Sample records for brainstem evoked potentials

  1. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials following head injury.

    PubMed

    Savanovi?, V; Jovici?, A; Kitanoski, B; Magdi?, B; Umi?evi?, P; Cirkovi?, S; Savanovi?, L

    2000-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were examined in 40 patients with subjective disorders following closed head injury (CHI), with the established degree of recovery and performed CT-scan of the head. For all BAEP parameters the interval of normality was defined as 3 SD above and below mean value in the control group comprised of 20 healthy subjects. The upper limits of thus defined intervals of normality enabled the formation of four types of findings: type 1--normal finding that was registered in 23 (57.5%) patients; type 2 was a sum of individual findings with the prolonged interpeak latencies, but without the change of relative amplitude V:I--7 (17.5%) recordings; type 3--the findings where the fall of relative amplitude V:I was registered together with the prolongation of interpeak latency. It comprised of 4 (10%) recordings and the type 4 included 6 (15%) individual recordings with registered low RA V:I (0.8 or lower). The explanation of the most probable genesis of registered changes was presented. PMID:10838952

  2. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p<0.0001) and wave V (t(50)=19.730; p<0.0001) but no delay in wave I (p=0.548). They also had significantly longer latencies than controls for interwave intervals I–III, III–V, and I–V (all t(50)> 7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated ? synuclein and/or ? amyloid 1–42. Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children’s exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. PMID:21458557

  3. Brainstem Evoked Potential in Newly Diagnosed Patients of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Sood, Sushma; Madan, Harnam Singh; Das, Sibadatta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with impairment of hearing. The hearing impairment may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. Aims: The aim is to assess the auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in newly diagnosed patients of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy sex- and age-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. The unpaired Student's t-test was used and a P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Wave V of right ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (6 ± 0.62 ms) compared to group I (5.49 ± 0.26 ms), and wave V of left ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (5.84 ± 0.57 ms) compared to group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was no significant coefficient of correlation between wave V and inter-peak latency (IPL) I-V compared to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of both the ears. Conclusion: The prolongation of wave V in BAEPs of both ears suggests that the central auditory pathway is affected significantly in subclