possible to identify the neural substrates responsible for several of the components in the responses. The findings are compared with those of previous studies in man and in other mammalian preparations. PMID:650237

  17. [Kinesthetic brain evoked potentials in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, S A; Liubimov, N N; Danilov, V M; Linchuk, A D

    1999-01-01

    Cortical kinesthetic evoked potentials (KEPs) of the brain to passive radiocarpal flexion of the hand in 16 schizophrenic patients with catatonic syndrome have been studied. Significant changes of amplitude and time parameters of the early components of the KERs were shown in patients being in the catatonic substupor state, as well as normalization of these parameters after the disappearance of catatonic symptoms. It is suggested that the phenomenon of excessive exitation of corpus striatum leads to irritation of motor zones of cerebral cortex regulating the processes of proprioceptive information transmission in the kinesthetic analyzer, which is accompanied by sensory projections blockade, is the basis of substuporous states. PMID:10319400

  18. Mapping the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP).

    PubMed

    Colebatch, James G

    2012-01-01

    Effects of different electrode placements and indifferent electrodes were investigated for the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). In 5 normal volunteers, the motor point of the left SCM was identified and an electrode placed there. A grid of 7 additional electrodes was laid out, along and across the SCM, based upon the location of the motor point. One reference electrode was placed over the sternoclavicular joint and another over C7. There were clear morphological changes with differing recording sites and for the two reference electrodes, but the earliest and largest responses were recorded from the motor point. The C7 reference affected the level of rectified EMG and was associated with an initial negativity in some electrodes. The latencies of the p13 potentials increased with distance from the motor point but the n23 latencies did not. Thus the p13 potential behaved as a travelling wave whereas the n23 behaved as a standing wave. The C7 reference may be contaminated by other evoked myogenic activity. Ideally recordings should be made with an active electrode over the motor point. PMID:22699150

  19. Prognostic value of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Karin; Stillesjö, Fredrik; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2015-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) obtained during cochlear implantation (CI) can predict CI outcomes. We also aimed to assess whether eABR can be used to select patients for auditory brainstem implantation (ABI). Methods This was a retrospective study. The latencies and quality of the eABR waveforms from adult patients implanted with CI in Uppsala from 2011 to 2013 (n = 74) and four children with severe cochlear abnormalities were analyzed. Speech perception was assessed through postoperative monosyllabic word (MS-word) recognition. A score was constructed for each patient based on wave II, III, and V patency. Results eABR latencies increased towards base stimulation of the cochlea. Wave V for the mid- and low-frequency regions was the most robust. Significant latency shifts occurred in wave V from the low- to high-frequency regions (**P  < 0.01) and from the mid- to high-frequency regions (**P  < 0.01). No correlations were found between waveform score, wave V-III interval, wave V latency, and MS-word scores. A negative eABR always predicted a negative outcome. Among the patients with negative outcomes, 75% had eABRs. Discussion Implant electrical stimulation and brain stem recordings can be used (eABRs wave V) to predict a negative functional outcome. Low-frequency waves V were observed in all patients with successful CI outcomes. Patients for whom eABR waveforms were completely absent had unsuccessful CI outcomes. PMID:25798647

  20. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2015-10-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean±SD, 20.5±3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (P<.001; analysis of variance and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment). The P1, P2, and N2 components showed a significant decrease in peak amplitudes during random thinking (P<.01; P<.001; P<.01, respectively) and nonmeditative focused thinking (P<.01; P<.01; P<.05, respectively). The results suggest that meditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:25380593

  1. [Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in spinocerebellar degeneration].

    PubMed

    Illarioshkin, S N; Fedin, P A; Ivanova-smolenskaia, I A; Solov'ev, O I

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in 66 patients from 56 families with different forms of spinocerebellar degenerations (SCD). 27 patients with olivopontocerebellar degeneration (OPCD), 13 patients suffering from Friedreich's disease (FD), 10 patients with Pierre Marie's familial ataxia (PMFA), 6 patients with late onset cerebellar atrophy (LOCA), and 10 patients with other forms of SCD were examined. The changes in BAEP turned out extremely diverse which can be regarded as a manifestation of marked phenotypic pleomorphism common to SCD. The most considerable changes in BAEP were discovered in FD and OPCD, whereas the least marked ones in PMFA and LOCA. The character and degree of BAEP disorders reflect the spreading and gravity of degenerative alterations in the brain stem in different forms of SCD. The authors discuss the possibility of the use of BAEP for objective estimation of the gravity and spreading of the pathological process as well as of the electrophysiological control over its course in SCD patients. PMID:1333700

  2. SURFACE DISTRIBUTION OF FLASH-EVOKED AND PATTERN REVERSAL-EVOKED POTENTIALS IN HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stimultaneous recording from 21 electrode sites in a 4x4 mm area over the posterior cortex was used to determine the surface distribution of all major peaks which constitute flash evoked potentials (FEPs) and pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs) in hooded rats. Topographica...

  3. Acoustic Responses after Total Destruction of the Cochlear Receptor: Brainstem and Auditory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazals, Yves; Aran, Jean-Marie; Erre, Jean-Paul; Guilhaume, Anne

    1980-10-01

    Acoustically evoked neural activity has been recorded from the brainstem and auditory cortex of guinea pigs after complete destruction of the organ of Corti by the aminoglycosidic antibiotic amikacin. These responses to sound differ in important respects from the evoked potentials normally recorded from the auditory pathways. At the brainstem level they resemble the potentials reported by others after stimulation of the vestibular nerve.

  4. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  5. A comparison of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory brainstem responses for pre-discharge neonatal hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul; Iqbal, Mohammed; Mitchell, Simon

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two hearing-screening methods in well newborn infants within the postnatal ward environment prior to discharge. Eighty-one newborn infants underwent one-step hearing screening by measurement of automated auditory brainstem responses (aABRs), using the ALGO-3 screener. These were compared with a further cohort of 81 neonates who underwent two-step screening using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) followed by aABR. The pass rate was 78/81 (96.3%) for the one-step screen, 74/81 (91.4%) for the two-step screen, and 54/81 (66.7%) for TEOAE alone. There was no significant difference between cohorts in time required to complete the screening protocol. We conclude that pre-discharge hearing screening of newborn infants on the postnatal ward is feasible and acceptable. Use of TEOAE alone for pre-discharge screening is associated with an excessively high false-positive rate. At our institution, one-step screening resulted in a lower referral rate compared with a two-step approach. The performance of aABR screening may be affected by prior TEOAE screening. PMID:14658852

  6. Chirp-modulated visual evoked potential as a generalization of steady state visual evoked potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Tao; Xin, Yi; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2012-02-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are of great concern in cognitive and clinical neuroscience as well as in the recent research field of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In this study, a chirp-modulated stimulation was employed to serve as a novel type of visual stimulus. Based on our empirical study, the chirp stimuli visual evoked potential (Chirp-VEP) preserved frequency features of the chirp stimulus analogous to the steady state evoked potential (SSVEP), and therefore it can be regarded as a generalization of SSVEP. Specifically, we first investigated the characteristics of the Chirp-VEP in the time-frequency domain and the fractional domain via fractional Fourier transform. We also proposed a group delay technique to derive the apparent latency from Chirp-VEP. Results on EEG data showed that our approach outperformed the traditional SSVEP-based method in efficiency and ease of apparent latency estimation. For the recruited six subjects, the average apparent latencies ranged from 100 to 130 ms. Finally, we implemented a BCI system with six targets to validate the feasibility of Chirp-VEP as a potential candidate in the field of BCIs.

  7. Auditory evoked potential P50 as a predictor of neurologic outcome in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Takai, Nobuyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Nakamura, Masataka; Watanabe, Eizo; Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Nomura, Fumio; Mamada, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    In general, a prediction of neurologic outcome with respect to the resuscitated cardiac arrest patients has been performed by the auditory brainstem response and somatic evoked potential. The auditory brainstem response and somatic evoked potential are known as the predictors that correspond to neurologically poor outcome. None of the methods have been established to access neurologically good outcome. Because the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells have been widely used for pathophysiologic analyses concerning the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and also the source of P50 components of the auditory evoked potential has been considered to be the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells, the authors assume that it might be possible that neurologic outcome in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients would be predicted by evaluating the P50 components. The purpose was to examine the P50 as a predictor of neurologic outcome in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients at the early stage from the onset. The P50 components of the auditory evoked potential are recorded in a conditioning-testing paradigm, that is, EEG responses to a pair of auditory stimuli with 500-millisecond interclick interval. In this study, subjects are 10 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, 8 men and 2 women with a mean age of 54.8 years, who were admitted to the intensive care unit after the return of spontaneous circulation, with the presence of both the auditory brainstem response wave V and the somatic evoked potential wave N20 between the period from June 2008 to July 2009. It was found that the presence of the P50 at the early stage from the onset (days 5 ± 1.20) indicates good neurologic outcome, while the absence of the P50 implies poor prognosis. As to the auditory sensory gating of the P50, almost no reduction response to the second stimulus was observed. As a consequence, the evaluation of the P50 in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients would have a possibility to predict neurologically good outcome. PMID:21633256

  8. [Indications for studying evoked potentials in childhood. Methods--indications--value].

    PubMed

    Görke, W

    1986-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EP) represent a valuable addition to currently applied diagnostic methods in neuropediatrics. Profound knowledge of the neurophysiological conditions producing EP-alterations allows basic conclusions, that cannot be gained or replaced by other investigations. EP-investigation demonstrate the existence but not the nature of a lesion in the CNS. Further diagnostic work-up usually will be necessary. Proved EP-alterations produce reproducible diagnostic results and give clues regarding its localization. Evoked potentials can be used as a screening-method for neuropediatric diseases. By follow-up examinations it is possible to show, wether there is progression or not. Testing for evoked potentials is indicated in suspected cerebral palsy in infants, in all cases of psychomotor retardation of unknown origin, impairment of vision or hearing, in cases of brain trauma or in suspected brainstem process, lesions of N. opticus or visual projective systems, neurometabolic or degenerative CNS disease, phacomatosis, progressive myoclonic epilepsy, ceroidlipofuscinosis Jansky-Bielschowski, benign partial epilepsy with extreme somatosensory evoked potentials, Ramsey-Hunt-Syndrome and aplasia of the corpus callosum. PMID:3807249

  9. Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates nociceptive evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick; Bottini, Gabriella; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Vestibular stimulation has been reported to alleviate central pain. Clinical and physiological studies confirm pervasive interactions between vestibular signals and somatosensory circuits, including nociception. However, the neural mechanisms underlying vestibular-induced analgesia remain unclear, and previous clinical studies cannot rule out explanations based on alternative, non-specific effects such as distraction or placebo. To investigate how vestibular inputs influence nociception, we combined caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) with psychophysical and electrocortical responses elicited by nociceptive-specific laser stimulation in humans (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs). Cold water CVS applied to the left ear resulted in significantly lower subjective pain intensity for experimental laser pain to the left hand immediately after CVS, relative both to before CVS and to 1 h after CVS. This transient reduction in pain perception was associated with reduced amplitude of all LEP components, including the early N1 wave reflecting the first arrival of nociceptive input to primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that cold left ear CVS elicits a modulation of both nociceptive processing and pain perception. The analgesic effect induced by CVS could be mediated either by subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, or by direct modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex. PMID:26282602

  10. Somatosensory evoked potentials and blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Alagona, Giovanna; De Maria, Giulia; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Erminio; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Coco, Marinella

    2015-09-01

    We compared, in 20 subjects, the effects of high blood lactate levels on amplitude and latency of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components of lower limb somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), an useful, noninvasive tool for assessing the transmission of the afferent volley from periphery up to the cortex. SEPs were recorded from CPz located over the somatosensory vertex and referenced to FPz with a clavicle ground. Measurements were carried out before, at the end as well as 10 and 20 min after the conclusion of a maximal exercise carried out on a mechanically braked cycloergometer. After the exercise, P2-N2 amplitudes as well as latency of P1 and N1 components showed small but significant reductions. On the contrary, latency of N2 component exhibited a significant increase after the exercise's conclusion. These results suggest that blood lactate appears to have a protective effect against fatigue, at least at level of primary somatosensory cortex, although at the expense of efficiency of adjacent areas. PMID:25876852

  11. Anesthesia control using midlatency auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Nayak, A; Roy, R J

    1998-04-01

    This paper shows the development of a system to control inhalation anesthetic concentration delivered to a patient based upon that patient's midlatency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP's). It was developed and tested in dogs by determining response to the supramaximal stimulus of tail clamping. Prior to tail clamp, the MLAEP was recorded along with inhalational anesthetic concentration and classified as responders or nonresponders as determined by tail clamping. This was performed at a number of different anesthetic levels to obtain a data training set. The MLAEP's were compacted by means of discrete time wavelet transform (DTWT), and together with anesthetic concentration value, a stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) was performed to determine those features which could separate responders from nonresponders. It was determined that only three features were necessary for this recognition. These features were then used to train a four-layer artificial neural network (ANN) to separate the responders from nonresponders. The network was tested using a separate set of data, resulting in a 93% recognition rate in the anesthetic transition zone between responders and nonresponders, and 100% recognition rate outside this zone. The anesthetic controller used this ANN combined with fuzzy logic and rule-based control. A set of ten animal experiments were performed to test the robustness of this controller. Acceptable clinical performance was obtained, showing the feasibility of this approach. PMID:9556958

  12. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  13. Auditory evoked potential measurements with cetaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, David; Cook, Mandy; Bauer, Gordon; Fellner, Wendi; Wells, Randy

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) allow researchers to measure the hearing abilities of animals that would be difficult or impossible to train for behavioral measurements of hearing. The hearing abilities of live-stranded cetaceans and wild dolphins can only be made with AEP techniques. In these situations, time with the animal is often restricted to an hour or less, and there is often little control over the acoustic environment in which the tests are performed. AEP measurements may be made while the animals are in air or in shallow pools. For cetaceans in air, sounds are typically presented with a suction cup jawphone. For cetaceans in water, sounds may be presented in a direct field (with the transducer located at some distance from the test subject) or with a jawphone. In each of these situations it is important to understand how thresholds derived from AEP measurements compare with behavioral hearing measurements. Examples of AEP measurements from wild and live-stranded cetaceans are presented to illustrate their usefulness and the constraints under which these measurements must be made. AEP measurements from bottlenose dolphins in air and in water are also compared with their behavioral audiograms.

  14. Clinical aspects of the visually evoked potential.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, G W

    1977-01-01

    The visually evoked potential (VEP) was studied in normal and abnormal human subjects, and in Rhesus monkeys with central, paracentral, and peripheral photocoagulation lesions. A relatively simple protocol for clinical VEP testing is described. The monkeys showed similar VEP responses but these were smaller in amplitude than those obtained from human subjects. Central, but not paracentral or peripheral retinal lesions were associated with VEP abnormalities. For both monkey and human subjects, some variability of responses between normal and subjects was noted. Generally, there are differences in VEP responses obtained from the affected eye of abnormal subjects who had one eye which could serve as a control, as compared to responses from the normal eye. In these subjects as well as in subjects with two abnormal eyes, computer analysis of digitized VEP data from 10 Hz stimulus responses was performed. Fourier transformation analyses showed abnormalities which could be detected easily by evaluating the pattern of the amplitudes of the fundamental and first three harmonics. With this technique, it was possible to group correctly normal VEP's with eyes with normal visual acuity (greater than or equal to 20/30 or 0.67), and abnormal VEP's with eyes with poor visual acuity (less than 20/30 or 0.67) in 72% of cases. Analysis of the data obtained with 1 Hz and 10 Hz stimulation suggests that the components of the VEP related to visual acuity occur within the first 60-100 msec of the response, corresponding to the primary evoked response of Chiganek. The second, smaller wave of the response complex to 10 Hz flash stimuli corresponds to the primary evoked response, and is closely related to visual acuity. This was further supported in another series in which the digitized data was filtered around the stimulating frequency. It was possible to recognize visually this VEP waveform and subjectively interpret the record correctly in 85% of eyes with regard to visual acuity. Therefore, the clinician can "read" the VEP record in response to nonpatterned flash stimuli. This test was further validated in a series of patients with opacities of the ocular media, such as cataract, corneal scarring, and vitreous hemorrhage. VEP promises to become a procedure of diagnostic and prognostic value in ophthalmology. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 6 D FIGURE 6 E FIGURE 6 F FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C PMID:613533

  15. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations.

    PubMed

    Burkard, R; Jones, S; Jones, T

    1994-04-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8201110

  17. Brain Evoked Potentials and Intelligence: The Hendrickson Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, P. T.; Eysenck, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt to replicate the results with averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) of D. E. Hendrickson and A. E Hendrickson (1982) with 40 adults confirms a negative correlation between AEP variability and IQ. The Hendrickson paradigm is seen as no more than a well-controlled auditory evoked potential. (SLD)

  18. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in vestibular migraine.

    PubMed

    Baier, Bernhard; Stieber, N; Dieterich, M

    2009-09-01

    Sound-induced vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) can be used to investigate saccular function, measured from the tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) in response to loud sound stimuli. The aim of the present study was to assess VEMPs in patients with vestibular migraine and to determine whether saccular function is affected by the disease. Furthermore, tests such as tilts of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and caloric testing were conducted to test whether deficits in the various tests are associated with each other. The amplitude and latency of VEMPs were measured from the SCM in 63 patients with vestibular migraine (median age 47 years; range 24-70 years) and compared with those of 63 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (median age 46 years; range 17-73 years). Of the 63 patients with vestibular migraine, 43 (68%) had reduced EMG-corrected VEMP amplitudes compared to the controls. Thus, the mean of the p13-n23 amplitudes of the vestibular migraine patients were 1.22 (SE +/-0.09) for the right and 1.21 (SE +/-0.09) for the left side, whereas the averaged amplitudes of the 63 healthy controls showed a mean of 1.79 (SE +/-0.09) on the right and of 1.76 (SE +/-0.09) on the left. No difference was seen in the latencies and there was no correlation between VEMP amplitudes, tilts of SVV and caloric testing. Our data on patients with vestibular migraine indicate that the VEMP amplitudes are significantly and bilaterally reduced compared to those of controls. This electrophysiological finding suggests that both peripheral vestibular structures, such as the saccule, but also central vestibular structures are affected. Thus, beside the brainstem, structures in the inner ear also seem to contribute to vertigo in vestibular migraine. PMID:19377861

  19. Using a combination of click- and toneburst-evoked auditory brainstem response measurements to estimate pure-tone thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Gorga, Michael P.; Johnson, Tiffany A.; Kaminski, Jan K.; Beauchaine, Kathryn L.; Garner, Cassie A.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    Design A retrospective medical-record review of evoked-potential and audiometric data was used to determine the accuracy with which click-evoked and toneburst-evoked ABR thresholds predict pure-tone audiometric thresholds. Methods The medical records were reviewed of a consecutive group of patients who were referred for ABR testing for audiometric purposes over the past four years. ABR thresholds were measured for clicks and for several tonebursts, including a single-cycle, Blackman-windowed, 250-Hz toneburst, which has a broad spectrum with little energy above 600 Hz. Typically, the ABR data were collected because the patients were unable to provide reliable estimates of hearing sensitivity, based on behavioral-test techniques, due to developmental level. Data were included only if subsequently obtained behavioral audiometric data were available to which the ABR data could be compared. Almost invariably, the behavioral data were collected after the ABR results were obtained. Because of this, data were included on only those ears for which middle-ear tests (tympanometry, otoscopic examination, pure-tone air- and bone-conduction thresholds) indicated that middle-ear status was similar at the times of both tests. With these inclusion criteria, data were available on 140 ears of 77 subjects. Results Correlation was 0.94 between click-evoked ABR thresholds and the average pure-tone threshold at 2 and 4 kHz. Correlations exceeded 0.92 between ABR thresholds for the 250-Hz toneburst and low-frequency behavioral thresholds (250 Hz, 500 Hz, and the average pure-tone thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz). Similar or higher correlations were observed when ABR thresholds at other frequencies were compared to the pure-tone thresholds at corresponding frequencies. Differences between ABR and behavioral threshold depended on behavioral threshold, with ABR thresholds overestimating behavioral threshold in cases of normal hearing and underestimating behavioral threshold in cases of hearing loss. Conclusions These results suggest that ABR thresholds can be used to predict pure-tone behavioral thresholds for a wide range of frequencies. Although controversial, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that click-evoked ABR thresholds result in reasonable predictions of the average behavioral thresholds at 2 and 4 kHz. However, there were cases for which click-evoked ABR thresholds underestimated hearing loss at these frequencies. There are several other reasons why click-evoked ABR measurements were made, including that they (1) generally result in well-formed responses, (2) assist in determining whether auditory neuropathy exists, and (3) can be obtained in a relatively brief amount of time. Low-frequency thresholds were predicted well by ABR thresholds to a single-cycle, 250-Hz toneburst. In combination, click-evoked and low-frequency toneburst-evoked ABR threshold measurements might be used to quickly provide important clinical information for both ends of the audiogram. These measurements could be supplemented by ABR threshold measurements at other frequencies, if time permits. However, it may be possible to plan initial intervention strategies based on data for these two stimuli. PMID:16446565

  20. [Determination of irreversibility of clinical brain death : Electroencephalography and evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A

    2016-02-01

    Principally, in the fourth update of the rules for the procedure to finally determine the irreversible cessation of function of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem, the importance of an electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are confirmed. This paper presents the reliability and validity of the electrophysiological diagnosis, discusses the amendments in the fourth version of the guidelines and introduces the practical application, problems and sources of error.An EEG is the best established supplementary diagnostic method for determining the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. It should be noted that residual brain activity can often persist for many hours after the onset of brain death syndrome, particularly in patients with primary brainstem lesions. The derivation and analysis of an EEG requires a high level of expertise to be able to safely distinguish artefacts from primary brain activity. The registration of EEGs to demonstrate the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome is extremely time consuming.The BAEPs can only be used to confirm the irreversibility of brain death syndrome in serial examinations or in the rare cases of a sustained wave I or sustained waves I and II. Very often, an investigation cannot be reliably performed because of existing sound conduction disturbances or failure of all potentials even before the onset of clinical brain death syndrome. This explains why BAEPs are only used in exceptional cases.The SEPs of the median nerve can be very reliably derived, are technically simple and with few sources of error. A serial investigation is not required and the time needed for examination is short. For these reasons SEPs are given preference over EEGs and BAEPs for establishing the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. PMID:26785843

  1. Specialization of the auditory processing in harbor porpoise, characterized by brain-stem potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.

    2002-05-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded from the head surface of the three awaked harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Silver disk placed on the skin surface above the vertex bone was used as an active electrode. The experiments were performed at the Karadag biological station (the Crimea peninsula). Clicks and tone bursts were used as stimuli. The temporal and frequency selectivity of the auditory system was estimated using the methods of simultaneous and forward masking. An evident minimum of the BAEPs thresholds was observed in the range of 125-135 kHz, where the main spectral component of species-specific echolocation signal is located. In this frequency range the tonal forward masking demonstrated a strong frequency selectivity. Off-response to such tone bursts was a typical observation. An evident BAEP could be recorded up to the frequencies 190-200 kHz, however, outside the acoustical fovea the frequency selectivity was rather poor. Temporal resolution was estimated by measuring BAER recovery functions for double clicks, double tone bursts, and double noise bursts. The half-time of BAERs recovery was in the range of 0.1-0.2 ms. The data indicate that the porpoise auditory system is strongly adapted to detect ultrasonic closely spaced sounds like species-specific locating signals and echoes.

  2. CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE WITH INTERMITTENT SPIKE DOSES OF CHLORPYRIFOS FAILS TO ALTER BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE (BAERS) IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to pesticides is often characterized by chronic low level exposure with intermittent spiked higher exposures. Cholinergic transmission is involved in auditory structures in the periphery and the brainstem and is altered following chlorpyrifos exposure. This study e...

  3. Bone-conducted evoked myogenic potentials from the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Sheykholeslami, K; Murofushi, T; Kermany, M H; Kaga, K

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to show that bone-conducted clicks and short tone bursts (STBs) can evoke myogenic potentials from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and that these responses are of vestibular origin. Evoked potential responses to bone-conducted auditory stimuli were recorded from the SCMs of 20 normal volunteers and from 12 patients with well-defined lesions of the middle or inner ear or the VIIIth cranial nerve. The subjects, who had various labyrinthine and retro-labyrinthine pathologies, included five patients with bilateral profound conductive hearing loss, two with bilateral acoustic neuroma post-total neurectomy and five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Air- and bone-conducted evoked myogenic potentials in response to clicks and STBs were recorded with surface electrodes over each SCM of each subject. In normal subjects, bone- and air-conducted clicks and STBs evoked biphasic responses from the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The bone-conducted clicks evoked short-latency vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses only in young subjects or in subjects with conductive hearing loss. STBs evoked VEMPs with higher amplitude and better waveform morphology than clicks with the same acoustic intensity. Patients with total VIIIth cranial nerve neurectomy showed no responses to air- or bone-conducted click or STB stimuli. Clear VEMP responses were evoked from patients with conductive or sensorineural hearing loss. It is concluded that loud auditory stimuli delivered by bone- as well as air conduction can evoke myogenic potentials from the SCM. These responses seem to be of vestibular origin. PMID:11099149

  4. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN NEUROTOXICITY TESTING OF WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrophysiological measures appropriate for use in neurotoxicity testing of workers are briefly reviewed. These measures include auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potentials. Relevant human studies are reviewed. Selection criteria, strengths and weaknesses are discussed...

  5. KETAMINE ALTERS RAT FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discovering the neurotransmitters involved in the generation of flash evoked potentials (FEPs) would enhance the use of FEPs in screening for and assessment of neurological damage. Recent evidence suggests that the excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, may be transmitt...

  6. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes. PMID:27017772

  7. Chronic network stimulation enhances evoked action potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, A. N.; Andruska, A.; Boehler, M.; Wheeler, B. C.; Brewer, G. J.

    2010-02-01

    Neurons cultured on multielectrode arrays almost always lack external stimulation except during the acute experimental phase. We have investigated the effects of chronic stimulation during the course of development in cultured hippocampal neural networks by applying paired pulses at half of the electrodes for 0, 1 or 3 r/day for 8 days. Spike latencies increased from 4 to 16 ms as the distance from the stimulus increased from 200 to 1700 µm, suggesting an average of four synapses over this distance. Compared to no chronic stimulation, our results indicate that chronic stimulation increased evoked spike counts per stimulus by 50% at recording sites near the stimulating electrode and increased the instantaneous firing rate. On trials where both pulses elicited responses, spike count was 40-80% higher than when only one of the pulses elicited a response. In attempts to identify spike amplitude plasticity, we found mainly amplitude variation with different latencies suggesting recordings from neurons with different identities. These data suggest plastic network changes induced by chronic stimulation that enhance the reliability of information transmission and the efficiency of multisynaptic network communication.

  8. A Comprehensive Review on Methodologies Employed for Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ruchi; Bokariya, Pradeep; Singh, Smita; Singh, Ramji

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is fundamental to how we appreciate our environment and interact with others. The visual evoked potential (VEP) is among those evoked potentials that are the bioelectric signals generated in the striate and extrastriate cortex when the retina is stimulated with light which can be recorded from the scalp electrodes. In the current paper, we provide an overview of the various modalities, techniques, and methodologies which have been employed for visual evoked potentials over the years. In the first part of the paper, we cast a cursory glance on the historical aspect of evoked potentials. Then the growing clinical significance and advantages of VEPs in clinical disorders have been briefly described, followed by the discussion on the earlier and currently available methods for VEPs based on the studies in the past and recent times. Next, we mention the standards and protocols laid down by the authorized agencies. We then summarize the recently developed techniques for VEP. In the concluding section, we lay down prospective research directives related to fundamental and applied aspects of VEPs as well as offering perspectives for further research to stimulate inquiry into the role of visual evoked potentials in visual processing impairment related disorders.

  9. Evoked potential recording during echolocation in a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supin, Alexander Ya.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Pawloski, Jeffrey; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2003-05-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded in a false killer whale while the animal echolocated a target. The ABR collection was triggered by echolocation clicks of the animal. In these conditions, the recorded ABR pattern contained a duplicate set of waves. A comparison of ABR wave delays recorded during echolocation with those recorded during regular external stimulation with experimenter generated clicks showed that the first set of waves may be a response to the emitted click whereas the second one may be a response to the echo. Both responses, to the emitted click and to the echo, were of comparable amplitude in spite of the intensity difference of these two sounds that may differ by more than 40 dB near the animal's head. This finding indicates the presence of some mechanism of releasing responses to echoes from masking by loud emitted clicks. The evoked-potential method may be productive to investigate these mechanisms.

  10. EVOKED POTENTIALS, PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS WITH HUMAN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tests and test batteries have been developed and implemented for detecting potential neurotoxicity in humans. n some cases test results may suggest specific dysfunction. hile tests in laboratory animals are often used to project the potential for adverse health effect...

  11. On hemispheric differences in evoked potentials to speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.; Benson, P.; Smith, T. S.; Schulman-Galambos, C.; Osier, H.

    1975-01-01

    Confirmation is provided for the belief that evoked potentials may reflect differences in hemispheric functioning that are marginal at best. Subjects were right-handed and audiologically normal men and women, and responses were recorded using standard EEG techniques. Subjects were instructed to listen for the targets while laying in a darkened sound booth. Different stimuli, speech and tone signals, were used. Speech sounds were shown to evoke a response pattern that resembles that to tone or clicks. Analysis of variances on peak amplitude and latency measures showed no significant differences between hemispheres, however, a Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in hemispheres for certain target tasks.

  12. Human auditory evoked potentials. II - Effects of attention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Attention directed toward auditory stimuli, in order to detect an occasional fainter 'signal' stimulus, caused a substantial increase in the N1 (83 msec) and P2 (161 msec) components of the auditory evoked potential without any change in preceding components. This evidence shows that human auditory attention is not mediated by a peripheral gating mechanism. The evoked response to the detected signal stimulus also contained a large P3 (450 msec) wave that was topographically distinct from the preceding components. This late positive wave could also be recorded in response to a detected omitted stimulus in a regular train and therefore seemed to index a stimulus-independent perceptual decision process.

  13. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Piras, Gianluca; Brandolini, Cristina; Castellucci, Andrea; Modugno, Giovanni Carlo

    2013-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of vestibular testing in patients with acoustic neuroma, considering two main aspects: to compare diagnostic sensitivity of the current vestibular tests, especially considering ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) and to identify pre-operative localization of the tumor (inferior vestibular nerve vs. superior vestibular nerve) only with the help of vestibular electrophysiological data. Twenty-six patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma (mainly intracanalicular type) were studied with a full audio-vestibular test battery (pure tone and speech audiometry, caloric bithermal test, vibration-induced nystagmus test (VIN), cervical and OVEMPs). 18 patients (69 %) showed abnormal caloric responses. 12 patients (46.2 %) showed a pattern of VIN test suggestive of vestibular asymmetry. 16 patients (61.5 %) showed abnormal OVEMPs (12 only to AC, 4 both to AC and BC). 10 patients (38.5 %) showed abnormal cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (5 both to AC and BC, 5 only to AC). In one case, results of vestibular evoked potentials and caloric test were confirmed by intra-operative and post-operative findings. Results of electrophysiological tests in AN patients could be helpful for planning the proper surgical approach, considering that sensitivity of every exam is quite low in intracanalicular lesion; clinical data allow a better interpretation of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. PMID:22526579

  14. COMPARABILITY OF RAT AND HUMAN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments was conducted to assess the comparability of physiological processes in rat and human visual systems. n the first set of experiments, transient visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were elicited by the onset of sine-wave gratings of various spatial frequencies....

  15. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  16. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  17. PATTERN REVERSAL VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN AWAKE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for recording pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs) from awake restrained rats has been developed. The procedure of Onofrj et al. was modified to eliminate the need for anesthetic, thereby avoiding possible interactions of the anesthetic with other manipulations of ...

  18. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  19. Changes in visual-evoked potential habituation induced by hyperventilation in migraine.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Gianluca; Currà, Antonio; Sava, Simona Liliana; Alibardi, Alessia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Pierelli, Francesco; Schoenen, Jean

    2010-12-01

    Hyperventilation is often associated with stress, an established trigger factor for migraine. Between attacks, migraine is associated with a deficit in habituation to visual-evoked potentials (VEP) that worsens just before the attack. Hyperventilation slows electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and decreases the functional response in the occipital cortex during visual stimulation. The neural mechanisms underlying deficient-evoked potential habituation in migraineurs remain unclear. To find out whether hyperventilation alters VEP habituation, we recorded VEPs before and after experimentally induced hyperventilation lasting 3 min in 18 healthy subjects and 18 migraine patients between attacks. We measured VEP P100 amplitudes in six sequential blocks of 100 sweeps and habituation as the change in amplitude over the six blocks. In healthy subjects, hyperventilation decreased VEP amplitude in block 1 and abolished the normal VEP habituation. In migraine patients, hyperventilation further decreased the already low block 1 amplitude and worsened the interictal habituation deficit. Hyperventilation worsens the habituation deficit in migraineurs possibly by increasing dysrhythmia in the brainstem-thalamo-cortical network. PMID:20625915

  20. Acoustic responses after total destruction of the cochlear receptor: brainstem and auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Cazals, Y; Aran, J M; Erre, J P; Guilhaume, A

    1980-10-01

    Acoustically evoked neural activity has been recorded from the brainstem and auditory cortex of guinea pigs after complete destruction of the organ of Corti by the aminoglycosidic antibiotic amikacin. These responses to sound differ in important respects from the evoked potentials normally recorded from the auditory pathways. At the brainstem level they resemble the potentials reported by others after stimulation of the vestibular nerve. PMID:6968092

  1. Somatosensory evoked potentials following proprioceptive stimulation of finger in man.

    PubMed

    Mima, T; Terada, K; Maekawa, M; Nagamine, T; Ikeda, A; Shibasaki, H

    1996-09-01

    Brisk passive flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger, produced by using a newly devised instrument, elicited evoked potentials on the scalp. The present study carefully excluded the possible contribution of sensory modalities other than proprioception. The initial part of cortical response was a positive deflexion at the contralateral central area (P1 at 34.6 ms after the stimulus). This was followed by a midfrontal negative wave (N1 at 44.8 ms) and a clear positivity at the contralateral centroparietal area (P2 at 48.0 ms). The evoked responses persisted in spite of the abolition of cutaneous and joint afferents of the finger caused by ischemic anesthesia, but they were lost by ischemic anesthesia of the forearm. Thus, the cortical evoked responses obtained in this study most probably reflect muscle afferent inputs. The scalp distribution of P1 suggested that its cortical generator source was different from that of the N20-P20 components of evoked potentials to electrical median nerve stimulation. Brodmann areas 2 and 3a of human brain, which are known to receive deep receptor inputs, are the most plausible generator sites for the early components of the proprioception-related evoked responses. The amplitude of P2 was related to the velocity but not to the magnitude of movement. In conclusion, the present study established a method for recording the evoked responses to the brisk passive movement of the finger joint, which mainly reflect the dynamic aspects of proprioception mediated through muscle afferent. PMID:8891653

  2. Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis participants

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Maryam Sadat; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Hajabolhassani, Fahimeh; Jalaee, Shohreh; Zakeri, Hassanali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that affects brain and spinal cord. The infratentorial region contains the cerebellum and brainstem. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency myogenic responses. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a manifestation of vestibulocolic reflex and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) contributes to the linear vestibular–ocular reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate cVEMP and oVEMP in MS patients with and without infratentorial plaques and compare the findings with normal controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, latency and amplitude of cVEMP and oVEMP were recorded in 15 healthy females with mean age of 31.13±9.27 years, 17 female MS patients with infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 29.88±8.93 years, and 17 female MS patients without infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 30.58±8.02 years. All patients underwent a complete clinical neurological evaluation and brain MRI scanning. Simple random sampling method was used in this study and data were analyzed using one way ANOVA through SPSS v22. Results: The latency of N1-P1 and P13 in MS participants with and without infratentorial plaques were significantly prolonged compared to normal controls (p<0.001). Additionally latency of P13- N23-N1 and P1 in MS patients with infratentorial plaques were significantly prolonged compared to patients without infratentorial plaques subjects (p<0.001). Conclusion: Abnormality of both cVEMP and oVEMP in MS patient with infratentorial plaque are more than that of MS patient without infratentorial plaque. Recording both ocular and cervical VEMPs are appropriate electrophysiologic methods assessing the function of both ascending and descending central vestibular pathways. PMID:26034721

  3. High frequency bone conduction auditory evoked potentials in the guinea pig: Assessing cochlear injury after ossicular chain manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M J; Bird, P A; Vlajkovic, S M; Thorne, P R

    2015-12-01

    Permanent high frequency (>4 kHz) sensorineural hearing loss following middle ear surgery occurs in up to 25% of patients. The aetiology of this loss is poorly understood and may involve transmission of supra-physiological forces down the ossicular chain to the cochlea. Investigating the mechanisms of this injury using animal models is challenging, as evaluating cochlear function with evoked potentials is confounded when ossicular manipulation disrupts the normal air conduction (AC) pathway. Bone conduction (BC) using clinical bone vibrators in small animals is limited by poor transducer output at high frequencies sensitive to trauma. The objectives of the present study were firstly to evaluate a novel high frequency bone conduction transducer with evoked auditory potentials in a guinea pig model, and secondly to use this model to investigate the impact of middle ear surgical manipulation on cochlear function. We modified a magnetostrictive device as a high frequency BC transducer and evaluated its performance by comparison with a calibrated AC transducer at frequencies up to 32 kHz using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP). To mimic a middle ear traumatising stimulus, a rotating bur was brought in to contact with the incudomalleal complex and the effect on evoked cochlear potentials was observed. BC-evoked potentials followed the same input-output function pattern as AC potentials for all ABR frequencies. Deterioration in CAP and SP thresholds was observed after ossicular manipulation. It is possible to use high frequency BC to evoke responses from the injury sensitive basal region of the cochlea and so not rely on AC with the potential confounder of conductive hearing loss. Ongoing research explores how these findings evolve over time, and ways in which injury may be reduced and the cochlea protected during middle ear surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26493491

  4. The combined monitoring of brain stem auditory evoked potentials and intracranial pressure in coma. A study of 57 patients.

    PubMed Central

    García-Larrea, L; Artru, F; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J; Mauguière, F

    1992-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) was carried out in 57 comatose patients for periods ranging from 5 hours to 13 days. In 53 cases intracranial pressure (ICP) was also simultaneously monitored. The study of relative changes of evoked potentials over time proved more relevant to prognosis than the mere consideration of "statistical normality" of waveforms; thus progressive degradation of the BAEPs was associated with a bad outcome even if the responses remained within normal limits. Contrary to previous reports, a normal BAEP obtained during the second week of coma did not necessarily indicate a good vital outcome; it could, however, do so in cases with a low probability of secondary insults. The simultaneous study of BAEPs and ICP showed that apparently significant (greater than 40 mm Hg) acute rises in ICP were not always followed by BAEP changes. The stability of BAEP's despite "significant" ICP rises was associated in our patients with a high probability of survival, while prolongation of central latency of BAEPs in response to ICP modifications was almost invariably followed by brain death. Continuous monitoring of brainstem responses provided a useful physiological counterpart to physical parameters such as ICP. Serial recording of cortical EPs should be added to BAEP monitoring to permit the early detection of rostrocaudal deterioration. Images PMID:1402970

  5. Establishing an evoked-potential vision-tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence to support the feasibility of an evoked-potential vision-tracking system. The topics discussed are stimulator construction, verification of the photic driving response in the electroencephalogram, a method for performing frequency separation, and a transient-analysis example. The final issue considered is that of object multiplicity (concurrent visual stimuli with different flashing rates). The paper concludes by discussing several applications currently under investigation.

  6. Effect of musical modelling on late auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Paulus, W

    1988-01-01

    Late auditory evoked potentials were recorded in four subjects during musical tasks. A PDP 12 computer synchronized stimuli, which were produced by an integrated circuit, and recording with the help of a quartz time basis. The content of each experiment was different modelling of an ambiguous identical acoustic stimulus. In experiment 1, subjects had to model a 6-note melody according to the classic metric foot. In experiment 2, segmentation of an 8-note melody into 5- and 3- versus 3- and 5-tone motifs had to be performed. In experiment 1 an intra-individually reliable, but inter-individually variable neurophysiological correlate was detected during the heavy tone: (1) positivity, (2) negativity, (3) alpha blocking and (4) DC shift. Experiment 2 yielded an intra- and inter-individually reliable positive DC shift of about 4 microV between the two motifs. Myogenic, ocular, dermal, respiratory or electrocardiographic artefacts were excluded in each case. The results indicate that conclusions from evoked potentials to musical perception might be possible and that possible modelling mechanisms with subsequent undesirable influence on recordings have to be considered in any kind of evoked potential experimental design. PMID:3169066

  7. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise generates memory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Andrillon, Thomas; Kouider, Sid; Agus, Trevor; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Experience continuously imprints on the brain at all stages of life. The traces it leaves behind can produce perceptual learning [1], which drives adaptive behavior to previously encountered stimuli. Recently, it has been shown that even random noise, a type of sound devoid of acoustic structure, can trigger fast and robust perceptual learning after repeated exposure [2]. Here, by combining psychophysics, electroencephalography (EEG), and modeling, we show that the perceptual learning of noise is associated with evoked potentials, without any salient physical discontinuity or obvious acoustic landmark in the sound. Rather, the potentials appeared whenever a memory trace was observed behaviorally. Such memory-evoked potentials were characterized by early latencies and auditory topographies, consistent with a sensory origin. Furthermore, they were generated even on conditions of diverted attention. The EEG waveforms could be modeled as standard evoked responses to auditory events (N1-P2) [3], triggered by idiosyncratic perceptual features acquired through learning. Thus, we argue that the learning of noise is accompanied by the rapid formation of sharp neural selectivity to arbitrary and complex acoustic patterns, within sensory regions. Such a mechanism bridges the gap between the short-term and longer-term plasticity observed in the learning of noise [2, 4-6]. It could also be key to the processing of natural sounds within auditory cortices [7], suggesting that the neural code for sound source identification will be shaped by experience as well as by acoustics. PMID:26455302

  8. Improved processing of the steady-state evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Norcia, A M

    1993-01-01

    Two related procedures for estimating the parameters of steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are introduced. The first procedure involves an initial stage of digital bandpass filtering followed by a Discrete Fourier Transform analysis. In the second method, a high resolution method based on parametric modelling is applied to the filtered data. The digital pre-filter consists of a non-phase shifting Chebychev bandpass filter. The parametric modelling method considers the evoked-response-plus-noise distribution to consist of a set of exponentially damped sinusoids. The frequency, amplitude, phase and damping factors of these components are estimated by calculating the mean of the forward and backward prediction filters and linear regression. We compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new procedures to the conventional Discrete Fourier Transform method for Monte Carlo simulations utilizing known sinusoids buried in white noise, known sinusoids buried in human EEG noise and for a sample of visual evoked potential data. Both of the new methods produce substantially more accurate and less variable estimates of test sinusoid amplitude. For VEP recording, the EEG background noise level is reduced by 5-6 dB over that obtained with the DFT. The new methods also provide approximately 5 dB better SNR than the DFT for detection of sinusoids based on the Rayleigh statistic. The parametric modelling approach is particularly suited for the analysis of very short data records including cycle-by-cycle analysis of the SSEP. PMID:7688287

  9. Determination of sources using brain-evoked potential maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Avner; Jewett, Don L.

    1993-08-01

    Methods to localize the sources of Brain Evoked Potential Maps based on modeling of the sources as point dipoles have been widely used for more than twenty years. Such methods still lack a basic theory which can answer questions regarding the resolution and uniqueness of the results in the context of a realistic head model, with no a prior restrictions on the sources. In the first part of the paper we present simple physical models for the origin of far-field potentials associated with the auditory and somatosensory systems. An action potential travels along a straight axon can only produce a quadrupole field at far distances. We show that the far field potentials must originate when the action potential passes through a bent axon or through changes in the conductivities or in the external boundaries of the volume conductor surrounding the axon. We discuss the question of uniqueness of the solution for the 'inverse problem' of evoked potentials. This problem involved the reconstruction of the location and pattern of activity of the neuronal generators in the brain, given the map of the scalp electric potentials. We show that in a head shape with a realistic geometry spatially distinct points, line or open surface generators cannot create the same scalp potential map. The same applies to two non-overlapping generators occupying finite volumes.

  10. Methods for quantifying intra- and inter-subject variability of evoked potential data applied to the multifocal visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Sangita; Ales, Justin; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley A

    2007-09-30

    Differences in cortical geometry within and between subjects can complicate multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) and standard evoked potential (EP) intra- and inter-subject comparisons. We present methods for aligning temporal intra- and inter-subject data prior to comparison. Multiple groups have informally observed that the two dominant temporal principal components (PCs) of the pattern reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) obtained with singular value decomposition (SVD) exhibit little inter-subject variability relative to the inter-subject variability of the raw VEP. We present methods that employ the temporal PCs to formally quantify intra- and inter-subject variability of the mfVEP. When SVD was applied to data from eight subjects separately, it was found that two PCs accounted for, on average, 73% of intra-subject variance. When a single SVD was applied to combined data from multiple subjects, it was found that two PCs accounted for 67% of inter-subject variance. We used the 2D temporal subspaces derived from SVD as a basis for intra- and inter-subject comparisons. PMID:17673298

  11. Multimodal evoked potentials in multiple system and late onset cerebellar atrophies.

    PubMed

    Arpa, J; López-Pajares, R; Cruz-Martínez, A; Palomo, F; Ferrer, T; Caminero, A B; Rodríguez-Albariño, A; Alonso, M; Lacasa, T; Nos, J

    1995-01-01

    Forty subjects were clinically examined using scales for cerebellar, pyramidal, parkinsonian, and mental status and by quantitative evaluation of neuroimages. The patients were classified into two groups: cerebellar-plus and "pure" cerebellar syndromes. Patients with "pure" cerebellar syndrome were diagnosed as autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia III (ADCA III) or "pure idiopathic" late-onset cerebellar ataxia (ILOCA) in this series. Patients with cerebellar-plus syndrome were diagnosed as multiple system atrophy (MSA), subclassified as either ILOCA-plus, ADCA I, ADCA II or autosomal recessive LOCA. We have used visual (VEP), brainstem auditory (BAEP) and somatosensory (SEP) evoked potentials in order to establish their diagnostic validity. Cerebellar-plus syndrome and "pure" cerebellar syndrome showed overlapping VEP, BAEP and SEP abnormalities. VEP P100 latency, however, shows a certain ability to differentiate between the two groups (p = 0.08) and appears useful in distinguishing between sporadic cerebellar-plus syndromes (MSA or ILOCA-plus) and "pure" cerebellar syndromes (p < 0.02). The incidence of prolonged N9-N13 latency was significantly higher in the latter subgroup (p < 0.04) as well. Within cerebellar-plus syndromes, VEP, BAEP and SEP abnormalities were more frequent in inherited cases (ADCA I and II, along with autosomal recessive LOCA) than in sporadic ones. The most apparent differences were a higher incidence of abnormal BAEPs at brainstem level (p < 0.002), and of both peripheral and possible central SEP impairment in hereditary cerebellar-plus syndrome than in sporadic cerebellar-plus syndrome (p < 0.03). EP investigation is useful to a certain extent in differentiating between some variants of LOCA. PMID:7576727

  12. Cortical auditory evoked potentials in children with developmental dysphasia.

    PubMed

    Dlouhá, O

    2008-01-01

    Like all auditory evoked potentials, the cortical auditory evoked potentials are nonspecific for the disease, but they provide information about the auditory system function. It appears that the cortical auditory potentials can be used to study the disorders of speech comprehension and their pathology is related to the role of the temporal processing of the auditory stimuli. Cortical auditory potentials were studied in children with developmental dysphasia (DD) to examine maturation of the central auditory pathways. Study 1 (group of 6-7 yr. old children with DD): the responses to verbal stimuli (P3 waves) were recorded with prolonged latencies from the left dominant hemisphere. Study 2: the latencies of P2 waves (to tonal stimuli) were being shortened within age-comparison of groups of 6-7 and 9-10 yr. old children with DD. Great variability in P2 and P3 latencies, and their prolongation, compared to normal healthy children, reflects functional changes in the central hearing function. Latency differences may be related to a common temporal deficit to be one of the possible underlying factors in developmental dysphasia. The underlying phenomenon may be connected to cortical auditory processing. PMID:19537681

  13. Conditioning effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation evoking motor?evoked potential on V?wave response

    PubMed Central

    Grosprêtre, Sidney; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the collision responsible for the volitional V?wave evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the motor nerve during voluntary contraction. V?wave was conditioned by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex at several inter?stimuli intervals (ISI) during weak voluntary plantar flexions (n = 10) and at rest for flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR; n = 6). Conditioning stimulations were induced by TMS with intensity eliciting maximal motor?evoked potential (MEPmax). ISIs used were ranging from ?20 to +20 msec depending on muscles tested. The results showed that, for triceps surae muscles, conditioning TMS increased the V?wave amplitude (~ +250%) and the associated mechanical response (~ +30%) during weak voluntary plantar flexion (10% of the maximal voluntary contraction ?MVC) for ISIs ranging from +6 to +18 msec. Similar effect was observed at rest for the FCR with ISI ranging from +6 to +12 msec. When the level of force was increased from 10 to 50% MVC or the conditioning TMS intensity was reduced to elicit responses of 50% of MEPmax, a significant decrease in the conditioned V?wave amplitude was observed for the triceps surae muscles, linearly correlated to the changes in MEP amplitude. The slope of this correlation, as well as the electro?mechanical efficiency, was closed to the identity line, indicating that V?wave impact at muscle level seems to be similar to the impact of cortical stimulation. All these results suggest that change in V?wave amplitude is a great index to reflect changes in cortical neural drive addressed to spinal motoneurons. PMID:25501438

  14. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies < 6.0 ms) were scored and latencies and amplitudes quantified. Vestibular response latencies were significantly longer (P < 0.01) and amplitudes significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than those observed in 2-week-old birds. Mean response threshold for anesthetized embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P < 0.03) than those observed in 2-week-old birds (-23.0dBre 1.0 g/ms). Latency/intensity functions (that is, slopes) were not significantly different between embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P < 0.001). We presume that these differences reflect the refinement of sensory function that occurs following 19 to 20 days of incubation. The recording of vestibular evoked potentials provides an objective, direct and noninvasive measure of peripheral vestibular function in the embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  15. The division of attention and the human auditory evoked potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hink, R. F.; Van Voorhis, S. T.; Hillyard, S. A.; Smith, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of the scalp-recorded, auditory evoked potential to selective attention was examined while subjects responded to stimuli presented to one ear (focused attention) and to both ears (divided attention). The amplitude of the N1 component was found to be largest to stimuli in the ear upon which attention was to be focused, smallest to stimuli in the ear to be ignored, and intermediate to stimuli in both ears when attention was divided. The results are interpreted as supporting a capacity model of attention.

  16. CHLORDIMEFORM PRODUCES CONTRAST-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to the insecticide/acaricide chlordimeform (CDM) produces large, selective and transient changes in visual evoked potentials of rats. Experiments were conducted investigating the influence of physical characteristics of the evoking stimuli on the CDM effect. Adult ...

  17. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Children with Brain Ventricular Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Korši?, Marjan; Denišli?, Miro; Jugovi?, Domagoj

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine possible nerve conduction changes in the somatosensory pathway in children with brain ventricular dilatation and to estimate the relation between the ventricular size and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). Methods Twelve children with ventricular dilatation (frontal and occipital horn ratios >0.44) and 19 children without ventricular dilatation (control group), aged between 2 and 15 years, were included in the study. Somatosensory evoked responses to median nerve stimulation were recorded in both groups. Evoked potentials were recorded by silver/silver-chloride cup electrodes from Erb’s point in the supraclavicular fossa (wave N9), the cervical spine at the C7 vertebral prominence (wave N13), and the scalp above the contralateral sensory cortex at the point C3’ or C4’, 1 cm behind the C3 or C4 site in the standard 10-20 system (wave N19). Computed tomography scanning was performed to estimate ventricular dilatation. Results The conduction time of the central somatosensory pathway (N19-N13 interwave latency) was significantly longer in the children with ventricular dilatation than in the control group (P?=?0.046). A statistically significant but weak correlation was found between the frontal and occipital horn ratio values and the N19-N13 interwave latencies in the subjects with enlarged ventricles (r?=?0.579, P?=?0.045) Conclusion Ventricular dilatation is associated with prolonged conduction of the central part of the somatosensory pathway in children. Early detection and treatment of hydrocephalus could be useful in preventing long-term consequences of high intraventricular pressure. PMID:16625693

  18. K-means clustering method for auditory evoked potentials selection.

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, B; Le Bouquin-Jeannes, R

    2003-07-01

    Surface auditory evoked potentials are generally recorded using a headset of 32, 64 or 128 electrodes, but the quality of the responses is quite heterogeneous on the scalp surface. In some contexts, such as the analysis of auditory evoked potentials recorded in radio-frequency fields, the signal quality is essential, and it appears pertinent to consider only a limited number of electrodes. Therefore, before analysing signals influenced by radio-frequency fields, it is necessary to consider the preliminary step of selecting the channels where auditory activity is strong. This step is often realised by human visual selection and can take a considerable time. In this paper, a simple k-means clustering method is proposed, to select automatically the important channels, and the results are compared with traditional methods of selection. The method detected channels that showed a concordance rate of 86.5% with the visual selection (performed by five individuals) and gave the same final selection (only two extra electrodes in the automatic case). Moreover, the time needed for this automatic selection was 100 times less than that for the visual selection, and also human variability was avoided. PMID:12892361

  19. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Nahid; Hajiabolhassani, Fahimeh; Fatahi, Jamileh; Movaseghi, Shafieh; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease. Most common autoimmune diseases are multisystem disorders that may also present with otological manifestations, and autoimmune inner ear disease accompanied by vestibular dysfunction. This study aimed to compare the vestibular function between RA patients and normal subjects using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs). Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 25patients with RA (19 female and 6 male: mean (±SD) age, 40.00 (±7.92) years) and 20 healthy subjects (15 female and 5 male: mean (±SD) age, 35.35 (±10.48) years) underwent cVEMPs, using 500 Hz-tone bursts at 95 dB nHL intensity level. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test through SPSS software v. 16. Results: The mean peak latency of p13 was significantly higher in RA patients (p<0.001). The mean peak latency of n23 was significantly higher in patients in the left ear (p=0.03). Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses were present in all (100%) of the participants. There were no significant differences in mean peak to peak amplitude and amplitude ratio between the two groups. Conclusion: According to the prolonged latency of VEMP responses in RA patients, lesions in the retrolabyrinthine, especially in the vestibulospinal tract are suspected. PMID:26478874

  20. A New Measure for Monitoring Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Choi, Young Doo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose a new measure for effective monitoring of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and to validate the feasibility of this measure for evoked potentials (EP) and single trials with a retrospective data analysis study. Methods The proposed new measure (hereafter, a slope-measure) was defined as the relative slope of the amplitude and latency at each EP peak compared to the baseline value, which is sensitive to the change in the amplitude and latency simultaneously. We used the slope-measure for EP and single trials and compared the significant change detection time with that of the conventional peak-to-peak method. When applied to single trials, each single trial signal was processed with optimal filters before using the slope-measure. In this retrospective data analysis, 7 patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation were included. Results We found that this simple slope-measure has a detection time that is as early or earlier than that of the conventional method; furthermore, using the slope-measure in optimally filtered single trials provides warning signs earlier than that of the conventional method during MCA clipping surgery. Conclusion Our results have confirmed the feasibility of the slope-measure for intraoperative SEP monitoring. This is a novel study that provides a useful measure for either EP or single trials in intraoperative SEP monitoring. PMID:25628803

  1. Parametric modeling of somatosensory evoked potentials using discrete cosine transform.

    PubMed

    Bai, O; Nakamura, M; Nagamine, T; Shibasaki, H

    2001-11-01

    This paper introduces a parametric method for identifying the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The identification was carried out by using pole-zero modeling of the SEPs in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. It was found that the DCT coefficients of a monophasic signal can be sufficiently approximated by a second-order transfer function with a conjugate pole pair. The averaged SEP signal was modeled by the sum of several second-order transfer functions with appropriate zeros and poles estimated using the least square method in the DCT domain. Results of the estimation demonstrated that the model output was in an excellent agreement with the raw SEPs both qualitatively and quantitatively. Comparing with the common autoregressive model with exogenous input modeling in the time domain, the DCT domain modeling achieves a high goodness of fitting with a very low model order. Applications of the proposed method are possible in clinical practice for feature extraction, noise cancellation and individual component decomposition of the SEPs as well as other evoked potentials. PMID:11686634

  2. The effect of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Shaibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghaseminejad, Azizeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a significant global health problem with serious short- and long-term consequences. This study examined the long term effects of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) among preschool-aged children. Methods: Thirty-one children with preterm and 20 children with term birth histories aged 5.5 to 6.5 years were studied. Each child underwent VEMPs testing using a 500 Hz tone-burst stimulus with a 95 dB nHL (normal hearing level) intensity level. Results: The mean peak latencies of the p13 and n23 waves in the very preterm group were significantly longer than for the full-term group (p? 0.041). There was a significant difference between very and mildly preterm children in the latency of peak p13 (p= 0.003). No significant differences existed between groups for p13-n23 amplitude and the interaural amplitude difference ratio. The tested ear and gender did not affect the results of the test. Conclusion: Prolonged VEMPs in very preterm children may reflect neurodevelopmental impairment and incomplete maturity of the vestibulospinal tract (sacculocollic reflex pathway), especially myelination. VEMPs is a non-invasive technique for investigating the vestibular function in young children, and considered to be an appropriate tool for evaluating vestibular impairments at the low brainstem level. It can be used in follow-ups of the long-term effects of preterm birth on the vestibular system. PMID:25405140

  3. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats

    " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.

    " The pattern evok...

  4. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, S M; Welgampola, M S; Colebatch, J G

    2010-05-01

    Since the first description of sound-evoked short-latency myogenic reflexes recorded from neck muscles, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become an important part of the neuro-otological test battery. VEMPs provide a means of assessing otolith function: stimulation of the vestibular system with air-conducted sound activates predominantly saccular afferents, while bone-conducted vibration activates a combination of saccular and utricular afferents. The conventional method for recording the VEMP involves measuring electromyographic (EMG) activity from surface electrodes placed over the tonically-activated sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles. The "cervical VEMP" (cVEMP) is thus a manifestation of the vestibulo-collic reflex. However, recent research has shown that VEMPs can also be recorded from the extraocular muscles using surface electrodes placed near the eyes. These "ocular VEMPs" (oVEMPs) are a manifestation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Here we describe the historical development and neurophysiological properties of the cVEMP and oVEMP and provide recommendations for recording both reflexes. While the cVEMP has documented diagnostic utility in many disorders affecting vestibular function, relatively little is known as yet about the clinical value of the oVEMP. We therefore outline the known cVEMP and oVEMP characteristics in common central and peripheral disorders encountered in neuro-otology clinics. PMID:20080441

  5. Effects of lead and mercury intoxications on evoked potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Lille, F.; Hazemann, P.; Garnier, R.; Dally, S.

    1988-01-01

    Pattern reversal, brain stem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials (PREPs, BAEPs, SEPs) have been recorded on 13 patients occupationally exposed to inorganic lead compounds, in 9 patients occupationally or accidentally exposed to inorganic mercury compounds and in 26 chronic alcoholics. The results were compared to those of a normal control group. Peripheral conduction velocities were decreased in lead exposed workers and in alcoholics, but not modified in the mercury exposed patients. In the three exposed groups, an amplitude increase (PREPs and upper limb SEP cortical components), more important in the mercury group and an increase of central conduction time in case of lower limb stimulation, could be interpreted as early signs of nervous cortical impairment.

  6. Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Voorhis, S.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to sequences of flashes delivered to the right and left visual fields while subjects responded promptly to designated stimuli in one field at a time (focused attention), in both fields at once (divided attention), or to neither field (passive). Three stimulus schedules were used: the first was a replication of a previous study (Eason, Harter, and White, 1969) where left- and right-field flashes were delivered quasi-independently, while in the other two the flashes were delivered to the two fields in random order (Bernoulli sequence). VEPs to attended-field stimuli were enhanced at both occipital (O2) and central (Cz) recording sites under all stimulus sequences, but different components were affected at the two scalp sites. It was suggested that the VEP at O2 may reflect modality-specific processing events, while the response at Cz, like its auditory homologue, may index more general aspects of selective attention.

  7. Auditory evoked potential response and hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Paulraj, M P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H Bin; Hema, C R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research. PMID:25893012

  8. A new statistic for steady-state evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Victor, J D; Mast, J

    1991-05-01

    Steady-state evoked potentials are often characterized by the amplitude and phase of the Fourier component at one or more frequencies of interest. We introduce a new statistic for the evaluation of these Fourier components. This statistic, denoted T2circ, is based on the same physiologic assumptions concerning the sources of variability of a Fourier component that are made in the use of the Rayleigh phase-coherence statistic as well as the standard T2 statistic (Hotelling 1931) for multivariate data. However, the T2circ statistic also exploits the relationship between the real and imaginary components of Fourier estimates, which is not exploited by T2, and utilizes amplitude information, which is ignored by the Rayleigh criterion. For these reasons, the T2circ statistic is more efficient than previously used criteria for detection and quantitation of steady-state responses, both in principle and in practice. PMID:1711456

  9. Transient visually evoked potentials to sinusoidal gratings in optic neuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, G T

    1983-01-01

    Transient visually evoked potentials (VEPs) to sinusoidal gratings over a range of spatial frequencies have been recorded in cases of optic neuritis. The use of the response to pattern onset in addition to the response to pattern reversal extended the range to higher spatial frequencies by up to two octaves. There was an increase in VEP delay and a greater degree of discrimination from a control group at higher spatial frequencies. This finding is discussed in the light of previous reports of luminance and checkerboard VEPs in demyelinating optic nerve disease. An attempt is made to relate amplitude changes in various VEP components to contrast sensitivity measurements in this group of patients. PMID:6663312

  10. Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Norms and Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Isaradisaikul, Suwicha; Navacharoen, Niramon; Hanprasertpong, Charuk; Kangsanarak, Jaran

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is a vestibular function test used for evaluating saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Parameters of VEMP testing include VEMP threshold, latencies of p1 and n1, and p1-n1 interamplitude. Less commonly used parameters were p1-n1 interlatency, interaural difference of p1 and n1 latency, and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio. This paper recommends using air-conducted 500?Hz tone burst auditory stimulation presented monoaurally via an inserted ear phone while the subject is turning his head to the contralateral side in the sitting position and recording the responses from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Normative values of VEMP responses in 50 normal audiovestibular volunteers were presented. VEMP testing protocols and normative values in other literature were reviewed and compared. The study is beneficial to clinicians as a reference guide to set up VEMP testing and interpretation of the VEMP responses. PMID:22577386

  11. Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C. R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research. PMID:25893012

  12. Conscious Wireless Electroretinogram and Visual Evoked Potentials in Rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Dang, Trung M.; Vingrys, Algis J.; Fish, Rebecca L.; Gurrell, Rachel; Brain, Phil; Bui, Bang V.

    2013-01-01

    The electroretinogram (ERG, retina) and visual evoked potential (VEP, brain) are widely used in vivo tools assaying the integrity of the visual pathway. Current recordings in preclinical models are conducted under anesthesia, which alters neural physiology and contaminates responses. We describe a conscious wireless ERG and VEP recording platform in rats. Using a novel surgical technique to chronically implant electrodes subconjunctivally on the eye and epidurally over the visual cortex, we are able to record stable and repeatable conscious ERG and VEP signals over at least 1 month. We show that the use of anaesthetics, necessary for conventional ERG and VEP measurements, alters electrophysiology recordings. Conscious visual electrophysiology improves the viability of longitudinal studies by eliminating complications associated with repeated anaesthesia. It will also enable uncontaminated assessment of drug effects, allowing the eye to be used as an effective biomarker of the central nervous system. PMID:24069276

  13. Contact heat evoked potentials using simultaneous EEG and fMRI and their correlation with evoked pain

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Katherine; Papadaki, Anastasia; Gonçalves, Carla; Tighe, Mary; Atherton, Duncan; Shenoy, Ravikiran; McRobbie, Donald; Anand, Praveen

    2008-01-01

    Background The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS) utilises rapidly delivered heat pulses with adjustable peak temperatures to stimulate the differential warm/heat thresholds of receptors expressed by Aδ and C fibres. The resulting evoked potentials can be recorded and measured, providing a useful clinical tool for the study of thermal and nociceptive pathways. Concurrent recording of contact heat evoked potentials using electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has not previously been reported with CHEPS. Developing simultaneous EEG and fMRI with CHEPS is highly desirable, as it provides an opportunity to exploit the high temporal resolution of EEG and the high spatial resolution of fMRI to study the reaction of the human brain to thermal and nociceptive stimuli. Methods In this study we have recorded evoked potentials stimulated by 51°C contact heat pulses from CHEPS using EEG, under normal conditions (baseline), and during continuous and simultaneous acquisition of fMRI images in ten healthy volunteers, during two sessions. The pain evoked by CHEPS was recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results Analysis of EEG data revealed that the latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials recorded during continuous fMRI did not differ significantly from baseline recordings. fMRI results were consistent with previous thermal pain studies, and showed Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) changes in the insula, post-central gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), middle cingulate cortex and pre-central gyrus. There was a significant positive correlation between the evoked potential amplitude (EEG) and the psychophysical perception of pain on the VAS. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of recording contact heat evoked potentials with EEG during continuous and simultaneous fMRI. The combined use of the two methods can lead to identification of distinct patterns of brain activity indicative of pain and pro-nociceptive sensitisation in healthy subjects and chronic pain patients. Further studies are required for the technique to progress as a useful tool in clinical trials of novel analgesics. PMID:19091117

  14. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Versino, M; Colnaghi, S; Callieco, R; Cosi, V

    2001-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are myogenic responses induced by stimulation of the saccular macula by intense sound stimuli. The responses are recordable from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles. We recorded VEMPs from normal subjects (up to three times in each subject) to identify: i) the best recording procedures, ii) the reliability, and iii) the normal limits for both individual point and test-retest evaluation. We adopted a recording setting in which the subjects were asked to simultaneously activate both SCM muscles by pushing their forehead against a load cell during a bilateral acoustic stimulation. This system enabled subjects to monitor their intensity of SCM activation and to keep intensity constant; us to record VEMPs from both sides simultaneously, and thus to minimize the duration of the recording session. For each subject we considered the mean and the difference (divided by the mean) of the values derived from the two SCM muscles of the latency of the P13 and N23 components and of the P13-N23 peak-to-peak amplitude. Reliability was evaluated by estimate of the intraclass correlation coefficient, and was good or excellent for all parameters, with the exception of the P13-N23 amplitude side-difference. To take advantage of all the data available, we computed the normal limits for both individual point and test-retest evaluation by means of the variability indices used for the evaluation of reliability. In this system, VEMP recording is simple, inexpensive and rapid. It is well tolerated by subjects, and easily implemented in laboratories equipped for evoked potential recording. PMID:11853320

  15. Laser-Evoked Vertex Potentials Predict Defensive Motor Actions.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, M; Liang, M; Sim, A L; Hu, L; Haggard, P; Iannetti, G D

    2015-12-01

    The vertex potential is the largest response that can be recorded in the electroencephalogram of an awake, healthy human. It is elicited by sudden and intense stimuli, and is composed by a negative-positive deflection. The stimulus properties that determine the vertex potential amplitude have been well characterized. Nonetheless, its functional significance remains elusive. The dominant interpretation is that it reflects neural activities related to the detection of salient stimuli. However, given that threatening stimuli elicit both vertex potentials and defensive movements, we hypothesized that the vertex potential is related to the execution of defensive actions. Here, we directly compared the salience and motoric interpretations by investigating the relationship between the amplitude of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and the response time of movements with different defensive values. First, we show that a larger LEP negative wave (N2 wave) predicts faster motor response times. Second, this prediction is significantly stronger when the motor response is defensive in nature. Third, the relation between the N2 wave and motor response time depends not only on the kinematic form of the movement, but also on whether that kinematic form serves as a functional defense of the body. Therefore, the N2 wave of the LEP encodes key defensive reactions to threats. PMID:26250779

  16. Laser-Evoked Vertex Potentials Predict Defensive Motor Actions

    PubMed Central

    Moayedi, M.; Liang, M.; Sim, A. L.; Hu, L.; Haggard, P.; Iannetti, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    The vertex potential is the largest response that can be recorded in the electroencephalogram of an awake, healthy human. It is elicited by sudden and intense stimuli, and is composed by a negative–positive deflection. The stimulus properties that determine the vertex potential amplitude have been well characterized. Nonetheless, its functional significance remains elusive. The dominant interpretation is that it reflects neural activities related to the detection of salient stimuli. However, given that threatening stimuli elicit both vertex potentials and defensive movements, we hypothesized that the vertex potential is related to the execution of defensive actions. Here, we directly compared the salience and motoric interpretations by investigating the relationship between the amplitude of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and the response time of movements with different defensive values. First, we show that a larger LEP negative wave (N2 wave) predicts faster motor response times. Second, this prediction is significantly stronger when the motor response is defensive in nature. Third, the relation between the N2 wave and motor response time depends not only on the kinematic form of the movement, but also on whether that kinematic form serves as a functional defense of the body. Therefore, the N2 wave of the LEP encodes key defensive reactions to threats. PMID:26250779

  17. EFFECTS OF LOW TO MODERATE LEAD EXPOSURE ON BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with asymptomatic lead (Pb) exposure (1,2) as well as acute Pb poisoning (3). Hearing thresholds have not been systematically evaluated in Pb exposed children, although hearing impairments have been observed in P...

  18. [Primary extinct evoked cerebral potentials in the diagnosis of brain death].

    PubMed

    Haupt, W F

    1991-09-01

    In a collective of 82 patients with the clinical signs of brain death and examination of evoked cerebral potentials the incidence of primary abolished evoked potentials was studied. The initial examination occurred at the same time after onset of disease in both groups. We found a marked correlation with the clinical course of the patients. Whereas the group with primary loss of evoked potentials mainly contained patients with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages and short survival times, the other group with primary preserved evoked potentials showed a high rate of ischemic infarctions and longer survival periods. The rate of primary abolished evoked potentials can be lowered only by routine examination at the earliest time possible. Outside of neurological intensive care units the early examination of evoked potentials is hardly possible. In these units, the EEG remains the technical examination of choice in the confirmation of brain death. PMID:1765027

  19. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  20. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Keller, Corey J; Honey, Christopher J; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D

    2014-10-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  1. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be a sign of hearing loss , multiple sclerosis , acoustic neuroma , or stroke. Abnormal results may also be due to: Brain injury Brain malformation Brain tumor Central pontine myelinolysis Speech ...

  2. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; da Silveira, Aron Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Introduction?The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP) in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose?To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods?The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level). The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results?The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (±?1.3) and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (±?1.6). It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p?>?0.05) between the groups. Conclusion?It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1?month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups. PMID:25992057

  3. Optic nerve evoked potentials elicited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masato; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated whether the optic nerve evoked potential (ONEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve can serve as a reliable intraoperative indicator of visual function. In the experimental study, two silver-ball stimulating electrodes were placed on the dog optic nerve adjacent to the apex of the orbit and one recording electrode was placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm. The nerve was stimulated with 0.1 to 10 mA rectangular pulses. Stable and reproducible ONEPs were obtained. The ONEPs were not influenced by electromyographic potentials and were recorded more clearly on the optic nerve than on the surrounding tissue. Stepwise incremental transection of the thickness of the nerve resulted in incremental amplitude reduction proportional to the transected area. No response was recorded after complete sectioning of the nerve. In the clinical study, recordings were obtained from 15 patients after craniotomy to treat parasellar tumors or cerebral aneurysms. Reproducible ONEPs were recorded intraoperatively from the electrode placed on the optic nerve near the chiasm in 14 of 15 patients. In the remaining patient, the ONEP, recorded only after tumor removal because the optic nerve was stretched and extremely thin, was remarkably small and the patient developed unilateral blindness postoperatively. These experimental and clinical results suggest the possibility of intraoperative monitoring of visual function in patients undergoing craniotomy for the treatment of lesions near the optic nerve. PMID:16041180

  4. Visual evoked potentials in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, P; Spekreijse, H; van Swaay, E; van Schooneveld, M

    1989-04-01

    Oculocutaneous, electrophysiological, and cytogenetic factors were evaluated in 14 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome and in three controls, two albinos and a normal observer. In a substantial number of PW patients chromosomal anomalies, particularly deletions of the long arm of chromosome 15 as well as hypopigmentation of hair, skin, and eye have been identified. In the genetic condition of albinism, hypopigmentation related to neural ectoderm derivatives is associated with reduced visual acuity, foveal hypoplasia, and aberrant retinogeniculocortical projections. The latter can be observed by visual evoked potential (VEP) assessment of hemispheric response symmetry. To determine the possible neural ectodermal origin of hypopigmentation and its involvement in ocular development and optic pathway integrity, the potential distributions of the pattern onset/offset VEP were examined. Our results show hypopigmentation in 13 of our 14 PW patients and a chromosome abnormality in 6; no correlation between these two features was found. None of the PW patients showed the characteristic contralateral hemispheric asymmetry seen in albinism. On the other hand their VEP profiles were found to be atypical, rendering waveform and cortical topography difficult to interpret. Analysis suggests that in the absence of VEP evidence for optic pathway misprojection, PW hypopigmentation is probably of neural crest origin. PMID:2791841

  5. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in central neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Venhovens, J; Meulstee, J; Verhagen, W I M

    2016-01-01

    Several types of acoustic stimulation (i.e. tone bursts or clicks), bone-conducted vibration, forehead taps, and galvanic stimulation elicit myogenic potentials. These can be recorded in cervical and ocular muscles, the so called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). The cervical VEMP (cVEMP) resembles the vestibulo-collic reflex and the responses can be recorded from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. The ocular VEMP resembles the vestibulo-ocular reflex and can be recorded from extra-ocular muscles by a surface electrode beneath the contralateral infraorbital margin. Initially, the literature concerning VEMPs was limited to peripheral vestibular disorders, however, the field of VEMP testing is rapidly expanding, with an increasing focus on central neurological disorders. The current literature concerning VEMP abnormalities in central neurological disorders is critically reviewed, especially regarding the methodological aspects in relation to quality as well as the clinical interpretation of the VEMP results. Suggestions for further research are proposed as well as some clinically useful indications. PMID:25649969

  6. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Minoda, Haruka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account. PMID:25197652

  7. Does speaker presentation affect auditory evoked potential thresholds in goldfish?

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Wysocki, Lidia Eva

    2009-11-01

    The auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique has proved to be a very versatile and successful approach in studying auditory sensitivities in fishes. The AEP protocol introduced by Kenyon, Ladich and Yan in 1998 using an air speaker with the fish positioned at the water surface gave auditory thresholds in goldfish very close to behavioural values published before. This approach was subsequently modified by several laboratories, raising the question whether speaker choice (air vs. underwater) or the position of subjects affect auditory threshold determination. To answer these questions, the hearing specialist Carassius auratus was measured using an air speaker, an underwater speaker and alternately positioning the fish directly at or 5cm below the water surface. Mean hearing thresholds obtained using these 4 different setups varied by 5.6dB, 3.7dB and 4dB at 200Hz, 500Hz and 1000Hz, respectively. Accordingly, pronounced differences in AEP thresholds in goldfish measured in different laboratories reflect other factors than speaker used and depth of the test subjects, namely variations in threshold definition, background noise, population differences, or calibration errors. PMID:19602445

  8. Cortical processing of human gut sensation: an evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Hobday, David I; Hobson, Anthony R; Sarkar, Sanchoy; Furlong, Paul L; Thompson, David G; Aziz, Qasim

    2002-08-01

    The rectum has a unique physiological role as a sensory organ and differs in its afferent innervation from other gut organs that do not normally mediate conscious sensation. We compared the central processing of human esophageal, duodenal, and rectal sensation using cortical evoked potentials (CEP) in 10 healthy volunteers (age range 21-34 yr). Esophageal and duodenal CEP had similar morphology in all subjects, whereas rectal CEP had two different but reproducible morphologies. The rectal CEP latency to the first component P1 (69 ms) was shorter than both duodenal (123 ms; P = 0.008) and esophageal CEP latencies (106 ms; P = 0.004). The duodenal CEP amplitude of the P1-N1 component (5.0 microV) was smaller than that of the corresponding esophageal component (5.7 microV; P = 0.04) but similar to that of the corresponding rectal component (6.5 microV; P = 0.25). This suggests that rectal sensation is either mediated by faster-conducting afferent pathways or that there is a difference in the orientation or volume of cortical neurons representing the different gut organs. In conclusion, the physiological and anatomic differences between gut organs are reflected in differences in the characteristics of their afferent pathways and cortical processing. PMID:12121880

  9. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with BPPV

    PubMed Central

    Korres, Stavros; Gkoritsa, Eleni; Giannakakou-Razelou, Dimitra; Yiotakis, Ioannis; Riga, Maria; Nikolpoulos, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The probable cause of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a degeneration of the oto lithic organs (utricle and saccule). The aim of the study is to find possible alterations in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) recordings in BPPV patients, because the saccule is part of the VEMP pathway. Material/Methods 27 BPPV patients (24 unilateral and 3 bilateral) aged 20 to 70 years and 30 healthy age matched controls. BPPV was diagnosed by the upbeating geotropic nystagmus found in the supine position with the head overextended towards one side. The subjects were investigated with pure tone audiometry, bi-thermal caloric test with electronystagmographic (ENG) recording, and VEMP recording. Results P1 latency and N1 latency did not present any statistical difference between control ears and affected ears of the BPPV population. The percentage of abnormal VEMP in the BPPV population was statistically higher than in the control ears (p<0.005). No significant relationship could be shown between the occurrence of Canal Paresis and abnormal VEMP. No relationship was found between the side (right or left ear) where BPPV appeared clinically and the side where abnormal VEMP was registered. Conclusions BPPV is a clinical entity associated with increased occurrence of abnormal VEMP recordings, possibly due to degeneration of the saccular macula, which is part of the neural VEMP pathway. PMID:21169909

  10. Source reconstruction of sensory and cognitive evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Curtis W.

    2005-04-01

    Cortical activity reflected in auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) is often evaluated using only a small subset of all the recorded data. Conclusions based on this approach can be misleading, with no utility in identifying the underlying neural generators of the scalp recorded activity. Techniques that make use of all of the AEP data range from relatively simple methods, such as global field power, to more advanced approaches including independent components analysis (ICA), dipole modeling, and current density reconstruction. The objective of this presentation is to describe analysis of the component-structure of AEPs using these advanced techniques. Results of the ICA analysis will be used to generate spatial filters characterizing the specific scalp distribution associated with each ICA pattern. The cortical origin of each ICA scalp distribution will then be determined using current density reconstruction. The analysis will be applied to standard AEPs as well as the mismatch negativity in normal hearing and cochlear implant users. The results will demonstrate the unique suitability of neuroimaging based on AEPs for understanding the effects of cochlear implant use on cortical activity associated with cognitive processing in children and in adults.

  11. ISCEV standard for clinical visual evoked potentials (2009 update).

    PubMed

    Odom, J Vernon; Bach, Michael; Brigell, Mitchell; Holder, Graham E; McCulloch, Daphne L; Tormene, Alma Patrizia; Vaegan

    2010-02-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can provide important diagnostic information regarding the functional integrity of the visual system. This document updates the ISCEV standard for clinical VEP testing and supersedes the 2004 standard. The major change in this revision is that test parameters have been made more precise to achieve better consistency of results within and between test centers. The ISCEV standard VEP protocols are defined for a single recording channel with a midline occipital active electrode. These protocols are intended for assessment of prechiasmal function; additional electrode sites are recommended for evaluation of chiasmal and postchiasmal function. ISCEV has selected a subset of stimulus and recording conditions that provide core clinical information and can be performed by most clinical electrophysiology laboratories throughout the world. These are: 1. Pattern-reversal VEPs elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large 1 degrees (i.e., 60 min of arc; min) and small 0.25 degrees (15 min) checks. 2. Pattern onset/offset VEPs elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large 1 degrees (60 min) and small 0.25 degrees (15 min) checks. 3. Flash VEP elicited by a brief luminance increment, a flash, which subtends a visual field of at least 20 degrees. PMID:19826847

  12. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Dyslexic versus Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Javad; Sobhani-Rad, Davood; Lari, Samaneh; Khoshsima, Mohamadjavad; Azimi, Abbas; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbasali; Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyed Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Presence of neurophysiological abnormalities in dyslexia has been a conflicting issue. This study was performed to evaluate the role of sensory visual deficits in the pathogenesis of dyslexia. Methods: Pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) were recorded in 72 children including 36 children with dyslexia and 36 children without dyslexia (controls) who were matched for age, sex and intelligence. Two check sizes of 15 and 60 min of arc were used with temporal frequencies of 1.5 Hz for transient and 6 Hz for steady-state methods. Results: Mean latency and amplitude values for 15 min arc and 60 min arc check sizes using steady state and transient methods showed no significant difference between the two study groups (P values: 0.139/0.481/0.356/0.062). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between two methods of PVEPs in dyslexic and normal children using 60 min arc with high contrast (P values: 0.116, 0.402, 0.343 and 0.106). Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli. PMID:26730313

  13. Transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms related to visual evoked potential abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Butler, Pamela D; Chan, Chi C; Trachik, Benjamin J

    2015-12-15

    Visual processing abnormalities have been reported across a range of psychotic and mood disorders, but are typically examined within a particular disorder. The current study used a novel transdiagnostic approach to examine diagnostic classes, clinician-rated current symptoms, and self-reported personality traits in relation to visual processing abnormalities. We examined transient visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) from 48 adults (56% female), representing a wide range of psychotic and mood disorders, as well as individuals with no history of psychiatric disorder. Stimuli were low contrast check arrays presented on green and red backgrounds. Pairwise comparisons between individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD), chronic mood disorders (CMD), and nonpsychiatric controls (NC) revealed no overall differences for either P1 or N1 amplitude. However, there was a significant interaction with the color background in which the NC group showed a significant increase in P1 amplitude to the red, vs. green, background, while the SSD group showed no change. This was related to an increase in social anhedonia and general negative symptoms. Stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that individuals with greater apathy and/or eccentric behavior had a reduced P1 amplitude. These relationships provide clues for uncovering the underlying causal pathology for these transdiagnostic symptoms. PMID:26412383

  14. Measuring action potential-evoked transmission at individual synaptic contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauen, David W.; Bi, Guo-Qiang

    2012-06-01

    In the neuronal culture experimental system, the total synaptic connection between two neurons can consist of large numbers of synaptic sites, each behaving probabilistically. Studies of synaptic function with paired recordings typically consider the summed response across all of these sites and from this infer the average response. Understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity could be improved by examination of activity at as few synaptic sites as possible. To this end, we develop a system for recording responses from individual contacts. It relies on a precisely regulated pneumatic/hydrostatic pressure system to create a microenvironment within which individual synapses are active, and an acoustic signature method to monitor the stability of this microenvironment noninvasively. With this method we are able to record action potential-evoked postsynaptic currents consistent with individual quanta. The approach does not distort synaptic current waveforms and permits stable recording for several hours. The method is applied to address mechanisms of short-term plasticity, the variability of latency at individual synaptic sites and, in a preliminary experiment, the independence of nearby synapses on the same axon.

  15. An Intelligent Decision System for Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bi; Li, Han-Xiong; Hu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) is a useful, noninvasive technique widely used for spinal cord monitoring during surgery. One of the main indicators of a spinal cord injury is the drop in amplitude of the SEP signal in comparison to the nominal baseline that is assumed to be constant during the surgery. However, in practice, the real-time baseline is not constant and may vary during the operation due to nonsurgical factors, such as blood pressure, anaesthesia, etc. Thus, a false warning is often generated if the nominal baseline is used for SEP monitoring. In current practice, human experts must be used to prevent this false warning. However, these well-trained human experts are expensive and may not be reliable and consistent due to various reasons like fatigue and emotion. In this paper, an intelligent decision system is proposed to improve SEP monitoring. First, the least squares support vector regression and multi-support vector regression models are trained to construct the dynamic baseline from historical data. Then a control chart is applied to detect abnormalities during surgery. The effectiveness of the intelligent decision system is evaluated by comparing its performance against the nominal baseline model by using the real experimental datasets derived from clinical conditions. PMID:26415181

  16. Visual evoked potentials in succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, G.; Malaspina, P.; Blasi, P.; Dionisi-Vici, C.; Rizzo, C.; Tortorella, G.; Crutchfield, S. R.; Gibson, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In mammals, increased GABA in the central nervous system has been associated with abnormalities of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), predominantly manifested as increased latency of the major positive component P100. Accordingly, we hypothesized that patients with a defect in GABA metabolism, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (in whom supraphysiological levels of GABA accumulate), would manifest VEP anomalies. We evaluated VEPs on two patients with confirmed SSADH deficiency. Whereas the P100 latencies and amplitudes for binocular VEP analyses were within normal ranges for both patients, the P100 latencies were markedly delayed for left eye (OS) (and right eye (OD), patient 1) and monocular OS (patient 2): 134-147 ms; normal <118 ms. We hypothesize that elevated GABA in ocular tissue of SSADH patients leads to a use-dependent downregulation of the major GABAergic receptor in eye, GABAC, and that the VEP recordings’ abnormalities, as evidenced by P100 latency and/or amplitude measurements, may be reflective of abnormalities within visual systems. This is a preliminary finding that may suggest the utility of performing VEP analysis in a larger sample of SSADH-deficient patients, and encourage a neurophysiological assessment of GABAC receptor function in Aldh5a1-/- mice to reveal new pathophysiological mechanisms of this rare disorder of GABA degradation. PMID:19484191

  17. ACUTE SULFOLANE EXPOSURE PRODUCES TEMPERATURE-INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the consequences of acute exposure to sulfolane upon the visual system, as measured using flash evoked potential (FEPs) and pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs). A single injection of either 1/2 or 1/4, but not 1/8 the i.p. LD50 (1600 mg/kg) produced si...

  18. Tibial somatosensory evoked potential can prognosticate for ambulatory function in subacute hemiplegic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pyoungsik; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Jee, Sungju

    2016-04-01

    Early prediction of expected recovery in stroke can help in planning appropriate medical and rehabilitation interventions. Recovery of ambulation is one of the essential endpoints in stroke rehabilitation. However, the correlation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) with clinical parameters and their predictive significance are not clearly defined. We aimed to examine the association between tibial nerve SSEP and ambulatory outcomes in subacute hemiplegic stroke patients. We reviewed medical records for hemiplegic patients with first-ever stroke who received inpatient rehabilitation from January 2009 to May 2013. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, quadriplegia, bilateral lesions, brainstem lesions, those aged over 80years, and those with severe musculoskeletal problems. Tibial nerve SSEP were performed when they were transferred to the rehabilitation department. SSEP findings were divided into three groups; normal, abnormal and absent response. Berg balance scale and functional ambulation category (FAC) at discharge were compared with initial tibial SSEP findings using one-way analysis of variance. Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. Berg balance scale and FAC were significantly different according to the SSEP (P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between normal and absent response in Berg balance scale (P<0.001) and FAC (P<0.001), and between abnormal and absent response in Berg balance scale (P=0.012) and FAC (P=0.019). Functional outcomes of the normal response group were better than the abnormal response group, but there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that initial tibial nerve SSEP may be a useful biomarker for prognosticating functional outcomes in hemiplegic patients. PMID:26778357

  19. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring. PMID:26557929

  20. Visual Evoked Potentials in Infants with Diffuse Periventricular Leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Valenzuela, Cintli Carolina; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2014-03-10

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is characterized by necrosis of the cerebral white matter in the dorsolateral portions of the lateral ventricles. PVL causes motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to analyze the conduction characteristics of the visual pathway in infants with diffuse PVL using visual evoked potentials (VEPs). We studied 11 healthy infants (mean age 3.3 ± 1.3 months) and 17 with diffuse PVL (mean age 2.9 ± 0.8 months and mean gestational age 31.9 ± 3.1 weeks). The N75, P100, and N135 wave latencies; the interwave N75-P100 and P100-N135 latencies; and the N75-P100 and P100-N135 amplitudes were measured in the occipital leads. VEPs were recorded during binocular stimulation at an angle of 120' from the Fz-Oz lead. Healthy children had mean N75, P100, and N135 wave latencies of 84.4 ± 5.8, 143.4 ± 30.6 and 222.9 ± 40.4 ms, respectively. The mean interwave N75-P100 and P100-N135 latencies were 59.0 ± 28.6 and 79.5 ± 13.6 ms, respectively. Compared with the healthy group, infants with PVL had longer N75 and N135 latencies at 92.3 ± 15.3 (P = .05) and 265.0 ms ± 60.3 (P = .05), respectively. The interwave latency P100-N135 (105.5 ± 29.1 ms; P = .017) was longer in children with PVL than in healthy infants. Infants with diffuse PVL had mild alterations in their N75, P100 and, particularly, their N135 latencies. These increases in P100-N135 interwave latencies could be because of damage to the geniculocortical pathways and V2-V3 networks. PMID:24615931

  1. Laser flash effects on laser speckle shift visual evoked potential

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeisser, E.T.

    1985-10-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were recorded from four cynomolgus monkeys in response to a sinusoidally oscillating 10 degrees helium-neon laser speckle field (632.8 nm), moving vertically 2.5 degrees at 8 shifts per second. A 5-pulse flash train at the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) dose from a collimated Q-switched frequency-doubled neodymium laser (532 nm) was superimposed on the foveal stimulus and the subsequent disruption and recovery of the VEP measured. Minimal disruption of the response signal magnitude was demonstrated (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05) which recovered within 300 ms of the termination of the pulse train. A small but significant (p less than 0.01) disruption of phase entrainment was also noted that recovered within the same period. This is contrasted with a second experiment with three monkeys in which an argon (514 nm) laser served both as the speckle stimulus source and as the shuttered flash. Exposure to collimated MPE argon radiation for 250 ms immediately depressed the VEP (97%, p less than 0.01) and showed recovery to 70% of the pre-flash baseline only after 3 s. Phase lock was also severely degraded for several seconds. These results imply that visual processing of nonacuity-limited medium contrast stimuli with broad spatial frequency content will probably not be materially affected by ultra-short pulsed laser exposure at these energy levels and frequencies. However, even safe levels of collimated continuous laser light may have severe effects on vision that could parallel flash effects seen with Xenon discharge flash lamps.

  2. Neural origin of evoked potentials during thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kent, Alexander R; Grill, Warren M

    2013-08-01

    Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems could provide automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters and improve outcomes in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. The evoked compound action potential (ECAP), generated by activated neurons near the DBS electrode, may provide a suitable feedback control signal for closed-loop DBS. The objectives of this work were to characterize the ECAP across stimulation parameters and determine the neural elements contributing to the signal. We recorded ECAPs during thalamic DBS in anesthetized cats and conducted computer simulations to calculate the ECAP of a population of thalamic neurons. The experimental and computational ECAPs were similar in shape and had characteristics that were correlated across stimulation parameters (R(2) = 0.80-0.95, P < 0.002). The ECAP signal energy increased with larger DBS amplitudes (P < 0.0001) and pulse widths (P < 0.002), and the signal energy of secondary ECAP phases was larger at 10-Hz than at 100-Hz DBS (P < 0.002). The computational model indicated that these changes resulted from a greater extent of neural activation and an increased synchronization of postsynaptic thalamocortical activity, respectively. Administration of tetrodotoxin, lidocaine, or isoflurane abolished or reduced the magnitude of the experimental and computational ECAPs, glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) reduced secondary ECAP phases by decreasing postsynaptic excitation, and the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol increased the latency of the secondary phases by augmenting postsynaptic hyperpolarization. This study demonstrates that the ECAP provides information about the type and extent of neural activation generated during DBS, and the ECAP may serve as a feedback control signal for closed-loop DBS. PMID:23719207

  3. Topographic distribution of the tibial somatosensory evoked potential using coherence.

    PubMed

    Melges, D B; Infantosi, A F C; Miranda de Sá, A M F L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the adequate cortical regions based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recording. This investigation was carried out using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), a frequency domain objective response detection technique. Electroencephalographic signals were collected (International 10-20 System) from 38 volunteers, without history of neurological pathology, during somatosensory stimulation. Stimuli were applied to the right posterior tibial nerve at the rate of 5 Hz and intensity slightly above the motor threshold. Response detection was based on rejecting the null hypothesis of response absence (significance level alpha= 0.05 and M = 500 epochs). The best detection rates (maximum percentage of volunteers for whom the response was detected for the frequencies between 4.8 and 72 Hz) were obtained for the parietal and central leads mid-sagittal and ipsilateral to the stimulated leg: C4 (87%), P4 (82%), Cz (89%), and Pz (89%). The P37-N45 time-components of the SEP can also be observed in these leads. The other leads, including the central and parietal contralateral and the frontal and fronto-polar leads, presented low detection capacity. If only contralateral leads were considered, the centro-parietal region (C3 and P3) was among the best regions for response detection, presenting a correspondent well-defined N37; however, this was not observed in some volunteers. The results of the present study showed that the central and parietal regions, especially sagittal and ipsilateral to the stimuli, presented the best SNR in the gamma range. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the MSC can be a useful tool for monitoring purposes. PMID:19148367

  4. Measurement of evoked potentials during thalamic deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Alexander R.; Swan, Brandon D.; Brocker, David T.; Turner, Dennis A.; Gross, Robert E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats the symptoms of several movement disorders, but optimal selection of stimulation parameters remains a challenge. The evoked compound action potential (ECAP) reflects synchronized neural activation near the DBS lead, and may be useful for feedback control and automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters in closed-loop DBS systems. Objectives Determine the feasibility of recording ECAPs in the clinical setting, understand the neural origin of the ECAP and sources of any stimulus artifact, and correlate ECAP characteristics with motor symptoms. Methods The ECAP and tremor response were measured simultaneously during intraoperative studies of thalamic DBS, conducted in patients who were either undergoing surgery for initial lead implantation or replacement of their internal pulse generator. Results There was large subject-to-subject variation in stimulus artifact amplitude, which model-based analysis suggested may have been caused by glial encapsulation of the lead, resulting in imbalances in the tissue impedance between the contacts. ECAP recordings obtained from both acute and chronically implanted electrodes revealed that specific phase characteristics of the signal varied systematically with stimulation parameters. Further, a trend was observed in some patients between the energy of the initial negative and positive ECAP phases, as well as secondary phases, and changes in tremor from baseline. A computational model of thalamic DBS indicated that direct cerebellothalamic fiber activation dominated the clinically measured ECAP, suggesting that excitation of these fibers is critical in DBS therapy. Conclusions This work demonstrated that ECAPs can be recorded in the clinical setting and may provide a surrogate feedback control signal for automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters to reduce tremor amplitude. PMID:25457213

  5. Connections of the limbic network: a corticocortical evoked potentials study.

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Rei; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Kubota, Yuichi; Mosher, John; Burgess, Richard C; Najm, Imad; Nair, Dileep R

    2015-01-01

    Papez proposed a network for higher brain function, which is termed the limbic network. However, the in vivo human limbic network has not been established. We investigated the connectivity of the human limbic system using corticocortical evoked potential (CCEP). This retrospective analysis included 28 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy who underwent stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and CCEP. Alternating 1 Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to parts of the limbic system [anterior and posterior hippocampus, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), amygdala, anterior (ACG) and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OF)]. A total of 40-60 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. CCEP distributions were evaluated by calculating the root mean square (RMS) of CCEP responses. Anterior hippocampal stimulation elicited prominent CCEP responses in medial and lateral temporal structures, PCG, medial OF and insula over the ipsilateral hemisphere. Posterior hippocampal stimulation induced CCEP responses in the ipsilateral medial and lateral temporal structures and PCG. The findings also revealed connections from temporal pole to the ipsilateral medial temporal structures, and connections from PHG to the ipsilateral hippocampus and PCG. The amygdala projected to broad areas including the ipsilateral medial and lateral temporal structures, medial and lateral frontal areas, the cingulate gyrus, insula and inferior parietal lobule. ACG and PCG showed connections to the ipsilateral medial fronto-parietal areas and connections to bilateral medial temporo-parieto-occipital and lateral parieto-occipital areas, respectively. Medial and lateral OF stimulation induced responses in the adjacent cortices. This study revealed that various regions within the limbic network are intimately connected in reverberating circuits and are linked to specific ipsilateral and contralateral regions, which may reflect distinct functional roles. PMID:25131616

  6. The Nature and Process of Development in Averaged Visually Evoked Potentials: Discussion on Pattern Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izawa, Shuji; Mizutani, Tohru

    This paper examines the development of visually evoked EEG patterns in retarded and normal subjects. The paper focuses on the averaged visually evoked potentials (AVEP) in the central and occipital regions of the brain in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. Wave pattern, amplitude, and latency are examined. The first section of the paper reviews…

  7. Adaptation of the cortical somatosensory evoked potential following pulsed pneumatic stimulation of the lower face in adults.

    PubMed

    Custead, Rebecca; Oh, Hyuntaek; Rosner, Austin Oder; Barlow, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Cortical adaptation to sustained sensory input is a pervasive form of short-term plasticity in neurological systems. Its role in sensory perception in health and disease, or predicting long-term plastic changes resulting from sensory training offers insight into the mechanisms of somatosensory and sensorimotor processing. A 4-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recording montage was placed bilaterally (C3-P3, C4-P4, F7-P3, F8-P4) to characterize the short-term effects of pulsed pneumatic orofacial stimulation on the cortical somatosensory evoked potential (cSEP) in twenty neurotypical adults (mean age=21±2.88 years). A servo-controlled pneumatic amplifier was used to deliver a repetitive series of pneumatic pulse trains (six 50-ms pulses, 5-second intertrain interval) through a linked pair of custom acetal homopolymer probes (aka TAC-Cells) adhered to the nonglabrous skin of the lower face proximal to the right oral angle to synchronously activate mechanoreceptive afferents in the trigeminal nerve. Blocks of pulse trains were counterbalanced among participants and delivered at two rates, 2 and 4Hz. TAC-Cell stimulation of the lower face consistently evoked a series of cSEPs at P7, N20, P28, N38, P75, N85, and P115. The spatial organization and adaptation of the evoked cSEP was dependent on stimulus pulse index (1-6 within the pulse train, p=.012), frequency of stimulus presentation (2 vs 4Hz, p<.001), component (P7-P115, p<.001), and recording montage (channels 1-4, p<.001). Early component latencies (P7-N20) were highly stable in polarity (sign) and latency, and consistent with putative far-field generators (e.g., trigeminal brainstem, ventroposteromedial thalamus). PMID:26119917

  8. A Perturbation Based Decomposition of Compound-Evoked Potentials for Characterization of Nerve Fiber Size Distributions.

    PubMed

    Szlavik, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of peripheral nerve fiber distributions, in terms of diameter or velocity, is of clinical significance because information associated with these distributions can be utilized in the differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. Electro-diagnostic techniques can be applied to the investigation of peripheral neuropathies and can yield valuable diagnostic information while being minimally invasive. Nerve conduction velocity studies are single parameter tests that yield no detailed information regarding the characteristics of the population of nerve fibers that contribute to the compound-evoked potential. Decomposition of the compound-evoked potential, such that the velocity or diameter distribution of the contributing nerve fibers may be determined, is necessary if information regarding the population of contributing nerve fibers is to be ascertained from the electro-diagnostic study. In this work, a perturbation-based decomposition of compound-evoked potentials is proposed that facilitates determination of the fiber diameter distribution associated with the compound-evoked potential. The decomposition is based on representing the single fiber-evoked potential, associated with each diameter class, as being perturbed by contributions, of varying degree, from all the other diameter class single fiber-evoked potentials. The resultant estimator of the contributing nerve fiber diameter distribution is valid for relatively large separations in diameter classes. It is also useful in situations where the separation between diameter classes is small and the concomitant single fiber-evoked potentials are not orthogonal. PMID:26390494

  9. Auditory evoked potentials in a bottlenose dolphin during moderate-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S

    2013-12-01

    Studies with echolocating odontocetes have suggested that forms of automatic gain control mediate auditory electrophysiological responses to target-related echoes. This study used a phantom echo generator and auditory evoked potential measurements to examine automatic gain control in a bottlenose dolphin. Auditory evoked potentials to outgoing clicks and incoming echoes were recorded for simulated ranges from 2.5 to 80?m. When geometric spreading loss was simulated, echo-evoked potential amplitudes were essentially constant up to 14?m and progressively decreased with increasing range. When the echo levels were held constant relative to clicks, echo-evoked potential amplitudes increased with increasing range up to 80?m. These results suggest that automatic gain control maintains distance-independent echo-evoked potential amplitudes at close range, but does not fully compensate for attenuation due to spreading loss at longer ranges. The automatic gain control process appears to arise from an interaction of transmitter and receiver based processes, resulting in a short-range region of distance-independent echo-evoked potential amplitudes for relevant targets, and a longer-range region in which echo-evoked potential amplitudes are reduced. PMID:25669263

  10. Evoked potentials in immobilized cats to a combination of clicks with painful electrocutaneous stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinskiy, M. A.; Korsakov, I. A.

    1979-01-01

    Averaged evoked potentials in the auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical zones, as well as in the mesencephalic reticular formation were recorded in acute experiments on nonanesthetized, immobilized cats. Omission of the painful stimulus after a number of pairings resulted in the appearance of a delayed evoked potential, often resembling the late phases of the response to the painful stimulus. The characteristics of this response are discussed in comparison with conditioned changes of the sensory potential amplitudes.

  11. Dynamics of Infant Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials (CAEPs) for Tone and Speech Tokens

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Barbara; Whitaker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to tones and speech sounds were obtained in infants to: 1) further knowledge of auditory development above the level of the brainstem during the first year of life; 2) establish CAEP input-output functions for tonal and speech stimuli as a function of stimulus level and to 3) elaborate the data-base that establishes CAEP in infants tested while awake using clinically relevant stimuli, thus providing methodology that would have translation to pediatric audiological assessment. Hypotheses concerning CAEP development were that the latency and amplitude input-output functions would reflect immaturity in encoding stimulus level. In a second experiment, infants were tested with the same stimuli used to evoke the CAEPs. Thresholds for these stimuli were determined using observer-based psychophysical techniques. The hypothesis was that the behavioral thresholds would be correlated with CAEP input-output functions because of shared cortical response areas known to be active in sound detection. Design 36 infants, between the ages of 4-12 months (mean= 8 months, s.d.=1.8 months) and 9 young adults (mean age 21 years) with normal hearing were tested. First, CAEPs amplitude and latency input-output functions were obtained for 4 tone bursts and 7 speech tokens. The tone bursts stimuli were 50 ms tokens of pure tones at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kHz. The speech sound tokens, /a/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /m/, /s/, and /∫/, were created from natural speech samples and were also 50 ms in duration. CAEPs were obtained for tone burst and speech token stimuli at 10 dB level decrements in descending order from 70 dB SPL. All CAEP tests were completed while the infants were awake and engaged in quiet play. For the second experiment, observer-based psychophysical methods were used to establish perceptual threshold for the same speech sound and tone tokens. Results Infant CAEP component latencies were prolonged by 100-150 ms in comparison to adults. CAEP latency-intensity input output functions were steeper in infants compared to adults. CAEP amplitude growth functions with respect to stimulus SPL are adult-like at this age, particularly for the earliest component, P1-N1. Infant perceptual thresholds were elevated with respect to those found in adults. Furthermore, perceptual thresholds were higher, on average, than levels at which CAEPs could be obtained. When CAEP amplitudes were plotted with respect to perceptual threshold (dB SL), the infant CAEP amplitude growth slopes were steeper than in adults. Conclusions Although CAEP latencies indicate immaturity in neural transmission at the level of the cortex, amplitude growth with respect to stimulus SPL is adult-like at this age, particularly for the earliest component, P1-N1. The latency and amplitude input-output functions may provide additional information as to how infants perceive stimulus level. The reasons for the discrepancy between electrophysiologic and perceptual threshold may be due to immaturity in perceptual temporal resolution abilities and the broad-band listening strategy employed by infants. The findings from the current study can be translated to the clinical setting. It is possible to use tonal or speech sound tokens to evoke CAEPs in an awake, passively alert infant, and thus determine whether these sounds activate the auditory cortex. This could be beneficial in the verification of hearing aid or cochlear implant benefit. PMID:23722003

  12. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Using Head Striker Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Kofman, I. S.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke, M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Noohibezanjani, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last two decades, several studies have been published on the impact of long-duration (i.e., 22 days or longer) spaceflight on the central nervous system (CNS). In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers in flight and post-flight, we are conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effects of spaceflight on the vestibular system. One of the supporting tests conducted in this protocol is the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) test that provides a unilateral measure of otolith (saccule and utricle) function. A different approach was taken for ocular VEMP (oVEMP) testing using a head striker system (Wackym et al. 2012). The oVEMP is generally considered to be a measure of utricle function. The the otolithic input to the inferior oblique muscle is predominately from the utricular macula. Thus, quantitatively, oVEMP tests utricular function. Another practical extension of these relationships is that the oVEMP reflects the superior vestibular nerve function. Methods: Ground testing was administered on 16 control subjects and for 8 subjects over four repeated sessions spanning 70 days. The oVEMP was elicitied via a hand held striker by a vibrotactile pulse presented at the rate of 1 Hz for 24 seconds on the side of the head as subjects lay supine on a gurney. Subjects were directed to gaze approximately 25 degrees above straight ahead in semi-darkness. For the oVEMP electromyograms will be recorded with active bipolar electrodes (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA) on the infra-orbital ridge 1 cm below the eyelid with a reference electrode on the below the knee cap. The EMG potentials were amplified; band-pass filtered using a BagnoliTM Desktop EMG System (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). This EMG signal is sampled at 10 kHz and the data stimulus onset to 100 MS was averaged over 24 trial repetitions for the vibrotactile VEMP. The typical oVEMP EMG response is an excitatory potential with first peak occurring at 11-12 ms and second peak at 18 ms. This requires a total recording time of approximately 29 seconds per trial which includes 5 seconds of no vibrotactile stimulation at the beginning of the protocol. The primary dependent measures consist of the latency and peak-to-peak amplitude from the EMG signals, which will be normalized to EMG levels at the beginning of the protocol. Data were collected for 3 repeated trials with striker stimulation on both the left and right side of the head Results: The oVEMP p1 range was observed at 3-14 ms and n1 at 7-19 ms. The striker system provided a consistent and rapid method for oVEMP testing. Discussion: Crew testing is in progress to determine changes in results between pre and post flight.

  13. THE USE OF VISUAL AND CHEMOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of visual (VEP) and chemosensory evoked potentials (CSEP) in occupational and environmental health is briefly reviewed. EPs have been used extensively in experimental neurotoxicology and play an increasing role in human neurotoxicity testing. he similarity of VEP ...

  14. EVOKED POTENTIALS AS INDICES OF ADAPTATION IN THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under condit...

  15. Evaluation of brain function in acute carbon monoxide poisoning with multimodality evoked potentials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Shoulin ); Xu, Guanghua; Fang, Guangchai; Pan, Xiaowen )

    1993-02-01

    The median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP), and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were studied in 109 healthy adults and in 88 patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The upper limits for normal values of peak and interpeak latencies of multimodalities of evoked potentials in the reference group were established by a stepwise multiple regression analysis. SEP changes selectively affecting N32 and N60 were found in 78.8% of patients. There was prolonged PI00 latency of VEP in 58.2% of the cases examined. The prevalence of BAEP abnormalities in comatose patients (36%) was significantly higher than that (8.6%) in conscious patients. BAEP abnormalities were most frequently seen in comatose patients who had diminished brain stem reflexes (77.8%). It has been found that a consistent abnormality involving N2O and subsequent peaks in SEP, a remarkable prolongation of PI00 latency in VEP, or a prolongation of Ill-V interpeak latency in BAEP as well as the reoccurrence of evoked potential abnormalities after initial recovery all indicate unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute CO poisoning. The multimodality evoked potentials have proved to be sensitive indicators in the evaluation of brain dysfunction and in the prediction of prognosis of acute CO poisoning and the development of delayed encephalopathy. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. What do evoked potentials tell us about the acoustic system of the harbor porpoise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, N. G.

    2004-05-01

    The evoked acoustic potentials of the brainstem (EAPB) were detected from the brain, the skull, and the surface of the head of the harbor porpoise ( Phocaena phocaena). Experiments were performed at the Karadag biological station (Crimea). Clicks, noise, and tone bursts of different frequencies within 80 190 kHz were used as stimuli. The time and frequency selectivities of the auditory system were estimated by the simultaneous and direct forward masking methods. The minima of EAPB thresholds were usually observed in a frequency range of 120 140 kHz, which corresponded to the main spectral maximum of the species-specific echolocation signal. In addition to the regular EAPB, a pronounced off-EAPB was observed. In the aforementioned frequency range, a frequency selectivity ( Q 10 of about 10) was revealed by the direct forward masking method. The EAPB could be measured up to a frequency of 190 kHz, but outside this high-resolution region (outside the ultrasonic “fovea”), the frequency selectivity was weak. A simultaneous masking of a click by a tone was strong only when the delay of the click with respect to the masker onset was smaller than 1.0 ms. In a continuous regime, the tone (unlike noise) produced only a weak masking. The response to a small intensity increment of 1 4 dB was rather strong. In the frequency range of 120 140 kHz, this response exhibited a nonmonotone dependence on the signal level. The time resolving power, which was measured by the EAPB recovery functions for double clicks of various levels, was rather high, even when the intensity of the test signal was 18 dB lower than the masker level. Experimental data show that the auditory system of the harbor porpoise is tuned to detecting ultrasonic echo signals in the frequency range within 120 140 kHz. A hypothesis is put forward that the acoustic system of the harbor porpoise allows the animal, from analyzing echo signals, to estimate not only the distance to the target and the target’s intrinsic properties but also the speed with which the target is approached, the latter estimate being presumably obtained on the basis of the Doppler effect.

  17. Gustatory hedonic value: Potential function for forebrain control of brainstem taste processing

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Among well-nourished populations, eating beyond homeostatic needs when presented with caloric-dense palatable food evidences the assertion that an increasing proportion of consumption is driven by pleasure, not just by the need for calories. This presents a major health crisis because the affective component of foods constitutes a behavioral risk factor that promotes over consumption [Sorensen, L.B., Moller, P., Flint, A., Martens, M., Raben, A., 2003. Effect of sensory perception of foods on appetite and food intake: a review of studies on humans. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 27, 1152–1166; Yeomans, M.R., Blundell, J.E., Leshem, M., 2004. Palatability: response to nutritional need or need-free stimulation of appetite? Br. J. Nutr. 92 (Suppl. 1), S3–S14]. Overweight or obese individuals have an increased risk of developing hypertension, stroke, heart disease, chronic musculoskeletal problems, type-2 diabetes, and certain types of cancers [Hill, J.O., Catenacci, V., Wyatt, H.R., 2005. Obesity: overview of an epidemic. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am. 28, 1–23, vii]. The etiology of obesity is complex involving genetic, metabolic, and behavioral factors, but ultimately results from long-term energy imbalance. Evidence indicates that learned and some forms of unlearned control of ingestive behavior driven by palatability (i.e. hedonic value) are critically dependent on reciprocal interactions between brainstem gustatory nuclei and the ventral forebrain. This review discusses the current understanding of centrifugal control of taste processing in subcortical gustatory nuclei and the potential role of such modulation in hedonic responding. PMID:18675299

  18. Effects of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on the P13 Auditory Evoked Potential and Startle Response in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christen; Wallace-Huitt, Tiffany; Thapa, Priyenka; Skinner, Robert D.; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The P13 potential is the rodent equivalent of the P50 potential, which is an evoked response recorded at the vertex (Vx) 50?ms following an auditory stimulus in humans. Both the P13 and P50 potentials are only present during waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and are considered to be measures of level of arousal. The source of the P13 and P50 potentials appears to be the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), a brainstem nucleus with indirect ascending projections to the cortex through the intralaminar thalamus, mediating arousal, and descending inhibitory projections to the caudal pontine reticular formation (CPRF), which mediates the auditory startle response (SR). We tested the hypothesis that intracranial microinjection (ICM) of glutamate (GLU) or GLU receptor agonists will increase the activity of PPN neurons, resulting in an increased P13 potential response, and decreased SR due to inhibitory projections from the PPN to the CPRF, in freely moving animals. Cannulae were inserted into the PPN to inject neuroactive agents, screws were inserted into the Vx in order to record the P13 potential, and electrodes inserted into the dorsal nuchal muscle to record electromyograms and SR amplitude. Our results showed that ICM of GLU into the PPN dose-dependently increased the amplitude of the P13 potential and decreased the amplitude of the SR. Similarly, ICM of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid or kainate into the PPN increased the amplitude of the P13 potential. These findings indicate that glutamatergic input to the PPN plays a role in arousal control in vivo, and changes in glutamatergic input, or excitability of PPN neurons, could be implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders with the common symptoms of hyperarousal and REM sleep dysregulation. PMID:21441978

  19. Evoked potential measurement of the masked hearing threshold of a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Jeanette, Thomas; Western, A.; Rameriz, Kenneth M.

    2003-04-01

    The masked hearing threshold of a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) was determined by measuring the animal's auditory brainstem response (ABR). The dolphin was trained to wear surface-contact electrodes embedded in suction cups and to swim into a hoop centered at 1 m below the water surface facing a sound projector 5 m away. Broadband transient signals with center frequencies of 8, 16, 32, 64, 80, and 100 kHz were used as the stimuli. ABR signals were measured by digitizing the electrode signals in 32 point blocks at a sampling rate of 20 kHz. Five hundred blocks were averaged in order to obtain an ABR. The response latency for suprathreshold threshold signals was approximately 1.9 ms with the highest peak-to-peak ABR amplitude of approximately 2.8 uV occurring for a signal frequency of 64 kHz. The spectrum of the ABR signal was similar to that of Tursiops truncatus, with a major peak at 1120 Hz and a secondary peak at 664 Hz. Threshold was determined by progressively reducing the amplitude of the stimulus until an evoked potential could not be detected. The energy signal-to-noise ratio within an integration window at threshold varied between 1 and 8 dB.

  20. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea)

    PubMed Central

    Buerkle, Nathan P.; Schrode, Katrina M.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity. PMID:25151643

  1. Differential sensitivity to rotation measured on potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of the guinea-pig ear.

    PubMed

    Charlet de Sauvage, R; Erre, J P; Aran, J M

    1994-09-01

    Responses to electrical stimulation of the ear applied between round-window and vertex electrodes were recorded in awake guinea-pigs from the same electrodes or from separate vertex/mastoid subdermal needle electrodes. They were averaged during opposite phases of sinusoidal rotation or before and after constant velocity rotation. In both cases the responses were subtracted from each other and yielded differential per- or post-rotatory "electrovestibular" responses. For comparison, responses were also recorded in the same animals and conditions of electrical stimulation during silence and during silence and during presentation of a broad-band noise. The difference yielded "electroacoustic" responses. In round-window records, electrovestibular and electroacoustic responses presented typical compound nerve action potential patterns. Electrovestibular responses could be recorded for head angular velocities as low as 3 degrees sec-1 at 0.1 Hz. Response amplitude showed a logarithmic relation to head velocity. Changes in amplitude, as a function of time after rotation, were comparable to those reported for vestibular nerve fibre responses. In vertex/mastoid records, electroacoustic responses presented a sequence of peaks similar to the click-evoked auditory brain-stem responses, and electrovestibular responses presented two peaks, presumably representing contributions of central vestibular structures. Such "electrovestibulography" permits the study of an individual ear and makes available to the investigator a large range of vestibular stimulation conditions. PMID:7523091

  2. Correlation of epidermal nerve fiber density with pain-related evoked potentials in HIV neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Mark; Katsarava, Zaza; Esser, Stefan; Sommer, Claudia; He, Lan; Selter, Laura; Yoon, Min-Suk; Kaube, Holger; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Maschke, Matthias

    2008-08-15

    HIV associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological disorder with reported prevalence of 53%. When only small fibers are involved, the diagnosis of neuropathy remains difficult since standard nerve conduction studies generally are unremarkable. We assessed a method to identify small-fiber neuropathy using electrically evoked pain-related potentials and correlated the electrophysiological results with intraepidermal nerve fiber density in patients with HIV associated sensory neuropathy. Nineteen HIV positive patients were investigated for clinically diagnosed peripheral neuropathy with Neuropathy Symptoms Score (NSS)3 and Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS)5. Nine healthy HIV negative control subjects were recruited. We performed standard nerve conduction testing, electrically evoked pain-related potentials and skin biopsy in all participants. Pain-related evoked potentials revealed abnormalities in all HIV positive neuropathy patients, while standard nerve conduction testing was abnormal in eight patients only. Pain-related evoked potential latencies and amplitudes strongly correlated with intraepidermal nerve fiber density. The method of pain-related evoked potential conduction appears to be a sensitive, fast, non-invasive technique for the detection of small-fiber neuropathy and may prove to become a valuable diagnostic asset. PMID:18096318

  3. Evoked potential analysis: on-line signal optimization using a mini-computer.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, J W; Erwin, C W

    1976-10-01

    An automated computer-based system is described for the analysis of evoked potentials. All procedures are carried out in real-time A small computer performs the following functions; timing of random stimulus presentation, rejection of artifact contaminated responses, collection of digital data, computation of averaged evoked responses, computation of the Wiener filter, storage of the filtered and unfiltered averages and display of the resultant averages. The Wiener filter as described by Walter (1969) and Doyle (1975) is used to improve the estimate of the evoked potential by discriminating against frequencies likely to be contaminated with noise. The defining equation for the Wiener filter states that information at any frequency is to be weighted by the ratio of the power known to be in the signal (response) at that frequency over the corresponding power known to be in both the signal (response) and the noise (background EEG) at the same frequency. The technique requires the computation of the Fourier transform for each response in order to produce the power spectra necessary for the Wiener filter. Earlier reports dealing with this technique have usee large computers to analyze the evoked potential data off-line. The system described here allows for greater routine utilization of this powerful technique and the concomitant automated rejection of artifact contaminated responses. Highly improved estimates of the evoked potential are resultant using a minimal number of stimuli. PMID:60229

  4. Properties of rectified averaging of an evoked-type signal: theory and application to the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, J G

    2009-11-01

    The properties of rectified averages were investigated using the VEMP (vestibular-evoked myogenic potential) as an example of an evoked-type response. Recordings were made of surface EMG from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles of six volunteers, unstimulated, at different levels of tonic activation and then in response to clicks of different intensities. The stochastic properties of the surface EMG recorded were shown to be well modelled using a zero mean normal distribution with a standard deviation equivalent to the mean RMS (root mean squared) value (mean residual error variance 0.87%). Assuming a normal distribution, equations were derived for the expected value of both the rectified and RMS average with the addition of constant waveforms of different sizes. A simulation using recorded EMG and added sine waves of different amplitudes demonstrated that the equations predicted the rectified averages accurately. It also confirmed the importance of the relative amplitude of the added signal in determining whether it was detected using rectified averages. The same equations were then applied to actual data consisting of VEMPs of different relative amplitudes recorded from the volunteers. Whilst the signal-to-noise ratio (measured by corrected amplitude) was a major determinant of the nature of the rectified average, consistent deviations were detected between the predicted and actual rectified averages. Deviations from predicted values indicated that the VEMP did not behave simply like a constant signal added to tonic background EMG. A more complicated model, which included temporal jitter as well as inhibition of background EMG during the VEMP, was required to fit the physiological recordings. Rectified averages are sensitive to physiological properties, which are not apparent when using unrectified averages alone. Awareness of the properties of rectified averages should improve their interpretation. PMID:19787346

  5. Giant visually-evoked potentials without myoclonus in the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J; Bancher, C; Mamoli, B

    1999-08-01

    In a 64-year old woman with progressive visual impairment for 4 weeks, probable Creutzfeld-Jakob disease without myoclonus was diagnosed after rapidly progressive mental deterioration had also developed, and CSF and EEG showed characteristic findings. Pattern-reversal and flash visually-evoked potentials, recorded 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks after onset, showed a maximum P100 latency of 210 ms, 8 weeks after onset, and a maximum N75/P100 amplitude of 33.1 microV, 5 weeks after onset. While the P100 latency progressively increased, the N75/P100 amplitude continuously decreased after reaching its maximum. In the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease giant visually-evoked potentials may be recorded during the early stages of the disease, even in the absence of myoclonus. Visually-evoked potentials may prove useful in diagnosing Creutzfeld-Jakob disease with atypical initial presentation. PMID:10500266

  6. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  7. An indirect component in the evoked compound action potential of the vagal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordelman, Simone C. M. A.; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Evidence of Visual Memory in the Cortical Evoked Potential of Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Martin J.; And Others

    Averaged evoked potential (AEP) is an event-related brain response obtained by averaging the scalp electrical potentials elicited by repeated presentations of the same event. It has proven to be an accurate measure of the activity of the mature human brain when involved in a wide variety of psychological tasks. Distinct psychological processes…

  9. Real-time adaptive microstimulation increases reliability of electrically evoked cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Dominik; Butovas, Sergejus; Bogdan, Martin; Schwarz, Cornelius

    2011-05-01

    Cortical neuroprostheses that employ repeated electrical stimulation of cortical areas with fixed stimulus parameters, are faced with the problem of large trial-by-trial variability of evoked potentials. This variability is caused by the ongoing cortical signal processing, but it is an unwanted phenomenon if one aims at imprinting neural activity as precisely as possible. Here, we use local field potentials measured by one microelectrode, located at a distance of 200 microns from the stimulation site, to drive the electrically evoked potential toward a desired target potential by real-time adaptation of the stimulus intensity. The functional relationship between ongoing cortical activity, evoked potential, and stimulus intensity was estimated by standard machine learning techniques (support vector regression with problem-specific kernel function) from a set of stimulation trials with randomly varied stimulus intensities. The smallest deviation from the target potential was achieved for low stimulus intensities. Further, the observed precision effect proved time sensitive, since it was abolished by introducing a delay between data acquisition and stimulation. These results indicate that local field potentials contain sufficient information about ongoing local signal processing to stabilize electrically evoked potentials. We anticipate that adaptive low intensity microstimulation will play an important role in future cortical prosthetic devices that aim at restoring lost sensory functions. PMID:21257369

  10. Effects of single cycle binaural beat duration on auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials. PMID:25571013

  11. Evoked potential studies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paran, D; Chapman, J; Korczyn, A D; Elkayam, O; Hilkevich, O; Groozman, G B; Levartovsky, D; Litinsky, I; Caspi, D; Segev, Y; Drory, V E

    2006-01-01

    Background The CNS manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can mimic multiple sclerosis both clinically and radiologically. Objective To compare evoked potential studies in APS patients and patients with multiple sclerosis with similar neurological disability. Methods 30 APS patients with CNS manifestations and 33 patients with definite multiple sclerosis and similar neurological disability underwent studies of visual evoked potentials (VEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in the upper and lower limbs (UL, LL), and sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in the upper and lower limbs. Results The neurological manifestations in the APS patients included stroke (n?=?17), transient ischaemic attacks (n?=?10), and severe headache with multiple white matter lesions on brain MRI (n?=?3). Abnormal SSEP (LL), and SSR (UL; LL) were seen in APS patients (37%, 27%, and 30%, respectively) but VEP and UL SSEP were rarely abnormal (10% and 6%, respectively in APS v 58% and 33% in multiple sclerosis; p?=?0.0005, p?=?0.008). Mean VEP latencies were more prolonged in multiple sclerosis (116?ms v 101?ms, p<0.001). Only one APS patient had abnormal findings in all three evoked potential studies, compared with seven patients in the multiple sclerosis group (p?=?0.04) Conclusions Abnormal VEPs are uncommon in APS in contrast to multiple sclerosis. Coexisting abnormalities in all other evoked potentials were similarly rare in APS. In patients with brain MRI findings compatible either with multiple sclerosis or APS, normal evoked potential tests, and especially a normal VEP, may support the diagnosis of APS. PMID:16107510

  12. Predictability of Painful Stimulation Modulates the Somatosensory-Evoked Potential in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Manon W. H.; van Oostrom, Hugo; Doornenbal, Arie; Baars, Annemarie M.; Arndt, Saskia S.; Hellebrekers, Ludo J.

    2013-01-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) are used in humans and animals to increase knowledge about nociception and pain. Since the SEP in humans increases when noxious stimuli are administered unpredictably, predictability potentially influences the SEP in animals as well. To assess the effect of predictability on the SEP in animals, classical fear conditioning was applied to compare SEPs between rats receiving SEP-evoking electrical stimuli either predictably or unpredictably. As in humans, the rat’s SEP increased when SEP-evoking stimuli were administered unpredictably. These data support the hypothesis that the predictability of noxious stimuli plays a distinctive role in the processing of these stimuli in animals. The influence of predictability should be considered when studying nociception and pain in animals. Additionally, this finding suggests that animals confronted with (un)predictable noxious stimuli can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the influence of predictability on central processing of noxious stimuli. PMID:23613862

  13. Cannabinoid 1 and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Receptors Discretely Modulate Evoked Glutamate Separately from Spontaneous Glutamate Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Andresen, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Action potentials trigger synaptic terminals to synchronously release vesicles, but some vesicles release spontaneously. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate both of these processes. At cranial primary afferent terminals, the GPCR cannabinoid 1 (CB1) is often coexpressed with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel present on most afferents. Here we tested whether CB1 activation modulates synchronous, action potential-evoked (eEPSCs) and/or spontaneous (sEPSCs) EPSCs at solitary tract nucleus neurons. In rat horizontal brainstem slices, activation of solitary tract (ST) primary afferents generated ST-eEPSCs that were rapidly and reversibly inhibited from most afferents by activation of CB1 with arachidonyl-2?-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or WIN 55,212-2 [R-(+)-(2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)(1-naphthalenyl) methanone monomethanesulfonate]. The CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide] blocked these responses. Despite profound depression of ST-eEPSCs during CB1 activation, sEPSCs in these same neurons were unaltered. Changes in temperature changed sEPSC frequency only from TRPV1+ afferents (i.e., thermal sEPSC responses only occurred in TRPV1+ afferents). CB1 activation failed to alter these thermal sEPSC responses. However, the endogenous arachidonate metabolite N-arachidonyldopamine (NADA) promiscuously activated both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors. NADA inhibited ST-eEPSCs while simultaneously increasing sEPSC frequency, and thermally triggered sEPSC increases in neurons with TRPV1+ afferents. We found no evidence for CB1/TRPV1 interactions suggesting independent regulation of two separate vesicle pools. Together, these data demonstrate that action potential-evoked synchronous glutamate release is modulated separately from TRPV1-mediated glutamate release despite coexistence in the same central terminations. This two-pool arrangement allows independent and opposite modulation of glutamate release by single lipid metabolites. PMID:24920635

  14. Differing response properties of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials evoked by air-conducted stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Danielle L.; Govender, Sendhil; Chen, Peggy; Todd, Neil P. McAngus; Colebatch, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the amplitude changes of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) recorded simultaneously from the neck (cVEMPs) and eyes (oVEMPs) in response to 500 Hz, 2 ms air-conducted sound pips over a 30 dB range. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers (mean age 29, range 18–57 years old) and one patient with unilateral superior canal dehiscence (SCD) were studied. The stimulus was reduced in increments to 105 dB pSPL for the normals (81 dB pSPL for the SCD patient). A statistical criterion was used to detect responses. Results Ipsilateral (i-p13/n23) and contralateral (c-n12/p24/n30) peaks for the cVEMP montage and contralateral (c-n10/p16/n21) and ipsilateral (i-n13) peaks for the oVEMP montage were present for the baseline intensity. For the lowest intensity, 6/15 subjects had responses for the i-p13 cVEMP potential and 4/15 had c-n10 oVEMP responses. The SCD patient showed larger responses for nearly all intensities. The cVEMP potentials were generally well fitted by a power law relationship, but the oVEMP c-n10, p16 and n21 potentials showed a significant increase in gradient for the higher intensities. Conclusion Most oVEMP and cVEMP responses follow a power law relationship but crossed oVEMP responses showed a change in gradient above a threshold. Significance The pattern of response to AC stimulation may be a property of the pathways underlying the potentials. PMID:24290850

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of evoked potentials for functional impairment after contusive spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Zhou, James; Krishnan, Rohan; Manem, Nihita; Umredkar, Shreya; Hamilton, D K; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Oudega, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a cause of potentially debilitating post-operative neurologic complications. Currently, intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) via somatosensory evoked potentials and motor-evoked potentials is used to detect and prevent impending SCI. However, no empirically validated interventions exist to halt the progression of iatrogenic SCI once it is detected. This is in part due to the lack of a suitable translational model that mimics the circumstances surrounding iatrogenic SCI detected via IONM. Here, we evaluate a model of simulated contusive iatrogenic SCI detected via IONM in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that transient losses of somatosensory evoked potentials responses are 88.24% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.53-98.20) and 80% specific (95% CI 51.91-95.43) for significant functional impairment following simulated iatrogenic SCI. Similarly, we show that transient losses in motor-evoked potentials responses are 70.83% sensitive (95% CI 48.91-87.33) and 100% specific (95% CI 62.91-100.00) for significant functional impairment following simulated iatrogenic SCI. These results indicate that our model is a suitable replica of the circumstances surrounding clinical iatrogenic SCI. PMID:26677784

  16. Ultraviolet irradiation of the eye and Fos-positive neurons induced in trigeminal brainstem after intravitreal or ocular surface transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Z; Okamoto, K; Tashiro, A; Bereiter, D A

    2010-10-13

    The interior structures of the eye are well supplied by the trigeminal nerve; however, the function of these afferent fibers is not well defined. The aim of this study was to use c-fos like immunohistochemistry (Fos-LI) to map the trigeminal brainstem complex after intravitreal microinjection or ocular surface application of capsaicin, a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist in male rats under barbiturate anesthesia. The effect of ocular inflammation on Fos-LI was tested 2 or 7 days after UV irradiation of the eye. In non-inflamed controls, intravitreal capsaicin produced peaks of Fos-LI at the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vcvl) transition and in superficial laminae at the caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction regions. At the Vc/C1 junction intravitreal capsaicin induced Fos-LI in a dose-dependent manner, while at the Vi/Vcvl transition responses were similar after vehicle or capsaicin injections. Two days, but not 7 days, after UV irradiation intravitreal and ocular surface capsaicin-evoked Fos-LI at the Vc/C1 junction and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) were markedly enhanced, whereas the responses at the Vi/Vcvl transition were not different from non-inflamed controls. More than 80% of trigeminal ganglion neurons labeled after intravitreal microinjection of Fluorogold also expressed immunoreactivity for the TRPV1 receptor. These findings suggested that most intraocular trigeminal sensory nerves serve as nociceptors. The similar pattern and magnitude of Fos-LI after capsaicin suggested that TRPV1-responsive trigeminal nerves that supply intraocular and ocular surface tissues form a unified integrative circuit in the caudal brainstem. Intensity coding of capsaicin concentration and facilitation of Fos-LI expression after UV irradiation strongly supported the hypothesis that the Vc/C1 junction was critical for nociceptive processing related to ocular pain, whereas the Vi/Vcvl transition region likely served other functions in ocular homeostasis under naïve and inflamed conditions. PMID:20643195

  17. [Somatesthesic, auditory and visual evoked potentials in chronic alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Rossi, L; Corbella, T; Ubiali, E; Rasella, M; De Marco, R; Rottoli, M R

    1984-01-01

    The Authors examine a group of alcoholics, recording for each patients somatosensory, auditory and visual potentials, in order to check the presence in different systems of nervous fibers of subclinic alterations; they separate a group of patients with clinic polyneuropathie and a group without polyneuropathie. Subclinic alterations are confirmed in different measure in the two groups. Vit. B12 and pholic acid are also dosed in the serum. PMID:6330866

  18. Influence of Rotating Shift Work on Visual Reaction Time and Visual Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. Aim: To compare the visual reaction time, visual evoked potential (VEP) in rotating night shift workers & day workers and also to correlate the changes in visual reaction time with visual evoked potential. Materials and Methods: Forty healthy male security guards & staff (25 – 35 y) who did rotating night shifts at least for six months & 40 d workers (25 – 35 y) who did not do night shift in last two years were involved in the study. Visual reaction time and the latency & amplitude of VEP were recorded. Result: Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for normalcy showed the latencies & amplitude of VEP to be normally distributed. Student’s unpaired t test showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the visual time and in the latencies of VEP between night shift & day workers. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VEP. Conclusion: Night shift workers who are prone to circadian rhythm alteration will have prolonged visual reaction time & visual evoked potential abnormalities. Implementation of Bright Light Therapy would be beneficial to the night shift worker. PMID:25478332

  19. RAT FLASH EVOKED POTENTIAL PEAK N160 AMPLITUDE: MODULATION BY RELATIVE FLASH INTENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flash evoked potential (FEP) of rats has a large negative (N160) approximately 160 msec following stimulation. his peak has been reported to be modulated by the subject's state of behavioral arousal and influenced by several test parameters. hese experiments bind the influenc...

  20. Negative Component of Visual Evoked Potential in Children with Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanagihara, Masafumi; Sako, Akihito

    This study investigates a negative component (N220) of visual evoked potential (VEP) which increases as certain cognitive processes are activated. Nine experimental conditions were designed by combining three stimulus and three task conditions. Letters were used as verbal stimuli, matrix patterns were used as nonverbal stimuli, and white light was…

  1. STATIONARY PATTERN ADAPTATION AND THE EARLY COMPONENTS IN HUMAN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pattern-onset visual evoked potentials were elicited from humans by sinusoidal gratings of 0.5., 1, 2 and 4 cpd (cycles/degree) following adaptation to a blank field or one of the gratings. The wave forms recorded after blank field adaptation showed an early positive component, P...

  2. Age of Second Language Acquisition and Hemispheric Asymmetry--Evidence from Evoked Potentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, S. J.; And Others

    A study of differential brain hemisphere involvement in second language acquisition is reported. The study examined the idea that the right hemisphere is progressively more involved the later the second language is acquired. Various techniques for monitoring hemispheric functioning are described, especially the Evoked Potential (EP) technique. In…

  3. The Use of Evoked Potential Studies in the Identification of Explosive Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bars, Donald R.; And Others

    The focus of this study was on the identification of adolescents with physiologically based extreme behavior problems (explosive, hostile, aggressive type) through the use of evoked potential studies. Through interviews two distinct types of explosive behavior were identified based upon how individuals came out of the rage or explosive period. In…

  4. MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITION CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS PRODUCED BY CHLORDIMEFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlordimeform (CDM), a formamidine insecticide and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, has recently been shown to produce profound changes in visual evoked potentials of hooded rats (Dyer and Boyes, The Toxicologist, 3: 13, 1983). Two experiments were performed to determine if the...

  5. Analysis of the Averaged Visually Evoked Potentials in Normal Children. (RIEEC Research Bulletin 3.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizutani, Tohru; And Others

    Evaluated were the properties and fine structures of averaged visually evoked potentials (AVEP) in 60 normal children between the ages of 2 and 9 years. Electroencephalographic recordings were taken while white diffuse flashes were used to deliver visual stimuli to the Ss. Three types of AVEP patterns were discerned, with no relationship observed…

  6. INVESTIGATIONS OF AMITRAZ NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS. 2. EFFECTS ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of amitraz neurotoxicity in rats. II. Effects on visual evoked potentials. Boyes, W.K. and Moser, V.C. (1986) Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 00,000-000. As a part of a series of studies investigating the possible neurotoxicity of amitraz (AMZ), a formamidine pesticide, vis...

  7. Forced-Choice Preferential Looking and Visual Evoked Potential Acuities of Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, M. C.; Birch, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    As follow up to a study which compared forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) with pattern visual evoked potential (VEP), this study increased the VEP success rate and improved agreement between the FPL and VEP acuity estimates by using horizontal bar stimuli for young preverbal children (n=17) with nystagmus. (Author/DB)

  8. A modified mirror projection visual evoked potential stimulator for presenting patterns in different orientations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P K; Wynn-Williams, G M

    1986-07-01

    Modifications to a standard mirror projection visual evoked potential stimulator are described to enable projection of patterns in varying orientations. The galvanometer-mirror assembly is mounted on an arm which can be rotated through 90 degrees. This enables patterns in any orientation to be deflected perpendicular to their axes. PMID:2424725

  9. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of alterations in body temperature on flash and pattern reversal evoked potential (FEPs and PREPs) were examined in hooded rats whose thermoregulatory capacity was compromised with lesions of the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area and/or cold restraint. Body temperat...

  10. Implementation of a microprocessor-based visual-evoked cortical potential recording and analysis system.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A; Fram, D; Sistar, J

    1981-06-01

    An Imsai 8080 microcomputer is being used to simultaneously generate a color graphics stimulus display and to record visual-evoked cortical potentials. A brief description of the hardware and software developed for this system is presented. Data storage and analysis techniques are also discussed. PMID:7270657

  11. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  12. PEAK N160 OF RAT FLASH EVOKED POTENTIAL: DOES IT REFLECT HABITUATION OR SENSITIZATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flash evoked potentials recorded from awake rats contain a negative peak occurring about 160 msec after the flash (N160). This peak has been associated with a specific level of arousal, and/or habituation by various authors. The current studies attempted to determine whether chan...

  13. ALTERATIONS IN FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS (FEPS) IN RATS PRODUCED BY 3,3'-IMINODIPROPIONITRILE (IDPN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    -3,-3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) is a neurotoxicant that produces changes in flash evoked potentials (FEPs) 18 weeks after treatment (52). e examined dose and time-related effects of IDPN on FEPs at earlier time points than previously studied. dult male Long-Evans rats were gi...

  14. Intelligence and Complexity of the Averaged Evoked Potential: An Attentional Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Tim; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study measuring average evoked potentials in 21 college students finds that intelligence test scores correlate significantly with the difference between string length in attended and nonattended conditions, a finding that suggests that previous inconsistencies in reporting string length-intelligence correlations may have resulted from confound…

  15. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  16. WITHIN-SESSION CHANGES IN PEAK N160 AMPLITUDE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The negative peak occurring approximately 160 msec after stimulation (peak N 160) flash evoked potentials (FEPS) of rats changes with repeated testing. abituation, sensitization, and arousal have all been invoked to explain these changes, but few studies have directly tested thes...

  17. FOCAL LESIONS OF VISUAL CORTEX: EFFECTS ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Focal lesions were placed in the visual cortex of Long-Evans hooded rats, immediately below skull screw recording electrodes. Lesions were produced by heat and extended an average depth of about 0.9 mm below the cortical surface. Evoked potentials recorded from the electrode over...

  18. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  19. Derived evoked potentials for continuous tones using a hybrid electrical-acoustical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aran, J M; Erre, J P; de Sauvage, R C

    1985-01-01

    Averaged VIIIth nerve and brainstem potentials are recorded in normal guinea pigs in response to electrical stimulation of the ear presented once without and once with a simultaneous masking continuous pure tone. The waveform difference yields a well synchronized 'derived signal' which is the response to the electrical stimulation of only the group of fibers masked by the pure tone. Study of very low frequency activation is a new possibility brought by this method which is efficient whatever the sound frequency. Pure tone thresholds obtained are similar to previous measurements. Response amplitudes are likely a measure of the number of fibers stimulated by the sounds. PMID:4086387

  20. Self-modeling structure of evoked postsynaptic potentials.

    PubMed

    Viele, Kert; Lancaster, Mark; Cooper, Robin L

    2006-07-01

    With the simplicity of the synaptic structure and physiology at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of crayfish and the given transmitter being released in quantal packets, a detailed assessment in the fundamental processes of chemical synaptic transmission is possible. Since the quantal event is the basic element of transmission, we consider an approach to further understand the characteristics of quantal responses. In this study, we introduce a method for combining information across excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) that are quantal in nature. The method is called self-modeling regression, known in the statistics literature as SEMOR. This method illustrates that the differing timing and heights of EPSPs can be described with four coefficients measuring affine (shift and scale) transformations of the x and y axes. We demonstrate that this relationship allows us to provide a unified schema for the many functionals currently used in the literature, such as peak amplitude, tau, latency, area under the curve, or decay time. Computer code in R is available on the internet to perform the analysis. PMID:16575851

  1. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP) is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG) and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS) was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection. PMID:22114868

  2. Value of somatosensory evoked potentials in saphenous entrapment neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Tranier, S; Durey, A; Chevallier, B; Liot, F

    1992-01-01

    Neuralgia of the saphenous nerve (SN) is a rare clinical syndrome simulating a vascular disorder of the lower extremities. In four cases, the presenting complaint was persistent pain on the medial aspect of the knee. Examination revealed tenderness over the site of exit of the SN form the femoral canal. Femoral nerve motor conduction, quadriceps H-reflex and EMG of the leg muscles were normal. The sensory nerve action potential of the SN in the leg was not obtained in some patients, even in the unaffected leg. SEP were therefore preferred for diagnosis and performed at the infrapatellar and descending branches of the right and left SN and recordings from the Cz'-Fz electrode. Latency and amplitude differences were evaluated and compared with a control group of healthy subjects. An alteration in the SEP from one branch was observed on the painful side. Posterior tibial responses were normal. In one case, pain resolved immediately after neurolysis, confirming SN entrapment above the femoral canal, before its division. Pain resolved in two other cases and persisted in the last after medical treatment. SEP studies are valuable in the diagnosis of an isolated lesion of the SN. Images PMID:1619412

  3. Evoked Potential in Panic Disorder Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Luiza Medeiros Wanick; Velasques, Bruna Brandao; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Carvalho, Marcele Regine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have been using the electroencephalogram to better understand the cognitive and neurobiological bases of panic disorder (PD) through the P300 component; this is an electric potential of the cerebral cortex that is generated in response to external sensorial stimuli and which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation; it is then used to investigate possible alterations in the information processing and attention of patients suffering from this disorder. Aiming to verify the results found by experimental articles already published about P300 in PD patients and the information processing differences between PD patients and healthy controls, a systematic review of the PubMed and Institute for Scientific Information databases was conducted. The selection criterion involved those articles, written in English, which referred to an experimental research that focused on the P300 component, with a sample composed of PD (or panic attacks) patients. Seven articles were found that fit the selected criteria. Most of the articles show that these patients suffer from: impaired information processing and attention, an inability to automatically respond to new stimuli, and impaired interpretation of internal and external stimuli related to the disorder. Such impairment may be related to an unspecified dysfunction in the limbic-reticular structures, which would affect: active, focused and short-term attention, working and short-term memory, recognition and decision making. Some limitations were highlighted, such as the use of small samples and possible comorbidity with other disorders, which did not allow clearer results. This research can contribute to understand the neurobiological differences of PD patients and develop treatments based on such evidence. PMID:25106626

  4. ALTERATIONS IN RAT FLASH AND PATTERN REVERSAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AFTER ACUTE OR REPEATED ADMINISTRATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE (CS2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because solvents may selectively alter portions of visual evoked potentials, we examined the effects of carbon disulfide (CS2) on flash (FEPs) and pattern reversal (PREPs) evoked potentials. Long-Evans rats were administered (ip) carbon disulfide (CS2) either acutely or for 30 da...

  5. ACUTE EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON PATTERN REVERSAL AND FLASH-EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO BODY TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute ethanol treatment on flash and pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (FEPs and PREPs, respectively) were examined in three experiments using Long-Evans rats. The relationships of evoked potential parameters with blook ethanol concentration and body temper...

  6. Maturation of Peripheral and Brainstem Auditory Function in the First Year Following Perinatal Asphyxia: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Ze D.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 44 infants who suffered asphyxia during the perinatal period examined the influence of perinatal asphyxia on the maturation of auditory pathways by serial recordings of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The general maturational course of the BAEP following asphyxia was similar to a control group. (Author/CR)

  7. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of task relevance on P3 (waveform of human evoked potential) waves and the methodologies used to deal with them are outlined. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from normal adult subjects performing in a visual discrimination task. Subjects counted the number of presentations of the numeral 4 which was interposed rarely and randomly within a sequence of tachistoscopically flashed background stimuli. Intrusive, task-irrelevant (not counted) stimuli were also interspersed rarely and randomly in the sequence of 2s; these stimuli were of two types: simples, which were easily recognizable, and novels, which were completely unrecognizable. It was found that the simples and the counted 4s evoked posteriorly distributed P3 waves while the irrelevant novels evoked large, frontally distributed P3 waves. These large, frontal P3 waves to novels were also found to be preceded by large N2 waves. These findings indicate that the P3 wave is not a unitary phenomenon but should be considered in terms of a family of waves, differing in their brain generators and in their psychological correlates.

  8. Differences by Sex, Ear, and Sexual Orientation in the Time Intervals between Successive Peaks in Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Dennis; Hsieh, Michelle D.; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Champlin, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Auditory-evoked-potential (AEP) data from two studies originally designed for other purposes were reanalyzed. The auditory brainstem response (ABR), middle-latency response (MLR), and long-latency response (LLR) were measured. The latencies to each of several peaks were measured for each subject for each ear of click presentation, and the time intervals between successive peaks were calculated. Of interest were differences in interpeak intervals between the sexes, between people of differing sexual orientations, and between the two ears of stimulation. Most of the differences obtained were small. The largest sex differences were for interval I ? V in the ABR and interval N1 ? N2 of the LLR (effect sizes > 0.6). The largest differences between heterosexuals and nonheterosexuals were for the latency to Wave I in both sexes, for the interval Na? Nb in females, and for intervals V ? Na and Nb ? N1 in males (effect sizes > 0.3). The largest difference for ear stimulated was for interval N1 ? N2 in heterosexual females (effect size ~0.5). No substantial differences were found in the AEP intervals between women using, and not using, oral contraceptives. Left/right correlations for the interpeak intervals were mostly between about 0.4 and 0.6. Correlations between the ipsilateral intervals were small; i.e., interval length early in the AEP series was not highly predictive of interval length later in the series. Interpeak intervals appear generally less informative than raw latencies about differences by sex and by sexual orientation. PMID:20875848

  9. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter J; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O; Ghasem, Parsa R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  10. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Maier, Steven F.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  11. Auditory evoked potentials in audiometric assessment of compensation and medicolegal patients.

    PubMed

    Hyde, M; Alberti, P; Matsumoto, N; Li, Y L

    1986-01-01

    The clinical utility of auditory evoked potentials for validation of the pure tone audiogram in adult compensation claimants and medicolegal patients is examined. Large sample comparisons of evoked potential and conventional pure tone thresholds showed that the slow vertex response can estimate true hearing levels within 10 dB in almost all patients. Given adequate tester skills, it is the tool of choice, and it merits more widespread implementation. Properly used, it can improve and abbreviate the assessment battery for detection and quantification of nonorganic hearing loss. The 40-Hz middle latency response is useful as a secondary tool, but at present, cochlear nerve and brain stem potentials have limited audiometric value in this population. PMID:2945508

  12. Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potential for Brain-Computer Interface—Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sangtae; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) performance has achieved continued improvement over recent decades, and sensorimotor rhythm-based BCIs that use motor function have been popular subjects of investigation. However, it remains problematic to introduce them to the public market because of their low reliability. As an alternative resolution to this issue, visual-based BCIs that use P300 or steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) seem promising; however, the inherent visual fatigue that occurs with these BCIs may be unavoidable. For these reasons, steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) BCIs, which are based on tactile selective attention, have gained increasing attention recently. These may reduce the fatigue induced by visual attention and overcome the low reliability of motor activity. In this literature survey, recent findings on SSSEP and its methodological uses in BCI are reviewed. Further, existing limitations of SSSEP BCI and potential future directions for the technique are discussed. PMID:26834611

  13. Grating visual evoked cortical potentials in the evaluation of laser bioeffects: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, D.I.; Lund, D.J.; Van Sice, C.W.; Esgandarian, G.E.

    1982-12-01

    A system was designed to permit simultaneous viewing of the ocular fundus of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the accurate placement of laser radiation on the retina, and the stimulation of the site to produce a grating visual evoked cortical potential (VECP). A fundus camera was modified to incorporate a grating whose image was projected onto the retina at specific locations. The evoked potential could thus be obtained for any rate of alternation before, during, and after the exposure of the fovea to any one of many laser sources. An example is shown of the use of this system to monitor the grating VECP before and after exposure of the animal's fundus to a 900 nm gallium arsenide laser source for 60 sec. In this case, changes were observed in the variability of the latency of components of the VECP when compared to the prelaser exposure potentials.

  14. Spectrum pattern resolution after noise exposure in a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas: Evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2015-07-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) and the discrimination of spectrum patterns after fatiguing noise exposure (170?dB re 1??Pa, 10?min duration) was investigated in a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, using the evoked potential technique. Thresholds were measured using rhythmic (1000/s) pip trains of varying levels and recording the rhythmic evoked responses. Discrimination of spectrum patterns was investigated using rippled-spectrum test stimuli of various levels and ripple densities, recording the rhythmic evoked responses to ripple phase reversals. Before noise exposure, the greatest responses to rippled-spectrum probes were evoked by stimuli with a low ripple density with a decrease in the response magnitude occurring with an increasing ripple density. After noise exposure, both a TTS and a reduction of the responses to rippled-spectrum probes appeared and recovered in parallel. The reduction of the responses to rippled-spectrum probes was maximal for high-magnitude responses at low ripple densities and was negligible for low-magnitude responses at high ripple densities. It is hypothesized that the impacts of fatiguing sounds are not limited by increased thresholds and decreased sensitivity results in reduced ability to discriminate fine spectral content with the greatest impact on the discrimination of spectrum content that may carry the most obvious information about stimulus properties. PMID:26233037

  15. Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.

  16. Global field power helps separate respiratory-related evoked potentials from EMG contamination.

    PubMed

    Daubenspeck, J A; Lim, L M; Akay, M

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREPs) were stimulated by brief (200-ms) oral pressure pulses (-10 cmH(2)O) applied at the onset of inspiration in 12 subjects. Scalp potentials were measured at 30 sites on a rectangular grid that encompassed the right side of the scalp overlying the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Concurrent and significant masseter EMG (mEMG) activity was evoked by the pressure pulse, and we found correlational evidence for contamination of the RREP by the mEMG. The global field power (GFP) was used to provide a robust, reference-independent measure of SSC activation that provided partial insulation from mEMG contamination. The mean GFP from all subjects, reflective of afferent information from respiratory mechanoreceptors, showed a latency to onset of significant afferent SSC activity of approximately 25 ms. Scalp GFP activity during control experiments (absence of applied pressure) was significant and may reflect ongoing afferent activity from inspiration. PMID:10642391

  17. The steady-state visual evoked potential in vision research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Norcia, Anthony M.; Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Ales, Justin M.; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Periodic visual stimulation and analysis of the resulting steady-state visual evoked potentials were first introduced over 80 years ago as a means to study visual sensation and perception. From the first single-channel recording of responses to modulated light to the present use of sophisticated digital displays composed of complex visual stimuli and high-density recording arrays, steady-state methods have been applied in a broad range of scientific and applied settings.The purpose of this article is to describe the fundamental stimulation paradigms for steady-state visual evoked potentials and to illustrate these principles through research findings across a range of applications in vision science. PMID:26024451

  18. Long latency auditory evoked potentials in children with cochlear implants: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Matas, Carla Gentile; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de

    2013-11-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze the findings on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implant through a systematic literature review. After formulation of research question and search of studies in four data bases with the following descriptors: electrophysiology (eletrofisiologia), cochlear implantation (implante coclear), child (criança), neuronal plasticity (plasticidade neuronal) and audiology (audiologia), were selected articles (original and complete) published between 2002 and 2013 in Brazilian Portuguese or English. A total of 208 studies were found; however, only 13 contemplated the established criteria and were further analyzed; was made data extraction for analysis of methodology and content of the studies. The results described suggest rapid changes in P1 component of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implants. Although there are few studies on the theme, cochlear implant has been shown to produce effective changes in central auditory path ways especially in children implanted before 3 years and 6 months of age. PMID:24626971

  19. Maturation of human visual evoked potentials: 27 weeks conceptional age to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kos-Pietro, S; Towle, V L; Cakmur, R; Spire, J P

    1997-12-01

    Visual evoked potentials to pattern reversal and diffuse flash stimulation were recorded from 520 consecutive pediatric patients and 11 normal infants between the ages of 27 weeks post-conception and 24 months. The latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of the first reproducible positive peak of the binocular pattern visual evoked potential (P100) were measured for five check sizes subtending from 15' to 4 degrees of arc. Three developmental trends were noted: 1) a rapid increase in pattern resolution near term, 2) a subsequent decrease in the latency of P100, and 3) a gradual increase in the amplitude of P100. These three trends reflect the multiplicity of early maturation and are discussed in terms of changes in receptor growth and density, pathway myelination, and cortical synaptivity. PMID:9453029

  20. Evaluating long-latency auditory evoked potentials in the diagnosis of cortical hearing loss in children

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Soto, Teresa; Postigo-Madueno, Amparo; Nunez-Abades, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In centrally related hearing loss, there is no apparent damage in the auditory system, but the patient is unable to hear sounds. In patients with cortical hearing loss (and in the absence of communication deficit, either total or partial, as in agnosia or aphasia), some attention-related or language-based disorders may lead to a wrong diagnosis of hearing impairment. The authors present two patients (8 and 11 years old) with no anatomical damage to the ear, the absence of neurological damage or trauma, but immature cortical auditory evoked potentials. Both patients presented a clinical history of multiple diagnoses over several years. Because the most visible symptom was moderate hearing loss, the patients were recurrently referred to audiological testing, with no improvement. This report describes the use of long-latency evoked potentials to determine cases of cortical hearing loss, where hearing impairment is a consequence of underdevelopment at the central nervous system. PMID:27006780

  1. Vertex potentials evoked by nociceptive laser stimulation of oral mucosa: relationship to stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kaaber, S; Bjerring, P

    1993-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stimulus intensity and size of vertex potentials (VPs) and methods for quantification of VPs elicited by nociceptive argon laser stimulation of the oral mucosa. VPs were evoked by warning and self-triggered stimulation of the tongue and hand. A significant increase was found in amplitude, power, and root-mean-square (RMS) values of the averaged VPs as the intensity of the laser stimuli increased. The latency of the major negative peak decreased significantly with increased stimulus intensity. The use of a warning light stimulus prior to the laser stimulus elicited a visually evoked vertex potential, which served as a control. The power and RMS values of the VPs elicited by warning stimulation of the tongue showed the largest increase and only a small variation when calculated in the 0.2 to 0.7 seconds time interval. PMID:8329904

  2. Can Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials Help Differentiate Ménière Disease from Vestibular Migraine?

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Janky, Kristen L.; Schubert, Michael C.; Carey, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize both cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP, oVEMP) responses to air-conducted sound (ACS) and midline taps in Ménière disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and controls, as well as to determine if cVEMP or oVEMP responses can differentiate MD from VM. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Unilateral definite MD patients (n = 20), VM patients (n = 21) by modified Neuhauser criteria, and age-matched controls (n = 28). cVEMP testing used ACS (clicks), and oVEMP testing used ACS (clicks and 500-Hz tone bursts) and midline tap stimuli (reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker). Outcome parameters were cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes and oVEMP n10 amplitudes. Results Relative to controls, MD and VM groups both showed reduced click-evoked cVEMP (P < .001) and oVEMP (P < .001) amplitudes. Only the MD group showed reduction in tone-evoked amplitudes for oVEMP. Tone-evoked oVEMPs differentiated MD from controls (P = .001) and from VM (P = .007). The oVEMPs in response to the reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker midline taps showed no differences between groups (P > .210). Conclusions Using these techniques, VM and MD behaved similarly on most of the VEMP test battery. A link in their pathophysiology may be responsible for these responses. The data suggest a difference in 500-Hz tone burst–evoked oVEMP responses between MD and MV as a group. However, no VEMP test that was investigated segregated individuals with MD from those with VM. PMID:22267492

  3. Effect of thigh flexion on somatosensory evoked potentials in meralgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Sener, H O; Ulkatan, S; Selçuki, D

    1999-09-01

    Standing with the thigh extended or lying still provokes and stepping or sitting relieves the symptoms in some patients with meralgia paresthetica. We performed this study to confirm this clinical feature with electrophysiological measures. Twenty-one symptomatic and 17 asymptomatic legs of 19 patients were evaluated by somatosensory evoked potential studies in both extended and flexed thigh positions. In the symptomatic group, thigh flexion significantly reduced the cortical latency. This finding is parallel with the relief of the symptoms. PMID:10544729

  4. Palliation of recurrent Ewing sarcoma of the pelvis with cryoablation and somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Anne-Marie I; Gilchrist, James; Schaefer, Leah; Dupuy, Damian E

    2009-01-01

    Palliation of recurrent Ewing sarcoma can be difficult to treat due to tumor resistance to chemotherapy and previously received maximum dose radiotherapy. We report the successful use of cryoablation for pain palliation in a patient with recurrent pelvic Ewing sarcoma. Tumor location necessitated use of somatosensory-evoked potentials to prevent nerve damage to the S1 nerve root. Clinical and imaging aspects of the case are discussed. PMID:19125081

  5. Evoked potential correlates of selective attention with multi-channel auditory inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Ten subjects were presented with random, rapid sequences of four auditory tones which were separated in pitch and apparent spatial position. The N1 component of the auditory vertex evoked potential (EP) measured relative to a baseline was observed to increase with attention. It was concluded that the N1 enhancement reflects a finely tuned selective attention to one stimulus channel among several concurrent, competing channels. This EP enhancement probably increases with increased information load on the subject.

  6. An indirect component in the evoked compound action potential of the vagal nerve.

    PubMed

    Ordelman, Simone C M A; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P J; Veltink, Peter H

    2010-12-01

    The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:20966537

  7. A portable device for recording evoked potentials, optimized for pattern ERG.

    PubMed

    McInturff, Stephen P; Buchser, William J

    2016-02-01

    Recording evoked potentials in un-anesthetized animals and people is a powerful technique to non-invasively measure the function of neurons. As such, the primary output neurons of the eye can be assessed by the pattern electroretinogram (PERG). Currently, electro-physiologic setups to perform PERG or related recordings are costly, complicated, and non-portable. Here, we design a simple steady-state PERG system, based off an Arduino board. The amplifier is built on a shield that fits over a microcontroller board, an Arduino, which digitizes the signal and sends it to a computer that presents stimuli then records and analyzes the evoked potentials. We used the device to record PERG accurately with a sensitivity as low as half a microvolt. The device has also been designed to implement other evoked potential recordings. This simple device can be quickly constructed and used for experiments in moving systems. Additionally, this device can be used to expose students in underserved areas to research technology that they would otherwise not have access to. PMID:26536572

  8. [Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Odaka, M; Yuki, N; Yamazaki, K; Hirata, K

    1998-04-01

    A 29-year-old man developed drowsiness, ophthalmoplegia and cerebellar ataxia following upper respiratory tract infection. We diagnosed the patient as having a Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. There was upbeating nystagmus which appeared with upward gaze, and bilateral horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus in both directions. On electronystagmography, eye-tracking test showed saccadic pattern with impaired smooth pursuit eye movement. The horizontal optokinetic nystagmus test showed diminution of response. These results suggested that brainstem and cerebellum were widely involved. Presence of nystagmus may help to speculate the lesion of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. PMID:9742879

  9. Relationships between behavior, brainstem and cortical encoding of seen and heard speech in musicians and non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Strait, Dana; Kraus, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Musicians have a variety of perceptual and cortical specializations compared to non-musicians. Recent studies have shown that potentials evoked from primarily brainstem structures are enhanced in musicians, compared to non-musicians. Specifically, musicians have more robust representations of pitch periodicity and faster neural timing to sound onset when listening to sounds or both listening to and viewing a speaker. However, it is not known whether musician-related enhancements at the subcortical level are correlated with specializations in the cortex. Does musical training shape the auditory system in a coordinated manner or in disparate ways at cortical and subcortical levels? To answer this question, we recorded simultaneous brainstem and cortical evoked responses in musician and non-musician subjects. Brainstem response periodicity was related to early cortical response timing across all subjects, and this relationship was stronger in musicians. Peaks of the brainstem response evoked by sound onset and timbre cues were also related to cortical timing. Neurophysiological measures at both levels correlated with musical skill scores across all subjects. In addition, brainstem and cortical measures correlated with the age musicians began their training and the years of musical practice. Taken together, these data imply that neural representations of pitch, timing and timbre cues and cortical response timing are shaped in a coordinated manner, and indicate corticofugal modulation of subcortical afferent circuitry. PMID:18562137

  10. BODY TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT ACTIONS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AND AXONAL TRANSPORT IN OPTIC SYSTEM OF RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), flash evoked potentials (FEPs), optic nerve axonal transport, and body temperature were measured in hooded rats treated with either saline or the formamidine insecticide/acaricide, chlordimeform (CDM). Rats receiving CDM had low body te...

  11. Visual evoked potentials for attentional gating in a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Geronimo, Andrew; Schiff, Steven J; Kamrunnahar, Mst

    2012-01-01

    For synchronous brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms tasks that utilize visual cues to direct the user, the neural signals extracted by the computer are representative of voluntary modulation as well as evoked responses. For these paradigms, the evoked potential is often overlooked as a source of artifact. In this paper, we put forth the hypothesis that cue priming, as a mechanism for attentional gating, is predictive of motor imagery performance, and thus a viable option for self-paced (asynchronous) BCI applications. We approximate attention by the amplitude features of visually evoked potentials (VEP)s found using two methods: trial matching to an average VEP template, and component matching to a VEP template defined using independent component analysis (ICA). Templates were used to rank trials that display high vs. low levels of fixation. Our results show that subject fixation, measured by VEP response, fails as a predictor of successful motor-imagery task completion. The implications for the BCI community and the possibilities for alternative cueing methods are given in the conclusions. PMID:23366247

  12. Visual evoked potentials for attentional gating in a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Geronimo, Andrew; Schiff, Steven J.; Kamrunnahar, Mst

    2013-01-01

    For synchronous brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms tasks that utilize visual cues to direct the user, the neural signals extracted by the computer are representative of voluntary modulation as well as evoked responses. For these paradigms, the evoked potential is often overlooked as a source of artifact. In this paper, we put forth the hypothesis that cue priming, as a mechanism for attentional gating, is predictive of motor imagery performance, and thus a viable option for self-paced (asynchronous) BCI applications. We approximate attention by the amplitude features of visually evoked potentials (VEP)s found using two methods: trial matching to an average VEP template, and component matching to a VEP template defined using independent component analysis (ICA). Templates were used to rank trials that display high vs. low levels of fixation. Our results show that subject fixation, measured by VEP response, fails as a predictor of successful motor-imagery task completion. The implications for the BCI community and the possibilities for alternative cueing methods are given in the conclusions. PMID:23366247

  13. Temperature effects on evoked potentials of hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, D. C.; Martin, S. M.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    1. Neural activity was recorded in hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats. 2. While recording the evoked potentials, the temperature of the Ringer's solution bathing the slice was varied by controlling the temperature of an outer chamber jacketing the recording chamber. 3. The temperature just below that at which a population spike could be evoked, Tt, was 10.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C (mean +/- SEM) for chipmunk slices, 14.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C for rat slices and 14.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C for hamster slices. Tt was significantly lower in the chipmunk slices (P<0.01) than in the rat and hamster slices. 4. Data were interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that chipmunk hippocampal neurons are intrinsically cold resistant.

  14. Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) to rare, task-relevant (counted) numerical stimuli was compared with VEPs to rare, task-irrelevant stimuli, both being randomly interspersed within a sequence of tachistoscopically-flashed background numbers. These task-irrelevant stimuli were of two classes: (1) easily recognizable (e.g., simple geometric shapes) and (2) completely novel (i.e., complex, colorful abstract-type drawings which were unrecognizable). It was found that such novel stimuli did, in fact, evoke large P3 waves, but they had different scalp distributions from those which followed the task-relevant stimuli. This indicates that at least two types of late positive P3 waves exist, differing both in brain source and psychological correlates.

  15. Relationship of high blood lactate levels with latency of visual-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; De Maria, Giulia; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Erminio; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Perciavalle, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    We studied, in healthy adult subjects, the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with an exhaustive exercise (12 subjects) or an intravenous infusion (four subjects) of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min), with amplitude and latency of visual-evoked potentials. Amplitude of N75, P100, and N145 components did not show significant changes, whereas latency of P100 was reduced at exercise's end and that of N145 increased 10 min after the conclusion. Therefore, an increase of blood lactate induced by an exhaustive exercise or an intravenous infusion appears to induce an improvement in the conduction time between eye and striate cortex, while it seems to evoke a worsening of intracortical communication between striate and extrastriate areas. PMID:25423913

  16. Evaluation of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential during parabolic flight in humans.

    PubMed

    Shojaku, Hideo; Watanabe, Yukio; Tsubota, Masahito; Katayama, Naomi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how gravity affects the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). Eight healthy subjects (seven men, one woman; age range 19-45 years) participated in experiments in which three different gravity levels [microgravity (MG), normal gravity (NG), and hypergravity (HG)] were imposed during a parabolic flight procedure. The VEMP was evoked in response to an intense mono-aural click while the subjects kept the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle contracted bilaterally. Background electromyographic activity of the SCM during the test was corrected. The p13-n23 amplitude was significantly greater under MG than under NG or HG. There was no difference in p13 latency between the three gravity levels. Possible mechanisms related to this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:18443771

  17. [Laser evoked potentials as a method of evaluating the function of small fibres - application technique and clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Fila, Micha?; Bogucki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Laser evoked potentials (LEPs) are one of the few neurophysiological methods available whose purpose is to evaluate the functions of small fibres' sensory pathways Ad and C. This non-invasive technique is applied at the present time in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy. In order to record distinctive and repetitive evoked potentials from the surface of the skull, the skin of the dorsal surface of the hands and feet is stimulated with laser thermal, nociceptive stimuli. The main cortical laser-evoked potential is a complex of components N2-P2. Evaluation of the registered potentials in- cludes their morphology with shape, latency and amplitude. Up to now, laser evoked potentials have not been performed in Poland. PMID:19742396

  18. Spatial filtering based on canonical correlation analysis for classification of evoked or event-related potentials in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Classification of evoked or event-related potentials is an important prerequisite for many types of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To increase classification accuracy, spatial filters are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the brain signals and thereby facilitate the detection and classification of evoked or event-related potentials. While canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has previously been used to construct spatial filters that increase classification accuracy for BCIs based on visual evoked potentials, we show in this paper, how CCA can also be used for spatial filtering of event-related potentials like P300. We also evaluate the use of CCA for spatial filtering on other data with evoked and event-related potentials and show that CCA performs consistently better than other standard spatial filtering methods. PMID:24760910

  19. Cord dorsum potentials evoked by electroacupuncture applied to the hind limbs of rats.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-González, Salvador; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Guadarrama-Olmos, José Carlos; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) produced by electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at acupuncture points (APs) located on the hind limbs of rats was analyzed in this study. Single electrical pulses (0.05 ms, 1 Hz) applied to the bladder (BL) and the gallbladder (GB) APs produced CDPs on several spinal segments and were composed of the following four components: an afferent volley, two negative components (N1 and N2), and one positive component (P wave). The larger evoked CDPs differed in their rostrocaudal distributions depending on the stimulated AP site, with those evoked by GB32-33 (at L3) and GB36-37 (at L4) being more caudal than those generated by BL58-59 (at L5) and BL37-38 (at L6). The CDPs produced by stimulating nonacupoints (NAPs) showed similar components and rostrocaudal distributions that were smaller in amplitude than those evoked by stimulating APs. The CDPs produced by stimulating NAPs located on a meridian acupuncture area were similar in amplitude and longitudinal distribution to those produced by stimulating APs. Our results suggest that the specificity of EA stimulation for CDPs responses is mainly related to an activation of meridian pathways associated with peripheral nerve routes rather than to a restricted point specificity of APs. PMID:24513345

  20. Direct comparison of two statistical methods for determination of evoked-potential thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Ted L.; Patterson, James H., Jr.

    1994-07-01

    Several statistical procedures have been proposed as objective methods for determining evoked-potential thresholds. Data have been presented to support each of the methods, but there have not been direct comparisons using the same data. The goal of the present study was to evaluate correlation and variance ratio statistics using common data. A secondary goal was to evaluate the utility of a derived potential for determining thresholds. Chronic, bipolar electrodes were stereotaxically implanted in the inferior colliculi of six chinchillas. Evoked potentials were obtained at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 kHz using 12-ms tone bursts and 12-ms tone bursts superimposed on 120-ms pedestal tones which were of the same frequency as the bursts, but lower in amplitude by 15 dB. Alternate responses were averaged in blocks of 200 to 4000 depending on the size of the response. Correlations were calculated for the pairs of averages. A response was deemed present if the correlation coefficient reached the 0.05 level of significance in 4000 or fewer averages. Threshold was defined as the mean of the level at which the correlation was significant and a level 5 dB below that at which it was not. Variance ratios were calculated as described by Elberling and Don (1984) using the same data. Averaged tone burst and tone burst-plus pedestal data were differenced and the resulting waveforms subjected to the same statistical analyses described above. All analyses yielded thresholds which were essentially the same as those obtained using behavioral methods. When the difference between stimulus durations is taken into account, however, evoked-potential methods produced lower thresholds than behavioral methods.

  1. [Anesthesia with flunitrazepam/fentanyl and isoflurane/fentanyl. Unconscious perception and mid-latency auditory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Schwender, D; Kaiser, A; Klasing, S; Faber-Züllig, E; Golling, W; Pöppel, E; Peter, K

    1994-05-01

    There is a high incidence of intraoperative awareness during cardiac surgery. Mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) reflect the primary cortical processing of auditory stimuli. In the present study, we investigated MLAEP and explicit and implicit memory for information presented during cardiac anaesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Institutional approval and informed consent was obtained in 30 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia was induced in group I (n = 10) with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (0.01 mg/kg) and maintained with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h). The patients in group II (n = 10) received etomidate (0.25 mg/kg) and fentanyl (0.005 mg/kg) for induction and isoflurane (0.6-1.2 vol%)/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h) for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Group III (n = 10) served as a control and patients were anaesthetized as in I or II. After sternotomy an audiotape that included an implicit memory task was presented to the patients in groups I and II. The story of Robinson Crusoe was told, and it was suggested to the patients that they remember Robinson Crusoe when asked what they associated with the word Friday 3-5 days postoperatively. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded awake and during general anaesthesia before and after the audiotape presentation on vertex (positive) and mastoids on both sides (negative). Auditory clicks were presented binaurally at 70 dBnHL at a rate of 9.3 Hz. Using the electrodiagnostic system Pathfinder I (Nicolet), 1000 successive stimulus responses were averaged over a 100 ms poststimulus interval and analyzed off-line. Latencies of the peak V, Na, Pa were measured. V belongs to the brainstem-generated potentials, which demonstrates that auditory stimuli were correctly transduced. Na, Pa are generated in the primary auditory cortex of the temporal lobe and are the electrophysiological correlate of the primary cortical processing of the auditory stimuli. RESULTS. None of the patients had an explicit memory of intraoperative events. Five patients in group I, one patient in group II, and no patients in group III showed implicit memory of the intraoperative tape message. They remembered Robinson Crusoe spontaneously when they were asked their associations with Friday. In the awake state AEP peak latencies were in the normal range. During general anaesthesia in group I, the peaks Na, Pa did not increase in latency or decrease in amplitude before and after the audiotape presentation. The primary cortical complex Na/Pa could be identified as in the awake state. In contrast, in group II Na, Pa showed a marked increase in latency and a decrease in amplitude or were completely suppressed. CONCLUSIONS. During general anaesthesia auditory information can be processed and remembered postoperatively by an implicit memory function, when the electrophysiological conditions of primary cortical stimuli processing is preserved. Implicit memory can be observed more often when high-dose opioid analgesia is combined with receptor-binding agents like the benzodiazepines than under non-specific anaesthetics like isoflurane. Non-specific anaesthetics seem to provide a more effective suppression of auditory stimuli processing than receptor-specific agents. PMID:8042757

  2. Intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials during light interference in migraine.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Anna; Coppola, Gianluca; Gérardy, Pierre-Yves; Pierelli, Francesco; Schoenen, Jean

    2011-04-01

    Migraine patients show interictally a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP) and a lack of habituation of evoked potentials. Photic drive on high-frequency flash stimulation is another well-known interictal feature in migraineurs, associated with alpha-rhythm hyper-synchronisation. We compared therefore the influence of light stimulation on IDAP in healthy volunteers (HV) and migraine patients. A continuous flash stimulation was delivered during the recording of auditory evoked potentials at suprathreshold increasing stimulation intensities. IDAP was measured as the amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF) slope. In HV, the ASF slope decreased during flash stimulation, whereas, on average, there was no significant change in migraineurs. A closer analysis of migraineurs disclosed two subgroups of patients with no detectable clinical differences: one, the largest, in which the ASF slope was normal at baseline, but increased during light stimulation, the other with an increased ASF slope at rest and a decrease during light interference. Visual sensory overload is able to increase IDAP in the majority of migraineurs, which contrasts with HV. We hypothesise that this could be due to hyper-synchronisation of the alpha rhythm because of photic drive and possibly thalamo-cortical dysfunction. A minority of migraineurs have, like HV, an IDAP reduction during light interference. They are, however, characterised, unlike most HV, by a high IDAP at baseline. Besides underscoring the pathophysiological heterogeneity of migraine, these results suggest that light interference might improve the phenotyping of migraine patients who have a normal IDAP in the resting condition. PMID:21281693

  3. Reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic potentiation resets drug-induced adaptive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Turiault, Marc; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity is observed at many synapses and may underlie behavioural adaptations in addiction. Mechanistic investigations start with the identification of the molecular drug targets. Cocaine, for example, exerts its reinforcing and early neuroadaptive effects by inhibiting the dopamine transporter, thus causing a strong increase in mesolimbic dopamine. Among the many signalling pathways subsequently engaged, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the nucleus accumbens is of particular interest because it has been implicated in NMDA-receptor and type 1 dopamine (D1)-receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation as well as in several behavioural adaptations. A causal link between drug-evoked plasticity at identified synapses and behavioural adaptations, however, is missing, and the benefits of restoring baseline transmission have yet to be demonstrated. Here we find that cocaine potentiates excitatory transmission in D1-receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) in mice via ERK signalling with a time course that parallels locomotor sensitization. Depotentiation of cortical nucleus accumbens inputs by optogenetic stimulation in vivo efficiently restored normal transmission and abolished cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These findings establish synaptic potentiation selectively in D1R-MSNs as a mechanism underlying a core component of addiction, probably by creating an imbalance between distinct populations of MSNs in the nucleus accumbens. Our data also provide proof of principle that reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity can treat behavioural alterations caused by addictive drugs and may inspire novel therapeutic approaches involving deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:22158102

  4. Neuronal current magnetic resonance imaging of evoked potentials and neural oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xia

    Despite its great success, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique relies on changes in cerebral hemodynamic parameters to infer the underlying neural activities, and as a result is limited in its spatial and temporal resolutions. In this dissertation, we discuss the feasibility of neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI), a novel technique in which the small magnetic field changes caused by neuronal electrical activities are directly measured by MRI. Two studies are described. In the first study, we investigated the feasibility of detecting the magnetic field produced by sensory evoked potentials. To eliminate the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect on the MRI signal, which confounded most previous studies, an octopus visual system model was developed, which, for the first time, allowed for an in vivo investigation of nc-MRI in a BOLD-free environment. Electrophysiological responses were measured in the octopus retina and optical lobe to guide the nc-MRI acquisition. Our results indicated that no nc-MRI signal change related to neuronal activation could be detected at 0.2°/0.2% threshold for signal phase/magnitude respectively, while robust electrophysiological responses were recorded. In the second study, we discuss the feasibility of detecting neural oscillations with MRI, Based on previous studies, a novel approach was proposed in which an external oscillatory field was exploited as the excitation pulse under a spin-locked condition. This approach has the advantages of increased sensitivity and lowered physiological noise. Successful detection of sub-nanotesla field was demonstrated in phantom. Our results suggest that evoked potentials are too weak for nc-MRI detection with the current hardware, and that previous positive findings were likely due to hemodynamic confounders. On the other hand, oscillatory magnetic field can be efficiently detected in phantom. Given the stronger equivalent current dipoles produced by neural oscillations compared to evoked potentials, they might be a more promising candidate for future nc-MRI studies.

  5. Visually evoked cortical potentials in the evaluation of homonymous and bitemporal visual field defects.

    PubMed Central

    Wildberger, H. G.; Van Lith, G. H.; Wijngaarde, R.; Mak, G. T.

    1976-01-01

    Visually evoked cortical potentials were studied in six patients with a homonymous and six with a bitemporal hemianopia by presenting a pattern-reversal stimulus separately to a temporal or nasal retinal area and by recording the responses from leads over the hemispheres. Homonymous visual field defects are characterized by a reduction of VECPs from the affected hemisphere. The disturbance of VECPs in bitemporal hemianopia is more serious, since the fibres from both retinal halves may be damaged by a chiasm tumour. PMID:1276115

  6. Average evoked potential correlates of two-flash perceptual discrimination in cats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, C. K.; Lindsley, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    Average evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from the optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex of cats trained to discriminate between two successive flashes of light at various interflash intervals (IFI) and a single flash. The percent of correct responses to two-flash stimuli decreased sharply as IFI decreased from 100 to 20 msec. This behavioral response decrement was paralleled by a progressive overlapping of the AEPs to the two flashes and at 20 msec the AEPs resembled those to a single flash at all levels of the visual pathways. Implications for the coding of the information relevant to the discrimination of two flashes are discussed.

  7. Middle ear muscle contractions and their relation to pulse and echo evoked potentials in the bat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, O. W., Jr.; Henson, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of pulse and echo orientation cries of the Mustache Bat. That bat's cries are characterized by a long, 60 to 30 msec, pure tone component and brief beginning and terminal FM sweeps. In addition to obvious echo overlap and middle ear muscle contractions, the following are examined: (1) characteristics of pulse- and echo-evoked potential under various conditions, (2) evidence of changes in hearing sensitivity during and after pulse emission, and (3) the role of the middle ear muscles in bringing about these changes.

  8. Auditory evoked potential: a proposal for further evaluation in children with learning disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Frizzo, Ana C. F.

    2015-01-01

    The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author’s experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last 10 years, auditory evoked potential (AEP) has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population. PMID:26113833

  9. Auditory evoked potential: a proposal for further evaluation in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Frizzo, Ana C F

    2015-01-01

    The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author's experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last 10 years, auditory evoked potential (AEP) has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population. PMID:26113833

  10. Auditory Evoked Potential Audiograms Compared with Behavioral Audiograms in Aquatic Animals.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Fay, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become popular for estimating hearing thresholds and audiograms. What is the utility of these measurements? How do AEP audiograms compare with behavioral audiograms? In general, AEP measurements for fishes and marine mammals often underestimate behavioral thresholds, but comparisons are especially complicated when the AEP and behavioral measures are obtained under different acoustic conditions. There is no single representative relationship between AEP and behavioral audiograms and these audiograms should not be considered equivalent. We suggest that the most valuable comparisons are those made by the same researcher using similar acoustic conditions for both measurements. PMID:26611067

  11. Evoked potentials in urology: a method to make an exact diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Schou, J; Overgaard, K; Vedel, P; Nordling, J

    1991-01-01

    Due to the complex innervation of the lower urinary tract, many neurological diseases will lead to disturbances in the function of the lower urinary tract. The usual urodynamic procedures leave a group of patients where definitive diagnosis is impossible. Fifty-three patients were evaluated with evoked potentials of the bulbocavernosus reflex at the Urological Laboratory, Herlev Hospital. In 5 cases (2 with operative sequelae after prolapsed intervertebral discs, 1 with tethered cord syndrome and 2 with early multiple sclerosis) the examination gave a definitive diagnosis. The cases are reported. PMID:1771704

  12. Underwater anesthesia of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) for measurement of auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Emily F; Piniak, Wendy E D; Lester, Lori A; Harms, Craig A

    2013-11-01

    Investigations into the biology of aquatic and semiaquatic species, including those involving sensory specialization, often require creative solutions to novel questions. We developed a technique for safely anesthetizing a semiaquatic chelonian species, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), for measurement of auditory evoked potentials while animals were completely submerged in water. Custom-modified endotracheal tubes were used to obtain a watertight seal on both sides of the glottis and prevent aspiration of water during testing. No adverse effects were seen after the procedures, and assessment of venous blood-gas partial pressures and lactate concentrations indicated that sufficient gas exchange was maintained under anesthesia through manual ventilation. PMID:24351768

  13. Assessment of an ICA-based noise reduction method for multi-channel auditory evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirahmadizoghi, Siavash; Bell, Steven; Simpson, David

    2015-03-01

    In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of hearing threshold. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the signal and also detected hearing thresholds significantly lower than with the single channel alternative.

  14. Underwater Anesthesia of Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) for Measurement of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Emily F; Piniak, Wendy E D; Lester, Lori A; Harms, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into the biology of aquatic and semiaquatic species, including those involving sensory specialization, often require creative solutions to novel questions. We developed a technique for safely anesthetizing a semiaquatic chelonian species, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), for measurement of auditory evoked potentials while animals were completely submerged in water. Custom-modified endotracheal tubes were used to obtain a watertight seal on both sides of the glottis and prevent aspiration of water during testing. No adverse effects were seen after the procedures, and assessment of venous blood-gas partial pressures and lactate concentrations indicated that sufficient gas exchange was maintained under anesthesia through manual ventilation. PMID:24351768

  15. A programmable rapid roll-off low pass filter for evoked potential and EEG recording.

    PubMed

    Dowman, R; Stockbridge, N

    1988-08-01

    The RF5609 rapid roll-off (-75 dB/octave) low pass filter has many features that make it ideal for evoked potential and EEG recording. The RF5609 is inexpensive, programmable, and can be turned off momentarily to eliminate large amplitude stimulus artifacts. Removal of these artifacts prevents ringing and hence allows a more rapid roll-off than can be easily achieved with conventional active analogue low pass filters such as Butterworth filter. Furthermore, the RF5609 low pass filter provides rapid roll-off and artifact suppression without the time or computing power requirements of digital low pass filters. PMID:3191416

  16. Effects of psychotropic drugs on somatosensory evoked potentials in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Monaco, P; Pastore, L; Conti, A

    1991-06-01

    Several authors have demonstrated a correlation between short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (short latency SEPs) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). It is also known that ischemia may modify the amplitude of the cortical SEP while its latency is less sensitive to CBF fluctuations. Phychotropic drugs--Oxiracetam, SAMe, Naloxone, L-acetylcarnitine and GM1--affect some parameters of the early components of cortical SEPs, chiefly the amplitude, which makes SEP recording a useful method for monitoring pharmacological activity in acute stroke. PMID:1874607

  17. Control of humanoid robot via motion-onset visual evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates controlling humanoid robot behavior via motion-onset specific N200 potentials. In this study, N200 potentials are induced by moving a blue bar through robot images intuitively representing robot behaviors to be controlled with mind. We present the individual impact of each subject on N200 potentials and discuss how to deal with individuality to obtain a high accuracy. The study results document the off-line average accuracy of 93% for hitting targets across over five subjects, so we use this major component of the motion-onset visual evoked potential (mVEP) to code people's mental activities and to perform two types of on-line operation tasks: navigating a humanoid robot in an office environment with an obstacle and picking-up an object. We discuss the factors that affect the on-line control success rate and the total time for completing an on-line operation task. PMID:25620918

  18. Control of humanoid robot via motion-onset visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates controlling humanoid robot behavior via motion-onset specific N200 potentials. In this study, N200 potentials are induced by moving a blue bar through robot images intuitively representing robot behaviors to be controlled with mind. We present the individual impact of each subject on N200 potentials and discuss how to deal with individuality to obtain a high accuracy. The study results document the off-line average accuracy of 93% for hitting targets across over five subjects, so we use this major component of the motion-onset visual evoked potential (mVEP) to code people's mental activities and to perform two types of on-line operation tasks: navigating a humanoid robot in an office environment with an obstacle and picking-up an object. We discuss the factors that affect the on-line control success rate and the total time for completing an on-line operation task. PMID:25620918

  19. Exploiting individual primary visual cortex geometry to boost steady state visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, M. Isabel; Blangero, Annabelle; Kelly, Simon P.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is an electroencephalographic response to flickering stimuli generated partly in primary visual area V1. The typical ‘cruciform’ geometry and retinotopic organization of V1 is such that certain neighboring visual regions project to neighboring cortical regions of opposite orientation. Here, we explored ways to exploit this organization in order to boost scalp SSVEP amplitude via oscillatory summation. Approach. We manipulated flicker-phase offsets among angular segments of a large annular stimulus in three ways, and compared the resultant SSVEP power to a conventional condition with no temporal phase offsets. (1) We divided the annulus into standard octants for all subjects, and flickered upper horizontal octants with opposite temporal phase to the lower horizontal ones, and left vertical octants opposite to the right vertical ones; (2) we individually adjusted the boundaries between the eight contiguous segments of the standard octants condition to coincide with cruciform-consistent, early-latency topographical shifts in pattern-pulse multifocal visual-evoked potentials (PPMVEP) derived for each of 32 equal-sized segments; (3) we assigned phase offsets to stimulus segments following an automatic algorithm based on the relative amplitudes of vertically- and horizontally-oriented PPMVEP components. Main results. The three flicker-phase manipulations resulted in a significant enhancement of normalized SSVEP power of (1) 202%, (2) 383%, and (3) 300%, respectively. Significance. We have thus demonstrated a means to obtain more reliable measures of visual evoked activity purely through consideration of cortical geometry. This principle stands to impact both basic and clinical research using SSVEPs.

  20. Evoked-potential audiogram of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Cros, Emilie; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Zhitao; Fang, Liang; Chen, Yuefei; Kong, Fanming

    2012-09-01

    An evoked-potential audiogram was measured for an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) living in the dolphinarium of Nanning Zoo, China. Rhythmic 20 ms pip trains composed of cosine-enveloped 0.25 ms tone pips at a pip rate of 1 kHz were presented as sound stimuli. The dolphin was trained to remain still at the water surface and to wear soft latex suction-cup EEG electrodes used to measure the animal's envelope-following evoked potentials to the sound stimuli. Responses to 1000 rhythmic 20 ms pip trains for each amplitude/frequency combination were averaged and analysed using a fast Fourier transform to obtain an evoked auditory response. The hearing threshold was defined as the zero crossing point of the response input-output function using linear regression. Fourteen frequencies ranging from 5.6 to 152 kHz were studied. The results showed that most of the thresholds were lower than 90 dB re. 1 ?Pa (r.m.s.), covering a frequency range from 11.2 to 128 kHz, and the lowest threshold of 47 dB was measured at 45 kHz. The audiogram, which is a function of hearing threshold versus stimulus carrier frequency, presented a U-shape with a region of high hearing sensitivity (within 20 dB of the lowest threshold) between approximately 20 and 120 kHz. At frequencies lower than this high-sensitivity region, thresholds increased at a rate of approximately 11 dB octave(-1) up to 93 dB at 5.6 kHz. The thresholds at high frequencies above 108 kHz increased steeply at a rate of 130 dB octave(-1) up to 127 dB at 152 kHz. PMID:22660775

  1. Lateral Geniculate Body Evoked Potentials Elicited by Visual and Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Wook; Kim, Pan Sang; Shin, Sun Ae; Yang, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Blind individuals who have photoreceptor loss are known to perceive phosphenes with electrical stimulation of their remaining retinal ganglion cells. We proposed that implantable lateral geniculate body (LGB) stimulus electrode arrays could be used to generate phosphene vision. We attempted to refine the basic reference of the electrical evoked potentials (EEPs) elicited by microelectrical stimulations of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB of a domestic pig, and then compared it to visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by short-flash stimuli. Methods For visual function measurement, VEPs in response to short-flash stimuli on the left eye of the domestic pig were assessed over the visual cortex at position Oz with the reference electrode at Fz. After anesthesia, linearly configured platinum wire electrodes were inserted into the optic nerve, optic track and LGB. To determine the optimal stimulus current, EEPs were recorded repeatedly with controlling the pulse and power. The threshold of current and charge density to elicit EEPs at 0.3 ms pulse duration was about ±10 µA. Results Our experimental results showed that visual cortex activity can be effectively evoked by stimulation of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB using penetrating electrodes. The latency of P1 was more shortened as the electrical stimulation was closer to LGB. The EEPs of two-channel in the visual cortex demonstrated a similar pattern with stimulation of different spots of the stimulating electrodes. We found that the LGB-stimulated EEP pattern was very similar to the simultaneously generated VEP on the control side, although implicit time deferred. Conclusions EEPs and VEPs derived from visual-system stimulation were compared. The LGB-stimulated EEP wave demonstrated a similar pattern to the VEP waveform except implicit time, indicating prosthetic-based electrical stimulation of the LGB could be utilized for the blind to perceive vision of phosphenes. PMID:25120343

  2. Existence of a strength-duration curve for spinal cord motor evoked potentials in cats.

    PubMed

    Konrad, P E; Geddes, L A; Tacker, W A; Reuter, D; Schooler, D; Dull, S

    1989-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to estimate the chronaxie of fibers carrying action potentials that are responsible for short latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs). In a 6-cat study, electrical stimuli were applied to the exposed motor cortex, and spinal cord potentials (at the vertebral level of T9/10 and L2/3) were recorded with needle electrodes using signal averaging. From a plot of MEP amplitude versus stimulus current amplitude for stimuli of 70, 100, 200 and 500 microseconds duration, it was possible (by extrapolation and using the linear relationship between charge and duration) to estimate chronaxie for the first 2 prominent peaks in MEP recordings. Mean chronaxie values ranging from 190 to 337 microseconds were obtained. This study describes acquisition of strength-duration curves for short latency MEP peaks, but does not address the origin of these peaks. PMID:2480227

  3. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements in stranded rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Mandy L. H.; Manire, Charles A.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Thirty-six rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) live-stranded on Hutchinson Island, FL on August 6, 2004. Seven animals were transported to Mote Marine Laboratory for rehabilitation. Two auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements were performed on each of five of these dolphins in air using a jawphone to present acoustic stimuli. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) were measured to establish how well the auditory system follows the temporal envelope of acoustic stimuli. A 40 kHz stimulus carrier was amplitude modulated (AM) with varying rates ranging from 200 Hz to 1800 Hz, in 200 Hz steps. The best AM-rate from the first dolphin tested was 1500 Hz. This AM rate was used in subsequent AEP measurements to determine evoked-potential hearing thresholds between 5000 and 80000 Hz. These findings show that rough-toothed dolphins can detect sounds between 5 and 80 kHz, and are most likely capable of detecting frequencies much higher than 80 kHz. MRTF data suggest that rough-toothed dolphins have a high temporal resolution, similar to that of other cetaceans.

  4. Evoked potentials as indices of adaptation in the somatosensory system in humans: a review and prospectus.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, D F; Kelly, E F

    1993-01-01

    Population-level behavior of large neural aggregates can be efficiently monitored by corresponding population-level indices such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The literature reviewed clearly indicates that SEPs undergo systematic and often marked changes under conditions of repetitive stimulation. Similar results have been reported for several mammalian species and with a diversity of stimulation, recording and analysis protocols. The most characteristic finding is a loss of SEP component amplitude as a function of decreasing time between stimulus presentations. The effects become larger and appear at longer ISIs at higher levels of the somatosensory pathway, are more readily evoked by stimulus trains than by stimulus pairs and are most pronounced for response components generated in the upper cortical layers. These findings are consistent with a recently proposed neurophysiological model of short-term plasticity in somatosensory cortex, which incorporates detailed and current information on cortical microcircuitry, receptor and neurotransmitter characteristics, topographical organization and dynamic response to repetitive sensory drive. Recommendations are provided for further research, emphasizing the potential of frequency-domain analysis methods in conjunction with mechanical vibrotactile stimuli as a vehicle for more detailed testing of the proposed neurophysiological model and for closer integration with psychophysical studies of vibrotactile adaptation. PMID:8339106

  5. Color vision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot visual evoked potential study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Banaschewski, Tobias; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to manifest visual problems (including ophthalmological and color perception, particularly for blue–yellow stimuli), but findings are inconsistent. Accordingly, this study investigated visual function and color perception in adolescents with ADHD using color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which provides an objective measure of color perception. Method Thirty-one adolescents (aged 13–18), 16 with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD, and 15 healthy peers, matched for age, gender, and IQ participated in the study. All underwent an ophthalmological exam, as well as electrophysiological testing color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which measured the latency and amplitude of the neural P1 response to chromatic (blue–yellow, red–green) and achromatic stimuli. Result No intergroup differences were found in the ophthalmological exam. However, significantly larger P1 amplitude was found for blue and yellow stimuli, but not red/green or achromatic stimuli, in the ADHD group (particularly in the medicated group) compared to controls. Conclusion Larger amplitude in the P1 component for blue–yellow in the ADHD group compared to controls may account for the lack of difference in color perception tasks. We speculate that the larger amplitude for blue–yellow stimuli in early sensory processing (P1) might reflect a compensatory strategy for underlying problems including compromised retinal input of s-cones due to hypo-dopaminergic tone. PMID:25435188

  6. Association Between Evoked Potentials and Balance Recovery in Subacute Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between baseline motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) responses in the lower extremities and balance recovery in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients. Methods MEPs and SSEPs were evaluated in 20 subacute hemiparetic stroke patients before rehabilitation. Balance (static posturography and Berg Balance Scale [BBS]), motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA]) and the ability to perform activities of daily living (Modified Barthel Index [MBI]) were evaluated before rehabilitation and after four-weeks of rehabilitation. Posturography outcomes were weight distribution indices (WDI) expressed as surface area (WDI-Sa) and pressure (WDI-Pr), and stability indices expressed as surface area (SI-Sa) and length (SI-L). In addition, all parameters were evaluated during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Results The MEP (+) group showed significant improvements in balance except WDI-Sa (EC), FMA, and MBI, while the MEP (-) group showed significant improvements in the BBS, FMA, and MBI after rehabilitation. The SSEP (+) group showed significant improvements in balance except SI-Sa (EO), FMA, and MBI, while the SSEPs (-) group showed significant improvements in the BBS, MBI after rehabilitation. The changes in the SI-Sa (EO), SI-L (EO), total MBI, and several detailed MBI subscales in the MEP (+) group after rehabilitation were significantly larger than those in the MEP (-) group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initial assessments of MEPs and SSEPs might be beneficial when predicting balance recovery in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients. PMID:26161352

  7. Diagnostic use of dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potentials in spinal disorders: Case series

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, Pinar Yalinay; Oge, A. Emre

    2013-01-01

    Objective/Context Dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potentials (dSEPs) may be valuable for diagnostic purposes in selected cases with spinal disorders. Design Reports on cases with successful use of dSEPs. Findings Cases 1 and 2 had lesions causing multiple root involvement (upper to middle lumbar region in Case 1 and lower sacral region in Case 2). Cystic lesions in both cases seemed to compress more than one nerve root, and stimulation at the center of the involved dermatomes in dSEPs helped to reveal the functional abnormality. Cases 3 and 4 had lesions involving the spinal cord with or without nerve root impairment. In Case 3, an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-verified lesion seemed to occupy a considerable volume of the lower spinal cord, causing only very restricted clinical sensory and motor signs. In Case 4, a cervical MRI showed a small well-circumscribed intramedullary lesion at right C2 level. All neurophysiological investigations were normal in the latter two patients (motor, tibial, and median somatosensory-evoked potentials in Case 3, and electromyography in both) except for the dSEPs. Conclusions Objectifying the presence and degree of sensory involvement in spinal disorders may be helpful for establishing diagnoses and in therapeutic decision-making. Valuable information could be provided by dSEPs in selected patients with multiple root or spinal cord involvement. PMID:24089995

  8. Ground-truthing evoked potential measurements against behavioral conditioning in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Randy J.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become commonly used to measure hearing thresholds in fish. However, it is uncertain how well AEP thresholds match behavioral hearing thresholds and what effect variability in electrode placement has on AEPs. In the first experiment, the effect of electrode placement on AEPs was determined by simultaneously recording AEPs from four locations on each of 12 goldfish, Carassius auratus. In the second experiment, the hearing sensitivity of 12 goldfish was measured using both classical conditioning and AEP's in the same setup. For behavioral conditioning, the fish were trained to reduce their respiration rate in response to a 5 s sound presentation paired with a brief shock. A modified staircase method was used in which 20 reversals were completed for each frequency, and threshold levels were determined by averaging the last 12 reversals. Once the behavioral audiogram was completed, the AEP measurements were made without moving the fish. The recording electrode was located subdermally over the medulla, and was inserted prior to classical conditioning to minimize handling of animal. The same sound stimuli (pulsed tones) were presented and the resultant evoked potentials were recorded for 1000-6000 averages. AEP input-output functions were then compared to the behavioral audiogram to compare techniques for estimating behavioral thresholds from AEP data.

  9. Electromagnetic interference in intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials and a wireless solution.

    PubMed

    Farajidavar, Aydin; Seifert, Jennifer L; Delgado, Mauricio R; Sparagana, Steven; Romero-Ortega, Mario I; Chiao, J-C

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is utilized to minimize neurological morbidity during spine surgery. Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are principal IONM signals in which the motor cortex of the subject is stimulated with electrical pulses and the evoked potentials are recorded from the muscles of interest. Currently available monitoring systems require the connection of 40-60 lengthy lead wires to the patient. These wires contribute to a crowded and cluttered surgical environment, and limit the maneuverability of the surgical team. In this work, it was demonstrated that the cumbersome wired system is vulnerable to electromagnetic interference (EMI) produced by operating room (OR) equipment. It was hypothesized that eliminating the lengthy recording wires can remove the EMI induced in the IONM signals. Hence, a wireless system to acquire TcMEPs was developed and validated through bench-top and animal experiments. Side-by-side TcMEPs acquisition from the wired and wireless systems in animal experiments under controlled conditions (absence of EMI from OR equipment) showed comparable magnitudes and waveforms, thus demonstrating the fidelity in the signal acquisition of the wireless solution. The robustness of the wireless system to minimize EMI was compared with a wired-system under identical conditions. Unlike the wired-system, the wireless system was not influenced by the electromagnetic waves from the C-Arm X-ray machine and temperature management system in the OR. PMID:26678325

  10. Can a finding of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials contribute to vestibular migraine diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Vešligaj, Tihana; Maslovara, Siniša

    2016-02-01

    Aim To investigate differences in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) results with patients suffering from vestibular migraine and healthy people, taking into consideration values of threshold and latency of occurrence of the characteristic wave complex, size of amplitude, and interaural amplitude ratio. According to the results, determine the importance and usefulness of VEMP in vestibular migraine diagnostics. Methods A total number of 62 subjects were included in the study, 32 of them belonging to a group of patients suffering from vestibular migraine (VM), while other 30 were in a control group of healthy subjects. Information was collected during the diagnostic evaluation. General and otoneurological history of patients and bedside tests, audiological results, videonystagmography and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) were made. Results There was a difference in an interaural ratio of amplitudes in the experimental and control groups, but it was not found to be clinically significant. By ToneBurst 500 Hz method, the interaural amplitude ratio higher than 35% was measured in 46.97% subjects, while the response was totally unilaterally missing in 28.8% patients. Conclusion Even the sophisticated method as cVEMP does not give the ultimate result confirming the vestibular migraine diagnosis, and neither do other diagnostic methods. cVEMP result can contribute to the completion of full mosaic of vestibular migraine diagnostics. PMID:26827705

  11. Membrane Potential Dynamics of Spontaneous and Visually Evoked Gamma Activity in V1 of Awake Mice

    PubMed Central

    Perrenoud, Quentin; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.; Gentet, Luc J.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical gamma activity (30–80 Hz) is believed to play important functions in neural computation and arises from the interplay of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV) and pyramidal cells (PYRs). However, the subthreshold dynamics underlying its emergence in the cortex of awake animals remain unclear. Here, we characterized the intracellular dynamics of PVs and PYRs during spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in layers 2/3 of V1 of awake mice using targeted patch-clamp recordings and synchronous local field potentials (LFPs). Strong gamma activity patterned in short bouts (one to three cycles), occurred when PVs and PYRs were depolarizing and entrained their membrane potential dynamics regardless of the presence of visual stimulation. PV firing phase locked unconditionally to gamma activity. However, PYRs only phase locked to visually evoked gamma bouts. Taken together, our results indicate that gamma activity corresponds to short pulses of correlated background synaptic activity synchronizing the output of cortical neurons depending on external sensory drive. PMID:26890123

  12. Visual Evoked Potentials as a Readout of Cortical Function in Infants With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Varcin, Kandice J; Nelson, Charles A; Ko, Jordan; Sahin, Mustafa; Wu, Joyce Y; Jeste, Shafali Spurling

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that confers a high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Studies have demonstrated specific delays in visual reception skills that may predict the development of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Based on evidence for alterations in the retinogeniculate pathway in animal models of tuberous sclerosis complex, we asked whether children with tuberous sclerosis complex demonstrate alterations in early visual processing that may undermine the development of higher-level visual behaviors. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials were recorded in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (n = 16) and typically developing infants (n = 18) at 12 months of age. Infants with tuberous sclerosis complex demonstrated remarkably intact visual evoked potentials even within the context of intellectual disability and epilepsy. Infants with tuberous sclerosis complex show intact visual cortical processing, suggesting that delays in visually mediated behaviors in tuberous sclerosis complex may not be rooted in early visual processing deficits. PMID:26018199

  13. Diminished N1 Auditory Evoked Potentials to Oddball Stimuli in Misophonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Arjan; van Diepen, Rosanne; Mazaheri, Ali; Petropoulos-Petalas, Diamantis; Soto de Amesti, Vicente; Vulink, Nienke; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Misophonia (hatred of sound) is a newly defined psychiatric condition in which ordinary human sounds, such as breathing and eating, trigger impulsive aggression. In the current study, we investigated if a dysfunction in the brain’s early auditory processing system could be present in misophonia. We screened 20 patients with misophonia with the diagnostic criteria for misophonia, and 14 matched healthy controls without misophonia, and investigated any potential deficits in auditory processing of misophonia patients using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during an oddball task. Subjects watched a neutral silent movie while being presented a regular frequency of beep sounds in which oddball tones of 250 and 4000?Hz were randomly embedded in a stream of repeated 1000?Hz standard tones. We examined the P1, N1, and P2 components locked to the onset of the tones. For misophonia patients, the N1 peak evoked by the oddball tones had smaller mean peak amplitude than the control group. However, no significant differences were found in P1 and P2 components evoked by the oddball tones. There were no significant differences between the misophonia patients and their controls in any of the ERP components to the standard tones. The diminished N1 component to oddball tones in misophonia patients suggests an underlying neurobiological deficit in misophonia patients. This reduction might reflect a basic impairment in auditory processing in misophonia patients. PMID:24782731

  14. Cortical brain states and corticospinal synchronization influence TMS-evoked motor potentials.

    PubMed

    Keil, Julian; Timm, Jana; Sanmiguel, Iria; Schulz, Hannah; Obleser, Jonas; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences cortical processes. Recent findings indicate, however, that, in turn, the efficacy of TMS depends on the state of ongoing cortical oscillations. Whereas power and phase of electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the hand muscles as well as neural synchrony between cortex and hand muscles are known to influence the effect of TMS, to date, no study has shown an influence of the phase of cortical oscillations during wakefulness. We applied single-pulse TMS over the motor cortex and recorded motor-evoked potentials along with the electroencephalogram (EEG) and EMG. We correlated phase and power of ongoing EEG and EMG signals with the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude. We also investigated the functional connectivity between cortical and hand muscle activity (corticomuscular coherence) with the MEP amplitude. EEG and EMG power and phase in a frequency band around 18 Hz correlated with the MEP amplitude. High beta-band (?34 Hz) corticomuscular coherence exhibited a positive linear relationship with the MEP amplitude, indicating that strong synchrony between cortex and hand muscles at the moment when TMS is applied entails large MEPs. Improving upon previous studies, we demonstrate a clear dependence of TMS-induced motor effects on the state of ongoing EEG phase and power fluctuations. We conclude that not only the sampling of incoming information but also the susceptibility of cortical communication flow depends cyclically on neural phase. PMID:24198325

  15. Onset Latency of Motor Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Mapping with Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Pitkänen, Minna; Säisänen, Laura; Julkunen, Petro

    2015-01-01

    Cortical motor mapping in pre-surgical applications can be performed using motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes evoked with neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. The MEP latency, which is a more stable parameter than the MEP amplitude, has not so far been utilized in motor mapping. The latency, however, may provide information about the stress in damaged motor pathways, e.g. compression by tumors, which cannot be observed from the MEP amplitudes. Thus, inclusion of this parameter could add valuable information to the presently used technique of MEP amplitude mapping. In this study, the functional cortical representations of first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were mapped in both hemispheres of ten healthy righthanded volunteers. The cortical muscle representations were evaluated by the area and centre of gravity (CoG) by using MEP amplitudes and latencies. As expected, the latency and amplitude CoGs were congruent and were located in the centre of the maps but in a few subjects, instead of a single centre, several loci with short latencies were observed. In conclusion, MEP latencies may be useful in distinguishing the cortical representation areas with the most direct pathways from those pathways with prolonged latencies. However, the potential of latency mapping to identify stressed motor tract connections at the subcortical level will need to be verified in future studies with patients. PMID:26535068

  16. Pericellular Ca2+ recycling potentiates thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Stewart O; Pugh, Nicholas; Farndale, Richard W; Harper, Alan G S

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) potentiate Ca2+ signaling evoked by thapsigargin in human platelets, via their ability to modulate the secretion of autocoids from dense granules. This link was confirmed in platelets stimulated with the physiological agonist, thrombin, and experiments were performed to examine how Ca2+ removal by the NCX modulates platelet dense granule secretion. In cells loaded with the near-membrane indicator FFP-18, thrombin stimulation was observed to elicit an NCX-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ in a pericellular region around the platelets. To test whether this pericellular Ca2+ accumulation might be responsible for the influence of NCXs over platelet function, platelets were exposed to fast Ca2+ chelators or had their glycocalyx removed. Both manipulations of the pericellular Ca2+ rise reduced thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals and dense granule secretion. Blocking Ca2+-permeable ion channels had a similar effect, suggesting that Ca2+ exported into the pericellular region is able to recycle back into the platelet cytosol. Single cell imaging with extracellular Fluo-4 indicated that thrombin-evoked rises in extracellular [Ca2+] occurred within the boundary described by the cell surface, suggesting their presence within the open canalicular system (OCS). FFP-18 fluorescence was similarly distributed. These data suggest that upon thrombin stimulation, NCX activity creates a rise in [Ca2+] within the pericellular region of the platelet from where it recycles back into the platelet cytosol, acting to both accelerate dense granule secretion and maintain the initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+]. PMID:24303163

  17. Effect of raising body temperature on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Read, D J; Pountney, E

    1979-01-01

    The effects of raising body temperature on the visual (VEP) and somatosensory (SEP) evoked potentials were observed in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis. The amplitude of the VEP was significantly reduced to the same degree after heating in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis but there was no effect on the latency of the potential. Changes in amplitude could not be related to reduction in acuity. In contrast, the cervical SEP was greatly disorganised after heating in many patients with multiple sclerosis while the only effect in normal subjects was to reduce the latency by increasing peripheral conduction velocity. These results suggest that heat caused conduction block in demyelinated axons in the sensory pathways of the cervical spinal cord. PMID:438834

  18. Objective threshold estimation and measurement of the residual background noise in auditory evoked potentials of goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianqiang; Braun, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of papers using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) published over the last 10 years (Table I) demonstrates that most AEP studies in animals have used subjective methods for auditory threshold determination. Subjective methods greatly reduce the value of statistical hypothesis testing and jeopardize tests of hypothetical experimental group differences in hearing sensitivity. Correspondingly, many attempts have been made to develop objective threshold determination methods, but these have not been used widely. Further, they seldom include an appreciation of the effects of residual noise in the AEP. In this study, AEPs evoked by tonal and noise stimuli in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were recorded and the residual background noise was measured and analyzed in detail. High variability was found in residual noise, but can be effectively controlled with a simple modification of averaging routines. Considerable interobserver disagreements were found using subjective threshold estimation. An objective method of threshold determination was developed based on comparison between AEP amplitude and controlled residual noise, using a signal detection theory approach to set specific threshold criteria. The usefulness of AEP in hypothesis testing for auditory function requires more control over residual background noise amplitudes and the use of objective threshold determination techniques. PMID:19045791

  19. A brain computer interface using motion-onset visual evoked potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) based on motion-onset visual evoked potentials (mVEPs). mVEP has never been used in BCI research, but has been widely studied in basic research. For the BCI application, the brief motion of objects embedded into onscreen virtual buttons is used to evoke mVEP that is time locked to the onset of motion. EEG data registered from 15 subjects are used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of mVEP in this paradigm. N2 and P2 components, with distinct temporo-occipital and parietal topography, respectively, are selected as the salient features of the brain response to the attended target that the subject selects by gazing at it. The computer determines the attended target by finding which button elicited prominent N2/P2 components. Besides a simple feature extraction of N2/P2 area calculation, the stepwise linear discriminant analysis is adopted to assess the target detection accuracy of a five-class BCI. A mean accuracy of 98% is achieved when ten trials data are averaged. Even with only three trials, the accuracy remains above 90%, suggesting that the proposed mVEP-based BCI could achieve a high information transfer rate in online implementation.

  20. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by intraoperative electrical stimulation of the human inferior vestibular nerve.

    PubMed

    Basta, D; Todt, I; Eisenschenk, A; Ernst, A

    2005-06-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) can be recorded from sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to investigate VEMPs upon direct electrical stimulation of the human inferior vestibular nerve to evidence the vestibulocollic reflex arch and their saccular origin, respectively. Seven subjects were stimulated at the inferior (IVN) and superior (SVN) vestibular nerve. The EMG signals of the SCM were recorded. These recordings were compared to air- and bone-conduction evoked VEMPs with respect to latency and shape. All subjects showed normal VEMPs upon acoustic stimulation with a latency of 12.8+/-1.4 ms for P13, and 22.7+/-2.0 ms for the N23 pre-operatively. Upon direct electrical stimulation of the IVN, the mean latency of the positive peak was 9.1+/-2.2 and 13.2+/-2.3 ms for the negative one. No contralateral SCM response was found. Electrical stimulation of the SVN did not result in any EMG response of the SCM. The study shows experimental evidence of the vestibulocollic reflex by direct electrical stimulation of the human IVN for the first time. The method can be utilized to map VIIIth nerve subdivisions and to intraoperatively monitor IVN integrity in a real-time mode. PMID:15925196

  1. Auditory evoked potentials to abrupt pitch and timbre change of complex tones: electrophysiological evidence of 'streaming'?

    PubMed

    Jones, S J; Longe, O; Vaz Pato, M

    1998-03-01

    Examination of the cortical auditory evoked potentials to complex tones changing in pitch and timbre suggests a useful new method for investigating higher auditory processes, in particular those concerned with 'streaming' and auditory object formation. The main conclusions were: (i) the N1 evoked by a sudden change in pitch or timbre was more posteriorly distributed than the N1 at the onset of the tone, indicating at least partial segregation of the neuronal populations responsive to sound onset and spectral change; (ii) the T-complex was consistently larger over the right hemisphere, consistent with clinical and PET evidence for particular involvement of the right temporal lobe in the processing of timbral and musical material; (iii) responses to timbral change were relatively unaffected by increasing the rate of interspersed changes in pitch, suggesting a mechanism for detecting the onset of a new voice in a constantly modulated sound stream; (iv) responses to onset, offset and pitch change of complex tones were relatively unaffected by interfering tones when the latter were of a different timbre, suggesting these responses must be generated subsequent to auditory stream segregation. PMID:9566626

  2. Noninvasive intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials under propofol anesthesia: effects of spinal surgery on the amplitude and latency of motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, D; Jewkes, D; Symon, L

    1991-10-01

    We present the results of intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials from 34 patients undergoing spinal surgery under total anesthesia with intravenously administered propofol. Intraoperative recording was performed with transcranial electrical stimulation. Two groups of patients were studied: 1) a control population of 26 patients undergoing lumbar discectomy for prolapsed intervertebral disc, all of whom had normal preoperative motor conduction; and 2) a population of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures for spinal tumor (5 patients) and spinal arteriovenous malformation (3 patients), all of whom had abnormal preoperative neurological signs and abnormal preoperative motor conduction. In the first group, electromyographic responses were recorded intraoperatively either from the 2nd dorsal interosseous muscle of the hand (5 patients) or from the 1st dorsal interosseous muscle of the foot (21 patients). In the second group, responses were recorded intraoperatively either from the 1st dorsal interosseous muscle of the foot (7 patients) or from the anterior tibial muscle (1 patient). Intraoperative monitoring of motor function was successful in 88.5% of the patients in the control group. Propofol anesthesia caused a reduction in response amplitude to 7% of baseline values obtained from conscious relaxed subjects. Intraoperative monitoring was successful in 87% of the patients in the pathological group. We observed significant changes in both amplitude (greater than 50%) and/or onset latency (greater than 3 ms) from the intraoperative baseline that indicated either improvement (3 patients) or deterioration (2 patients) in motor conduction within minutes of surgical maneuvers anticipated to alter spinal cord function. Only permanent complete loss of intraoperative motor conduction (1 patient) correlated with a significant change in the postoperative neurological state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1944835

  3. Optical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Naismith, R T.; Tutlam, N T.; Xu, J; Shepherd, J B.; Klawiter, E C.; Song, S -K.; Cross, A H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect clinical and subclinical remote optic neuritis (ON), its relationship to clinical characteristics of ON and visual function, and whether the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness functions as a surrogate marker of global disease severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 65 subjects with at least 1 clinical ON episode at least 6 months prior. Measures included clinical characteristics, visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), OCT, and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Results: Ninety-six clinically affected optic nerves were studied. The sensitivity of OCT RNFL after ON was 60%, decreasing further with mild onset and good recovery. VEP sensitivity was superior at 81% (p = 0.002). Subclinical ON in the unaffected eye was present in 32%. VEP identified 75% of all subclinically affected eyes, and OCT identified <20%. RNFL thickness demonstrated linear correlations with VA (r = 0.65) and CS (r = 0.72) but was unable to distinguish visual categories <20/50. RNFL was thinner with severe onset and disease recurrence but was unaffected by IV glucocorticoids. OCT measurements were not related to overall disability, ethnicity, sex, or age at onset. The greatest predictor for RNFL in the unaffected eye was the RNFL in the fellow affected eye. Conclusions: Visual evoked potentials (VEP) remains the preferred test for detecting clinical and subclinical optic neuritis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures were unrelated to disability and demographic features predicting a worse prognosis in multiple sclerosis. OCT may provide complementary information to VEP in select cases, and remains a valuable research tool for studying optic nerve disease in populations. GLOSSARY ANOVA = analysis of variance; CIS = clinically isolated syndrome; CS = contrast sensitivity; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Score; logMAR = logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; MS = multiple sclerosis; MSSS = Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score; NCRR = National Center for Research Resources; NMO = neuromyelitis optica; NS = not significant; OCT = optical coherence tomography; ON = optic neuritis; RNFL = retinal nerve fiber layer; VA = visual acuity; VEP = visual evoked potentials. PMID:19564583

  4. Neuromodulation of motor-evoked potentials during stepping in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Parag; Lavrov, Igor; Shah, Prithvi; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Gerasimenko, Yury

    2013-01-01

    The rat spinal cord isolated from supraspinal control via a complete low- to midthoracic spinal cord transection produces locomotor-like patterns in the hindlimbs when facilitated pharmacologically and/or by epidural electrical stimulation. To evaluate the role of epidural electrical stimulation in enabling motor control (eEmc) for locomotion and posture, we recorded potentials evoked by epidural spinal cord stimulation in selected hindlimb muscles during stepping and standing in adult spinal rats. We hypothesized that the temporal details of the phase-dependent modulation of these evoked potentials in selected hindlimb muscles while performing a motor task in the unanesthetized state would be predictive of the potential of the spinal circuitries to generate stepping. To test this hypothesis, we characterized soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle responses as middle response (MR; 4–6 ms) or late responses (LRs; >7 ms) during stepping with eEmc. We then compared these responses to the stepping parameters with and without a serotoninergic agonist (quipazine) or a glycinergic blocker (strychnine). Quipazine inhibited the MRs induced by eEmc during nonweight-bearing standing but facilitated locomotion and increased the amplitude and number of LRs induced by eEmc during stepping. Strychnine facilitated stepping and reorganized the LRs pattern in the soleus. The LRs in the TA remained relatively stable at varying loads and speeds during locomotion, whereas the LRs in the soleus were strongly modulated by both of these variables. These data suggest that LRs facilitated electrically and/or pharmacologically are not time-locked to the stimulation pulse but are highly correlated to the stepping patterns of spinal rats. PMID:23761695

  5. Improving the acquisition of nociceptive evoked potentials without causing more pain.

    PubMed

    Kramer, John L K; Haefeli, Jenny; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Steeves, John D; Curt, Armin

    2013-02-01

    Following nociceptive heat or laser stimulation, an early contralateral and later vertex potential can be recorded. Although more indicative of the nociceptive input, the acquisition of the contralateral N1 after contact heat stimulation (contact heat-evoked potentials [CHEPs]) remains difficult. An advantage of contact heat is that the baseline skin temperature preceding peak stimulation can be controlled. Increasing the baseline temperature may represent a novel strategy to improve the acquisition of CHEPs without resulting in more subjective pain to stimulation. A study was undertaken in 23 healthy subjects to examine the effects of increasing the baseline temperature but not the perceived intensity of contact heat stimulation. A combined standard averaging and single-trial analysis was performed to disclose how changes in averaged waveforms related to latency jitter and individual trial amplitudes. By increasing the baseline temperature, the acquisition of N1 was improved among subjects with a low-amplitude response (greater than -4?V) following 35°C baseline temperature stimulation (P<.05). Based on standard averaging, N2/P2 amplitudes were also significantly increased with and without an accompanying change in the rating of perceived pain when the baseline temperature was increased (P<.05). In contrast, automated single-trial averaging revealed no significant difference in N2 amplitude when the baseline temperature was increased to 42°C and the peak temperature reduced. These findings suggest that 2 mechanisms underlie the improved acquisition of CHEPs: increased synchronization of afferent volley, yielding larger-amplitude evoked potentials in response to the same rating of intensity; and reduced inter-trial variability. PMID:23218174

  6. Prognostic significance of the pattern visual evoked potential in ocular hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, L C; Mitchell, K W; Howe, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a prospective study on 49 ocular hypertensive patients to evaluate the prognostic significance of transient abnormalities in the pattern visual evoked potential (VEP) in the development of glaucoma. Seven of 24 patients with VEP abnormalities at diagnosis of ocular hypertension developed glaucomatous field defects in the follow-up period as compared with none of 25 patients with normal VEPs at diagnosis. We conclude that appropriately designed pattern VEP testing is a valuable complement to careful (preferably computerised, static) perimetry. In addition, our findings support the contention that, in glaucomatous disease of the optic nerve, rudimentary pattern processing mechanisms--that is 'Y'-type units of the magnocellular pathways--may be affected earlier than luminance processing mechanisms. PMID:1995048

  7. Latency change estimation for evoked potentials via frequency selective adaptive phase spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kong, X; Qiu, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and estimating latency changes in evoked potentials (EP's). EP's have been widely used to quantify neurological system properties. Transient and time-varying changes in latency may indicate impending neurological injury. Traditional time averaging and correlation methods for EP latency estimation are inefficient under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and/or strong periodic interference conditions. This paper proposes an adaptive phase spectral time delay estimation method to detect and estimate the time-varying latency changes when both the SNR and the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are low. A theoretical analysis and computer simulation demonstrate that the proposed method can track the time-varying latency changes effectively and accurately when both the SNR and the SIR are as low as -5 dB. The method is also suitable for real time detection and estimation of the latency changes. PMID:10431466

  8. Higher order statistics-based radial basis function network for evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Lin, Bor-Shing; Chong, Fok-Ching; Lai, Feipei

    2009-01-01

    In this study, higher order statistics-based radial basis function network (RBF) was proposed for evoked potentials (EPs). EPs provide useful information on diagnosis of the nervous system. They are time-varying signals typically buried in ongoing EEG, and have to be extracted by special methods. RBF with least mean square (LMS) algorithm is an effective method to extract EPs. However, using LMS algorithm usually encounters gradient noise amplification problem, i.e., its performance is sensitive to the selection of step sizes and additional noise. Higher order statistics technique, which can effectively suppress Gaussian and symmetrically distributed non-Gaussian noises, was used to reduce gradient noise amplification problem on adaptation in this study. Simulations and human experiments were also carried out in this study. PMID:19224723

  9. Electrically evoked potentials in an ovine model for the evaluation of visual prosthesis efficacy.

    PubMed

    Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Eiber, Calvin D; Dodds, Christopher W D; Fung, Adrian T; Tatarinoff, Veronica; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2015-08-01

    Visual prostheses are becoming a reality as a therapy to restore functional vision to the blind. New stimulation strategies and novel electrode designs are contributing to accelerate the development of such devices triggering the interest of scientists, clinicians and the blind community worldwide. In this scenario, there is a need for large animal models that are suitable for preclinical testing of retinal neuroprostheses. This study presents an electrophysiology assessment of an ovine model for single and simultaneous electrode stimulation from the suprachoroidal space, using symmetric biphasic current pulses with a monopolar return configuration. Visually and electrically evoked potentials were recorded using supradural surface electrodes, showing charge thresholds comparable to those in humans. This model represents an alternative to feline or canine models with analogous activation levels and an eye anatomy similar to that of humans. PMID:26737012

  10. Heart evoked potential triggers brain responses to natural affective scenes: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Velasquez, María; Mesow, Marie; Feinstein, Justin; Canales-Johnson, Andres; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Martínez-Pernía, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between ongoing brain interoceptive signals and emotional processes has been addressed only indirectly through external stimulus-locked measures. In this study, an internal body trigger (heart evoked potential, HEP) was used to measure ongoing internally triggered signals during emotional states. We employed high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), source reconstruction analysis, and behavioral measures to assess healthy participants watching emotion-inducing video-clips (positive, negative, and neutral emotions). Results showed emotional modulation of the HEP at specific source-space nodes of the fronto-insulo-temporal networks related to affective-cognitive integration. This study is the first to assess the direct convergence among continuous triggers of viscerosensory cortical markers and emotion through dynamic stimuli presentation. PMID:26188392

  11. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  12. Possible long term effects of chemical warfare using visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  13. Laser-evoked potentials as a tool for assessing the efficacy of antinociceptive drugs.

    PubMed

    Truini, A; Panuccio, G; Galeotti, F; Maluccio, M R; Sartucci, F; Avoli, M; Cruccu, G

    2010-02-01

    Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are brain responses to laser radiant heat pulses and reflect the activation of Adelta nociceptors. LEPs are to date the reference standard technique for studying nociceptive pathway function in patients with neuropathic pain. To find out whether LEPs also provide a useful neurophysiological tool for assessing antinociceptive drug efficacy, in this double-blind placebo-controlled study we measured changes induced by the analgesic tramadol on LEPs in 12 healthy subjects. We found that tramadol decreased the amplitude of LEPs, whereas placebo left LEPs unchanged. The opioid antagonist naloxone partially reversed the tramadol-induced LEP amplitude decrease. We conclude that LEPs may be reliably used in clinical practice and research for assessing the efficacy of antinociceptive drugs. PMID:19477145

  14. [Extraction of evoked related potentials by using the combination of independent component analysis and wavelet analysis].

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Chen, Shuyue; Sun, Yuqiang; Ma, Zhenghua

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we present a new method of combining Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Wavelet de-noising algorithm to extract Evoked Related Potentials (ERPs). First, the extended Infomax-ICA algorithm is used to analyze EEG signals and obtain the independent components (Ics); Then, the Wave Shrink (WS) method is applied to the demixed Ics as an intermediate step; the EEG data were rebuilt by using the inverse ICA based on the new Ics; the ERPs were extracted by using de-noised EEG data after being averaged several trials. The experimental results showed that the combined method and ICA method could remove eye artifacts and muscle artifacts mixed in the ERPs, while the combined method could retain the brain neural activity mixed in the noise Ics and could extract the weak ERPs efficiently from strong background artifacts. PMID:20842836

  15. Cerebral hypoxia, missing cortical somatosensory evoked potentials and recovery of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bilaterally absent N20 components of the sensory evoked potentials (SEP) from the median nerve are regarded as accurately predicting poor outcome after cardiac arrest. Case presentation We are reporting on a patient, who regained consciousness despite this ominous finding. Early after cardiac arrest, MRI showed signal alterations in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) bilaterally in the primary visual and sensorimotor cortex and in the basal ganglia. SEP were repeatedly absent. The patient survived shut out form sensory and visual experience and locked in for voluntary movements, but kept her verbal competence in several languages. Conclusion SEP inform about integrity only of a narrow cortical strip. It is unguarded, but common practice, to conclude from absent SEP, that a patient has suffered diffuse cortical damage after cardiac arrest. Cerebral MRI with DWI helps to avoid this prognostic error and furthers understanding of the sometimes very peculiar state of mind after cardiac arrest. PMID:24720818

  16. Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials in human neck flexor and extensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, C H; Young, Y H; Murofushi, T

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has been proposed to be a manifestation of sacculocollic reflex. In a recent study using intracellular recording from neck flexor and extensor motoneurons, the neuronal connections and pathways underlying sacculocollic reflexes were determined in cats. The results showed that sacculocollic reflex displayed inhibitory connection to bilateral neck flexors and excitatory connection to bilateral neck extensors. A total of 16 normal young adults were tested with bilateral recordings of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SC) muscles by acoustic stimulus of 500 Hz short tone burst. The results revealed that polarity of the wave I/II of VEMP on SC was the reverse of that on SCM. This implied that VEMP from ipsilateral SCM showed inhibitory neural activity; whereas VEMP from ipsilateral SC was an excitatory response. Using this non-invasive technique, the sacculocollic reflexes in human neck flexor and extensor were studied. The results in humans were consistent with the previous findings in cats. PMID:10687928

  17. Dipolar source modelling of brain potentials evoked by painful electrical stimulation of the human sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rössel, Petra; Le Pera, Domenica; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2004-03-18

    The aim of the study was to compare the cerebral generators following painful stimulation of the sigmoid colon and the abdominal skin in 11 healthy subjects. The evoked potentials (EPs) were recorded from 31 surface electrodes following painful electrical stimuli of the sigmoid colon, and of the referred pain area on the abdomen. Current dipole models estimating the EPs amplitude and topography were calculated. For colon stimulation, the earliest cortical activities were described by dipoles in the bilateral insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex, while both secondary somatosensory areas were activated later. When the skin was stimulated, early bilateral dipoles in the primary and secondary somatosensory areas were estimated, followed by a dipole in the frontal region. This suggests that painful cutaneous and visceral stimuli are processed differently in the brain. PMID:15016431

  18. The N2-P3 complex of the evoked potential and human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Brian F.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    The N2-P3 complex and other endogenous components of human evoked potential provide a set of tools for the investigation of human perceptual and cognitive processes. These multidimensional measures of central nervous system bioelectrical activity respond to a variety of environmental and internal factors which have been experimentally characterized. Their application to the analysis of human performance in naturalistic task environments is just beginning. Converging evidence suggests that the N2-P3 complex reflects processes of stimulus evaluation, perceptual resource allocation, and decision making that proceed in parallel, rather than in series, with response generation. Utilization of these EP components may provide insights into the central nervous system mechanisms modulating task performance unavailable from behavioral measures alone. The sensitivity of the N2-P3 complex to neuropathology, psychopathology, and pharmacological manipulation suggests that these components might provide sensitive markers for the effects of environmental stressors on the human central nervous system.

  19. Cortical auditory evoked potentials as an objective measure of behavioral thresholds in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Visram, Anisa S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; El-Deredy, Wael; McKay, Colette M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) as an objective tool for predicting behavioral hearing thresholds in cochlear implant (CI) users. Nine experienced adult CI users of Cochlear(™) devices participated. Behavioral thresholds were measured in CI users across apical, mid and basal electrodes. CAEPs were measured for the same stimuli (50 ms pulse trains of 900-pps rate) at a range of input levels across the individual's psychophysical dynamic range (DR). Amplitude growth functions using global field power (GFP) were plotted, and from this the CAEP thresholds were extrapolated and compared to the behavioral thresholds. Increased amplitude and decreased latency of the N1-P2 response was seen with increasing input level. A strong correlation was found between CAEP and behavioral thresholds (r = 0.93), implying that the cortical response may be more useful as an objective programming tool for cochlear implants than the auditory nerve response. PMID:25959269

  20. Right uninostril yoga breathing influences ipsilateral components of middle latency auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Raghuraj, P; Telles, S

    2004-12-01

    A previous report described selective electrical activity of the cerebral hemispheres with uninostril breathing. In the present study, middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEPs) were recorded from symmetrical scalp sites during the practice of uninostril yoga breathing. There were two sessions (40 min each) of right nostril yoga breathing (RNB) and of breath awareness (BAW), with (i) 'before', (ii) test (either RNB or BAW) and (iii) 'after' periods. The participants were 14 male volunteers aged between 18 and 33 years, and the setting was a yoga centre. MLAEPs were recorded from symmetrical scalp sites (C4 and C3). During RNB, the peak amplitudes of two negative components (viz. Na wave and Nb wave) were significantly increased on the right side. Increased peak amplitudes of Na and Nb waves suggested that RNB increased the number of neurons recruited on the right side, suggesting a possible application of RNB in certain psychiatric disorders with cerebral hemispheric imbalance. PMID:15624085

  1. Abnormal visual-evoked potentials in leukemic children after cranial radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, A.; Tomarchio, S.; Pero, G.; Consoli, G.; Marina, R.; Rizzari, C.; Schiliro, G.

    1985-01-01

    Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in 55 asymptomatic children with leukemia or solid tumors in remission in order to detect subclinical demyelination of the optic pathway after CNS prophylaxis. In group I (11 patients with ALL studied prospectively), VEP latency was increased in ten after cranial radiation (CR) as compared with previous values. Group II (18 patients with ALL in maintenance) and group III (16 patients with ALL off therapy) were studied retrospectively and VEP latency was found above normal limits in 33 and 31%, respectively. In group IV (four patients with solid tumors and six with leukemia, all of whom received no CR), VEP latency was normal despite periodical intrathecal methotrexate administrations to five of them. The authors conclude that CR determines a slowing of conduction on VEP test, probably due to demyelination of the optic pathway, in a high proportion of patients. The future clinical significance of these findings must be established throughout a prolonged follow-up period.

  2. Data to support observation of late and ultra-late latency components of cortical laser evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Stancak, Andrej; Cook, Stephanie; Wright, Hazel; Fallon, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Data are provided to document the presence of late and ultra-late latency components of cortical laser evoked potentials (LEPs) following noxious laser stimulus in Stancak et al. (2015) [3]. The latency components, labeled provisionally as N4, N5, and N6, were observed in 16 healthy human participants who were asked to fully attend their painful and non-painful sensations occurring in association with noxious laser stimulus. Individual laser evoked potential waveforms are provided in support of this observation. Data provided demonstrate the cortical sources of the late and ultra-late laser evoked potentials. The cortical sources of LEPs were reconstructed using the standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) method. PMID:26793747

  3. Learned control over spinal nociception reduces supraspinal nociception as quantified by late somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Bäumler, Maximilian; Feller, Moritz; Krafft, Stefanie; Sommer, Jens; Straube, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We have recently shown that subjects can learn to use cognitive-emotional strategies to suppress their spinal nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) under visual RIII feedback and proposed that this reflects learned activation of descending pain inhibition. Here, we investigated whether learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception and whether previous relaxation training increases success. Subjects were trained over 3 sessions to reduce their RIII size by self-selected cognitive-emotional strategies. Two groups received true RIII feedback (with or without previous relaxation training) and a sham group received false feedback (15 subjects per group). RIII reflexes, late somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and F-waves were recorded and pain intensity ratings collected. Both true feedback groups achieved significant (P < 0.01) but similar RIII suppression (to 79% ± 21% and 70% ± 17% of control). Somatosensory evoked potential amplitude (100-150 milliseconds after stimulation) was reduced in parallel with the RIII size (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). In the sham group, neither RIII size nor SEP amplitude was significantly reduced during feedback training. Pain intensity was significantly reduced in all 3 groups and also correlated with RIII reduction (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). F-wave parameters were not affected during RIII suppression. The present results show that learned RIII suppression also affects supraspinal nociception as quantified by SEPs, although effects on pain ratings were less clear. Lower motor neuron excitability as quantified by F-waves was not affected. Previous relaxation training did not significantly improve RIII feedback training success. PMID:26270584

  4. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(con)volution in Brain-Computer Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Jordy; van den Broek, Philip; Farquhar, Jason; Desain, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs) that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute). This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only. PMID:26208328

  5. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Material/Methods Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25–8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Results Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the “both” type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more “electrode effect” alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Conclusions Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway. PMID:26358094

  6. Effect of higher frequency on the classification of steady-state visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Dong-Ok; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Dähne, Sven; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Most existing brain–computer interface (BCI) designs based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) primarily use low frequency visual stimuli (e.g., <20 Hz) to elicit relatively high SSVEP amplitudes. While low frequency stimuli could evoke photosensitivity-based epileptic seizures, high frequency stimuli generally show less visual fatigue and no stimulus-related seizures. The fundamental objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on the usability of an SSVEP-based BCI system. Approach. We developed an SSVEP-based BCI speller using multiple LEDs flickering with low frequencies (6–14.9 Hz) with a duty-cycle of 50%, or higher frequencies (26–34.7 Hz) with duty-cycles of 50%, 60%, and 70%. The four different experimental conditions were tested with 26 subjects in order to investigate the impact of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on performance and visual fatigue, and evaluated with a questionnaire survey. Resting state alpha powers were utilized to interpret our results from the neurophysiological point of view. Main results. The stimulation method employing higher frequencies not only showed less visual fatigue, but it also showed higher and more stable classification performance compared to that employing relatively lower frequencies. Different duty-cycles in the higher frequency stimulation conditions did not significantly affect visual fatigue, but a duty-cycle of 50% was a better choice with respect to performance. The performance of the higher frequency stimulation method was also less susceptible to resting state alpha powers, while that of the lower frequency stimulation method was negatively correlated with alpha powers. Significance. These results suggest that the use of higher frequency visual stimuli is more beneficial for performance improvement and stability as time passes when developing practical SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  7. A Preclinical Study of Laryngeal Motor-Evoked Potentials as a Marker Vagus Nerve Activation.

    PubMed

    Grimonprez, Annelies; Raedt, Robrecht; De Taeye, Leen; Larsen, Lars Emil; Delbeke, Jean; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl

    2015-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment for refractory epilepsy and depression. Previous studies using invasive recording electrodes showed that VNS induces laryngeal motor-evoked potentials (LMEPs) through the co-activation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and subsequent contractions of the laryngeal muscles. The present study investigates the feasibility of recording LMEPs in chronically VNS-implanted rats, using a minimally-invasive technique, to assess effective current delivery to the nerve and to determine optimal VNS output currents for vagal fiber activation. Three weeks after VNS electrode implantation, signals were recorded using an electromyography (EMG) electrode in the proximity of the laryngeal muscles and a reference electrode on the skull. The VNS output current was gradually ramped up from 0.1 to 1.0 mA in 0.1 mA steps. In 13/27 rats, typical LMEPs were recorded at low VNS output currents (median 0.3 mA, IQR 0.2-0.3 mA). In 11/27 rats, significantly higher output currents were required to evoke electrophysiological responses (median 0.7 mA, IQR 0.5-0.7 mA, [Formula: see text]). The latencies of these responses deviated significantly from LMEPs ([Formula: see text]). In 3/27 rats, no electrophysiological responses to simulation were recorded. Minimally invasive LMEP recordings are feasible to assess effective current delivery to the vagus nerve. Furthermore, our results suggest that low output currents are sufficient to activate vagal fibers. PMID:26510476

  8. Binaural Interaction in Specific Language Impairment: An Auditory Evoked Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Elaine M; Adams, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether auditory binaural interaction, defined as any difference between binaurally evoked responses and the sum of monaurally evoked responses, which is thought to index functions involved in the localization and detection of signals in background noise, is atypical in a group of children with specific language…

  9. Eighth nerve auditory evoked responses recorded at the base of the vestibular nucleus in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Cazals, Y; Erre, J P; Aurousseau, C

    1987-11-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies of brainstem acoustic nuclei involving the classical ascending auditory pathway or the cerebellar and reticular pathways imply that all afferents from the cochlea terminate in the cochlear nucleus. In the experimental pathology of complete and selective destruction of the cochlea in the guinea pig acoustic responses still evoked at mid and high intensities, demonstrated to come from the saccule, show a pattern of far field evoked brainstem potentials quite different from that of normal animals. Intracranial electrophysiological investigations of the brainstem were undertaken in such pathological animals and in normal guinea pigs for comparison. In both cases acoustic responses were recorded at the base of the vestibular nucleus, showing a first peak corresponding to an eighth nerve projection and after a synaptic delay a second peak of local activation. In normal animals acoustic responses from the vestibular nucleus showing normal threshold and tuning curves may represent a direct projection from the cochlea. PMID:3429353

  10. Simultaneous acquisition of high-rate early, middle, and late auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Holt, Fred D; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are typically acquired at rates that facilitate their study as segregated by epochs relative to stimulus onset: early (ABR, 1.5-15 ms), middle (MLR, 15-60 ms), and late (LAEP, ?60 ms) potentials. In particular, late AEPs are often acquired with stimulus repetition rates between 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz, and are bandpass filtered to contain information only within 1-30 Hz. These low repetition rates, filtering and low SNRs eliminate much of the potential contributions of the early and middle-latency responses in AEP recordings. This study aims to demonstrate a method for acquiring whole-AEP responses at higher stimulus repetition rates of 0.5 Hz to 10 Hz, by utilizing the Continuous Loop Averaging Deconvolution (CLAD) method, increasing the bandwidth of the recordings to 1-300 Hz to include early components, and using short-duration chirps to increase synchronous firing of the cochlear and auditory pathway neurons. Such a method may facilitate diagnostic or functional assessment of single AEP recordings for detection, identification, or evaluation of early, middle and late components of auditory responses. PMID:25570249

  11. Event-related potentials evoked by sensory stimulation in normal mentally retarded and autistic children.

    PubMed

    Martineau, J; Laffont, F; Bruneau, N; Roux, S; Lelord, G

    1980-02-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) and slow potentials (SPs) were recorded during two sessions of sound (S) and light (L) conditioning (habituation: S alone; conditioning: coupling of SL; extinction: S alone after SL series). 125 children from 0 to 15 were examined: 82 exhibited signs of autistic behaviour and/or mental retardation; 43 were normally adapted. Two studies were performed. The first was an analysis of relationships: 65 clinical characters were noted for each child with behaviour scales and psychometric tests, 88 electrophysiological data were measured on averaged tracings. The second compared with t and chi 2 square methods the electrophysiological data of 3 groups clinically defined for age and typical syndrome. Results of the two studies supplemented each other. From the clinical point of view 3 major groups appeared: (1) autism, (2) mental retardation, (3) normal adaptation. From an electrophysiological point of view 2 major groups could be defined: (1) few conditioned EPs with small amplitude, generalized conditioned SPs, small unconditioned EPs, generalized unconditioned SPs, conditioning 'to time'; (2) many conditioned EPs, many conditioned rhythmic potentials, absence of generalized SPs, many localized vertex negative SPs (CNVs), large unconditioned EPs, no conditioning to time. Some differences were observed in generalized SPs, small and positive in mentally retarded children, negative or positive in autistic children. EP and SP data clearly help to differentiate pathological groups from a normal group but are insufficient to distinguish the autistic from the mentally retarded children. PMID:6153331

  12. Somatosensory evoked potentials after multisegmental lower limb stimulation in focal lesions of the lumbosacral spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Restuccia, D.; Insola, A.; Valeriani, M.; Santilli, V.; Bedini, L.; Le Pera, D.; Barba, C.; Denaro, F.; Tonali, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Recording techniques permit the separate analysis of the response from cauda equina roots and the spinal potential that is probably generated by the activation of dorsal horn cells. To improve the functional assessment of focal lesions of the lumbosacral cord, lower limb somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured by multisegmental stimulation.?METHODS—Common peroneal and tibial nerves SEPs were recorded in 14 patients in whom MRI demonstrated compressive cord damage ranging from T9 to L1 levels. SEPs were recorded in each patient at the lumbar level (cauda equina response), lower thoracic level (spinal response), and from the scalp (cortical response).?RESULTS—Abnormalities in spinal response occurred in 50% and 70% of tibial and common peroneal nerve SEPs respectively; these findings were well explained by the radiological compression level, involving in most of the patients lumbar rather than sacral myelomeres. The SEPs were often more effective than the clinical examination in showing the actual extension of damage.?CONCLUSIONS—The recording of spinal SEPs after multisegmental lower limb stimulation proved useful in assessing cord dysfunction and determining the cord levels mainly involved by the compression.?? PMID:10864611

  13. Topical capsaicin selectively attenuates heat pain and A delta fiber-mediated laser-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, A; Dyke, D B; Morrow, T J; Casey, K L

    1996-01-01

    Cutaneous stimulation with CO2 laser pulses activates A delta of nociceptive afferents and evokes late cerebral potentials (LEPs), the amplitude of which correlates parametrically with the perceived magnitude estimation of laser pulses. Capsaicin is known to desensitize the nociceptive terminals of C fibers. In this double-blind, vehicle-controlled experiment, we tested the hypothesis that topical capsaicin would inactivate A delta afferents and lead to an attenuation of the LEPs. Subjects applied capsaicin cream to the dorsum of one hand and vehicle cream to the other 3 times daily for a period of 5 weeks. At weekly intervals before starting, during administration and after discontinuation of capsaicin, LEPs were recorded and psychophysical thresholds and magnitude estimation for several sensory modalities were determined. The results of this study showed that topical capsaicin significantly and reversibly decreased the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold heat pain, laser pulses and amplitude of the LEPs. There was no statistically significant difference in light touch, deep pain and mechanical pain detection thresholds between the capsaicin- and vehicle-treated hands. It indicated that topical capsaicin caused a definite functional and reversible inactivation of A delta nociceptive afferent transmission. The decline in the magnitude estimation of laser pulses concomitantly with the attenuation of LEP amplitudes supports the hypothesis that some A delta afferents mediate noxious heat in humans. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of LEP in the physiological evaluation of nociceptive pathways and its potential usefulness in objectively documenting the effect of pharmacological treatment on pain perception. PMID:8826506

  14. A high-speed brain speller using steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Yu-Te; Mitsukura, Yasue; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Implementing a complex spelling program using a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) remains a challenge due to difficulties in stimulus presentation and target identification. This study aims to explore the feasibility of mixed frequency and phase coding in building a high-speed SSVEP speller with a computer monitor. A frequency and phase approximation approach was developed to eliminate the limitation of the number of targets caused by the monitor refresh rate, resulting in a speller comprising 32 flickers specified by eight frequencies (8-15 Hz with a 1 Hz interval) and four phases (0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°). A multi-channel approach incorporating Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and SSVEP training data was proposed for target identification. In a simulated online experiment, at a spelling rate of 40 characters per minute, the system obtained an averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 166.91 bits/min across 13 subjects with a maximum individual ITR of 192.26 bits/min, the highest ITR ever reported in electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs. The results of this study demonstrate great potential of a high-speed SSVEP-based BCI in real-life applications. PMID:25081427

  15. Neurophysiological assessment of perceived image quality using steady-state visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Sebastian; Acqualagna, Laura; Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin; Wiegand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    An approach to the neural measurement of perceived image quality using electroencephalography (EEG) is presented. 6 different images were tested on 6 different distortion levels. The distortions were introduced by a hybrid video encoder. The presented study consists of two parts: In a first part, subjects were asked to evaluate the quality of the test stimuli behaviorally during a conventional psychophysical test using a degradation category rating procedure. In a second part, subjects were presented undistorted and distorted texture images in a periodically alternating fashion at a fixed frequency. This alternating presentation elicits so called steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) as a brain response that can be measured on the scalp. The amplitude of modulations in the brain signals is significantly and strongly negatively correlated with the magnitude of visual impairment reported by the subjects. This neurophysiological approach to image quality assessment may potentially lead to a more objective evaluation, as behavioral approaches suffer from drawbacks such as biases, inter-subject variances and limitations to test duration.

  16. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  17. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  18. The locus of color sensation: Cortical color loss and the chromatic visual evoked potential

    PubMed Central

    Crognale, Michael A.; Duncan, Chad S.; Shoenhard, Hannah; Peterson, Dwight J.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Color losses of central origin (cerebral achromatopsia and dyschromatopsia) can result from cortical damage and are most commonly associated with stroke. Such cases have the potential to provide useful information regarding the loci of the generation of the percept of color. One available tool to examine this issue is the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP). The cVEP has been used successfully to objectively quantify losses in color vision capacity in both congenital and acquired deficiencies of retinal origin but has not yet been applied to cases of color losses of cortical origin. In addition, it is not known with certainty which cortical sites are responsible for the generation of the cVEP waveform components. Here we report psychophysical and electrophysiological examination of a patient with color deficits resulting from a bilateral cerebral infarct in the ventral occipitotemporal region. Although this patient demonstrated pronounced color losses of a general nature, the waveform of the cVEP remains unaffected. Contrast response functions of the cVEP are also normal for this patient. The results suggest that the percept of color arises after the origin of the cVEP and that normal activity in those areas that give rise to the characteristic negative wave of the cVEP are not sufficient to provide for the normal sensation of color. PMID:23986535

  19. Cortical evoked potentials from pallidal stimulation in patients with primary generalized dystonia.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Stephen; Rothwell, John C; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia

    2008-01-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of globus pallidus internus (GPi) has emerged as an effective treatment for primary generalized dystonia. However, the physiological mechanisms of improvement are not fully understood. Cortical activity in response to pallidal stimulation was recorded in 6 patients with primary generalized dystonia >6 months after bilateral GPi DBS. Scalp electroencephalogram was recorded using 60 surface electrodes during 10 Hz bipolar pallidal DBS at each electrode contact pair. Anatomical position of the electrode contacts in relation to the GPi, medial medullary lamina and globus pallidus externus (GPe) was determined from the postoperative stereotactic MRI. In all six patients an evoked potential (EP) was observed with average onset latency of 10.9 ms +/- 0.77, peak latency 26.6 ms +/- 1.6, distributed mainly over the ipsilateral hemisphere, maximal centrally. The mean amplitude of this potential was larger with stimulation in posteroventral GPi than in GPe (3.36 microV vs. 0.50 microV, P < 0.0001). The EP was absent in one patient-side, ipsilateral to a previous thalamotomy. Low frequency GPi stimulation produces an EP distributed centrally over the ipsilateral hemisphere. The latency and distribution of the EP are consistent with stimulation of pallidothalamic neurons projecting to the sensorimotor cortex. Because the EP is larger and more consistently present with stimulation of posteroventral GPi than GPe, it may provide a physiological tool to identify contacts within the optimal surgical target. PMID:18044698

  20. The effect of anaesthesia on somatosensory evoked potential measurement in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Vipin, Ashwati; Thow, Xin Yuan; All, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are widely used to study the functional integrity of ascending sensory pathways. For animal studies, SEPs provide a convenient method to quantitatively assess the functionality of the nervous system with low invasiveness. Even though they are frequently used in animal models, little attention is paid to the fact that SEPs are vulnerable to contamination from experimental factors such as anaesthetic delivery. In this study, the effect of isoflurane on SEP measurement was investigated in a rat model. The aim was to find out the adjustments for anaesthetic delivery optimizing the quality of the recordings. Two aspects were studied: the effect of isoflurane dosage on the SEP parameters and on the repeatability of the measurements. The SEP quality was found to be best when 1.5% isoflurane concentration was used. This dosage resulted in the best signal-to-noise ratio and equal repeatability of the measurements compared with the others. Our findings can help in refining the anaesthetic protocols related to SEP recordings in a rat model and, by improving the quality of the measurements, potentially reducing the number of subjects needed to carry out studies. PMID:26025916

  1. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  2. Vertical plane short and middle latency vestibular evoked potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, V; Elidan, J; Sela, M; Nitzan, M; Sohmer, H

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine whether short and middle latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) can be recorded in humans in response to angular acceleration stimuli in the vertical plane, a drum, head-holder, and stepper motor were designed to deliver upward acceleration impulses of 10,000 degrees/s2 (1.8 degrees displacement) to the human head. Forehead and mastoid electrodes recorded electrical activity that was filtered, differentially amplified, and averaged in short (12.7 milliseconds) and middle (63.5 milliseconds) latency time frames. Control recordings were used to eliminate various types of artifact. Recordings were conducted in 7 normal subjects and in 4 control patients with congenital, profound hearing loss and absence of caloric responses. Short and middle latency VsEPs with high intrasubject and intersubject consistency were recorded in normal subjects and not in control patients. The middle latency responses were larger in amplitude than the short latency responses. The effects of stimulus intensity and repetition rate on VsEP waveform, latency, and amplitude studied. Experiments have shown that the responses are not electrical artifact, nor are they contaminated by auditory, somatosensory, or passive eye movement potentials. PMID:8546423

  3. A miniature microdrive for recording auditory evoked potentials from awake anurans.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S; Radwan, Nasr M; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Elsayed, Anwar A

    2013-09-01

    Electrical activity recording from the brains of awake animals is a corner stone in the study of the neurophysiological basis of behavior. To meet this need, a microelectrode driver suitable for the animal of interest has to be developed. In the present study a miniature microdrive was developed specifically for the leopard toad, Bufo regularis, however, it can be used for other small animals. The microdrive was designed to meet the following requirements: small size, light weight, simple and easy way of attaching and removing, advancing and withdrawing of microelectrode in the animal brain without rotation, can be reused and made from inexpensive materials. To assess the performance of the developed microdrive, we recorded auditory evoked potentials from different auditory centers in the toad's brain. The potentials were obtained from mesencephalic, diencephalic and telencephalic auditory sensitive areas in response to simple and complex acoustic stimuli. The synthetic acoustical tones introduced to the toad were carrying the dominant frequencies of their mating calls. PMID:23817637

  4. Alcohol effects on the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Oscar H; García-Martínez, Rolando; Monteón, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    This is a second part of a research aimed to study the effects of alcohol on the electrophysiological processes in student volunteers. The first part showed that alcohol slowed the Omitted Stimulus Potential (OSP). This work studied the ethanol effects on the parameters (i.e. rate of rise, amplitude and peak latency) of the P2 component of the evoked potentials (EPs) yielded by trains of auditory stimuli. It is hypothesized here that if P2 and OSP waves share some common neural processes then alcohol should also affect these specific parameters. A dose of 0.8 g/kg of alcohol or a placebo (0 g/kg) was administered to two groups of 15 young men who were tested before and again after treatment. The pre-post treatment change in each of the measurements was used to assess the treatment effects. The results showed that compared to placebo, alcohol slowed the P2 rise rate and reduced its amplitude, with no effects on peak latency. The rise rate is more sensitive to alcohol but more resistant to the adaptation process. Alcohol resembles the response inhibition model acting against the adaptation. The rise rate of the P2 and the OSP waves are affected by alcohol in a similar fashion, suggesting similar neural generative mechanisms. PMID:24519012

  5. Face-Evoked Steady-State Visual Potentials: Effects of Presentation Rate and Face Inversion

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, L. Forest; Wieser, Matthias J.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Face processing can be explored using electrophysiological methods. Research with event-related potentials has demonstrated the so-called face inversion effect, in which the N170 component is enhanced in amplitude and latency to inverted, compared to upright, faces. The present study explored the extent to which repetitive lower-level visual cortical engagement, reflected in flicker steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs), shows similar amplitude enhancement to face inversion. We also asked if inversion-related ssVEP modulation would be dependent on the stimulation rate at which upright and inverted faces were flickered. To this end, multiple tagging frequencies were used (5, 10, 15, and 20?Hz) across two studies (n?=?21, n?=?18). Results showed that amplitude enhancement of the ssVEP for inverted faces was found solely at higher stimulation frequencies (15 and 20?Hz). By contrast, lower frequency ssVEPs did not show this inversion effect. These findings suggest that stimulation frequency affects the sensitivity of ssVEPs to face inversion. PMID:23205009

  6. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  7. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  8. Oesophageal sensation assessed by electrical stimuli and brain evoked potentials--a new model for visceral nociception.

    PubMed Central

    Frøbert, O; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Bak, P; Funch-Jensen, P; Bagger, J P

    1995-01-01

    Sensory thresholds and brain evoked potentials were determined in 12 healthy volunteers using electrical stimulation of the oesophagus 28 and 38 cm from the nares. The peaks of the evoked potentials were designated N for negative deflections and P for positive. Continuous electrical stimulation (40 Hz) at the 38 cm position resembled heartburn (five of 12 subjects) while non-specific ('electrical') sensations were provoked at 28 cm (10 of 12). Thresholds of sensation and of pain were lower at the initial than the second determination, but did not differ with respect to stimulation site. The pain summation threshold to repeated stimuli (2 Hz, 5 stimuli) was determined for the first time in a viscus. This threshold was lower than the pain threshold to single stimuli at 38 cm (p < 0.02). Evoked potential latencies did not change significantly over a six month period while the N1/P2 amplitude was higher at the first measurement (p < 0.05). P1 and N1 latencies were significantly shorter 38 cm (medians 100 and 141 ms) than 28 cm from the nares (102 and 148 ms) (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008). Electrical stimulation of the oesophagus may serve as a human experimental model for visceral pain. Longer evoked potential latencies from the proximal compared with distal stimulations provide new information about the sensory pathways of the oesophagus. PMID:8549932

  9. INHIBITION OF BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE AND THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS PRODUCED BY CARBARYL IN LONG EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbaryl is a widely used N-methyl carbamate pesticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases (ChE), which may lead to cholinergic toxicity. Flash evoked potentials (FEPs) are a neurophysiological response often used to detect central nervous system (CNS) changes following expos...

  10. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…

  11. Short-Latency Median-Nerve Somatosensory-Evoked Potentials and Induced Gamma-Oscillations in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Miho; Nishida, Masaaki; Juhasz, Csaba; Muzik, Otto; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.; Asano, Eishi

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cortical gamma-oscillations are tightly linked with various forms of physiological activity. In the present study, the dynamic changes of intracranially recorded median-nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and somatosensory-induced gamma-oscillations were animated on a three-dimensional MR image, and the…

  12. Click-evoked potentials in a large marine mammal, the adult male northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E; Finneran, James J

    2008-07-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) hearing studies in marine mammals should consider an expected size-dependent reduction in AEP amplitude. This study is the first to measure the click-evoked response in a large marine mammal, the adult male elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Click stimuli were presented at peak-peak equivalent sound pressure levels of 117-118 dB re: 20 microPa. Three positive peaks (P1-P3) and two negative peaks (N4 and N5) were observed in the AEP. Response latencies were longer than previously observed in a 1.8 yr old seal and the maximum peak-peak amplitude was comparatively reduced by more than 60%. The inverse relationship between size and AEP amplitude will likely require increased averaging with larger subjects and possibly modifications to electrode placement and design in order to increase the quality of recorded evoked responses. PMID:18646953

  13. Translational aspects of rectal evoked potentials: a comparative study in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Thomas Dahl; Graversen, Carina; Coen, Steven J.; Hultin, Leif; Aziz, Qasim; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistencies between species has stunted the progress of developing new analgesics. To increase the success of translating results between species, improved comparable models are required. Twelve rats received rectal balloon distensions on 2 different days separated by 24.3 (SD 24.6) days. Rectal balloon distensions were also performed in 18 humans (mean age: 34 yr; range: 21–56 yr; 12 men) on two separate occasions, separated by 9.3 (SD 5.5) days. In rats, cerebral evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded by use of implanted skull-electrodes to distension pressure of 80 mmHg. In humans surface electrodes and individualized pressure, corresponding to pain detection threshold, were used. Comparison of morphology was assessed by wavelet analysis. Within- and between-day reproducibility was assessed in terms of latencies, amplitudes, and frequency content. In rats CEPs showed triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, and power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ≥ 0.5). Peak-to-peak amplitude between the first positive and negative potential were the most reproducible characteristic within and between days (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC) (ICC = 0.99 and ICC = 9.98, respectively). In humans CEPs showed a triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, or power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ≥ 0.2). Latency to the second negative potential (ICC = 0.98) and the second positive potential (ICC = 0.95) was the most reproducible characteristic within and between days. A unique and reliable translational platform was established assessing visceral sensitivity in rats and humans, which may improve the translational process of developing new drugs targeting visceral pain. PMID:23703652

  14. Neonatal Visual Evoked Potentials as Predictors of Psychoeducational Tests at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Norman B.; Engel, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    A study to determine effectiveness of neonatal electroencephalographic measurements of visual evoked responses for predicting total and sub test IQ scores at age 7. These variables did not predict IQ at 7 years. (CS)

  15. HYPOTHERMIA AND CHLOROPENT ANESTHESIA DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT THE FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anesthetics and body temperature alterations are both known to alter parameters of sensory-evoked responses. However few studies have quantitatively assessed the contributions of hypothermia to anesthetic-induced changes. Two experiments were performed. In the first, chronically ...

  16. Tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials at various stages of peripheral neuropathy in insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, D; Mühlen, H; Dannehl, K; Gries, F A

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether central nervous conduction deficits are related to the degree of peripheral neuropathy somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were measured after tibial nerve stimulation in 51 healthy subjects aged 39.3 (SE 2.0, (range 21-71) years and 100 insulin dependent diabetic patients aged 37.3 (1.5, 18-73) years. Five criteria were used for staging of peripheral neuropathy: nerve conduction; thermal discrimination threshold; vibration perception threshold; tendon reflexes; and neuropathic symptoms. Thirty seven patients had fewer than two abnormalities among the first four criteria and no symptoms (stage 0 = no neuropathy), 37 had 2 or more abnormalities but no symptoms (stage 1 = subclinical neuropathy); 26 had 2 or more abnormalities in conjunction with symptoms (stage 2 = symptomatic neuropathy). Multiple regression analysis was used to define the age and height dependent limits of normal of SEP at the 97.5th and 2.5th centiles. In five patients with stage 1, seven patients with stage 2, but no patient with stage 0 the individual SEP components were unrecordable. The relative frequencies of abnormally prolonged or non-evokable popliteal N8 latency as well as cortical N33 latency and N33/P40 amplitude increased significantly from stage 0 (3-30%) to stage 1 (22-62%) and stage 2 (46-84%) (p < 0.05 for each component and stage). The numbers and percentages of abnormal recordable spinal N22-30 and supraspinal N30-33 interpeak latencies were two (6.3%) and four (11.8%) in patients with stage 0, but these rates did not increase in subjects with stage 1 or 2. The components of SEP were significantly associated with the indices of peripheral and autonomic function tests. There were no major relations between the latencies of SEP and duration of diabetes or prevailing glycaemic control. These findings suggest that the degree of dysfunction along the somatosensory afferent pathways in insulin dependent diabetic patients depends on the stage of peripheral neuropathy; is not related to the degree of glycaemic control or duration of diabetes; and can be characterized mainly by an alteration of the cortical sensory complex and peripheral transmission delay, while spinal and supraspinal conduction deficits are detected infrequently. PMID:8381473

  17. Nicotine Receptor Subtype-Specific Effects on Auditory Evoked Oscillations and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, Robert E.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Thieu, Tony; Ehrlichman, Richard S.; Halene, Tobias B.; Leiser, Steven C.; Christian, Edward; Johnson, Edwin; Lerman, Caryn; Siegel, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia show increased smoking rates which may be due to a beneficial effect of nicotine on cognition and information processing. Decreased amplitude of the P50 and N100 auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) is observed in patients. Both measures show normalization following administration of nicotine. Recent studies identified an association between deficits in auditory evoked gamma oscillations and impaired information processing in schizophrenia, and there is evidence that nicotine normalizes gamma oscillations. Although the role of nicotine receptor subtypes in augmentation of ERPs has received some attention, less is known about how these receptor subtypes regulate the effect of nicotine on evoked gamma activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of nicotine, the ?7 nicotine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) the ?4?4/?4?2 nicotine receptor antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DH?E), and the ?4?2 agonist AZD3480 on P20 and N40 amplitude as well as baseline and event-related gamma oscillations in mice, using electrodes in hippocampal CA3. Nicotine increased P20 amplitude, while DH?E blocked nicotine-induced enhancements in P20 amplitude. Conversely, MLA did not alter P20 amplitude either when presented alone or with nicotine. Administration of the ?4?2 specific agonist AZD3480 did not alter any aspect of P20 response, suggesting that DH?E blocks the effects of nicotine through a non-?4?2 receptor specific mechanism. Nicotine and AZD3480 reduced N40 amplitude, which was blocked by both DH?E and MLA. Finally, nicotine significantly increased event-related gamma, as did AZD3480, while DH?E but not MLA blocked the effect of nicotine on event-related gamma. Conclusions/Significance These results support findings showing that nicotine-induced augmentation of P20 amplitude occurs via a DH?E sensitive mechanism, but suggests that this does not occur through activation of ?4?2 receptors. Event-related gamma is strongly influenced by activation of ?4?2, but not ?7, receptor subtypes, while disruption of N40 amplitude requires the activation of multiple receptor subtypes. PMID:22911690

  18. Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) methods for population-level assessment of hearing sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Finneran, James

    2005-04-01

    A portable system for recording auditory evoked potentials (AEP) was developed to rapidly assess the hearing sensitivity of dolphins in air. The system utilizes a transducer embedded in a silicone suction cup to deliver amplitude modulated tones to the dolphin through the lower jaw. Frequencies tested range from 10-150 kHz and testing of both ears is completed within 90 min. AEP-determined thresholds from one subject were benchmarked against that subject's direct field behavioral audiogram to quantify variation between the two methods. To date, AEP audiograms have been obtained from over 30 bottlenose dolphins. Considerable individual variation in frequency-specific hearing sensitivity was observed. Some high-frequency hearing loss was observed in relatively young (early 20s) and old (35+ years) animals; conversely, age was not necessarily related to hearing loss as several animals greater than 40 years of age had good hearing sensitivity across the range of tested frequencies. Profound hearing loss typically occurred at higher frequencies. Decline in sensitivity was rapid in all cases and began between 50-60 kHz. Increased sample size of hearing sensitivity in dolphins suggest that the use of audiometric functions from single animals as representative of population level audiometry might be misleading.

  19. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as "out of body" and "near death experiences," including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  20. Change in auditory evoked potential index and bispectral index during induction of anesthesia with anesthetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Sachiko; Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index (aepEX) as an assessment tool for hypnosis during induction of various anesthetic drugs, and to compare its performance to that of the bispectral index (BIS). A total of 45 cases were divided into three groups based on the drugs used for anesthesia. Before anesthetic induction, BIS and AEP monitors were initiated. Anesthesia was induced through intravenous injection (IV) as follows: MP (n = 15) group, midazolam (0.1 mg/kg IV); TP (n = 15) group, thiopental (4 mg/kg IV); and KP (n = 15) group, ketamine (2 mg/kg IV). After loss of response (LOR), an infusion of 3 ?g/ml propofol via a target-controlled infusion was initiated in all groups. AepEX and BIS were measured in the waking state (baseline) and at LOR (1 min after LOR), pre-intubation (1 min after previous intubation) and post-intubation (1 min after tracheal intubation finished). The value of aepEX significantly decreased in all groups with LOR and that of BIS also decreased except of KP group. No significant difference were observed in BIS values between baseline and LOR in the KS group. The aepEX might be more useful than BIS for hypnosis monitoring during anesthetic induction, particularly when drugs such as ketamine are used. PMID:25427598

  1. A lower limb exoskeleton control system based on steady state visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, No-Sang; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2015-10-01

    Objective. We have developed an asynchronous brain-machine interface (BMI)-based lower limb exoskeleton control system based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). Approach. By decoding electroencephalography signals in real-time, users are able to walk forward, turn right, turn left, sit, and stand while wearing the exoskeleton. SSVEP stimulation is implemented with a visual stimulation unit, consisting of five light emitting diodes fixed to the exoskeleton. A canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for the extraction of frequency information associated with the SSVEP was used in combination with k-nearest neighbors. Main results. Overall, 11 healthy subjects participated in the experiment to evaluate performance. To achieve the best classification, CCA was first calibrated in an offline experiment. In the subsequent online experiment, our results exhibit accuracies of 91.3 ± 5.73%, a response time of 3.28 ± 1.82 s, an information transfer rate of 32.9 ± 9.13 bits/min, and a completion time of 1100 ± 154.92 s for the experimental parcour studied. Significance. The ability to achieve such high quality BMI control indicates that an SSVEP-based lower limb exoskeleton for gait assistance is becoming feasible.

  2. Steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography changes associated with cocoa flavanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Camfield, D A; Scholey, A; Pipingas, A; Silberstein, R; Kras, M; Nolidin, K; Wesnes, K; Pase, M; Stough, C

    2012-02-28

    In a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial, 63 middle-aged volunteers aged between 40 and 65 years were administered a daily chocolate drink containing 250 mg or 500 mg cocoa flavanols versus a low cocoa flavanol (placebo) drink over a 30-day period. Participants were tested at baseline as well as at the end of the treatment period on a test of Spatial Working Memory. Steady State Probe Topography (SST) was used to assess neurocognitive changes associated with cocoa flavanol supplementation during the completion of the Spatial Working Memory task. SST is an electrophysiological technique which utilizes a 13 Hz diffuse visual flicker in order to generate a steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). Changes in the amplitude and phase of the SSVEP response after 30 days were compared between treatment groups. Behavioral measures of accuracy and reaction time were not found to be significantly different between treatment groups, while average SSVEP amplitude and phase differences at a number of posterior parietal and centro-frontal sites were found to be significantly different between groups during memory encoding, the working memory hold period and retrieval. In the absence of significant behavioral effects, these differences in brain activation can be interpreted as evidence of increased neural efficiency in spatial working memory function associated with chronic cocoa flavanol consumption. PMID:22120044

  3. Diagnostic Value of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sulin; Leng, Yangming; Liu, Bo; Shi, Hao; Lu, Meixia; Kong, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the clinical diagnostic value of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) for endolymphatic hydrops (EH) by systematic review and Meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and area under summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Subgroup analysis and publication bias assessment were also conducted. The pooled sensitivity and the specificity were 49% (95% CI: 46% to 51%) and 95% (95% CI: 94% to 96%), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 18.01 (95% CI: 9.45 to 34.29) and the pooled negative likelihood ratio was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.61). AUC was 0.78 and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio of VEMPs was 39.89 (95% CI: 20.13 to 79.03). In conclusion, our present meta-analysis has demonstrated that VEMPs test alone is not sufficient for Meniere’s disease or delayed endolymphatic hydrops diagnosis, but that it might be an important component of a test battery for diagnosing Meniere’s disease or delayed endolymphatic hydrops. Moreover, VEMPs, due to its high specificity and non-invasive nature, might be used as a screening tool for EH. PMID:26455332

  4. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory evoked potentials in the hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Drexl, Markus; Faulstich, Michael; Von Stebut, Boris; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Kössl, Manfred

    2003-12-01

    The hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, has certain basal mammalian features, like a cloaca and a sparsely differentiated brain with smooth cerebral hemispheres. The peripheral auditory capabilities of this species were investigated by means of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). For comparison, we determined auditory evoked potentials (AEP) in the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex. Both methods show that the auditory range of E. telfairi extends well into ultrasonic frequencies, with a region of highest sensitivity at around 16 kHz. The total auditory range spans about 4 octaves at 40 dB SPL. The low-frequency limit of auditory processing is found at frequencies of about 2-3 kHz. The DPOAE and the AEP thresholds of E. telfairi do not run fully parallel in the high-frequency range. For a threshold value of 40 dB SPL, cochlear mechanical thresholds as measured with DPOAE extend up to 50 kHz, whereas neuronal thresholds reach the high-frequency limit at about 30 kHz. Frequency tuning, as assessed from DPOAE suppression tuning curves, was low to moderate with Q(10 dB) values ranging from 1.7 to 8. The lack of discontinuity in the group delay (derived from DPOAE measurements) reveals that cochlear frequency representation is tonotopic without any region of specialized mechanical tuning. PMID:14569428

  5. Pattern and motion-related visual-evoked potentials in neuroborreliosis: follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Szanyi, J; Kubová, Z; Kremlá?ek, J; Langrová, J; Vít, F; Kuba, M; Szanyi, J; Plíšek, S

    2012-04-01

    Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were used for objective testing of visual functions during treatment courses of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in adult patients in the Czech Republic. In 30 LNB patients with originally delayed VEP latencies, pattern-reversal (R-VEP) and motion onset (M-VEP) VEPs were repeatedly examined within 1 to 8 years. Six patients had Lyme optic neuritis (ON), five of them displayed prolonged latencies in both R-VEPs and M-VEPs, and one had only abnormal R-VEPs. The VEP recovery to normal latency values was in three of them. In the group of 24 LNB patients without ON, 14 patients displayed prolonged latencies only to motion stimuli, and 10 patients had abnormal latencies in both R-VEPs and M-VEPs. During the follow-up period, 7 patients displayed shortening to normal latencies. In 5 patients, VEPs latencies improved only partially, and in the remaining 12 patients, VEPs did not improve at all. This study provides objective evidence that in LNB, most of the patients without clinically manifesting ON display optic pathway involvement-predominantly magnocellular system/dorsal stream function changes. In patients with ON, however, mainly the parvocellular system is affected. About half of the patients without ON improved with a relatively long-time course of latency shortening. PMID:22469684

  6. An online brain-computer interface using non-flashing visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Goldberg, Leslie; Gao, Shangkai; Hong, Bo

    2010-06-01

    Not until recently have motion-onset visual evoked potentials (mVEPs) been explored as a modality for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. In this study, the first online BCI system based on mVEPs is presented, in which selection is discerned by subjects' focused attention to the moving cursor at a target virtual button. An adaptive approach was used to adjust the number of trial presentations according to the participants' online performance. With the EEG signal acquired from only a single channel, an acceptable information transfer rate of 42.1 bits min-1 was achieved, averaged by 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online application for the Google search system was developed based on this paradigm. The promising results, that all of 12 participants were able to operate the system freely, validate the feasibility of a practical motion-onset VEP-based BCI which could be embedded into computer screen elements, such as menu, button and icon, for various applications.

  7. Eliciting steady-state visual evoked potentials by means of stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calore, Enrico; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) provide users communication and control capabilities by analyzing their brain activity. A technique to implement BCIs, used recently also in Virtual Reality (VR) environments, is based on the Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) detection. Exploiting the SSVEP response, BCIs could be implemented showing targets flickering at different frequencies and detecting which is gazed by the observer analyzing her/his electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In this work, we evaluate the use of stereoscopic displays for the presentation of SSVEP eliciting stimuli, comparing their effectiveness between monoscopic and stereoscopic stimuli. Moreover we propose a novel method to elicit SSVEP responses exploiting the stereoscopic displays capability of presenting dichoptic stimuli. We have created an experimental scene to present flickering stimuli on an active stereoscopic display, obtaining reliable control of the targets' frequency independently for the two stereo views. Using an EEG acquisition device, we analyzed the SSVEP responses from a group of subjects. From the preliminary results, we got evidence that stereoscopic displays represent valid devices for the presentation of SSVEP stimuli. Moreover, the use of different flickering frequencies for the two views of a single stimulus proved to elicit non-linear interactions between the stimulation frequencies, clearly visible in the EEG signal. This suggests interesting applications for SSVEP-based BCIs in VR environments able to overcome some limitations imposed by the refresh frequency of standard displays, but also the use of commodity stereoscopic displays to implement binocular rivalry experiments.

  8. Stimulus and recording variables and their effects on mammalian vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sherri M.; Subramanian, Geetha; Avniel, Wilma; Guo, Yuqing; Burkard, Robert F.; Jones, Timothy A.

    2002-01-01

    Linear vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) measure the collective neural activity of the gravity receptor organs in the inner ear that respond to linear acceleration transients. The present study examined the effects of electrode placement, analog filtering, stimulus polarity and stimulus rate on linear VsEP thresholds, latencies and amplitudes recorded from mice. Two electrode-recording montages were evaluated, rostral (forebrain) to 'mastoid' and caudal (cerebellum) to 'mastoid'. VsEP thresholds and peak latencies were identical between the two recording sites; however, peak amplitudes were larger for the caudal recording montage. VsEPs were also affected by filtering. Results suggest optimum high pass filter cutoff at 100-300 Hz, and low pass filter cutoff at 10,000 Hz. To evaluate stimulus rate, linear jerk pulses were presented at 9.2, 16, 25, 40 and 80 Hz. At 80 Hz, mean latencies were longer (0.350-0.450 ms) and mean amplitudes reduced (0.8-1.8 microV) for all response peaks. In 50% of animals, late peaks (P3, N3) disappeared at 80 Hz. The results offer options for VsEP recording protocols. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Downbeat nystagmus: evidence for enhancement of utriculo-ocular pathways by ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials?

    PubMed

    Bremova, Tatiana; Glasauer, Stefan; Strupp, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is caused by an impairment of Purkinje cells in the flocculus. The decreased cerebellar inhibitory input affects otolith pathways. Since ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o-/cVEMP) test the otoliths, the VEMP were measured in DBN patients and in controls. Sixteen patients with DBN, 14 cerebellar oculomotor disorder patients without DBN (COMD), and 16 healthy controls were examined with o-/cVEMP. Computational modeling was used to predict VEMP differences between groups. DBN patients had significantly higher oVEMP peak-to-peak (PP) amplitudes than COMD patients without DBN and controls. Cervical VEMP did not differ. The computational model of DBN predicted a twofold oVEMP increase for DBN patients. These findings suggest an enhancement of the utriculo-ocular response. The unchanged cVEMP indicate no effect on the otolith-cervical reflex in DBN. Computational modeling suggests that the utriculo-ocular enhancement is caused by an impaired vertical neural integrator resulting in the increased influence of utricular signals. This also explains the gravitational dependence of DBN. PMID:26024694

  10. Eye symptoms, visual evoked potentials and EEG during intravenous infusion of glycine.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R G; Andersson, T; Sikk, M

    1995-02-01

    Disturbance of vision is a complication that may occur from absorption of the glycine solution used to irrigate the bladder during transurethral operations. We examined for a possible dose-response relationship between glycine dose, eye symptoms and neurophysiological changes after repeated intermittent intravenous infusions of 4.4 g of glycine for up to 22 g over 1 h in 10 male volunteers. The serum glycine concentration increased from 230 +/- 75 to 5,232 +/- 1,088 mumol/l (mean +/- s.d.) during the infusions. We found an increase in diastolic arterial pressure but no significant changes in systolic pressure, heart rate or mental status. Five of the volunteers developed blurring of vision which lasted for 10-30 min. The visual evoked potentials (VEP) of these subjects showed an increase of the P100 and N70 latencies which started after no more than 4.4 g of glycine had been administered. The amplitude of the VEP was preserved and the main frequency of the EEG did not change, indicating that VEP changes were not due to cortical dysfunction. There was no dose-response relationship between glycine infusion and eye symptoms but a sub-group of volunteers responded with both visual disturbances and VEP changes. PMID:7793190

  11. Intraoperative Transcranial Motor-Evoked Potential Monitoring of the Facial Nerve during Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K.; Xu, Ming; Rivera, Andrew; Jethanamest, Daniel; Kuhn, Maggie A.; Beric, Aleksandar; Golfinos, John G.; Roland, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective?To determine whether transcranial motor-evoked potential (TCMEP) monitoring of the facial nerve (FN) during cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor resection can predict both immediate and long-term postoperative FN function. Design?Retrospective review. Setting?Tertiary referral center. Main Outcome Measures?DeltaTCMEP (final-initial) and immediate and long-term facial nerve function using House Brackmann (HB) rating scale. Results?Intraoperative TCMEP data and immediate and follow-up FN outcome are reported for 52 patients undergoing CPA tumor resection. Patients with unsatisfactory facial outcome (HB >2) at follow-up had an average deltaTCMEP of 57?V, whereas those with HB I or II had a mean deltaTCMEP of 0.04?V (t?=?-2.6, p??2) facial function in the immediate postoperative period. Conclusion?Intraoperative TCMEP of the facial nerve can be a valuable adjunct to conventional facial nerve electromyography during resection of tumors at the CPA. Intraoperative deltaTCMEP >57?V may be worrisome for long-term recovery of satisfactory facial nerve function. PMID:24083121

  12. The effect of levodopa treatment on the visual evoked potentials in Parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Yaar, I

    1980-11-01

    There is extensive literature on the effects of levodopa treatment on the visual evoked potentials (VEP) in laboratory animals and in depressed patients. The effects of levodopa on the VEP of parkinsonian patients were overlooked to a certain extent. In this work we searched for levodopa effects on the VEP of 42 parkinsonian patients. The VEP were data-reduced and analyzed by several techniques: (a) 256 data values (256 msec) were reduced to 70 variables by averaging; (b) time-domain parametric extraction: latencies to peak-and-trough points, amplitudes, etc., resulted in 14 variables; (c) frequency transformation into power spectral density bands resulted in 14 variables. Each one of the above variables was univariate, paired t-tested for levodopa effects. The overall effects of levodopa on the power variables and the time-domain parameters were evaluated by Hotelling paired T2. The 70 time variables were further reduced by the tolerance function of the discriminant procedure and analyzed both by direct and by stepwise discriminant analyses and by SAS-MANOVA in a pairwise design. Only few sporadic univariate t values reached significance levels. No overall multivariate significant effects of levodopa were found. In view of known dopaminergic involvement in parts of the visual system it is postulated that levodopa might have antagonizing effects at different levels of the visual pathways. This hypothesis and better understanding of levodopa effects on the visual system should probably be achieved by recording VEP from the visual subsystems. PMID:6160968

  13. Masking the Auditory Evoked Potential in TMS-EEG: A Comparison of Various Methods.

    PubMed

    ter Braack, Esther M; de Vos, Cecile C; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG). Because TMS pulses are accompanied by a clicking sound, it is very likely that part of the response in the EEG consists of an auditory evoked potential (AEP). Different methods have been applied to mask the sound of TMS. However, it is unclear which masking method is most effective in reducing the AEP. In this study we explore the presumed contribution of the AEP to the response and evaluate different ways to mask the TMS clicking sound. Twelve healthy subjects and one completely deaf subject participated in this study. Eight different masking conditions were evaluated in nine hearing subjects. The amplitude of the N100-P180 complex was compared between the different masking conditions. We were not able to completely suppress the N100-P180 when the coil was placed on top of the head. Using an earmuff or exposing the subjects to white or adapted noise caused a small but significant reduction in N100-P180 amplitude, but the largest reduction was achieved when combining a layer of foam, placed between coil and head, with white or adapted noise. The deaf subject also showed a N100-P180 complex. We conclude that both the TMS clicking sound and cortical activation by the magnetic pulse contribute to the N100-P180 amplitude. PMID:23996091

  14. Effect of movement on dipolar source activities of somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, M; Restuccia, D; Di Lazzaro, V; Le Pera, D; Tonali, P

    1999-11-01

    The early scalp somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median and tibial nerve stimulation were recorded at rest and during voluntary movement of the stimulated hand and foot, respectively. Both tibial and median nerve SEP distributions at rest could be explained by four-dipole models, in which one dipole was activated at the same latency as the subcortical far field and the three remaining dipolar sources were located in the perirolandic region contralateral to the stimulated side. Voluntary movement reduced all cortical dipoles in strength, while the subcortical one remained unchanged, suggesting that the effect of movement occurs above the cervicomedullary junction. In animals, cutaneous inputs are suppressed during movement and we therefore interpreted the depression of activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by movement as due to selective "gating" of cutaneous afferents. Because the reduction in strength of the cortical dipoles was generally lower during passive than active movement, both centrifugal and centripetal mechanisms probably contribute to the phenomenon of "gating." PMID:10514228

  15. Latency of auditory evoked potential monitoring the effects of general anesthetics on nerve fibers and synapses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bowan; Liang, Feixue; Zhong, Lei; Lin, Minlin; Yang, Juan; Yan, Linqing; Xiao, Jinfan; Xiao, Zhongju

    2015-01-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is an effective index for the effects of general anesthetics. However, it's unknown if AEP can differentiate the effects of general anesthetics on nerve fibers and synapses. Presently, we investigated AEP latency and amplitude changes to different acoustic intensities during pentobarbital anesthesia. Latency more regularly changed than amplitude during anesthesia. AEP Latency monotonically decreased with acoustic intensity increase (i.e., latency-intensity curve) and could be fitted to an exponential decay equation, which showed two components, the theoretical minimum latency and stimulus-dependent delay. From the latency-intensity curves, the changes of these two components (?L and ?I) were extracted during anesthesia. ?L and ?I monitored the effect of pentobarbital on nerve fibers and synapses. Pentobarbital can induce anesthesia, and two side effects, hypoxemia and hypothermia. The hypoxemia was not related with ?L and ?I. However, ?L was changed by the hypothermia, whereas ?I was changed by the hypothermia and anesthesia. Therefore, we conclude that, AEP latency is superior to amplitude for the effects of general anesthetics, ?L monitors the effect of hypothermia on nerve fibers, and ?I monitors a combined effect of anesthesia and hypothermia on synapses. When eliminating the temperature factor, ?I monitors the anesthesia effect on synapses. PMID:26246365

  16. Interaction of Musicianship and Aging: A Comparison of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jennifer L.; Nikjeh, Dee A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to begin to explore whether the beneficial auditory neural effects of early music training persist throughout life and influence age-related changes in neurophysiological processing of sound. Design. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) elicited by harmonic tone complexes were examined, including P1-N1-P2, mismatch negativity (MMN), and P3a. Study Sample. Data from older adult musicians (n = 8) and nonmusicians (n = 8) (ages 55–70 years) were compared to previous data from young adult musicians (n = 40) and nonmusicians (n = 20) (ages 18–33 years). Results. P1-N1-P2 amplitudes and latencies did not differ between older adult musicians and nonmusicians; however, MMN and P3a latencies for harmonic tone deviances were earlier for older musicians than older nonmusicians. Comparisons of P1-N1-P2, MMN, and P3a components between older and young adult musicians and nonmusicians suggest that P1 and P2 latencies are significantly affected by age, but not musicianship, while MMN and P3a appear to be more sensitive to effects of musicianship than aging. Conclusions. Findings support beneficial influences of musicianship on central auditory function and suggest a positive interaction between aging and musicianship on the auditory neural system. PMID:26504354

  17. Behavioral and auditory evoked potential audiograms of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    PubMed

    Yuen, Michelle M L; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2005-10-01

    Behavioral and auditory evoked potential (AEP) audiograms of a false killer whale were measured using the same subject and experimental conditions. The objective was to compare and assess the correspondence of auditory thresholds collected by behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Behavioral audiograms used 3-s pure-tone stimuli from 4 to 45 kHz, and were conducted with a go/no-go modified staircase procedure. AEP audiograms used 20-ms sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tone bursts from 4 to 45 kHz, and the electrophysiological responses were received through gold disc electrodes in rubber suction cups. The behavioral data were reliable and repeatable, with the region of best sensitivity between 16 and 24 kHz and peak sensitivity at 20 kHz. The AEP audiograms produced thresholds that were also consistent over time, with range of best sensitivity from 16 to 22.5 kHz and peak sensitivity at 22.5 kHz. Behavioral thresholds were always lower than AEP thresholds. However, AEP audiograms were completed in a shorter amount of time with minimum participation from the animal. These data indicated that behavioral and AEP techniques can be used successfully and interchangeably to measure cetacean hearing sensitivity. PMID:16266188

  18. Dolphin hearing during echolocation: evoked potential responses in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee

    2011-06-15

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses were recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and detect targets by echolocation. AEP recording was triggered by the echolocation clicks of the animal. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28 and -22 dB were used at a target distance of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The results demonstrated that the AEP appeared to both outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes during echolocation, with AEP complexes consisting of alternative positive and negative waves. The echo-related AEP amplitudes were obviously lower than the outgoing click-related AEP amplitudes for all the targets at the investigated target distances. However, for targets with target strengths of -22 and -28 dB, the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the echo-related AEPs were dependent on the target distances. The echo-related AEP response amplitudes increased at further target distances, demonstrating an overcompensation of echo attenuation with target distance in the echo-perception system of the dolphin biosonar. Measurement and analysis of outgoing click intensities showed that the click levels increased with target distance (R) by a factor of approximately 10 to 17.5 logR depending on target strength. The results demonstrated that a dual-component biosonar control system formed by intensity compensation behavior in both the transmission and receiving phases of a biosonar cycle exists synchronously in the dolphin biosonar system. PMID:21613519

  19. Electrically evoked compound action potential artifact rejection by independent component analysis: technique validation.

    PubMed

    Akhoun, Idrick; McKay, Colette M; El-Deredy, Wael

    2013-08-01

    The electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) is the synchronous whole auditory nerve activity in response to an electrical stimulus, and can be recorded in situ on cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. A novel procedure (ECAP-ICA) to isolate the ECAP from the stimulation artifact, based on independent component analysis (ICA), is described here. ECAPs with artifact (raw-ECAPs) were sequentially recorded for the same stimulus on 9 different intracochlear recording electrodes. The raw-ECAPs were fed to ICA, which separated them into independent sources. Restricting the ICA projection to 4 independent components did not induce under-fitting and was found to explain most of the raw-data variance. The sources were identified and only the source corresponding to the neural response was retained for artifact-free ECAP reconstruction. The validity of the ECAP-ICA procedure was supported as follows: N1 and P1 peaks occurred at usual latencies; and ECAP-ICA and artifact amplitude-growth functions (AGFs) had different slopes. Concatenation of raw-ECAPs from multiple stimulus currents, including some below the ECAP-ICA threshold, improved the source separation process. The main advantage of ECAP-ICA is that use of maskers or alternating polarity stimulation are not needed. PMID:23632279

  20. Evoked potentials to auditory probes as indices of cerebral specialization of function--replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Shucard, D W; Cummins, K R; Thomas, D G; Shucard, J L

    1981-11-01

    This study was an attempt to replicate findings from previous work in our laboratory as well as to study the relationship between vertex-referenced and linked mastoid-referenced responses under conditions purported to produce differential hemispheric activation. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded between T4-Cz, T3-Cz, T4-A1A2, and T3-A1A2 to task-irrelevant tone pips superimposed on a baseline condition and on two experimental conditions (verbal and music) hypothesized to differentially activate areas of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Significant AEP amplitude asymmetries were obtained as a function of the ongoing tasks, replicating our previous findings. Higher amplitude AEPs were recorded from temporal-to-vertex leads from the hemisphere thought to be most involved in the ongoing task. In addition, temporal-linked mastoids placements showed an effect opposite to that seen for the vertex-referenced leads with lower amplitude AEPs occurring from the hemisphere purported to be most activated by the task. Mastoid-referenced placements were also less sensitive to task effects than vertex-referenced placements. PMID:6171402

  1. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasibility of a BCI based on tactually-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) for wheelchair control. Furthermore, we investigated use of a dynamic stopping method to improve speed of the tactile BCI system. Methods Positions of four tactile stimulators represented navigation directions (left thigh: move left; right thigh: move right; abdomen: move forward; lower neck: move backward) and N?=?15 participants delivered navigation commands by focusing their attention on the desired tactile stimulus in an oddball-paradigm. Results Participants navigated a virtual wheelchair through a building and eleven participants successfully completed the task of reaching 4 checkpoints in the building. The virtual wheelchair was equipped with simulated shared-control sensors (collision avoidance), yet these sensors were rarely needed. Conclusion We conclude that most participants achieved tactile ERP-BCI control sufficient to reliably operate a wheelchair and dynamic stopping was of high value for tactile ERP classification. Finally, this paper discusses feasibility of tactile ERPs for BCI based wheelchair control. PMID:24428900

  2. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as “out of body” and “near death experiences,” including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  3. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  4. Factors affecting the stimulus artifact tail in surface-recorded somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Lovely, D F; Doraiswami, R

    2006-03-01

    Surface-recorded somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) are neural signals elicited by an external stimulus. In the case of electrically induced SEPs, the artifact generated by the stimulation process can severely distort the signal. In some cases, the artifact tail often lasts well into the initiation of the SEP making the determination of absolute latency very difficult. In this work, a new approach was taken to identify factors that affect the tail of the artifact. The methodology adopted was the development of a lumped electrical circuit model of the artifact generation process. While the modeling of the instrumentation hardware is relatively simple, this is not the case with tissue and electrode/skin interface effects. Consequently, this paper describes a novel tissue modeling approach that uses an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) parametric technique and an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate tissue parameters from experimental data. This coupled with an estimation of the stimulation electrode-skin impedance completes the lumped circuit model. Simulink (The Mathworks Inc.) was used to evaluate the model under several different conditions. These results show that both the stimulation electrode-skin interface impedance and nature of the body tissue directly under the recording electrodes have a profound effect on the appearance of the stimulus artifact tail. This was verified by experimentally recorded data obtained from the median nerve using surface electrodes. Conclusions drawn from this work include that stimulation electrodes with low series capacitance should be used whenever possible to minimize the duration of the artifact tail. PMID:16937164

  5. Does the method of sternocleidomastoid muscle activation affect the vestibular evoked myogenic potential response?

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon; Murphy, Emily; Cohen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different methods of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) activation on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Forty normal volunteers were tested using three different methods of SCM activation: sitting with the head turned away from the test ear (SIT), supine with the head held straight up (SHU), and supine with the head held up and turned away from the test ear (SHT). Dependent measures were latency, and amplitude. Head and body position significantly affected the amplitude of the VEMP, but had no significant effect on latency. Testing subjects in the supine position with the head up and turned toward the non-test ear yielded the most robust amplitude response and sternocleidomastoid EMG activity. When amplitude measures where corrected according to tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity no significant difference was noted between the three different test positions. The increased amplitude in the supine with head turned position can be directly attributed to increased tonic SCM EMG activity. PMID:17538207

  6. Capacity of Rectified Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Correcting Asymmetric Muscle Contraction Power

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Woo; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Rectified vestibular evoked myogenic potential (rVEMP) is new method that simultaneously measures the muscle contraction power during VEMP recordings. Although there are a few studies that have evaluated the effect of the rVEMP, there is no study that has evaluated the capacity of rVEMP during asymmetrical muscle contraction. Methods Thirty VEMP measurements were performed among 20 normal subjects (mean age, 28.2±2.1 years; male, 16). VEMP was measured in the supine position. The head was turned to the right side by 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45° and the VEMPs were recorded in each position. The interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio was calculated by the conventional non-rectified VEMP (nVEMP) and rVEMP. Results The nVEMP IAD increased significantly according to increasing neck rotation. The IAD in rVEMP was almost similar from 0° to 30°. However, the IAD was significantly larger than the other positions when the neck was rotated 45°. When IAD during 0° was set as a standard, the IAD of the rVEMP was significantly smaller that the nVEMP only during the 30°rotaion. Conclusion Rectified VEMP is capable of correcting asymmetrical muscle contraction power. In contrast, it cannot correct the asymmetry if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 44.8% or larger. Also, it is not necessary if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 22.5% or smaller. PMID:24353859

  7. Behavioral and auditory evoked potential audiograms of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Michelle M. L.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya.

    2005-10-01

    Behavioral and auditory evoked potential (AEP) audiograms of a false killer whale were measured using the same subject and experimental conditions. The objective was to compare and assess the correspondence of auditory thresholds collected by behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Behavioral audiograms used 3-s pure-tone stimuli from 4 to 45 kHz, and were conducted with a go/no-go modified staircase procedure. AEP audiograms used 20-ms sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tone bursts from 4 to 45 kHz, and the electrophysiological responses were received through gold disc electrodes in rubber suction cups. The behavioral data were reliable and repeatable, with the region of best sensitivity between 16 and 24 kHz and peak sensitivity at 20 kHz. The AEP audiograms produced thresholds that were also consistent over time, with range of best sensitivity from 16 to 22.5 kHz and peak sensitivity at 22.5 kHz. Behavioral thresholds were always lower than AEP thresholds. However, AEP audiograms were completed in a shorter amount of time with minimum participation from the animal. These data indicated that behavioral and AEP techniques can be used successfully and interchangeably to measure cetacean hearing sensitivity.

  8. Selective attention to stimulus location modulates the steady-state visual evoked potential.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S T; Hansen, J C; Hillyard, S A

    1996-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) were recorded from the scalp of human subjects who were cued to attend to a rapid sequence of alphanumeric characters presented to one visual half-field while ignoring a concurrent sequence of characters in the opposite half-field. These two-character sequences were each superimposed upon a small square background that was flickered at a rate of 8.6 Hz in one half-field and 12 Hz in the other half-field. The amplitude of the frequency-coded SSVEP elicited by either of the task-irrelevant flickering backgrounds was significantly enlarged when attention was focused upon the character sequence at the same location. This amplitude enhancement with attention was most prominent over occipital-temporal scalp areas of the right cerebral hemisphere regardless of the visual field of stimulation. These findings indicate that the SSVEP reflects an enhancement of neural responses to all stimuli that fall within the "spotlight" of spatial attention, whether or not the stimuli are task-relevant. Recordings of the SSVEP provide a new approach for studying the neural mechanisms and functional properties of selective attention to multi-element visual displays. PMID:8643478

  9. Enhancing detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials using individual training data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the performance of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) has improved gradually in the past decades, it still does not meet the requirement of a high communication speed in many applications. A major challenge is the interference of spontaneous background EEG activities in discriminating SSVEPs. An SSVEP BCI using frequency coding typically does not have a calibration procedure since the frequency of SSVEPs can be recognized by power spectrum density analysis (PSDA). However, the detection rate can be deteriorated by the spontaneous EEG activities within the same frequency range because phase information of SSVEPs is ignored in frequency detection. To address this problem, this study proposed to incorporate individual SSVEP training data into canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to improve the frequency detection of SSVEPs. An eight-class SSVEP dataset recorded from 10 subjects in a simulated online BCI experiment was used for performance evaluation. Compared to the standard CCA method, the proposed method obtained significantly improved detection accuracy (95.2% vs. 88.4%, p<0.05) and information transfer rates (ITR) (104.6 bits/min vs. 89.1 bits/min, p<0.05). The results suggest that the employment of individual SSVEP training data can significantly improve the detection rate and thereby facilitate the implementation of a high-speed BCI. PMID:25570631

  10. Intraoperative Monitoring of Motor-Evoked Potentials for Supratentorial Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jae; Kim, Young Il; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical efficacy of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring for supratentorial tumor surgery. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, to prevent postoperative motor deterioration, MEP recording after transcranial stimulation was performed in 84 patients with supratentorial brain tumors (45 males, 39 females; age range, 24-80 years; median age, 58 years). MEP monitoring results were correlated with postoperative motor outcome compared to preoperative motor status. Results MEP recordings were stable in amplitude (<50% reduction in amplitude) during surgery in 77 patients (91.7%). No postoperative motor deficit was found in 66 out of 77 patients with stable MEP amplitudes. However, postoperative paresis developed in 11 patients. False negative findings were associated with edema in peri-resectional regions and postoperative bleeding in the tumor bed. MEP decrease in amplitude (>50%) occurred in seven patients (8.3%). However, no deficit occurred postoperatively in four patients following preventive management during the operation. Three patients had permanent paresis, which could have been associated with vascular injury during tumor resection. Conclusions MEP monitoring during supratentorial tumor surgery is feasible and safe. However, false negative MEP results associated with postoperative events may occur in some patients. To achieve successful monitoring, collaboration between surgeon, anesthesiologist and an experienced technician is mandatory. PMID:25328645

  11. Spinal cord injury from electrocautery: observations in a porcine model using electromyography and motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Stanley A; Hsu, Brian; Transfeldt, Ensor E; Mehbod, Amir A; Rippe, David M; Wu, Chunhui; Erkan, Serkan

    2013-04-01

    We have previously investigated electromyographic (EMG) and transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) abnormalities after mechanical spinal cord injury. We now report thermally generated porcine spinal cord injury, characterized by spinal cord generated hindlimb EMG injury activity and spinal cord motor conduction block (MEP loss). Electrocautery (EC) was delivered to thoracic level dural root sleeves within 6-8 mm of the spinal cord (n = 6). Temperature recordings were made near the spinal cord. EMG and MEP were recorded by multiple gluteobiceps intramuscular electrodes before, during, and after EC. Duration of EC was titrated to an end-point of spinal motor conduction block (MEP loss). In 5/6 roots, ipsilateral EMG injury activity was induced by EC. In 4/5 roots, EMG injury activity was identified before MEP loss. In all roots, a minimum of 20 s EC and a temperature maximum of at least 57 °C at the dural root sleeve were required to induce MEP loss. Unexpectedly, conduction block was preceded by an enhanced MEP in 4/6 trials. EMG injury activity, preceding MEP loss, can be seen during near spinal cord EC. Depolarization and facilitation of lumbar motor neurons by thermally excited descending spinal tracts likely explains both hindlimb EMG and an enhanced MEP signal (seen before conduction block) respectively. A thermal mechanism may play a role in some unexplained MEP losses during intraoperative monitoring. EMG recordings might help to detect abnormal discharges and forewarn the monitorist during both mechanical and thermal injury to the spinal cord. PMID:23179021

  12. Attachment style moderates partner presence effects on pain: a laser-evoked potentials study

    PubMed Central

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Condon, Heather; Jenkinson, Paul M.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Social support is crucial for psychological and physical well-being. Yet, in experimental and clinical pain research, the presence of others has been found to both attenuate and intensify pain. To investigate the factors underlying these mixed effects, we administered noxious laser stimuli to 39 healthy women while their romantic partner was present or absent, and measured pain ratings and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) to assess the effects of partner presence on subjective pain experience and underlying neural processes. Further, we examined whether individual differences in adult attachment style (AAS), alone or in interaction with the partner’s level of attentional focus (manipulated to be either on or away from the participant) might modulate these effects. We found that the effects of partner presence vs absence on pain-related measures depended on AAS but not partner attentional focus. The higher participants’ attachment avoidance, the higher pain ratings and N2 and P2 local peak amplitudes were in the presence compared with the absence of the romantic partner. As LEPs are thought to reflect activity relating to the salience of events, our data suggest that partner presence may influence the perceived salience of events threatening the body, particularly in individuals who tend to mistrust others. PMID:25556212

  13. Amphibious auditory evoked potentials in four North American Testudines genera spanning the aquatic-terrestrial spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Johnston, Carol E

    2015-10-01

    Animals exhibit unique hearing adaptations in relation to the habitat media in which they reside. This study was a comparative analysis of auditory specialization in relation to habitat medium in Testudines, a taxon that includes both highly aquatic and fully terrestrial members. Evoked potential audiograms were collected in four species groups representing diversity along the aquatic-terrestrial spectrum: terrestrial and fossorial Gopherus polyphemus, terrestrial Terrapene carolina carolina, and aquatic Trachemys scripta and Sternotherus (S. odoratus and S. minor). Additionally, underwater sensitivity was tested in T. c. carolina, T. scripta, and Sternotherus with tympana submerged just below the water surface. In aerial audiograms, T. c. carolina were most sensitive, with thresholds 18 dB lower than Sternotherus. At 100-300 Hz, thresholds in T. c. carolina, G. polyphemus, and T. scripta were similar to each other. At 400-800 Hz, G. polyphemus thresholds were elevated to 11 dB above T. c. carolina. The underwater audiograms of T. c. carolina, T. scripta, and Sternotherus were similar. The results suggest aerial hearing adaptations in emydids and high-frequency hearing loss associated with seismic vibration detection in G. polyphemus. The underwater audiogram of T. c. carolina could reflect retention of ancestral aquatic auditory function. PMID:26194768

  14. [Effect of the middle ear status on the recording of vestibular evoked myogenic potential--VEMP].

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Agnieszka; Hassmann-Pozna?ska, Elzbieta; Topolska, Ma?gorzata Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age on the recording of air- and bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Forty six young subjects were included in the study, ranging in age from 4 to 18 years. All of them underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and air- and bone-conducted VEMP in response to click. Eighty six ears with normal hearing (pure tone average 20 dB) and type A and C1 tympanogram were studied. There were 2 groups according to age: group I--children aged 4-10 years--52 ears, group II--young subjects aged 11-18 years--34 ears. The threshold, the presence of correct waveform morphology of the response and the latency were evaluated. Above parameters were examined at 95 dB and 100 dB (nHL) air conducted click intensity and 60 dB (nHL) bone conducted click intensity. The age has no significant effect on the percentage of the recording of VEMP and the level of the response threshold with air stimulation, based on the performed studies. However, the age has effect on the prolongation of latency p13 and n23 both with air and bone stimulation. We paid attention to the lower percentage of the recording of bone-conducted VEMP in young subjects aged 11-18 years. PMID:15732833

  15. [Effect of the middle ear status on the recording of vestibular evoked myogenic potential--VEMP].

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Agnieszka; Hassmann-Pozna?ska, Elzbieta; Topolska, Ma?gorzata Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the middle ear status on the recording of air- and bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Forty eight children were included in the study, ranging in age from 4 to 10 years. All of the children underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and air- and bone-conducted VEMP in response to click. There were 3 groups according to the condition of the middle ear: group I--52 ears (type A and C1 tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group II--23 ears (type C2 and B tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group III--21 (type B tympanogram, pure tone average > 20 dB). The threshold, presence of correct waveform morphology of the response and latency was evaluated. The condition of the middle ear has no significant effect on the recording of VEMP and mean level of the response threshold with bone stimulation, based on the performed studies. However, with air stimulation it has effect on the recording of VEMP, increase of the mean threshold response and shortening of latency p13 and n23. PMID:16095098

  16. Cortical inhibition of laser pain and laser-evoked potentials by non-nociceptive somatosensory input.

    PubMed

    Testani, Elisa; Le Pera, Domenica; Del Percio, Claudio; Miliucci, Roberto; Brancucci, Alfredo; Pazzaglia, Costanza; De Armas, Liala; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    Although the inhibitory action that tactile stimuli can have on pain is well documented, the precise timing of the interaction between the painful and non-painful stimuli in the central nervous system is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate this issue by measuring the timing of the amplitude modulation of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) due to conditioning non-painful stimuli. LEPs were recorded from 31 scalp electrodes in 10 healthy subjects after painful stimulation of the right arm (C6-C7 dermatomes). Non-painful electrical stimuli were applied by ring electrodes on the second and third finger of the right hand. Electrical stimuli were delivered at +50, +150, +200 and +250 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) after the laser pulses. LEPs obtained without any conditioning stimulation were used as a baseline. As compared to the baseline, non-painful electrical stimulation reduced the amplitude of the vertex N2/P2 LEP component and the laser pain rating when electrical stimuli followed the laser pulses only at +150 and +200 ms ISIs. As at these ISIs the collision between the non-painful and painful input is likely to take place at the cortical level, we can conclude that the late processing of painful (thermal) stimuli is partially inhibited by the processing of non-painful (cutaneous) stimuli within the cerebral cortex. Moreover, our results do not provide evidence that non-painful inputs can inhibit pain at a lower level, including the spinal cord. PMID:26227011

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and multimodal evoked potentials in benign and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, M; Campi, A; Mammi, S; Martinelli, V; Locatelli, T; Scotti, G; Amadio, S; Canal, N; Comi, G

    1995-01-01

    Brain MRI and multimodal evoked potentials (EPs) were obtained for 13 patients with benign multiple sclerosis and 13 patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, matched for age and duration of the disease, to investigate the nature of the disability in multiple sclerosis. Patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis had significantly greater lesion loads for five of seven periventricular regions and for three of nine regions separate from the ventricles. Patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis also had more severe infratentorial atrophy scores (p = 0.04), whereas there were no differences between the two groups in number and extent of enhancing lesions. The frequencies were significantly higher and severities greater for multimodal EP abnormalities of all the modalities in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. At least one EP component was absent in 12 (92%) patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis but in only one patient (8%) with benign multiple sclerosis (p < 0.001). There was neurophysiological evidence for cervical cord involvement in eight (61%) patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and in one with benign multiple sclerosis (p < 0.01). These data indicate that the total amount of lesions, the distribution, and the nature of the pathological process might all account for the development of disability in multiple sclerosis. PMID:7823064

  18. Abnormal recovery function of somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaoyang; Zhan, Shuqin; Li, Ning; Ding, Yan; Wang, Yuping

    2012-08-15

    Neurobiological correlates underlying insomnia are poorly understood. The hyperarousal of the central nervous system indicates that cortical excitability may be abnormal in patients with insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in cortical excitability by examining the recovery function of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in patients with primary insomia (PI). We studied the recovery function of median nerve SEPs in 12 medication-naive PI patients and in 12 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. SEPs in response to single stimulus and paired stimuli at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 20, 60, 100 and 150 ms were recorded. The recovery function of the cortical components of frontal P20 and parietal N20 showed significantly reduced suppression in PI patients as compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, this is the first study investigating changes in cortical excitability in PI patients by examining the recovery function of median nerve SEPs. The present study suggests that cortical excitability is increased in PI patients. Dysfunction of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex might contribute to the increased cortical excitability in PI patients. PMID:22424903

  19. Latency of auditory evoked potential monitoring the effects of general anesthetics on nerve fibers and synapses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bowan; Liang, Feixue; Zhong, Lei; Lin, Minlin; Yang, Juan; Yan, Linqing; Xiao, Jinfan; Xiao, Zhongju

    2015-01-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is an effective index for the effects of general anesthetics. However, it’s unknown if AEP can differentiate the effects of general anesthetics on nerve fibers and synapses. Presently, we investigated AEP latency and amplitude changes to different acoustic intensities during pentobarbital anesthesia. Latency more regularly changed than amplitude during anesthesia. AEP Latency monotonically decreased with acoustic intensity increase (i.e., latency-intensity curve) and could be fitted to an exponential decay equation, which showed two components, the theoretical minimum latency and stimulus-dependent delay. From the latency-intensity curves, the changes of these two components (?L and ?I) were extracted during anesthesia. ?L and ?I monitored the effect of pentobarbital on nerve fibers and synapses. Pentobarbital can induce anesthesia, and two side effects, hypoxemia and hypothermia. The hypoxemia was not related with ?L and ?I. However, ?L was changed by the hypothermia, whereas ?I was changed by the hypothermia and anesthesia. Therefore, we conclude that, AEP latency is superior to amplitude for the effects of general anesthetics, ?L monitors the effect of hypothermia on nerve fibers, and ?I monitors a combined effect of anesthesia and hypothermia on synapses. When eliminating the temperature factor, ?I monitors the anesthesia effect on synapses. PMID:26246365

  20. A novel model incorporating two variability sources for describing motor evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Stefan M.; Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) play a pivotal role in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), e.g., for determining the motor threshold and probing cortical excitability. Sampled across the range of stimulation strengths, MEPs outline an input–output (IO) curve, which is often used to characterize the corticospinal tract. More detailed understanding of the signal generation and variability of MEPs would provide insight into the underlying physiology and aid correct statistical treatment of MEP data. Methods A novel regression model is tested using measured IO data of twelve subjects. The model splits MEP variability into two independent contributions, acting on both sides of a strong sigmoidal nonlinearity that represents neural recruitment. Traditional sigmoidal regression with a single variability source after the nonlinearity is used for comparison. Results The distribution of MEP amplitudes varied across different stimulation strengths, violating statistical assumptions in traditional regression models. In contrast to the conventional regression model, the dual variability source model better described the IO characteristics including phenomena such as changing distribution spread and skewness along the IO curve. Conclusions MEP variability is best described by two sources that most likely separate variability in the initial excitation process from effects occurring later on. The new model enables more accurate and sensitive estimation of the IO curve characteristics, enhancing its power as a detection tool, and may apply to other brain stimulation modalities. Furthermore, it extracts new information from the IO data concerning the neural variability—information that has previously been treated as noise. PMID:24794287

  1. Inhibitory effect of voluntary movement preparation on cutaneous heat pain and laser-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Le Pera, D; Brancucci, A; De Armas, L; Del Percio, C; Miliucci, R; Babiloni, C; Restuccia, D; Rossini, P M; Valeriani, M

    2007-03-01

    In our study, preparation of voluntary movement was used to physiologically activate the motor cortex areas and the effect of this activation on CO(2) laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) was explored. LEPs were recorded from 31 scalp electrodes in 10 healthy subjects after painful stimulation of the right C6-C7 skin dermatomes. LEP stimuli were delivered in the time interval between a visual warning stimulus followed after 1 s. by an imperative stimulus. The imperative stimulus triggered: (i) no task in the baseline condition (Pain); (ii) flexion-extension movements of the second finger of the right hand in the movement condition (Pain + Movement); (iii) cognitive task (mathematic computation) in the distraction condition (Pain + Cognition). The experimental conditions were also repeated during application of laser stimuli on the left C6-C7 skin dermatomes. Compared with the baseline condition (no task required), during preparation of right-hand voluntary movement there was a significant reduction in LEP amplitude and subjective pain rating after right- but not after left-hand stimulation, which suggests that the observed effect cannot be attributed to a nonspecific reduction in attention toward painful stimulus. During preparation of a cognitive task, LEP amplitude was reduced compared to baseline. Our results represent the first neurophysiological suggestion that physiological activation of the motor cortex, occurring during movement preparation, inhibits cortical pain processing by a centrifugal mechanism. PMID:17432974

  2. Flumazenil antagonizes the suppressive effect of midazolam on the somatosensory evoked potentials in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, N.; Hirose, Y.; Katakura, N.; Kubota, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, on the midazolam-induced suppression of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following strong electrical stimulation of the upper lip was investigated in Wistar albino rats. The averaged SEPs were recorded from the contralateral surface of the skull in the temporal area. Each rat received midazolam in a dose of 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Five min after midazolam injection, the relative amplitude of the P1N1 wave of the SEPs was reduced significantly. A 0.5 mg dose of flumazenil or physiological saline was injected intraperitoneally 7.5 min after midazolam injection. The P1N1 amplitude recovered rapidly to the control value in the flumazenil group but not in the physiological saline group. No significant differences were found in the latencies of the P1 and N1 peaks before or after midazolam or flumazenil injection. It is suggested that flumazenil strongly antagonizes the midazolam-induced suppression of SEPs in the rat. PMID:1809048

  3. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05) between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population. PMID:25025551

  4. EEG-based classification of video quality perception using steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Bosse, Sebastian; Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Wiegand, Thomas; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Recent studies exploit the neural signal recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) to get a more objective measurement of perceived video quality. Most of these studies capitalize on the event-related potential component P3. We follow an alternative approach to the measurement problem investigating steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as EEG correlates of quality changes. Unlike the P3, SSVEPs are directly linked to the sensory processing of the stimuli and do not require long experimental sessions to get a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, we investigate the correlation of the EEG-based measures with the outcome of the standard behavioral assessment. Approach. As stimulus material, we used six gray-level natural images in six levels of degradation that were created by coding the images with the HM10.0 test model of the high efficiency video coding (H.265/MPEG-HEVC) using six different compression rates. The degraded images were presented in rapid alternation with the original images. In this setting, the presence of SSVEPs is a neural marker that objectively indicates the neural processing of the quality changes that are induced by the video coding. We tested two different machine learning methods to classify such potentials based on the modulation of the brain rhythm and on time-locked components, respectively. Main results. Results show high accuracies in classification of the neural signal over the threshold of the perception of the quality changes. Accuracies significantly correlate with the mean opinion scores given by the participants in the standardized degradation category rating quality assessment of the same group of images. Significance. The results show that neural assessment of video quality based on SSVEPs is a viable complement of the behavioral one and a significantly fast alternative to methods based on the P3 component.

  5. [A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Hemangioma Showing False Positive Response to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Uehara, Hirofumi; Kinoshita, Yuki; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Watake, Tomoko; Enokida, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    Brainstem cavernous hemangioma is a complex lesion associated with hemorrhage and neurological deficit. The damage of the vagus nerve is a devastating surgical complication. Therefore, intraoperative anatomical and functional evaluation of this nerve is crucial. We used electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube)to monitor electromyogram from the vocal cord. We report a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive response to EMG tube. A 66-year-old woman underwent resection of cavernous hemangioma in the pontine tegmentum. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanl, propofol, and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris and lateral rectus. When the manipulation reached brainstem, slight spontaneous respiration (SR) appeared on capnogram. Simultaneously, an alarm rang. Exposed nerves were stimulated electrically. However, there was no electromyographic response on the vocal cord. We concluded that the cause was SR accompanied by vocal cord movement. Remifentanil was increased up to 1 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1). SR did not disappear. Remifentanil was not increased any more without hindering the operation. Her operative course was uneventful. It is necessary to pay attention to false positive response caused by SR with EMG tube. PMID:26442411

  6. Specificity and sensitivity of visual evoked potentials in the diagnosis of schizophrenia: rethinking VEPs.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, J A; Pita-Alcorta, C; Wolters, C H; Padrón, A; Finalé, A; Galán-García, L; Marot, M; Lencer, R

    2015-08-01

    Alterations of the visual evoked potential (VEP) component P1 at the occipital region represent the most extended functional references of early visual dysfunctions in schizophrenia (SZ). However, P1 deficits are not reliable enough to be accepted as standard susceptibility markers for use in clinical psychiatry. We have previously reported a novel approach combining a standard checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulus, spectral resolution VEP, source detection techniques and statistical procedures which allowed the correct classification of all patients as SZ compared to controls. Here, we applied the same statistical approach but to a single surface VEP - in contrast to the complex EEG source analyses in our previous report. P1 and N1 amplitude differences among spectral resolution VEPs from a POz-F3 bipolar montage were computed for each component. The resulting F-values were then Z-transformed. Individual comparisons of each component of P1 and N1 showed that in 72% of patients, their individual Z-score deviated from the normal distribution of controls for at least one of the two components. Crossvalidation against the distribution in the SZ-group improved the detection rate to 93%. In all, six patients were misclassified. Clinical validation yielded striking positive (78.13%) and negative (92.69%) predictive values. The here presented procedure offers a potential clinical screening method for increased susceptibility to SZ which should then be followed by high density electrode array and source detection analyses. The most important aspect of this work is represented by the fact that this diagnostic technique is low-cost and involves equipment that is feasible to use in typical community clinics. PMID:26004691

  7. Research on steady-state visual evoked potentials in 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Yi; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lin, Fang-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Pai; Ko, Li-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2015-05-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are intuitive systems for users to communicate with outer electronic devices. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is one of the common inputs for BCI systems due to its easy detection and high information transfer rates. An advanced interactive platform integrated with liquid crystal displays is leading a trend to provide an alternative option not only for the handicapped but also for the public to make our lives more convenient. Many SSVEP-based BCI systems have been studied in a 2D environment; however there is only little literature about SSVEP-based BCI systems using 3D stimuli. 3D displays have potentials in SSVEP-based BCI systems because they can offer vivid images, good quality in presentation, various stimuli and more entertainment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two important 3D factors (disparity and crosstalk) on SSVEPs. Twelve participants participated in the experiment with a patterned retarder 3D display. The results show that there is a significant difference (p-value<0.05) between large and small disparity angle, and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of small disparity angles is higher than those of large disparity angles. The 3D stimuli with smaller disparity and lower crosstalk are more suitable for applications based on the results of 3D perception and SSVEP responses (SNR). Furthermore, we can infer the 3D perception of users by SSVEP responses, and modify the proper disparity of 3D images automatically in the future.

  8. Application of multifocal visual evoked potentials in the assessment of visual dysfunction in macular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, L; Zhang, H; Xie, J; Jiao, X; Zhou, H; Ji, H; Lai, T Y Y; Wang, N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the use of AccuMap multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) in visual dysfunction caused by macular diseases. Methods Forty-eight eyes with known macular diseases underwent AccuMap mfVEP and microperimetry 1 (MP1) assessments. Evaluation of mfVEP abnormality was based on an amplitude deviation probability plot and the AccuMap Severity Index (ASI). Correlation analyses of the mean mfVEP amplitude corresponding to a radius of 2°, 5°, and 10° of the central visual field, minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and MP1 mean sensitivity of the corresponding areas were performed. Results Among the 48 affected eyes, AccuMap mfVEP detected an abnormality of the central visual field in 45 eyes, with a sensitivity of 93.8%. The mean mfVEP amplitudes within a radius of 2°, 5°, and 10° of the central visual field were found to be positively correlated with BCVA (P<0.01 for all groups). The mean amplitudes also positively correlated with the MP1 mean sensitivity value of the corresponding visual field (P<0.01 for all groups). In the group with stable fixation or predominantly central fixation, the mean mfVEP amplitudes did not correlate with the BCVA or the MP1 mean sensitivity value. Regardless of the fixation status, the ASI was found to correlate with both the BCVA and the total MP1 mean defect value. Conclusion Objective perimetry using AccuMap mfVEP might be applied in the assessment of macular function, with the ASI offering a potentially useful indicator for evaluating macular dysfunction. PMID:21720415

  9. Side-difference of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Young, Yi-Ho; Kuo, Shih-Wei

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the side-difference of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in relation to the provocation rates, latencies and amplitudes using binaural acoustic stimulation with bilateral recording. Fourteen healthy volunteers underwent a serial VEMP testings elicited binaurally by a sequence of alternating stimulus intensities, that is, 95-95 (right-left), 85-95, 95-85, and 85-85 dBHL tone burst, respectively. The provocation rates as well as the mean latencies of p13 and n23 for the VEMPs demonstrated no significant side-difference despite using 95-95, 85-95, 95-85 and 85-85 dBHL binaural acoustic stimulation. In contrast, nine (64%) of the 14 subjects showed side-difference of absolute p13-n23 amplitude, including right side dominant in five subjects, and left side dominant in four subjects. However, there was no significant side-difference in terms of relative amplitude despite using 95-95, 85-95, 95-85 and 85-85 dBHL binaural acoustic stimulation. Furthermore, the relative amplitude or interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratios between those with and without side-difference of p13-n23 amplitude did not differ significantly. Hence, this study provides a potentially important method for adjusting the side difference of p13-n23 amplitudes by using a relative amplitude or IAD ratio adjustment. It also adds confidence to the successful use of binaural stimulation and recording of VEMPs under conditions of bilateral SCM muscular contractions. PMID:15567606

  10. Characterizing the time course of an implicature: an evoked potentials study.

    PubMed

    Noveck, Ira A; Posada, Andres

    2003-05-01

    This work employs Evoked Potential techniques as 19 participants are confronted with sentences that have the potential to produce scalar implicatures, like in Some elephants have trunks. Such an Underinformative utterance is of interest to pragmatists because it can be considered to have two different truth values. It can be considered true when taken at face value but false if one were to treat Some with the implicature Not All. Two accounts of implicature production are compared. The neo-Gricean approach (e.g., Levinson, 2000) assumes that implicatures intrude automatically on the semantics of a term like Some. Relevance Theory (Sperber & Wilson, 1985/1996) assumes that implicatures are effortful and not automatic. In this experiment, the participants are presented with 25 Underinformative sentences along with 25 sentences that are Patently True (e.g. Some houses have bricks) and 25 that are Patently False (e.g. Some crows have radios). As reported in an earlier study (Noveck, 2001), Underinformative sentences prompt strong individual differences. Seven participants here responded true to all (or nearly all) of the Underinformative sentences and the remaining 12 responded false to all (or nearly all) of them. The present study showed that those who responded false to the Underinformative sentences took significantly longer to do so that those who responded true. The ERP data indicate that: (a) the Patently True and Patently False sentences prompt steeper N400's--indicating greater semantic integration--than the Underinformative sentences and that (b) regardless of one's ultimate response to the Underinformative sentences, the N400's were remarkably flat, indicating no particular reaction to these sentences. Collectively, the data are taken to show that implicatures are part of a late-arriving, effort-demanding decision process. PMID:12735938

  11. Compensation of intraoperative transcranial motor-evoked potential monitoring by compound muscle action potential after peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Sagiuchi, Takao; Takanashi, Junko; Iwamoto, Kazuhisa; Sato, Sumito; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2005-08-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the results of transcranial motor-evoked potential (TCMEP) monitoring in patients under general anesthesia because these results are strongly affected by anesthetics and muscle relaxants. To exclude effects of muscle relaxants on TCMEP, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) by supramaximum stimulation of the median nerve immediately after transcranial stimulation (300 to 600 V) was recorded in 70 neurosurgical operations. A relative amplitude index (RAI) was defined as the amplitude of TCMEP after the operative procedure divided by the amplitude of TCMEP before the operative procedure. The RAI was calculated and was compensated by the amplitude of CMAP in 141 limbs. In 12 limbs of 7 patients with postoperatively progressed motor paresis, the compensated RAI was less than 0.2. The compensated RAI in all other 129 limbs of 63 patients without postoperative motor palsy was more than 0.2. These results suggest that compensation of TCMEP monitoring by CMAP is an easy and accurate method for removing the effects of muscle relaxants in TCMEP. PMID:16093899

  12. Cortical potentials evoked by tooth pulp stimulation differentiate between the analgesic and sedative effects of morphine in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Danneman, P J

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the cortical potential (CEP) evoked by noxious electrical stimulation of the incisor tooth pulp can be used to measure analgesia in the presence of sedation in the awake rat. Changes in the CEP produced by morphine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg s.c.), an opioid analgesic with sedative effects, were compared with those produced by droperidol (1.25 mg/kg s.c.), a neuroleptic agent with no analgesic activity. Both drugs had similar small effects on CEP latency. However, whereas morphine produced a dose-related decrease in amplitude and area under the curve, particularly in the earliest component of the CEP, droperidol produced an increase in amplitude and area under the curve. Naloxone (0.5-2 mg/kg s.c.) reversed all effects of morphine. Similar CEPs could be evoked by electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp or surrounding gingiva in lightly anesthetized rats. However, the tooth pulp stimulation-evoked CEP was unchanged after anesthesia of the gingiva with lidocaine, and the gingiva-evoked CEP was unchanged after anesthesia of the tooth pulp. Therefore, stimulation of the rat's incisor can selectively activate intrapulpal fibers, which are sufficient to generate a CEP. This CEP is an indicator of nociception which can be used to distinguish the analgesic effects of drugs such as morphine from their sedative effects. PMID:8014853

  13. Sensory Attenuation Assessed by Sensory Evoked Potentials in Functional Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Chen, Jui-Cheng; Pareés, Isabel; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Kilner, James Morvan; Edwards, Mark John

    2015-01-01

    Background Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) have features associated with voluntary movement (e.g. distractibility) but patients report movements to be out of their control. One explanation for this phenomenon is that sense of agency for movement is impaired. The phenomenon of reduction in the intensity of sensory experience when movement is self-generated and a reduction in sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) amplitude at the onset of self-paced movement (sensory attenuation) have been linked to sense of agency for movement. Methods We compared amplitude of SEPs from median nerve stimulation at rest and at the onset of a self-paced movement of the thumb in 17 patients with FMD and 17 healthy controls. Results Patients showed lack of attenuation of SEPs at the onset of movement compared to reduction in amplitude of SEPs in controls. FMD patients had significantly different ratios of movement onset to rest SEPs than did healthy controls at each electrode: 0.79 in healthy controls and 1.35 in patients at F3 (t = -4.22, p<0.001), 0.78 in healthy controls and 1.12 at patients C3 (t = -3.15, p = 0.004) and 0.77 in healthy controls and 1.05 at patients P3 (t = -2.88, p = 0.007). Conclusions Patients with FMD have reduced sensory attenuation as measured by SEPs at onset of self-paced movement. This finding can be plausibly linked to impairment of sense of agency for movement in these patients. PMID:26091500

  14. Scanning strategies for simultaneous EEG-fMRI evoked potential studies at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Warbrick, Tracy; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2008-03-01

    There are two basic strategies for applying simultaneous EEG-fMRI: either the fMRI data are acquired continuously, or the stimulus is presented during a brief gap in scanning when the EEG data is clear of gradient artefact. The former has the advantage that the protocol for the fMRI data acquisition is not affected by the presence of EEG. This study investigated the effect of these different strategies and the subsequent ballistocardiogram artefact removal methods (Average Artefact Subtraction (AAS) and Optimal Basis Set (OBS)) on EEG data quality recorded in response to a visual stimulus. Continuous scanning generally resulted in VEPs that were no worse, and in some cases were better, than those measured during a gap in scanning. The AAS and OBS methods lead to comparable results at the level of the grand average visual evoked potential (VEP), although when examined at the level of the single trial the OBS method was more effective. The spectral quality of the data was similar across scanning protocols, as demonstrated by the proportion of spectral power in each frequency band, although there was an effect of the artefact removal method on the overall spectral power. Some differences in the VEPs were also noted when a TR of 1.5 s was used relative to a TR of 3 s. The results indicate improved EEG quality when fMRI scanning is continuous and BCG artefacts are removed using the OBS method, confirming that EEG can be added to an fMRI experiment with minimal change to the experimental protocol. PMID:17707104

  15. Non-dominant hand movement facilitates the frontal N30 somatosensory evoked potential

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous literature has shown that the frontal N30 is increased during movement of the hand contralateral to median nerve stimulation. This finding was a result of non-dominant left hand movement in right-handed participants. It is unclear however if the effect depends upon non-dominant hand movement or if this is a generalized phenomenon across the upper-limbs. This study tests the effect of dominant and non-dominant hand movement upon contralateral frontal and parietal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and further tests if this relationship persists in left hand dominant participants. Median nerve SEPs were elicited from the wrist contralateral to movement in both right hand and left hand dominant participants alternating the movement hand in separate blocks. Participants were required to volitionally squeeze (~ 20% of a maximal voluntary contraction) a pressure-sensitive bulb every ~3 seconds with the hand contralateral to median nerve stimulation. SEPs were continuously collected during the task and individual traces were grouped into time bins relative to movement according to the timing of components of the Bereitschaftspotential. SEPs were then averaged and quantified from both FCZ and CP3/4 scalp electrode sites during both the squeeze task and at rest. Results The N30 is facilitated during non-dominant hand movement in both right and left hand dominant individuals. There was no effect for dominant hand movement in either group. Conclusions N30 amplitude increase may be a result of altered sensory gating from motor areas known to be specifically active during non-dominant hand movement. PMID:20822535

  16. Steady-state sweep visual evoked potential processing denoised by wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiderpass, Heinar A.; Yamamoto, Jorge F.; Salomão, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Pereira, Josenilson M.; Sacai, Paula Y.; de Oliveira, José P.; Costa, Marcio A.; Burattini, Marcelo N.

    2008-03-01

    Visually evoked potential (VEP) is a very small electrical signal originated in the visual cortex in response to periodic visual stimulation. Sweep-VEP is a modified VEP procedure used to measure grating visual acuity in non-verbal and preverbal patients. This biopotential is buried in a large amount of electroencephalographic (EEG) noise and movement related artifact. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) plays a dominant role in determining both systematic and statistic errors. The purpose of this study is to present a method based on wavelet transform technique for filtering and extracting steady-state sweep-VEP. Counter-phase sine-wave luminance gratings modulated at 6 Hz were used as stimuli to determine sweep-VEP grating acuity thresholds. The amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic (12 Hz) pattern reversal response were analyzed using the fast Fourier transform after the wavelet filtering. The wavelet transform method was used to decompose the VEP signal into wavelet coefficients by a discrete wavelet analysis to determine which coefficients yield significant activity at the corresponding frequency. In a subsequent step only significant coefficients were considered and the remaining was set to zero allowing a reconstruction of the VEP signal. This procedure resulted in filtering out other frequencies that were considered noise. Numerical simulations and analyses of human VEP data showed that this method has provided higher SNR when compared with the classical recursive least squares (RLS) method. An additional advantage was a more appropriate phase analysis showing more realistic second-harmonic amplitude value during phase brake.

  17. Somatosensory spatial attention modulates amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter of laser-evoked brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcel; Nickel, Moritz M; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Several studies provided evidence that the amplitudes of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are modulated by attention. However, previous reports were based on across-trial averaging of LEP responses at the expense of losing information about intertrial variability related to attentional modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of somatosensory spatial attention on single-trial parameters (i.e., amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter) of LEP components (N2 and P2). Twelve subjects participated in a sustained spatial attention paradigm while noxious laser stimuli (left hand) and noxious electrical stimuli (right hand) were sequentially delivered to the dorsum of the respective hand with nonnoxious air puffs randomly interspersed within the sequence of noxious stimuli. Participants were instructed to mentally count all stimuli (i.e., noxious and nonnoxious) applied to the attended location. Laser stimuli, presented to the attended hand (ALS), elicited larger single-trial amplitudes of the N2 component compared with unattended laser stimuli (ULS). In contrast, single-trial amplitudes of the P2 component were not significantly affected by spatial attention. Single-trial latencies of the N2 and P2 were significantly smaller for ALS vs. ULS. Additionally, the across-trial latency jitter of the N2 component was reduced for ALS. Conversely, the latency jitter of the P2 component was smaller for ULS compared with ALS. With the use of single-trial analysis, the study provided new insights into brain dynamics of LEPs related to spatial attention. Our results indicate that single-trial parameters of LEP components are differentially modulated by spatial attention. PMID:25673731

  18. Clinical use of multifocal visual-evoked potentials in a glaucoma practice: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test a framework that describes how the multifocal visual-evoked potential (mfVEP) technique is used in a particular glaucoma practice. Methods In this prospective, descriptive study, glaucoma suspects, ocular hypertensives and glaucoma patients were referred for mfVEP testing by a single glaucoma specialist over a 2-year period. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) and mfVEP testing within 3 months. Two hundred and ten patients (420 eyes) were referred for mfVEP testing for the following reasons: (1) normal SAP tests suspected of early functional loss (ocular hypertensives, n = 43; and glaucoma suspects on the basis of suspicious optic disks, n = 52); (2) normal-tension glaucoma patients with suspected central SAP defects (n = 33); and (3) SAP abnormalities needing confirmation (n = 82). Results All the glaucoma suspects with normal SAP and mfVEP results remained untreated. Of those with abnormal mfVEP results, 68 % (15/22) were treated because the abnormal regions on the mfVEP were consistent with the abnormal regions seen during clinical examination of the optic disk. The mfVEP was abnormal in 86 % (69/80) of eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and SAP damage, even though it did not result in an altered treatment regimen. In NTG patients, the mfVEP showed central defects in 44 % (12 of 27) of the eyes with apparently normal central fields and confirmed central scotomata in 92 % (36 of 39), leading to more rigorous surveillance of these patients. Conclusions In a clinical practice, the mfVEP was used when clinical examination and subjective visual fields provided insufficient or conflicting information. This information influenced clinical management. PMID:22476612

  19. Effect of sevoflurane concentration on visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Yosuke; MAEHARA, Seiya; ITOH, Yoshiki; HAYASHI, Miri; KUBO, Akira; ITAMI, Takaharu; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane concentration on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEPs). Six clinically normal laboratory-beagle dogs were used. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane was detected from all subjects by tail clamp method. The refractive power of the right eyes of all subjects was corrected to −2 diopters after skiascopy. For P-VEP recording, the recording and reference electrode were positioned at inion and nasion, respectively, and the earth electrode was positioned on the inner surface. To grasp the state of CNS suppression objectively, the bispectral index (BIS) value was used. The stimulus pattern size and distance for VEP recording were constant, 50.3 arc-min and 50 cm, respectively. P-VEPs and BIS values were recorded under sevoflurane in oxygen inhalational anesthesia at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 2.75 sevoflurane MAC. For analysis of P-VEP, the P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude were estimated. P-VEPs were detected at 0.5 to 1.5 MAC in all dogs, and disappeared at 2.0 MAC in four dogs and at 2.5 and 2.75 MAC in one dog each. The BIS value decreased with increasing sevoflurane MAC, and burst suppression began to appear from 1.5 MAC. There was no significant change in P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude with any concentration of sevoflurane. At concentrations around 1.5 MAC, which are used routinely to immobilize dogs, sevoflurane showed no effect on P-VEP. PMID:25373729

  20. Intraoperative continuous monitoring of facial motor evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma surgery.

    PubMed

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Sugata, Sei; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-10-01

    The preservation of facial nerve function is one of the primary objectives in acoustic neuroma surgery. We detail our method of continuous intraoperative facial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring and present criteria for the preservation of facial nerve function to avoid postoperative facial nerve palsy. Our study population was comprised of 15 patients who did not (group 1), and 20 who did (group 2) undergo facial MEP monitoring during surgery to remove acoustic neuromas. In group 2, we continuously stimulated the facial motor cortex at 5- or 10-s intervals throughout surgery. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the contralateral orbicularis oculi- and orbicularis oris muscles. Optimal anode and cathode placement was at the facial motor cortex and the vertex, respectively. Postoperative facial palsy occurred in 8 of the 15 group 1 patients; in 2 it improved to grade II at 6 months after the operation. Of the 20 group 2 patients, 7 suffered postoperative facial palsy. At 6 months after the operation, their facial nerve function was normal. At the end of the operation, the ratio of the amplitude of the supramaximal EMG to the amplitude at the dural opening was 39.6 % in patients with- and 94.3 % in patients without transient postoperative facial palsy. Continuous facial MEP monitoring not only alerts to surgical invasion of the facial nerves but also helps to predict postoperative facial nerve function. To preserve a minimum amplitude ratio of 50 %, even transient postoperative facial palsy must be avoided. MEP monitoring is an additional useful modality for facial nerve monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:25015389

  1. Extracting visual evoked potentials from EEG data recorded during fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior fMRI scan, TMS could be used to link the fMRI activations with evoked potentials recorded. However, conducting such experiments presents significant technical challenges given the high amplitude artifacts introduced into the EEG signal by the magnetic pulse, and the difficulty to successfully target areas that were functionally defined by fMRI. Here we describe a methodology for combining these three common tools: TMS, EEG, and fMRI. We explain how to guide the stimulator's coil to the desired target area using anatomical or functional MRI data, how to record EEG during concurrent TMS, how to design an ERP study suitable for EEG-TMS combination and how to extract reliable ERP from the recorded data. We will provide representative results from a previously published study, in which fMRI-guided TMS was used concurrently with EEG to show that the face-selective N1 and the body-selective N1 component of the ERP are associated with distinct neural networks in extrastriate cortex. This method allows us to combine the high spatial resolution of fMRI with the high temporal resolution of TMS and EEG and therefore obtain a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of various cognitive processes. PMID:24893706

  2. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Shukla, R.

    1997-01-01

    Short-latency vestibular-evoked potentials to pulsed linear acceleration were characterized in the quail. Responses occurred within 8 ms following the onset of stimuli and were composed of a series of positive and negative peaks. The latencies and amplitudes of the first four peaks were quantitatively characterized. Mean latencies at 1.0 g ms-1 ranged from 1265 +/- 208 microseconds (P1, N = 18) to 4802 +/- 441 microseconds (N4, N = 13). Amplitudes ranged from 3.72 +/- 1.51 microV (P1/N1, N = 18) to 1.49 +/- 0.77 microV (P3/N3, N = 16). Latency-intensity (LI) slopes ranged from -38.7 +/- 7.3 microseconds dB-1 (P1, N = 18) to -71.6 +/- 21.9 microseconds dB-1 (N3, N = 15) and amplitude-intensity (AI) slopes ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.08 microV dB-1 (P1/N1, N = 18) to 0.07 +/- 0.04 microV dB-1 (P3/N3, N = 11). The mean response threshold across all animals was -21.83 +/- 3.34 dB re: 1.0 g ms-1 (N = 18). Responses remained after cochlear extirpation showing that they could not depend critically on cochlear activity. Responses were eliminated by destruction of the vestibular end organs, thus showing that responses depended critically and specifically on the vestibular system. The results demonstrate that the responses are vestibular and the findings provide a scientific basis for using vestibular responses to evaluate vestibular function through ontogeny and senescence in the quail.

  3. Difference of Diagnostic Rates and Analytical Methods in the Test Positions of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Hee; Park, Sang-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo. Methods Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation. Results Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low. Conclusion Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test. PMID:24855617

  4. Prandial States Modify the Reactivity of the Gustatory Cortex Using Gustatory Evoked Potentials in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Piques, Agnès; Gaudillat, Stéphanie; Mouillot, Thomas; Gigot, Vincent; Meillon, Sophie; Leloup, Corinne; Penicaud, Luc; Brondel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies evaluated the role of satiety on cortical taste area activity and highlighted decreased activation in the orbito-frontal cortex when food was eaten until satiation. The modulation of orbito-frontal neurons (secondary taste area) by ad libitum food intake has been associated with the pleasantness of the food's flavor. The insula and frontal operculum (primary taste area) are also involved in reward processing. The aim was to compare human gustatory evoked potentials (GEP) recorded in the primary and secondary gustatory cortices in a fasted state with those after food intake. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational study. In each of two sessions, two GEP recordings were performed (at 11:00 am and 1:30 pm) in response to sucrose gustatory stimulation, and a sucrose-gustatory threshold was determined. During one session, a standard lunch was provided between the two GEP recordings. During the other session, subjects had nothing to eat. Hunger sensation, wanting, liking, and the perception of the solution's intensity were evaluated with visual analog scales. GEP latencies measured in the Pz (p < 0.001), Cz (p < 0.01), Fz (p < 0.001) recordings (primary taste area) were longer after lunch than in the pre-prandial condition. Fp1 and Fp2 latencies (secondary taste area) tended to be longer after lunch, but the difference was not significant. No difference was observed for the sucrose-gustatory threshold regardless of the session and time. Modifications in the primary taste area activity during the post-prandial period occurred regardless of the nature of the food eaten and could represent the activity of the frontal operculum and insula, which was recently shown to be modulated by gut signals (GLP-1, CCK, ghrelin, or insulin) through vagal afferent neurons or metabolic changes of the internal milieu after nutrient absorption. This trial was registered at clinicalstrials.gov as NCT02472444. PMID:26778949

  5. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Randsoe, T; Meehan, C F; Broholm, H; Hyldegaard, O

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei or an increased nitrogen washout on decompression through augmented blood flow rate. The present experiments were conducted to investigate whether a short- or long-acting NO donor [glycerol trinitrate (GTN) or isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN), respectively] would offer the same protection against spinal cord DCS evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions of DCS. In total, 58 rats were divided into 6 different treatment groups. The first three received either saline (group 1), 300 mg/kg iv ISMN (group 2), or 10 mg/kg ip GTN (group 3) before compression. The last three received either 300 mg/kg iv ISMN (group 4), 1 mg/kg iv GTN (group 5), or 75 ?g/kg iv GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival times. In conclusion, neither a short- nor long-acting NO donor had any protective effect against fatal DCS by intravenous bubble formation. This effect is most likely due to a fast ascent rate overriding the protective effects of NO, rather than the total inert tissue gas load. PMID:25377881

  6. The Clinical Utility of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Patients of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Anuprasad; Parida, Pradiptata Kumar; Alexander, Arun; Saxena, Sunil Kumar; Suria, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Context Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) is an emerging tool to diagnose Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). The clinical utility of VEMP has been reported only in small accord in Indian literature. Aim To study the latency and amplitude of VEMP in patients with BPPV and compare it with that of normal subjects. Settings and Design The study included two groups. Group one (control group) were 18 normal subjects. Group two (test group) were 15 subjects with unilateral BPPV. Materials and Methods Those subjects who fulfilled the selection criteria based on case history and audiological assessment were taken for the VEMP recording. The VEMP response consist of positive and negative successive waves (pI-nI), with latency values in adults about 13 and 23 milliseconds respectively. Statistical Analysis Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12 (Chicago, IL, USA). Unpaired t-test was employed to measure the statistical difference between control group and test group. Results The difference in n23 and the peak to peak amplitude between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears of the test group were statistically significant, whereas such a difference in the p13 latency turned out to be statistically insignificant. It should be noted that, out of 15 patients in the test group, five patients showed only artifact tracer recordings in both the ears which is considered as no response. The heterogeneity of the results extended from absence of VEMP to prolongation of both p13, n23; prolongation of p13 alone; and even side to side variations. Conclusion Absent response from the ipsilateral ear, prolonged latency of n23 and decreased peak to peak amplitude (p13, n23), indicates the disease pathology. However, large sample size is required to draw further conclusions and to consolidate the usage of VEMP in the diagnosis of BPPV. PMID:26266140

  7. Prandial States Modify the Reactivity of the Gustatory Cortex Using Gustatory Evoked Potentials in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin-Piques, Agnès; Gaudillat, Stéphanie; Mouillot, Thomas; Gigot, Vincent; Meillon, Sophie; Leloup, Corinne; Penicaud, Luc; Brondel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies evaluated the role of satiety on cortical taste area activity and highlighted decreased activation in the orbito-frontal cortex when food was eaten until satiation. The modulation of orbito-frontal neurons (secondary taste area) by ad libitum food intake has been associated with the pleasantness of the food's flavor. The insula and frontal operculum (primary taste area) are also involved in reward processing. The aim was to compare human gustatory evoked potentials (GEP) recorded in the primary and secondary gustatory cortices in a fasted state with those after food intake. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational study. In each of two sessions, two GEP recordings were performed (at 11:00 am and 1:30 pm) in response to sucrose gustatory stimulation, and a sucrose-gustatory threshold was determined. During one session, a standard lunch was provided between the two GEP recordings. During the other session, subjects had nothing to eat. Hunger sensation, wanting, liking, and the perception of the solution's intensity were evaluated with visual analog scales. GEP latencies measured in the Pz (p < 0.001), Cz (p < 0.01), Fz (p < 0.001) recordings (primary taste area) were longer after lunch than in the pre-prandial condition. Fp1 and Fp2 latencies (secondary taste area) tended to be longer after lunch, but the difference was not significant. No difference was observed for the sucrose-gustatory threshold regardless of the session and time. Modifications in the primary taste area activity during the post-prandial period occurred regardless of the nature of the food eaten and could represent the activity of the frontal operculum and insula, which was recently shown to be modulated by gut signals (GLP-1, CCK, ghrelin, or insulin) through vagal afferent neurons or metabolic changes of the internal milieu after nutrient absorption. This trial was registered at clinicalstrials.gov as NCT02472444. PMID:26778949

  8. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  9. Multifocal visual evoked potentials are influenced by variable contrast stimulation in MS

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Audrey R.; Schnurman, Zane; Conger, Amy; Conger, Darrel; Beh, Shin; Greenberg, Benjamin; Sutter, Erich; Calabresi, Peter A.; Balcer, Laura J.; Frohman, Teresa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with intereye asymmetry on low contrast letter acuity, and thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), would exhibit corresponding changes in cortical timing and amplitude responses on pattern reversal multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP), contingent upon variable stimulus contrast. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated a cohort of 11 normal subjects and 40 patients with MS, 21 of whom had a history of acute optic neuritis (MS-AON) with an intereye asymmetry with respect to RNFL thickness, and on low contrast letter acuity performance. Pattern reversal mfVEP was performed at high (100%), low (33.3%), and very low (14.2%) Michelson-contrast levels. Results: Compared to baseline measures at 100% contrast, the mean amplitude of the mfVEP was reduced in MS-AON eyes, upon pattern-reversal stimulation at the 2 lower contrast levels (p < 0.0001). With respect to changes in timing responses, the intereye asymmetry was increased in the MS-AON patients upon lower contrast pattern-reversal stimulation (p < 0.0001 for 33.3% compared to 100%, and p < 0.001 for 14.2% compared to 100%). The fellow eye in 12 (57%; p < 0.001) of the patients with an abnormal eye, and a history of AON, revealed abnormal amplitude and timing responses upon low contrast stimulation (signifying unmasking of occult damage). Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that mfVEP metric abnormalities are contingent upon contrast magnitude during pattern reversal stimulation. Further, this paradigm was capable of unmasking occult abnormalities in a significant number of apparently unaffected eyes. PMID:22815550

  10. Nicotinic modulation of auditory evoked potential electroencephalography in a rodent neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Robb, Holly M; Roderwald, Victoria A; Rueter, Lynne E

    2015-10-15

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that has been hypothesized to be linked to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in basic sensory processing including sensory gating deficits in P50 and mismatch negativity (MMN). Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists have been reported to attenuate these deficits. Gestational exposure of rats to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at embryonic day 17 leads to developmental disruption of the limbic-cortical system. MAM exposed offspring show neuropathological and behavioral changes that have similarities with those seen in schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to assess whether N40 auditory sensory gating (the rodent form of P50 gating) and MMN deficits as measures of auditory evoked potential (AEP) electroencephalography (EEG) are present in MAM rats and whether nAChR agonists could attend the deficit. E17 male MAM and sham rats were implanted with cortical electrodes at 2 months of age. EEG recordings evaluating N40 gating and MMN paradigms were done comparing effects of vehicle (saline), nicotine and the ?7 agonist ABT-107. Deficits were seen for MAM rats compared to sham animals in both N40 auditory sensory gating and MMN AEP recordings. There was a strong trend for N40 deficits to be attenuated by both nicotine (0.16mg/kg i.p. base) and ABT-107 (1.0mg/kg i.p. base). MMN deficits were significantly attenuated by ABT-107 but not by nicotine. These data support the MAM model as a useful tool for translating pharmacodynamic effects in clinical medicine studies of novel therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:26032639

  11. The role of nicotine on respiratory sensory gating measured by respiratory-related evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pei-Ying Sarah; Davenport, P W

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory perception can be altered by changes in emotional or psychological states. This may be due to affective (i.e., anxiety) modulation of respiratory sensory gating. Nicotine withdrawal induces elevated anxiety and decreased somatosensory gating. Respiratory sensory gating is evidenced by decreased amplitude of the respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) N(1) peak for the second occlusion (S2) when two 150-ms occlusions are presented with a 500-ms interval during an inspiration. The N(1) peak amplitude ratio of the S2 and first occlusion (S1) (S2/S1) is <0.5 and due to central neural sensory gating. We hypothesized that withdrawal from nicotine is anxiogenic and reduces respiratory gating in smokers. The RREP was recorded in smokers with 12-h withdrawal from nicotine and nonsmokers using a paired occlusion protocol. In smokers, the RREP was measured after nicotine withdrawal, then with either nicotine or placebo gum, followed by the second RREP trial. Nonsmokers received only placebo gum. After nicotine withdrawal, the smokers had a higher state anxiety compared with nonsmokers. There was a significant interaction between groups (nonsmokers vs. smokers with nicotine vs. smokers with placebo) and test (pre- vs. posttreatment) in RREP N(1) peak amplitude S2/S1. The S2/S1 in the smokers were larger than in nonsmokers before treatment. After gum treatment, the smoker-with-placebo group had a significantly larger S2/S1 than the other two groups. The S2/S1 was significantly decreased after the administration of nicotine gum in smokers due to significantly decreased S2 amplitudes. The RREP N(f) and P(1) peaks were unaffected. These results demonstrated that respiratory sensory gating was decreased in smokers after nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine increased respiratory sensory gating in smokers with a S2/S1 similar to that of the nonsmokers. Nicotine did not change respiratory sensory information arrival, but secondary information processing in respiratory sensation. PMID:20056851

  12. Single-Trial Visual Evoked Potential Extraction Using Partial Least-Squares-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Kristina Yanti, Duma; Zuki Yusoff, Mohd; Sagayan Asirvadam, Vijanth

    2016-01-01

    A single-trial extraction of a visual evoked potential (VEP) signal based on the partial least-squares (PLS) regression method has been proposed in this paper. This paper has focused on the extraction and estimation of the latencies of P100, P200, P300, N75, and N135 in the artificial electroencephalograph (EEG) signal. The real EEG signal obtained from the hospital was only concentrated on the P100. The performance of the PLS has been evaluated mainly on the basis of latency error rate of the peaks for the artificial EEG signal, and the mean peak detection and standard deviation for the real EEG signal. The simulation results show that the proposed PLS algorithm is capable of reconstructing the EEG signal into its desired shape of the ideal VEP. For P100, the proposed PLS algorithm is able to provide comparable results to the generalized eigenvalue decomposition (GEVD) algorithm, which alters (prewhitens) the EEG input signal using the prestimulation EEG signal. It has also shown better performance for later peaks (P200 and P300). The PLS outperformed not only in positive peaks but also in N75. In P100, the PLS was comparable with the GEVD although N135 was better estimated by GEVD. The proposed PLS algorithm is comparable to GEVD given that PLS does not alter the EEG input signal. The PLS algorithm gives the best estimate to multitrial ensemble averaging. This research offers benefits such as avoiding patient's fatigue during VEP test measurement in the hospital, in BCI applications and in EEG-fMRI integration. PMID:25376049

  13. Focal brainstem gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J.; Alaqeel, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved neuronavigation guidance as well as intraoperative imaging and neurophysiologic monitoring technologies have enhanced the ability of neurosurgeons to resect focal brainstem gliomas. In contrast, diffuse brainstem gliomas are considered to be inoperable lesions. This article is a continuation of an article that discussed brainstem glioma diagnostics, imaging, and classification. Here, we address open surgical treatment of and approaches to focal, dorsally exophytic, and cervicomedullary brainstem gliomas. Intraoperative neuronavigation, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, as well as intraoperative imaging are discussed as adjunctive measures to help render these procedures safer, more acute, and closer to achieving surgical goals. PMID:25864061

  14. A Specific Component of the Evoked Potential Mirrors Phasic Dopamine Neuron Activity during Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua T

    2015-07-22

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to be a critical node in the circuitry that mediates reward learning. DA neurons receive diverse inputs from regions distributed throughout the neuraxis from frontal neocortex to the mesencephalon. While a great deal is known about changes in the activity of individual DA neurons during learning, much less is known about the functional changes in the microcircuits in which DA neurons are embedded. Here we used local field potentials recorded from the midbrain of behaving mice to show that the midbrain evoked potential (mEP) faithfully reflects the temporal and spatial structure of the phasic response of midbrain neuron populations during conditioning. By comparing the mEP to simultaneously recorded single units, we identified specific components of the mEP that corresponded to phasic DA and non-DA responses to salient stimuli. The DA component of the mEP emerged with the acquisition of a conditioned stimulus, was extinguished following changes in reinforcement contingency, and could be inhibited by pharmacological manipulations that attenuate the phasic responses of DA neurons. In contrast to single-unit recordings, the mEP permitted relatively dense sampling of the midbrain circuit during conditioning and thus could be used to reveal the spatiotemporal structure of multiple intermingled midbrain circuits. Finally, the mEP response was stable for months and thus provides a new approach to study long-term changes in the organization of ventral midbrain microcircuits during learning. Significance statement: Neurons that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine play a critical role in voluntary reward-seeking behavior. Much of our insight into the function of dopamine neurons comes from recordings of individual cells in behaving animals; however, it is notoriously difficult to record from dopamine neurons due to their sparsity and depth, as well as the presence of intermingled non-dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that much of the information that can be learned from recordings of individual dopamine and non-dopamine neurons is also revealed by changes in specific components of the local field potential. This technique provides an accessible measurement that could prove critical to our burgeoning understanding of the molecular, functional, and anatomical diversity of neuron populations in the midbrain. PMID:26203140

  15. A Specific Component of the Evoked Potential Mirrors Phasic Dopamine Neuron Activity during Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to be a critical node in the circuitry that mediates reward learning. DA neurons receive diverse inputs from regions distributed throughout the neuraxis from frontal neocortex to the mesencephalon. While a great deal is known about changes in the activity of individual DA neurons during learning, much less is known about the functional changes in the microcircuits in which DA neurons are embedded. Here we used local field potentials recorded from the midbrain of behaving mice to show that the midbrain evoked potential (mEP) faithfully reflects the temporal and spatial structure of the phasic response of midbrain neuron populations during conditioning. By comparing the mEP to simultaneously recorded single units, we identified specific components of the mEP that corresponded to phasic DA and non-DA responses to salient stimuli. The DA component of the mEP emerged with the acquisition of a conditioned stimulus, was extinguished following changes in reinforcement contingency, and could be inhibited by pharmacological manipulations that attenuate the phasic responses of DA neurons. In contrast to single-unit recordings, the mEP permitted relatively dense sampling of the midbrain circuit during conditioning and thus could be used to reveal the spatiotemporal structure of multiple intermingled midbrain circuits. Finally, the mEP response was stable for months and thus provides a new approach to study long-term changes in the organization of ventral midbrain microcircuits during learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine play a critical role in voluntary reward-seeking behavior. Much of our insight into the function of dopamine neurons comes from recordings of individual cells in behaving animals; however, it is notoriously difficult to record from dopamine neurons due to their sparsity and depth, as well as the presence of intermingled non-dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that much of the information that can be learned from recordings of individual dopamine and non-dopamine neurons is also revealed by changes in specific components of the local field potential. This technique provides an accessible measurement that could prove critical to our burgeoning understanding of the molecular, functional, and anatomical diversity of neuron populations in the midbrain. PMID:26203140

  16. Cl- - and K+-dependent inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked by interneurones of the rat lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Crunelli, V; Haby, M; Jassik-Gerschenfeld, D; Leresche, N; Pirchio, M

    1988-01-01

    1. Hyperpolarizing potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic tract were studied in projection cells of the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in vitro. In the same cells the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), baclofen and acetylcholine (ACh) were also investigated. 2. In the majority of cells a short- (SHP) (34 ms) and a long-lasting (LHP) (240 ms) hyperpolarizing potential could be recorded in the presence and in the absence of a preceding EPSP. They were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and were more sensitive than the monosynaptic EPSP to a low-Ca2+-high-Mg2+ solution. 3. The SHP was associated with a marked decrease (75%) in input resistance, was blocked by bicuculline (1-100 microM) and its reversal potential (-67 mV) was dependent on the extracellular Cl- concentration. 4. The LHP was associated with a smaller decrease (45%) in input resistance and its reversal potential (-76 mV) was dependent on the extracellular K+ concentration. It was increased by bicuculline (100% at 50 microM) and nipecotic acid (30% at 10 microM), blocked by Ba2+ (1 mM), and unaffected by eserine (1-10 microM), neostigmine (1-10 microM) or by recording with EGTA-filled electrodes. In the presence of bicuculline, a single LHP was able to evoke, as a rebound response, a low-threshold Ca2+ spike that was, however, not followed by another LHP (or any other long-lasting hyperpolarization). 5. Ionophoretic applications of GABA evoked in the same cell a Cl- -dependent hyperpolarization (reversal potential: -65 mV) and/or depolarization, both of which were associated with a marked decrease (91%) in input resistance and abolished by bicuculline. GABA was also able to evoke a bicuculline-insensitive, K+-dependent hyperpolarization that had a reversal potential of -75 mV and was associated with a smaller decrease (43%) in input resistance. 6. Baclofen, applied by ionophoresis, pressure ejection or in the perfusion medium (1-100 microM), produced a hyperpolarization that had a reversal potential of -79 mV and was associated with a decrease (45%) in input resistance. 7. In the majority of cells (thirty-seven out of forty) ACh evoked a slow depolarization and only in three cells a hyperpolarization which had a reversal potential of -80 mV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3404460

  17. The combination of evoked responses with sensory-motor tests in practical neuro-otological diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Claussen, C F; Claussen, E

    1984-01-01

    Vertigo, giddiness, tinnitus and hearing loss frequently occur in lower brainstem disorders as well as in inner ear diseases. To differentiate the inner ear disorders from central disease we use the impulse-traced craniocorpogram (ITCCG) for the vestibulo-spinal investigation and the acoustically evoked brainstem potentials as an objective indicator of central hearing dysfunction. Craniocorpography is a simple, objective and quantitative whole-body as well as intracorporal recording technique for head and body movements. It can be used as an office procedure, giving objective and quantitative results. It traces the head and shoulder movements with the help of light bulbs. It gives significant results and differentiates between peripheral and central vestibular lesions. The acoustically evoked brainstem potentials are read by a dual channel machine. The same applies to the acoustically evoked cortical potentials. The results are plotted in either case on the electrode-stimulus cross-chart. Thus they can be interpreted at a glance, similarly to the cranio-corpogram. PMID:6591689

  18. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound action potentials in neural regeneration studies. PMID:26325291

  19. Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory-evoked potential in the spinal cord rectification operation by means of wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Du, M. H.; Chan, Francis H. Y.; Lam, F. K.; Luk, D. K.; Hu, Y.; Fung, Kan S. M.; Qiu, W.

    1998-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable interest in the use of a somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) for monitoring the functional integrity of the spinal cord during surgery such as spinal scoliosis. This paper describes a monitoring system and signal processing algorithms, which consists of 50 Hz mains filtering and a wavelet signal analyzer. Our system allows fast detection of changes in SEP peak latency, amplitude and signal waveform, which are the main parameters of interest during intra-operative procedures.

  20. CHLORDIMEFORM PRODUCES PROFOUND, SELECTIVE, AND TRANSIENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rat visual function was tested after acute exposure to chlordimeform (CDM), a formamidine insecticide/acaricide. Adult male Long-Evans rats were surgically implanted with epidural recording electrodes overlying visual cortex and tested 1 week later. Pattern reversal-evoked potent...

  1. Impacts of environmental stress exposure on central nervous functional patterns. A quantitative approach to evoked potential data.

    PubMed

    Baumann, H; Gurk, C; Wolter, F; Hecht, K; Läuter, J; Martin, G

    1975-01-01

    Albino rats and rhesus monkeys with chronically implanted electrodes in cortical and subcortical, vasomotory and emotionally relevant brain regions were subjected to psycho-nerval stress (short-term stressful CR learning experiments on rats, long-term environmental stress with disturbances of the diurnal rhythm and social hierarchy on rhesus monkeys). Applying average computer techniques and discriminance analyses to evoked potentials (average evoked potentials = AEP to standardized optic-acoustic test stimuli) we were able to objectify the effect of different stress categories on central nervous functional patterns. These phenomena of electrical activity of the CNS proved to be extremely responsive to the stress exposure (avoidance conditioned learning experiments or socio-emotional overstrain). Under moderated stress (CR phases of acquisition and stabilization), time-space patterns of a primary facilitation of AEP could be established, expressing an improved energetic capacity of the CNS (adaptive effect). On the other hand, there was a generalized impairment of bioelectric information processing in temporal correlation with an increase in psycho-nervous stress exposure to rats (CR phases of differentiation). During long-term socio-emotional stress exposure of rhesus monkeys the highly significant changes of AEP-patterns (increasing fall short of the set point of the bioelectric level of activity with segmental differences in the multiphasic evoked potential) are to be interpreted as maladaptive processes in central nervous function under long lasting high stress conditions. PMID:809950

  2. Effects of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and clonazepam on cortex- and amygdala-evoked potentials in partially kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Burnham, W M; Racine, R J; Milgram, N W; Albright, P S

    1989-11-01

    The kindling technique has been reported to produce a long-lasting enhancement in both the early and late phases of evoked potentials triggered from the kindled focus. It also alters paired-pulse facilitation and depression in the pathways which support these phenomena. The present experiment was designed to determine whether the drugs which antagonize secondary generalization in the kindling model also antagonize kindling-enhanced excitation in the pathways leading out of the focus. Multiple doses of phenytoin, carbamazepine, and clonazepam were therefore tested against single- and double-pulse evoked potentials triggered from the focus in rats that had been subjected to parital kindling from either the amygdala or the cortex. Responses were recorded in monosynaptic sites and in the mesencephalic reticular formation--a polysynaptic site thought to play an important role in secondary generalization. No drug-related effects were found on early evoked potential components, either in the single-pulse or the double-pulse paradigm. Kindling-enhanced late components ("late waves"), however, were clearly and selectively antagonized by clonazepam. PMID:2806456

  3. Sensations and trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of endosseous oral implants in humans.

    PubMed

    Van Loven, K; Jacobs, R; Swinnen, A; Van Huffel, S; Van Hees, J; van Steenberghe, D

    2000-12-01

    The perception of bipolar electrical stimuli through implants was studied. The stimuli were delivered to permucosal oral endosseous implants in 15 individuals, who then reported tapping to beating sensations. In 10 out of the 15, these stimuli evoked clearly distinguishable potentials in the averaged electroencephalograms. The most prominent scalp potential was a positive wave with a latency between 18 and 25 ms, often preceded by a negative wave with a latency around 12-17 ms. In contrast, when a motor response was elicited by stimulation of the lip, a shorter latency wave around 8-11 ms was found additionally, indicating that the former-mentioned waves represent a true sensory response and not an artefact of myogenous origin. Furthermore, topical anaesthesia of the gingiva surrounding the implants in six individuals had little effect on the sensory responses. This evidence excluded peri-implant mucosal innervation as the origin of the perception and of the somatosensory-evoked waves elicited by the electrical stimulation of the oral implants. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time a sensation (osseoperception) has been elicited by electrical stimulation of endosseous oral implants and correlated with simultaneously recorded trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials (TSEPs). PMID:11084148

  4. Listening to the brainstem: musicianship enhances intelligibility of subcortical representations for speech.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-01-28

    Auditory experiences including musicianship and bilingualism have been shown to enhance subcortical speech encoding operating below conscious awareness. Yet, the behavioral consequence of such enhanced subcortical auditory processing remains undetermined. Exploiting their remarkable fidelity, we examined the intelligibility of auditory playbacks (i.e., "sonifications") of brainstem potentials recorded in human listeners. We found naive listeners' behavioral classification of sonifications was faster and more categorical when evaluating brain responses recorded in individuals with extensive musical training versus those recorded in nonmusicians. These results reveal stronger behaviorally relevant speech cues in musicians' neural representations and demonstrate causal evidence that superior subcortical processing creates a more comprehensible speech signal (i.e., to naive listeners). We infer that neural sonifications of speech-evoked brainstem responses could be used in the early detection of speech-language impairments due to neurodegenerative disorders, or in objectively measuring individual differences in speech reception solely by listening to individuals' brain activity. PMID:25632143

  5. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  6. Surgical decompression in endocrine orbitopathy. Visual evoked potential evaluation and effect on the optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Luigi C; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galie', Manlio; Franco, Filippo; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) represents the most frequent and important extrathyroidal stigma of Graves disease. This chronic autoimmune condition involves the orbital contents, including extraocular muscles, periorbital connective-fatty tissue and lacrimal gland. The increase of fat tissue and the enlargement of extraocular muscles within the bony confines of the orbit leads to proptosis, and in the most severe cases optic neuropathy, caused by compression and stretching of the optic nerve. The congestion and the pressure of the enlarged muscles, constrict the nerve and can lead to reduced sight or loss of vision with the so called "orbital apex syndrome". Generally surgical treatment of EO, based on fat and/or orbital wall expansion, is possible and effective in improving exophthalmos and diplopia. Since there are limited reports focussing on optic neuropathy recovery after fat and/or orbital walls decompression the Authors decided to perform a retrospective analysis on a series of patients affected by EO. The study population was composed of 10 patients affected by EO and presenting to the Unit of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Center for Craniofacial Deformities & Orbital Surgery St. Anna Hospital and University, Ferrara, Italy, for evaluation and treatment. A complete Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) evaluation was performed. There were seven women and three men with a median age of 55 years. Optic nerve VEP amplitude and latency were recorded as normal or pathological. Abnormal results were scored as moderate, mild and severe. Differences in VEP pre and post-operatively were recorded as present or absent (i.e. VEP Delta). Pearson chi square test was applied. There were 20 operated orbits. The first VEP evaluation was performed 3.2 months before surgery and post-operative VEP control was done after a mean of 18.7 months. Fat decompression was performed in all cases and eight patients had also bony decompression. VEP amplitude and latency were affected in 10 and 15 cases before operation and six and nine after surgery, respectively. VEP amplitude and latency significantly improved after orbital decompression. Fat and orbital wall decompression are of paramount importance not only to improve exophthalmos and diplopia in patients affected by EO but also as rescue surgery for severe cases where optic neuropathy caused by stretching of the optical nerve is detected by VEP. Imaging and functional nerve evaluation are mandatory in all cases of EO. PMID:22424910

  7. Wavelet analysis can sensitively describe dynamics of ethanol evoked local field potentials of the slug (Limax marginatus) brain.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Atsuko; Ito, Iori; Rosso, Osvaldo A; Figliola, Alejandra

    2003-10-30

    Odorants evoke characteristic, but complex, local field potentials (LFPs) in the molluscan brain. Wavelet tools in combination with Fourier analysis can detect and characterize hitherto unknown discrete, slow potentials underlying the conspicuous oscillations. Ethanol was one of the odorants that we have extensively studied (J. Neurosci. Methods, 119 (2002) 89). To detect new features and to elucidate their functions, we tested the wavelet tools on the ethanol-evoked LFP responses of the slug (Limax) procerebrum. Recordings were made in vitro from the neuropile and the cell layer. The present study led to the following findings: (i) Mutual exclusion. Energy concentrated mainly in two ranges, (a) 0.1-0.4 Hz and (b) 1.56-12.5 Hz, and the sum of energy remained constant throughout experiments regardless of the condition. A redistribution of relative energy within this sum seemed to occur in the course of main, possible interactions between the two components excluding each other ('mutual exclusion'). (ii) Transient signal ordering and disordering. Ethanol stimulation alternatingly evoked periods of strongly time evolving oscillation dominated by the energy of 1.56-12.5 Hz (increase of entropy=disordered or complexly ordered state) and those of near-silence were predominated by the energy of 0.1-0.4 Hz (decrease of entropy=ordered state). (iii) About 0.1 Hz slow wave oscillation. It was robust. The dominant energy oscillation and the resulting large entropy fluctuation were negatively correlated to each other, and revealed strong frequency-tuning or synchronization at this frequency. Our findings suggest that discrete slow waves play functionally important roles in the invertebrate brain, as widely known in vertebrate EEG. Wavelet tools allow an easy interpretation of several minutes of frequency variations in a single display and give precise information on stimulus-evoked complex change of the neural system describing the new state 'more ordered' or 'non-ordered or more complexly ordered'. PMID:14511817

  8. Can Motor Evoked Potentials Be an Objective Parameter to Assess Extremity Function at the Acute or Subacute Stroke Stage?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude ratio measurements are sufficiently objective to assess functional activities of the extremities. We also delineated the distribution between the presence or absence of MEPs and the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength of the extremities. Methods We enrolled 183 patients with first-ever unilateral hemiplegia after stroke. The MEP parameters were amplitude ratio (amplitude of affected side/amplitude of unaffected side) recorded at the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. We performed frequency analyses using the MRC scale for muscle strength and the presence or absence of evoked MEPs. Change on the MRC scale, hand function tests (HFTs), and the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) subscore were compared between the evoked MEP and absent MEP groups using the independent t-test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff scores for the MEP amplitude ratio using the HFT results and MBI subscores. Correlations between the MEP amplitude ratio and the MRC scale, HFTs, and MBI subscore were analyzed. Results About 10% of patients with MRC scale grades 0-2 showed evoked MEPs at the FDI muscle, and 4% of patients with MRC scale grades 3-5 did not show MEPs. About 18% of patients with MRC scale grades 0-2 showed evoked MEPs at the TA muscle, and 4% of patients with MRC scale grades 3-5 did not show MEPs. MEP amplitude increased with increasing MRC scale grade. The evoked MEP group had more significant changes on the MRC scale, HFT, and the climbing stair score on the MBI than those in the group without MEPs. Larger MEP amplitude ratios were observed in patients who had more difficulty with the HFTs and ambulation. The MEP amplitude ratio was significantly correlated with the MRC scale, HFT, and MBI subscore. Conclusion We conclude that the MEP amplitude ratio may be useful to predict functional status of the extremities in patients who suffered stroke. PMID:25932422

  9. What is the validity of an "abnormal" evoked or event-related potential in MS? Auditory and visual evoked and event-related potentials in multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, J G; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Caekebeke, J F; Singh, A; Zwinderman, A H

    1992-05-01

    The predictive validity of evoked potentials (EPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not yet been fully investigated, as only the sensitivity of these tests has sofar been reported. EPs (short, middle and long latency auditory evoked potentials and visual evoked potentials) and ERPs (visual and auditory) were studied in 19 controls and 30 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Abnormality thresholds of peak latencies were defined on the basis of the mean plus 2 or 3 standard deviations, based on data from the control group. The effects of changing the latency thresholds and including the absence of peaks in the abnormality definition were assessed. In accordance with earlier reports we found a high sensitivity (up to 93% for bimodal combined EPs and 47% for combined ERPs). False positive rates of separate peaks were low and conformed to expectation. However, combining separate peak measurements increased false positive rates of EPs and ERPs to unacceptably high levels (up to 58% for combined EPs and 32% for combined ERPs). Positive likelihood ratios for bimodal EPs were low (between 1.6 and 4.0, depending on the abnormality definition). They ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 for bimodal ERPs. Abnormal combined EPs or ERPs were therefore not the reliable indicators of functional damage that they are supposed to be. Separate EPs were much more reliable in this respect. ERPs failed to distinguish between the groups, either separately or in combination. Changing the latency threshold and including absent peaks in the abnormality definition influenced the abnormality rates in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1517760

  10. Towards an Optimization of Stimulus Parameters for Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Radzikowska, Zofia; Milanowski, Piotr; Kuś, Rafał; Suffczyński, Piotr; Michalska, Magdalena; Łabęcki, Maciej; Zwoliński, Piotr; Durka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to construct an effective brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) commonly focus on sophisticated mathematical methods for data analysis. The role of different stimulus features in evoking strong SSVEP is less often considered and the knowledge on the optimal stimulus properties is still fragmentary. The goal of this study was to provide insight into the influence of stimulus characteristics on the magnitude of SSVEP response. Five stimuli parameters were tested: size, distance, colour, shape, and presence of a fixation point in the middle of each flickering field. The stimuli were presented on four squares on LCD screen, with each square highlighted by LEDs flickering with different frequencies. Brighter colours and larger dimensions of flickering fields resulted in a significantly stronger SSVEP response. The distance between stimulation fields and the presence or absence of the fixation point had no significant effect on the response. Contrary to a popular belief, these results suggest that absence of the fixation point does not reduce the magnitude of SSVEP response. However, some parameters of the stimuli such as colour and the size of the flickering field play an important role in evoking SSVEP response, which indicates that stimuli rendering is an important factor in building effective SSVEP based BCI systems. PMID:25398134

  11. The effects of click and tone-burst stimulus parameters on the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP).

    PubMed

    Akin, Faith Wurm; Murnane, Owen D; Proffitt, Tina M

    2003-11-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are short latency electromyograms (EMG) evoked by high-level acoustic stimuli and recorded from surface electrodes over the tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and are presumed to originate in the saccule. The present experiments examined the effects of click and tone-burst level and stimulus frequency on the latency, amplitude, and threshold of the VEMP in subjects with normal hearing sensitivity and no history of vestibular disease. VEMPs were recorded in all subjects using 100 dB nHL click stimuli. Most subjects had VEMPs present at 500, 750, and 1000 Hz, and few subjects had VEMPs present at 2000 Hz. The response amplitude of the VEMP increased with click and tone-burst level, whereas VEMP latency was not influenced by the stimulus level. The largest tone-burst-evoked VEMPs and lowest thresholds were obtained at 500 and 750 Hz. VEMP latency was independent of stimulus frequency when tone-burst duration was held constant. PMID:14708838

  12. Acoustically derived auditory nerve action potential evoked by electrical stimulation: an estimation of the waveform of single unit contribution.

    PubMed

    de Sauvage, R C; Cazals, Y; Erre, J P; Aran, J M

    1983-02-01

    An experimental study of the electrical stimulation of the guinea pig cochlea is made using an electrode on the round window for both stimulation and recording. The neural response is separated from the electrical artifact with a masking procedure combined with a low amplification, "statistical" averaging method [Charlet de Sauvage et al., Hear. Res. 2, 343-346 (1980)]. The high electrical impedance required for recording physiological responses implies the use of a current pulse generator. Monitoring of evoked potentials from the auditory cortex provides evidence that the effects of electrical stimulation (and of masking noise) are of auditory origin. The electrically evoked round window response is of very short latency (less than 0.2 ms). There is a response threshold for both electrical stimulus and masking noise. The response amplitude varies monotonically as a function of masking noise or electrical stimulus intensity. Experiments with high-pass noise masking suggest that the electrical stimulus is mainly acting on basal fibers. The response latency and waveform are independent of electrical stimulus intensity, repetition rate, masker level, or spectrum. Little intersubject variation is noted. Our experiments (reciprocal forward masking by electrical and acoustic stimuli) suggest that a direct, instantaneous electrical stimulation of the fibers occurs. We believe that this response to electrical stimulation represents the mean unit response of the auditory nerve fibers. This approach may be useful in the separate study of cochlear and VIIIth nerve functions and in the analysis (deconvolution) of the acoustically evoked compound AP. PMID:6841801

  13. A clinical study of cortical auditory evoked potentials in cochlear implantees.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammod Delwar; Raghunandhan, S; Kameswaran, Mohan; Ranjith, R

    2013-12-01

    Normal maturation of central auditory pathways is a precondition for the optimal development of speech and language skills in children. The temporal cortex gets acoustically tagged due to auditory stimulation and important changes occur in the higher auditory centers due to hearing loss of any type and degree. Cochlear implantation increases auditory sensitivity by direct electrical activation of auditory nerve fibers, enabling phonemic awareness, discrimination and identification ultimately yielding speech understanding. Early implantation stimulates a brain that has not been re-organized and will therefore be more receptive to auditory input and greater auditory capacity. Cortical potentials have enabled us to objectively study this phenomenon. To assess the outcomes of Cochlear implants on the auditory cortex by analyzing cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in the habilitation period. This prospective clinical study was performed in 30 pre-lingual candidates with varied etiology of deafness who underwent cochlear implantation at our institute over the last 1 year. The study group had two cohorts (group-1: 0-8 years and group-2: 8-15 years) which included candidates with normal inner ear and no syndromes or handicaps. All implantees in the study group underwent CAEP testing at 6 months and 1 year post-implantation and comparison of the CAEP wave parameters (P1 amplitude, P1 latency and P1 morphology) were done between the two cohorts. In children Implanted early (group-1) there was an early onset rapid increase in P1 amplitude along with a decrease in P1 latency during the follow-up period. Significant change in the CAEP wave morphology was also notable in group-1 unlike in group-2. Candidates who experienced less than 3 years of auditory deprivation before implantation showed P1 latencies, which fell into the range of normal children within 6 months of habilitation. Children with more than 6 years of auditory deprivation, however, generally did not develop normal P1 latencies or morphology even after 1 year of habilitation. The overall outcome with CAEP was much better in group-1 as compared to group-2 and the observations were is in comparison with the existing world literature. The advent of CAEP has objectively proved beyond doubt that there is a critical age for stimulating the auditory brain via cochlear implantation. There is considerable evidence for a developmental sensitive period, during which the auditory cortex is highly plastic. If sensory input is deprived to the auditory system during this sensitive period, then the central auditory system is susceptible to large scale reorganization. Restoring input to the auditory system by Cochlear Implant at an early age can provide the stimulation necessary to preserve the auditory pathways. However, if auditory input is not restored until after this developmental period, then the cross-modal reorganized pathways may exhibits abnormal functional characteristics as observed in recorded P1 amplitude, latencies and morphologies of CAEPs. PMID:24427719

  14. The developmental effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gok, Deniz Kantar; Akpinar, Deniz; Hidisoglu, Enis; Ozen, Sukru; Agar, Aysel; Yargicoglu, Piraye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the developmental effects of extremely low frequency electric fields (ELF-EFs) on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and to examine the relationship between lipid peroxidation and changes of these potentials. In this context, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Wistar albino female rats were divided into four groups; Control (C), gestational (prenatal) exposure (Pr), gestational+ postnatal exposure (PP) and postnatal exposure (Po) groups. Pregnant rats of Pr and PP groups were exposed to 50 Hz electric field (EF) (12 kV/m; 1 h/day), while those of C and Po groups were placed in an inactive system during pregnancy. Following parturition, rats of PP and Po groups were exposed to ELF-EFs whereas rats of C and Pr groups were kept under the same experimental conditions without being exposed to any EF during 68 days. On postnatal day 90, rats were prepared for VEP and SEP recordings. The latencies of VEP components in all experimental groups were significantly prolonged versus C group. For SEPs, all components of PP group, P2, N2 components of Pr group and P1, P2, N2 components of Po group were delayed versus C group. As brain TBARS levels were significantly increased in Pr and Po groups, retina TBARS levels were significantly elevated in all experimental groups versus C group. In conclusion, alterations seen in evoked potentials, at least partly, could be explained by lipid peroxidation in the retina and brain. PMID:25496054

  15. [Phenomenological model of changes in evoked potentials of the sensomotor area of the large cerebral hemispheres during processing of conditioned reflexes].

    PubMed

    Chuprun, B E; Serdiuchenko, V M

    1999-01-01

    A phemenological model of variations in evoked potentials during conditioning is proposed. The model consists of four linear differentional equations. Variations in a wide range of only one parameter of the system of differential equations correspond to all variations in evoked potentials. A variation of this parameter in the presence of constant disturbances at the system input gives rise to the appearance of a constant or increasing signal at the output of the system, which is characteristic for the expectancy wave. PMID:10544829

  16. Antioxidant Treatments Recover the Alteration of Auditory-Evoked Potentials and Reduce Morphological Damage in the Inferior Colliculus after Perinatal Asphyxia in Rat.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Miren; Arteaga, Olatz; Montalvo, Haizea; Alvarez, Antonia; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2016-03-01

    Maturation of the auditory pathway is dependent on the central nervous system myelination and it can be affected by pathologies such as neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Our aim was to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway and to visualize, by histological and cellular methods, the damage to the brainstem using a neonatal rat model of HI brain injury. To carry out this morphofunctional evaluation, we studied the effects of the administration of the antioxidants nicotine, melatonin, resveratrol and docosahexaenoic acid after hypoxia-ischemia on the inferior colliculus and the auditory pathway. We found that the integrity of the auditory pathway in the brainstem was altered as a consequence of the HI insult. Thus, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed increased I-V and III-V wave latencies. At a histological level, HI altered the morphology of the inferior colliculus neurons, astrocytes and oligodendricytes, and at a molecular level, the mitochondria membrane potential and integrity was altered during the first hours after the HI and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity is increased 12 h after the injury in the brainstem. Following antioxidant treatment, ABR interpeak latency intervals were restored and the body and brain weight was recovered as well as the morphology of the inferior colliculus that was similar to the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that antioxidant treatments have a protective effect on the functional changes of the auditory pathway and on the morphological damage which occurs after HI insult. PMID:25990815

  17. Facilitation of somatosensory average-evoked potentials in hysterical anesthesia and pain.

    PubMed

    Moldofsky, H; England, R S

    1975-02-01

    Psychophysiological inhibition theories of hysterical anesthesia were not supported in a study of habituation of scalp somatosensory average-evoked responses. Facilitation, rather than habituation, was found in responses contralaterial to the affected side with strong tactile stimuli in patients with hysterical heminesthesia or hemihypoesthesia, regional pain, and weakness. We suggest that the increase in response amplitude is related to the unusual congnitive set in these patients. Corticufugal influences on tactile sensory input might be mediated through increasing-excitation in a spinal-gating system. PMID:1115567

  18. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials and subjective visual vertical testing in patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Otolith function in subjects with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is investigated through vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) testing. The study group included 62 patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (30 females, 32 males), with age range 24-56 years (40.6 ± 9.1). The control group included 44 healthy volunteers of similar age and gender distribution. The entire study group had: (1) serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml; (2) normal bone mineral density as indicated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with T-score >-1; (3) normal middle ear function; (4) Age is ?60 years. All subjects enrolled in the current study underwent audiovestibular evaluation consisting of pure-tone audiometry, immittancemetry, cervical VEMP (cVEMP), ocular VEMP (oVEMP), and SSV. The entire control group had normal cVEMP, two subjects had abnormal oVEMP. Thirty-three subjects (53%) in the study group had abnormal oVEMP and 31 subjects (50%) had abnormal cVEMP. Forty-one (66%) had abnormal VEMP when abnormal VEMP was considered as either abnormal oVEMP or cVEMP. The entire control and study groups had normal SSV test results. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with development of otolith dysfunction affecting both the utricle and saccule. This was suggested by the high prevalence of abnormal ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) in the study group. PMID:25411075

  19. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. PMID:24047593

  20. Role of Lead in the Central Nervous System: Effect on Electroencephlography, Evoked Potentials, Electroretinography, and Nerve Conduction.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Kunal K; Sutherling, William W

    2015-06-01

    The toxic effects of lead on the brain are well known, but its effects on EEG and evoked potentials (EPs) are not generally known in the neurodiagnostic community. Despite public health efforts, lead is still widely present at low levels in the environment. Even at low concentrations, lead is known to cause biochemical and physiological dysfunction. The present article reviews the effects of lead exposure on the central nervous system, with a special emphasis on the developing brain. Additionally, it describes the effects of lead on EEG, EPs, electroretinography, and nerve conduction studies. PMID:26173349

  1. Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellum Modifies the TMS-Evoked N100 Potential, a Marker of GABA Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP), a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18–30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed) received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS), continuous TBS (cTBS) or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions. The first 8 participants received TBS at a stimulus intensity of 80% of active motor threshold (AMT), while the remainder received 90% of AMT. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) and TEP were recorded before and after each treatment, by stimulating the first dorsal interosseus area of the left motor cortex. Analysis of the 13 right handed participants showed that iTBS at 90% of AMT increased the N100 amplitude compared to sham and cTBS, without significantly altering MEP amplitude. cTBS at 80% of active motor threshold decreased the N100 amplitude and cTBS overall reduced resting MEP amplitude. The study demonstrates effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on inhibitory cortical networks that may be useful for treatment of neurological conditions associated with dysfunctional intracortical inhibition. PMID:26529225

  2. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guang-Hua

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Requirements for synaptically evoked plateau potentials in relay cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, Emily K; Shin, Hee-Sup; Guido, William

    2011-01-01

    In developing cells of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), synaptic responses evoked by optic tract (OT) stimulation give rise to long-lasting, high-amplitude depolarizations known as plateau potentials. These events are mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels and occur during early postnatal life, a time when retinogeniculate connections are remodelling. To better understand the relationship between L-type activity and dLGN development we used an in vitro thalamic slice preparation which preserves the retinal connections and intrinsic circuitry in dLGN and examined how synaptic responses evoked by OT stimulation lead to the activation of plateau potentials. By varying the strength and temporal frequency of OT stimulation we identified at least three factors that contribute to the developmental regulation of plateau activity: the degree of retinal convergence, the temporal pattern of retinal stimulation and the emergence of feed-forward inhibition. Before natural eye opening (postnatal day 14), the excitatory synaptic responses of relay cells receiving multiple retinal inputs summated in both the spatial and temporal domains to produce depolarizations sufficient to activate L-type activity. After eye opening, when inhibitory responses are fully developed, plateau activity was rarely evoked even with high temporal rates of OT stimulation. When the bulk of this inhibition was blocked by bath application of bicuculline, the incidence of plateau activity increased significantly. We also made use of a transgenic mouse that lacks the β3 subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel. These mutants have far fewer membrane-bound Ca2+ channels and attenuated L-type activity. In β3 nulls, L-type plateau activity was rarely observed even at young ages when plateau activity prevails. Thus, in addition to the changing patterns of synaptic connectivity and retinal activity, the expression of L-type Ca2+ channels is a requisite component in the manifestation of plateau activity. PMID:21173075

  4. [The auditory evoked potentials of the brain stem in the guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, J

    1988-01-01

    The examination of the standard waves' amplitude and latency of the brain stem auditory evoked response (BAEP) was performed in 20 guinea pigs (males and females, weighing 250 to 300 g). According with the relative loudness of stimuli (90, 70, 50, 30, 10 dB SPL), the latency of BAEP waves was larger (t1 = 0.2 msec), but the conductance time between P1 to P5 was constant (3.1 to 3.6 msec). The highest wave of BAEP was P2 with an amplitude: 90 dB SPL, U = 6.5 +/- 1.2 microV; 70 dB SPL, U = 4.3 +/- 1.0 microV; 50 dB SPL, U = 3.5 +/- 0.6 microV; 30 dB SPL, U = 2.0 +/- 0.4 microV. PMID:3229616

  5. Clinical Use of Skull Tap Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials for the Diagnoses of the Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Erdem; Lachowska, Magdalena; Piercha?a, Katarzyna; Morawski, Krzysztof; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Delgado, Rafael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To document our experiences using a new skull tapping induced Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (tap VEMPs) technique combined with standard Auditory Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (AC VEMPs) for advanced clinical assessment of cerebellopontine angle tumor (CPAT) patients. Design and Study Sample. Three patients were selected in order to highlight observations shown in a larger patient population and to show the variability of the findings. Both tap VEMPs and AC VEMPs were acquired from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) with EMG-based biofeedback and monitoring. Results. The usefulness of VEMPs was demonstrated, indicating the presence of a tumor and contributing additional information as to the involved nerve bundles in two out of the three cases. Conclusion. Due to the sensory organ dependency and related innervations differences, acquiring both AC VEMPs and tap VEMPs is likely to increase the probability of diagnosing CPATs and provide more information on the involved vestibular nerve bundles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the possible expansion and combination of tap VEMPs and AC VEMPs techniques into a clinical diagnostic battery for advanced assessment of CPAT patients and its contribution as a guideline for the use of tap VEMPs in general. PMID:24804198

  6. Effect of imperceptible vibratory noise applied to wrist skin on fingertip touch evoked potentials - an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lauer, Abigail W; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    Random vibration applied to skin can change the sense of touch. Specifically, low amplitude white-noise vibration can improve fingertip touch perception. In fact, fingertip touch sensation can improve even when imperceptible random vibration is applied to other remote upper extremity areas such as wrist, dorsum of the hand, or forearm. As such, vibration can be used to manipulate sensory feedback and improve dexterity, particularly during neurological rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the neurological bases for remote vibration enhanced sensory feedback are yet poorly understood. This study examined how imperceptible random vibration applied to the wrist changes cortical activity for fingertip sensation. We measured somatosensory evoked potentials to assess peak-to-peak response to light touch of the index fingertip with applied wrist vibration versus without. We observed increased peak-to-peak somatosensory evoked potentials with wrist vibration, especially with increased amplitude of the later component for the somatosensory, motor, and premotor cortex with wrist vibration. These findings corroborate an enhanced cortical-level sensory response motivated by vibration. It is possible that the cortical modulation observed here is the result of the establishment of transient networks for improved perception. PMID:26603457

  7. The need to add motor evoked potential monitoring to somatosensory and electromyographic monitoring in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM), utilizing somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and electromyography (EMG), was introduced to cervical spine surgery in the late 1980's. However, as SEP only provided physiological data regarding the posterior cord, new motor deficits were observed utilizing SEP alone. This prompted the development of motor evoked potential monitoring (MEP) which facilitated real-time assessment of the anterior/anterolateral spinal cord. Although all three modalities, SEP, EMG, and MEP, are routinely available for IONM of cervical spine procedures, MEP are not yet routinely employed. The purpose of this review is to emphasize that MEP should now routinely accompany SEP and EMG when performing IONM of cervical spine surgery. Interestingly, one of the most common reasons for malpractice suits involving the cervical spine, is quadriparesis/quadriplegia following a single level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Previously, typical allegations in these suits included; negligent surgery, lack of informed consent, failure to diagnose/treat, and failure to brace. Added to this list, perhaps, as the 5th most reason for a suit will be failure to monitor with MEP. This review documents the value of MEP monitoring in addition to SEP and EMG monitoring in cervical spine surgery. The addition of MEP0 should minimize major motor injuries, and more accurately and reliably detect impending anterior cord deterioration that may be missed with SEP monitoring alone. PMID:24340237

  8. Effect of imperceptible vibratory noise applied to wrist skin on fingertip touch evoked potentials – an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Na Jin; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lauer, Abigail W; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Random vibration applied to skin can change the sense of touch. Specifically, low amplitude white-noise vibration can improve fingertip touch perception. In fact, fingertip touch sensation can improve even when imperceptible random vibration is applied to other remote upper extremity areas such as wrist, dorsum of the hand, or forearm. As such, vibration can be used to manipulate sensory feedback and improve dexterity, particularly during neurological rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the neurological bases for remote vibration enhanced sensory feedback are yet poorly understood. This study examined how imperceptible random vibration applied to the wrist changes cortical activity for fingertip sensation. We measured somatosensory evoked potentials to assess peak-to-peak response to light touch of the index fingertip with applied wrist vibration versus without. We observed increased peak-to-peak somatosensory evoked potentials with wrist vibration, especially with increased amplitude of the later component for the somatosensory, motor, and premotor cortex with wrist vibration. These findings corroborate an enhanced cortical-level sensory response motivated by vibration. It is possible that the cortical modulation observed here is the result of the establishment of transient networks for improved perception. PMID:26603457

  9. Variation in the hearing sensitivity of a dolphin population determined through the use of evoked potential audiometry.

    PubMed

    Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J

    2006-12-01

    A portable electrophysiological data collection system was used to assess hearing in a captive population of bottlenose dolphins by recording auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). The AEP system used a transducer embedded in a suction cup to deliver amplitude modulated tones to the dolphin through the lower jaw. Evoked potentials were recorded noninvasively using surface electrodes. Adaptive procedures allowed hearing thresholds to be estimated from 10 to 150 kHz in a single ear in about 45 min. Hearing thresholds were measured in 42 bottlenose dolphins (28 male, 14 female), ranging in age from 4 to 47 years. Variations in hearing sensitivity with age and sex followed patterns seen in humans and terrestrial mammals: generally, within the population there was a progressive loss of high frequency hearing with age and an earlier onset of hearing loss in males than in females. Hearing loss generally occurred between the ages of 20 and 30, and all animals over the age of 27 had some degree of hearing loss. Two dolphins with profound hearing loss were found within the population. Aberrant hearing patterns were observed in related dolphins suggesting genetic links to hearing ability may exist. PMID:17225435

  10. Physiological origins of evoked magnetic fields and extracellular field potentials produced by guinea-pig CA3 hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shingo; Zhang, Tongsheng; Hirose, Akira; Okada, Yoshio C

    2002-01-01

    This study examined whether evoked magnetic fields and intra- and extracellular potentials from longitudinal CA3 slices of guinea-pig can be interpreted within a single theoretical framework that incorporates ligand- and voltage-sensitive conductances in the dendrites and soma of the pyramidal cells. The 1991 CA3 mathematical model of R. D. Traub is modified to take into account the asymmetric branching patterns of the apical and basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The revised model accounts for the magnitude and waveform of the bi- and triphasic magnetic fields evoked by somatic and apical stimulations, respectively, in the slice in the absence of fast inhibition (blocked by 0.1 mm picrotoxin). The revised model also accounts for selective effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), which block the potassium channels of A and C type, respectively, on the slow wave of the magnetic fields. Furthermore, the model correctly predicts the laminar profiles of field potential as well as intracellular potentials in the pyramidal cells produced by two classes of cells - those directly activated and those indirectly (synaptically) activated by the applied external stimulus. The intracellular potentials in this validated model reveal that the spikes and slow waves of the magnetic fields are generated in or near the soma and apical dendrites, respectively. These results demonstrate that a single theoretical framework couched within the modern concepts of cellular physiology provides a unified account of magnetic fields outside the slice, extracellular potentials within the slice and intracellular potentials of the pyramidal cells for CA3. PMID:12356895

  11. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (p<0.05) smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  12. Brainstem neurons survive the identical ischemic stress that kills higher neurons: insight to the persistent vegetative state.

    PubMed

    Brisson, C Devin; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Kim, Danielle; Jin, Albert Y; Andrew, R David

    2014-01-01

    Global ischemia caused by heart attack, pulmonary failure, near-drowning or traumatic brain injury often damages the higher brain but not the brainstem, leading to a 'persistent vegetative state' where the patient is awake but not aware. Approximately 30,000 U.S. patients are held captive in this condition but not a single research study has addressed how the lower brain is preferentially protected in these people. In the higher brain, ischemia elicits a profound anoxic depolarization (AD) causing neuronal dysfunction and vasoconstriction within minutes. Might brainstem nuclei generate less damaging AD and so be more resilient? Here we compared resistance to acute injury induced from simulated ischemia by 'higher' hippocampal and striatal neurons versus brainstem neurons in live slices from rat and mouse. Light transmittance (LT) imaging in response to 10 minutes of oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) revealed immediate and acutely damaging AD propagating through gray matter of neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex. In adjacent brainstem nuclei, OGD-evoked AD caused little tissue injury. Whole-cell patch recordings from hippocampal and striatal neurons under OGD revealed sudden membrane potential loss that did not recover. In contrast brainstem neurons from locus ceruleus and mesencephalic nucleus as well as from sensory and motor nuclei only slowly depolarized and then repolarized post-OGD. Two-photon microscopy confirmed non-recoverable swelling and dendritic beading of hippocampal neurons during OGD, while mesencephalic neurons in midbrain appeared uninjured. All of the above responses were mimicked by bath exposure to 100 µM ouabain which inhibits the Na+/K+ pump or to 1-10 nM palytoxin which converts the pump into an open cationic channel. Therefore during ischemia the Na+/K+ pump of higher neurons fails quickly and extensively compared to naturally resilient hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. The selective survival of lower brain regions that maintain vital functions will support the persistent vegetative state. PMID:24802253

  13. INHALATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE (COS) PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND ALTERED BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENSORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISHCER 344N RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the amount of carbonyl sulfide (COS) emissions and the lack of toxicological data, COS was listed in the Clean Air Act of 1990 as a Hazardous Air Pollutant. In 1999 COS was nominated by the US EPA to the National Toxicology Program for additional toxicological investig...

  14. 12 WEEK EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND CHANGES IN BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENAORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISCHER 344N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, is a metabolite of carbon disulfide, is produced by the combustion of organic material, and is found occurring in nature. COS was included in a Toxic Substances Control Act request f...

  15. Assessment of Brainstem Function with Auricular Branch of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weise, David; Adamidis, Melanie; Pizzolato, Fabio; Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Fricke, Christopher; Classen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background The efferent dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nuclei complex may degenerate early in the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD), while efferent nucleus ambiguous, the principal source of parasympathetic vagal neurons innervating the heart, and afferent somatosensory nuclei remain intact. Objective To obtain neurophysiological evidence related to this pattern, we tested processing of afferent sensory information transmitted via the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) which is known to be connected to autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, we recorded (i) somatosensory evoked potentials (ABVN-SEP) and (ii) cutaneo-cardioautonomic response elicited by stimulation of the ABVN (modulation of heart-rate variability (HRV index; low frequency power, ln(LF), high frequency power, ln(HF); ln(LF/HF) ratio)) in 50 PD patients and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls. Additionally, auditory evoked potentials and trigeminal nerve SEP were assessed. Results Neither ABVN-SEP nor any of the other functional brainstem parameters differed between patients and controls. Although HRV index was decreased in PD patients, modulation of ln(LF/HF) by ABVN-stimulation, likely indicating cardiac parasympathetic activation, did not differ between both groups. Conclusions Findings do not point to prominent dysfunction of processing afferent information from ABVN and its connected parasympathetic cardiac pathway in PD. They are consistent with the known pattern of degeneration of the vagal nuclei complex of the brainstem. PMID:25849807

  16. Does migraine-associated vertigo share a common pathophysiology with Meniere's disease? Study with vestibular-evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Murofushi, T; Ozeki, H; Inoue, A; Sakata, A

    2009-12-01

    To clarify if migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) and Meniere's disease (MD) share a common pathophysiology, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were measured in 11 patients with MAV, 11 with unilateral MD and eight healthy subjects. As acoustic stimuli, tone bursts (TB; 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) were presented. In healthy subjects, 500-Hz TB evoked the largest amplitude. To quantify this tendency, 500-1000 VEMP slope was calculated, and 500-1000 VEMP slope was the smallest on the affected side of MD patients. Among the 11 MD patients, five had significantly decreased 500-1000 VEMP asymmetry (shift of the tuning to 1000 Hz). Three of the 11 MAV patients also showed a significantly decreased 500-1000 VEMP slope. This finding suggests that MAV might share a common pathophysiology with MD. In addition to this finding, four of the other eight MAV patients showed prolonged p13 latencies. This suggests that MAV could consist of patients with different lesion sites. PMID:19911463

  17. Contribution of Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) testing in the assessment and the differential diagnosis of otosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tramontani, Ourania; Gkoritsa, Eleni; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Korres, Stavros G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical importance of Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) in the assessment and differential diagnosis of otosclerosis and otologic diseases characterized by “pseudo-conductive” components. We also investigated the clinical appearance of balance disorders in patients with otosclerosis by correlating VEMP results with the findings of caloric testing and pure tone audiometry(PTA). Material/Methods Air-conducted(AC) 4-PTA, bone-conducted(BC) 4-PTA, air-bone Gap(ABG), AC, BC tone burst evoked VEMP, and calorics were measured preoperatively in 126 otosclerotic ears. Results The response rate of the AC-VEMPs and BC-VEMPs was 29.36% and 44.03%, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the means of ABG, AC 4-PTA, and BC 4-PTA in the otosclerotic ears in relation to AC-VEMP elicitability. About one-third of patients presented with disequilibrium. A statistically significant interaction was found between calorics and dizziness in relation to PTA thresholds. No relationship was found between calorics and dizziness with VEMPs responses. Conclusions AC and BC VEMPs can be elicited in ears with otosclerosis. AC-VEMP is more vulnerable to conductive hearing loss. Evaluation of AC-VEMP thresholds can be added in the diagnostic work-up of otosclerosis in case of doubt, enhancing differential diagnosis in patients with air-bone gaps. Otosclerosis is not a cause of canal paresis or vertigo. PMID:24509900

  18. Heat-evoked experimental pain induces long-term potentiation-like plasticity in human primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Biasiotta, A; Belvisi, D; Marsili, L; La Cesa, S; Truini, A; Cruccu, G; Berardelli, A

    2013-08-01

    We designed a new paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol that combines experimental pain evoked by laser stimuli and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (Laser-PAS) to primary motor cortex (M1). We tested in healthy subjects whether Laser-PAS elicits cortical plasticity as reflected by long-term changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) (after-effects). In separate experiments, we examined numerous variables including changes induced by varying the interstimulus intervals (ISIs) and Laser-PAS-induced changes in target and non-target muscle MEPs. We measured MEPs after repetitive laser or TMS (rTMS) pulses, and compared magnetic- and electric (TES)-induced MEPs. We tested MEPs after applying Laser-PAS with laser pulses ipsilaterally to M1. Finally, we studied subjects receiving an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (memantine) or placebo (?-lipoic acid). During Laser-PAS at the 50 ms ISI MEPs decreased, thereafter they increased for 60 min; other ISIs induced no after-effects. The after-effects remained restricted to the target muscle. Repetitive laser pulses and rTMS induced no after-effects. After Laser-PAS, TMS-induced MEPs increased, whereas TES-induced MEPs did not. Laser-PAS with laser pulses ipsilaterally to M1 left MEPs unchanged. Memantine, but not ?-lipoic acid, abolished the after-effects. In conclusion, Laser-PAS elicits NMDA-dependent cortical plasticity and provides new insights into human pain-motor integration. PMID:22744704

  19. The face evoked steady-state visual potentials are sensitive to the orientation, viewpoint, expression and configuration of the stimuli.

    PubMed

    Vakli, Pál; Németh, Kornél; Zimmer, Márta; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the steady-state visual-evoked potential (SSVEP) is reduced to the repetition of the same identity face when compared with the presentation of different identities, suggesting high-level neural adaptation to face identity. Here we investigated whether the SSVEP is sensitive to the orientation, viewpoint, expression and configuration of faces (Experiment 1), and whether adaptation to identity at the level of the SSVEP is robust enough to generalize across these properties (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, repeating the same identity face with continuously changing orientation, viewpoint or expression evoked a larger SSVEP than the repetition of an unchanged face, presumably reflecting a release of adaptation. A less robust effect was observed in the case of changes affecting face configuration. In Experiment 2, we found a similar release of adaptation for faces with changing orientation, viewpoint and configuration, as there was no difference between the SSVEP for the same and different identity faces. However, we found an adaptation effect for faces with changing expressions, suggesting that face identity coding, as reflected in the SSVEP, is largely independent of the emotion displayed by faces. Taken together, these results imply that the SSVEP taps high-level face representations which abstract away from the changeable aspects of the face and likely incorporate information about face configuration, but which are specific to the orientation and viewpoint of the face. PMID:25455428

  20. Stimulus specificity of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kian B.; Bradley, Andrew P.; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms of neural excitation and inhibition when given a visual stimulus are well studied. It has been established that changing stimulus specificity such as luminance contrast or spatial frequency can alter the neuronal activity and thus modulate the visual-evoked response. In this paper, we study the effect that stimulus specificity has on the classification performance of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). For example, we investigate how closely two visual stimuli can be placed before they compete for neural representation in the cortex and thus influence BCI classification accuracy. We characterize stimulus specificity using the four stimulus parameters commonly encountered in SSVEP-BCI design: temporal frequency, spatial size, number of simultaneously displayed stimuli and their spatial proximity. By varying these quantities and measuring the SSVEP-BCI classification accuracy, we are able to determine the parameters that provide optimal performance. Our results show that superior SSVEP-BCI accuracy is attained when stimuli are placed spatially more than 5° apart, with size that subtends at least 2° of visual angle, when using a tagging frequency of between high alpha and beta band. These findings may assist in deciding the stimulus parameters for optimal SSVEP-BCI design.

  1. Distortion of magnetic evoked fields and surface potentials by conductivity differences at boundaries in brain tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J C; Nicholson, C; Okada, Y C

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the conditions under which inhomogeneity in electrical conductivity may significantly modify the magnetic evoked field (MEF) due to primary currents (i.e., neuronal currents) in the brain. In the case of an isolated turtle cerebellum immersed in a large bath of physiological saline, our theoretical analysis showed the cerebellar surface to significantly enhance the MEF due to a primary current, by a factor of as much as two, for experimentally determined values of the conductivities of the cerebellar tissue and saline. A further parametric investigation of the conductivity effect revealed that conductivity boundaries may significantly modify the MEF due to neuronal currents located within 1 mm of a conductivity boundary, as would be the case for active neurons near an edema, an anoxic fringe such as might occur during stroke, or a ventricle in the human head. For a stationary neural source, conductivity boundaries may modify the magnitude of its MEF without affecting its temporal waveform. However, this boundary effect was found to be small for a model geometry locally approximating cortical sources in a sulcus or a fissure, where the boundary effects from adjacent sulcal walls tend to cancel each other. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:2393701

  2. Differential processing of immediately repeated verbal and non-verbal stimuli: an evoked-potential study.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Aurélie L; Schnider, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli are better retained in memory if they are repeated after a delay than if they are immediately repeated. This effect is called the spacing effect (SE). Recent electroencephalographic (EEG) studies showed that delayed repetition of meaningful designs in a continuous recognition task induces an evoked response very similar to new presentations. In contrast, immediately repeated designs induced circumscribed, stronger activation of the left medio-temporal lobe (MTL) at 200-300 ms. In amnesic subjects, this signal was missing, indicating that it has a memory-protective effect. Here, high-density EEG was used in humans to explore whether meaningless verbal (non-words) and non-verbal (geometric designs) stimuli also have a SE associated with such lateralized, temporally limited activation of the left MTL upon immediate repetition. The results revealed a SE for both materials. Timing and localization of brain activity differed as a function of stimulus material. Specific responses to immediate repetitions occurred at 200-285 ms for non-verbal stimuli and at 285-380 ms for verbal material. Source estimations revealed increased activity in right inferior frontal areas for immediate non-verbal repetitions and in left fronto-parietal areas for immediate verbal repetition in comparison to new presentations. These findings show that, while the SE is a ubiquitous phenomenon, the neural processes underlying it vary according to stimulus material. PMID:26506905

  3. Pregabalin modulation of spinal and brainstem visceral nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2011-10-01

    Brainstem and spinal mechanisms mediating visceral nociception are investigated here using electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry techniques in a model of acute visceral pain. Colorectal distension (CRD) produced graded visceromotor responses (VMR) in normal rats, and these were facilitated by intracolonic mustard oil (MO) that generated acute visceral hyperalgesia. The neuropathic pain drug pregabalin (PGB) is thought to have state-dependent effects in attenuating neuropathic, but not acute somatic pain, likely by impairing calcium-channel trafficking. We found that systemic PGB produced antinociceptive effects on CRD-evoked VMRs in naïve rats lacking pathophysiology and in MO-pretreated rats. Systemic PGB also significantly reduced Fos labelling in lumbosacral spinal cords of rats given noxious repetitive CRD; however, PGB did not alter this measure of neural activity in the brainstem. Differential brainstem processing of noxious somatic and visceral stimuli may underlie the unique lack of state-dependent actions of PGB in this visceral pain model. Single-unit recordings in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) verify that brainstem processing of somatic and visceral stimuli differs. The effects of CRD on RVM cells classed as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL were independent of their somatic responses, with surprising changes in RVM cell activity to innocuous visceral stimulation. PGB also markedly reduced the visceral responses of RVM ON-cells to noxious CRD. These results illustrate clear differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic stimuli, yet a common role for descending modulation by brainstem activity in mediating evoked pain measures. PMID:21778018

  4. Pregabalin modulation of spinal and brainstem visceral nociceptive processing

    PubMed Central

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem and spinal mechanisms mediating visceral nociception are investigated here using electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry techniques in a model of acute visceral pain. Colorectal distension (CRD) produced graded visceromotor responses (VMR) in normal rats, and these were facilitated by intracolonic mustard oil (MO) that generated acute visceral hyperalgesia. The neuropathic pain drug pregabalin (PGB) is thought to have state-dependent effects in attenuating neuropathic, but not acute somatic pain, likely by impairing calcium-channel trafficking. We found that systemic PGB produced antinociceptive effects on CRD-evoked VMRs in naïve rats lacking pathophysiology and in MO-pretreated rats. Systemic PGB also significantly reduced Fos labelling in lumbosacral spinal cords of rats given noxious repetitive CRD; however, PGB did not alter this measure of neural activity in the brainstem. Differential brainstem processing of noxious somatic and visceral stimuli may underlie the unique lack of state-dependent actions of PGB in this visceral pain model. Single-unit recordings in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) verify that brainstem processing of somatic and visceral stimuli differs. The effects of CRD on RVM cells classed as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL were independent of their somatic responses, with surprising changes in RVM cell activity to innocuous visceral stimulation. PGB also markedly reduced the visceral responses of RVM ON-cells to noxious CRD. These results illustrate clear differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic stimuli, yet a common role for descending modulation by brainstem activity in mediating evoked pain measures. PMID:21778018

  5. In-Air Evoked Potential Audiometry of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the North and Baltic Seas

    PubMed Central

    Ruser, Andreas; Dähne, Michael; Sundermeyer, Janne; Lucke, Klaus; Houser, Dorian S.; Finneran, James J.; Driver, Jörg; Pawliczka, Iwona; Rosenberger, Tanja; Siebert, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    In-air anthropogenic sound has the potential to affect grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) behaviour and interfere with acoustic communication. In this study, a new method was used to deliver acoustic signals to grey seals as part of an in-air hearing assessment. Using in-ear headphones with adapted ear inserts allowed for the measurement of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) on sedated grey seals exposed to 5-cycle (2-1-2) tone pips. Thresholds were measured at 10 frequencies between 1–20 kHz. Measurements were made using subcutaneous electrodes on wild seals from the Baltic and North Seas. Thresholds were determined by both visual and statistical approaches (single point F-test) and good agreement was obtained between the results using both methods. The mean auditory thresholds were ≤40 dB re 20 µPa peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) between 4–20 kHz and showed similar patterns to in-air behavioural hearing tests of other phocid seals between 3 and 20 kHz. Below 3 kHz, a steep reduction in hearing sensitivity was observed, which differed from the rate of decline in sensitivity obtained in behavioural studies on other phocids. Differences in the rate of decline may reflect influence of the ear inserts on the ability to reliably transmit lower frequencies or interference from the structure of the distal end of the ear canal. PMID:24632891

  6. In-air evoked potential audiometry of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the North and Baltic Seas.

    PubMed

    Ruser, Andreas; Dähne, Michael; Sundermeyer, Janne; Lucke, Klaus; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J; Driver, Jörg; Pawliczka, Iwona; Rosenberger, Tanja; Siebert, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    In-air anthropogenic sound has the potential to affect grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) behaviour and interfere with acoustic communication. In this study, a new method was used to deliver acoustic signals to grey seals as part of an in-air hearing assessment. Using in-ear headphones with adapted ear inserts allowed for the measurement of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) on sedated grey seals exposed to 5-cycle (2-1-2) tone pips. Thresholds were measured at 10 frequencies between 1-20 kHz. Measurements were made using subcutaneous electrodes on wild seals from the Baltic and North Seas. Thresholds were determined by both visual and statistical approaches (single point F-test) and good agreement was obtained between the results using both methods. The mean auditory thresholds were ≤40 dB re 20 µPa peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) between 4-20 kHz and showed similar patterns to in-air behavioural hearing tests of other phocid seals between 3 and 20 kHz. Below 3 kHz, a steep reduction in hearing sensitivity was observed, which differed from the rate of decline in sensitivity obtained in behavioural studies on other phocids. Differences in the rate of decline may reflect influence of the ear inserts on the ability to reliably transmit lower frequencies or interference from the structure of the distal end of the ear canal. PMID:24632891

  7. Clinical and instrumental (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and multimodal evoked potentials) follow-up of brain lesions in three young patients with neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Presicci, Anna; Ventura, Patrizia; Maria Bacca, Simona; Iliceto, Gianni; Medicamento, Nicola; Buttiglione, Maura; Perniola, Tommaso

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1 is based on clinical criteria. In a large number of children with neurofibromatosis 1, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals high-signal T(2)-weighted intensities in different brain regions, defined as unidentified bright objects. These lesions are asymptomatic; most of them regress spontaneously with age, but the presence of contrast enhancement or mass effect in them usually strongly suggests an increased risk of proliferative changes. To date, few studies have focused on evoked potentials in patients with neurofibromatosis 1, and the reported abnormalities did not have significant clinical correlations. We describe the clinical and instrumental (MRI and evoked potentials) follow-up of three patients with neurofibromatosis 1. MRI and evoked potentials showed subclinical involvement of the central nervous system. Some MRI T(2)-weighted hyperintensities showed enhancement and mass effect of uncertain significance. During follow-up, the MRI lesions spontaneously decreased in size or enhancement, allowing us to exclude the hypothesis of proliferative lesions; in the same way, some asymptomatic evoked potential abnormalities disappeared. These findings suggest that both MRI and evoked potentials could be useful in the detection and monitoring of cerebral complications of neurofibromatosis 1. PMID:17156707

  8. The N3 potential compared to sound and galvanic vestibular evoked myogenic potential in healthy subjects and in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Versino, Maurizio; Ranza, Laura; Colnaghi, Silvia; Alloni, Roberto; Callieco, Roberto; Romani, Alfredo; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Pichiecchio, Anna; Bastianello, Stefano; Cosi, Vittorio

    2007-01-01

    Both sound (s-) and galvanic (g-) vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) enable us to study the saccular pathways. However, the VEMP can be abnormal for non-vestibular factors, such as insufficient activation of the sterno-cleido-mastoid (SCM) muscle or a lesion that involves the accessory nucleus and/or nerve or the SCM muscle. These drawbacks do not affect another technique that evaluates the saccular function: the N3 potential. We recorded both the s- and the g-VEMP and the N3 potential in a group of 31 healthy subjects to establish a reference range. The N3 potential and the s-VEMP were recordable bilaterally from all the subjects, whereas the g-VEMP was undetectable uni- or bilaterally in 7 subjects. The latency and amplitude values of the s-VEMP did not differ from those of the g-VEMP. For all three techniques, the latency and amplitude values from the right and from the left recording and/or stimulation side were the same. We suggest using normative latency and amplitude values based on the mean and ratio of the right- and left-side values. The s-VEMP, the N3 potential and the auditory evoked response (ABR) were compared in 15 subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis. The three techniques detected a similar number of abnormalities, but these abnormalities were not correlated. This suggests that these different techniques should be regarded as complementary in evaluating saccular function. PMID:18219103

  9. The Vestibular-Auditory Interaction for Auditory Brainstem Response to Low Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Since saccular projection is sound sensitive, the objective is to investigate the possibility that the saccular projections may contribute to auditory brainstem response to 500?HZ tone burst (ABR500?HZ). During the case-control research, twenty healthy controls compared to forty selected case groups as having chronic and resistant BPPV were evaluated in the audiology department of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, Iran). Assessment is comprised of audiologic examinations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), and ABR500?HZ. We found that forty affected ears of BPPV patients with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs had abnormal results in ABR500?HZ, whereas unaffected ears presented normal findings. Multiple comparisons of mean p13, n23 latencies, and peak-to-peak amplitudes between three groups (affected, unaffected, and healthy ears) were significant. In conclusion, the saccular nerves can be projective to auditory bundles and interact with auditory brainstem response to low frequencies. Combine the cVEMPs and ABR500?HZ in battery approach tests of vestibular assessment and produce valuable data for judgment on the site of lesion. Regarding vestibular cooperation for making of wave V, it is reasonable that the term of ABR500?HZ is not adequate and the new term or vestibular-auditory brainstem response to 500?HZ tone burst is more suitable. PMID:25006510

  10. Solid and hollow pedicle screws affect the electrical resistance: A potential source of error with stimulus-evoked electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Liao, Xinhua; Ma, Xianguang; Li, Changqing; Han, Jianda; Zhou, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although stimulus evoked electromyography (EMG) is commonly used to confirm the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are no studies to differentiate between solid screws and hollow screws to the electrical resistance of pedicle screws. We speculate that the electrical resistance of the solid and hollow pedicle screws may be different and then a potential source of error with stimulus-evoked EMG may happen. Materials and Methods: Resistance measurements were obtained from 12 pedicle screw varieties (6 screws of each manufacturer) across the screw shank based on known constant current and measured voltage. The voltage was measured 5 times at each site. Results: Resistance of all solid screws ranged from 0.084 Ω to 0.151 Ω (mean =0.118 ± 0.024 Ω) and hollow screws ranged from 0.148 Ω to 0.402 Ω (mean = 0.285 ± 0.081 Ω). There was a significant difference of resistance between the solid screws and hollow screws (P < 0.05). The screw with the largest diameter no matter solid screws or hollow screws had lower resistance than screws with other diameters. No matter in solid screws group or hollow screws group, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the 5.0 mm screws and 6.0 mm screws, 6.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 5.0 mm screws and 7.0 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 5.5 mm screws, 5.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws, 4.5 mm screws and 6.5 mm screws. The resistance of hollow screws was much larger than the solid screws in the same diameter group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hollow pedicle screws have the potential for high electrical resistance compared to the solid pedicle screws and therefore may affect the EMG response during stimulus-evoked EMG testing in pedicle screw fixation especially in minimally invasive percutaneous pedical screw fixation surgery. PMID:23960278

  11. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm infant: short latency cortical somatosensory evoked potentials compared with cranial ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, L S; Eken, P; Pierrat, V; Daniels, H; Casaer, P

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and twenty six preterm infants, with a gestational age of 34 weeks or less, were studied to compare the predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) with that of cranial ultrasound. A normal N1 latency was no guarantee of a normal outcome, nor did a persistently delayed N1 latency always correlate with a poor outcome. As a predictor of cerebral palsy, SEPs had a sensitivity of 44% and a specificity of 92%. The presence of a large haemorrhage (grade IIb/III) or cystic leukomalacia on cranial ultrasound predicted cerebral palsy with a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 83.1%. These results demonstrate that the role of SEPs recorded after median nerve stimulation is limited in preterm infants. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1444553

  12. Focal capsular vascular lesions can selectively deafferent the prerolandic or the parietal cortex: somatosensory evoked potentials evidence.

    PubMed

    Mauguière, F; Desmedt, J E

    1991-07-01

    Four patients with a unilateral focal vascular accident involving the internal capsule (but not the cortex) were studied electrophysiologically. Averaged somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the median nerve on the left or the right side were analyzed. In the 3 patients with hemiparesis and normal somatic sensation, the precentral P22 and N30 SEP components were lost, whereas the parietal components were preserved. In another patient with clinical somatosensory loss unaccompanied by any central motor impairment, the precentral SEP components were preserved, whereas the parietal SEP components were lost. Thus, a small capsular lesion can eliminate distinct cortical SEP components by selectively involving either the axons of the thalamic VPLc nucleus going to parietal receiving cortex or the axons of thalamic VPLo going to motor area 4. These findings extend to subcortical lesions the diagnostic value of SEPs in patients with dissociated clinical motor and sensory signs. PMID:1929229

  13. Effects of rotation on the sleep state-dependent midlatency auditory evoked P50 potential in the human

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dornhoffer, John L.; Mamiya, N.; Bray, P.; Skinner, Robert D.; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Sopite syndrome, characterized by loss of initiative, sensitivity to normally innocuous sensory stimuli, and impaired concentration amounting to a sensory gating deficit, is commonly associated with Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The amplitude of the P50 potential is a measure of level of arousal, and a paired-stimulus paradigm can be used to measure sensory gating. We used the rotary chair to elicit the sensory mismatch that occurs with SMS by overstimulating the vestibular apparatus. The effects of rotation on the manifestation of the P50 midlatency auditory evoked response were then assessed as a measure of arousal and distractibility. Results showed that rotation-induced motion sickness produced no change in the level of arousal but did produce a significant deficit in sensory gating, indicating that some of the attentional and cognitive deficits observed with SMS may be due to distractibility induced by decreased habituation to repetitive stimuli.

  14. Posterior tibial and sural nerve somatosensory evoked potentials: a study in spastic paraparesis and spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Aalfs, C M; Koelman, J H; Posthumus Meyjes, F E; Ongerboer de Visser, B W

    1993-12-01

    In two groups of patients posterior tibial nerve (PTN) and sural nerve (SN) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were compared to each other and related to classified neurological signs. Group A consisted of 7 patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) and 8 with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), with solely or primarily motor deficits. Group B consisted of 12 patients with different spinal cord diseases causing variable mixed sensory and motor impairments. Normal values were derived from 39 controls. A clear trend towards more frequently prolonged PTN SEP than SN SEP latencies was found in both groups and appears to make PTN SEPs more useful for clinical application than SN SEPs. No significant differences were found in SEP abnormalities when the two patient groups were compared to each other. No relationships were found between SEP abnormalities and spasticity, weakness or any single sensory modality, making the two SEPs questionable as a quantitative test for neurological deficits in our patients. PMID:7507431

  15. Sensitivity of late-latency auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials to threat of electric shock and the sedative drugs diazepam and diphenhydramine in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scaife, J C; Groves, J; Langley, R W; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2006-07-01

    Late-latency auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials are sensitive to some centrally acting drugs and to certain psychological interventions. In this experiment we compared the effects of acute doses of a benzodiazepine, diazepam and an H(1) histamine receptor-blocking sedative, diphenhydramine, on auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials within the latency range 100-500 ms in a fear conditioning paradigm. Twelve healthy males (18-30 years) participated in three sessions at weekly intervals in which they received diazepam 10mg, diphenhydramine 75 mg and placebo in a balanced, double-blind, crossover protocol. One hundred and twenty min after diphenhydramine or 60 min after diazepam, they underwent an 8 min recording period in which auditory evoked potentials elicited by 40 ms, 95 dB[A], 1 kHz tones, and somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by a mildly painful electric shock (1.8 mA, 50 ms) were recorded at Cz (vertex). Each session consisted of four blocks of trials in which either the sound pulse or the shock was presented. Alternate blocks were designated SAFE or THREAT ('context' conditions); in THREAT blocks subjects were warned that shocks would be delivered via electrodes placed on the wrist (electrodes were removed during SAFE blocks). In one SAFE and one THREAT block, the sound stimuli and shocks (shocks were delivered only in the THREAT block) were preceded by a 2 s conditioned stimulus (CS: a red light) ('cue' condition). Diazepam, but not diphenhydramine, reduced the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked potential. The THREAT context was associated with increased N1 and reduced N2 potential amplitudes. The CS had no effect on the amplitudes, but markedly reduced the latencies of the N1, P2 and N2 potentials under the THREAT condition. Diazepam reduced the amplitudes of the somatosensory potential evoked by the shock; the CS shortened the latencies of the later components of the response. Diazepam and diphenhydramine were approximately equi-sedative in the doses used in this experiment, as judged by visual analogue self-rating scales. The results indicate that the suppression of late-latency auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials by diazepam is not simply a reflection of sedation. Late-latency evoked potentials can be modified by an aversive CS, but the components that are sensitive to the CS are different from those that are sensitive to diazepam. PMID:16204321

  16. A new method for registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials for studies of proprioceptive sensitivity in normal subjects and patients with organic lesions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gordeev, S A; Voronin, S G

    2015-01-01

    The proprioceptive sensitivity of healthy volunteers and convalescents after acute cerebrovascular episodes was studied by a new neurophysiological method for registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials emerging in response to passive 50(o) bending of the hand in the wrist joint with the angular acceleration of 350 rad/sec(2). Kinesthetic evoked potentials were recorded above the somatosensory cortex projection areas in the hemispheres contra- and ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. The patients exhibited significantly longer latencies and lesser amplitudes of the early components of response in the involved hemisphere in comparison with normal subjects. The method for registration of the kinesthetic evoked potentials allows a more detailed study of the mechanisms of kinesthetic sensitivity in health and in organic involvement of the brain. PMID:25567199

  17. A brainstem anosognosia of hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Kiyoka; Uchida, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    A woman had anosognosia for hemiplegia as a manifestation of brainstem infarction. She had no mental or neuropsychological disturbances, and had involvement of the brainstem in the frontal/parietal-subcortical circuits to the right cerebral hemisphere. Brainstem lesions that disrupt frontal/parietal-subcortical areas may affect anosognosia for hemiplegia. PMID:21577351

  18. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M; Jackson, Douglas J; Naber, John F; Ziv, R Ofer; Rizzo, Joseph F; Kaplan, Henry J; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab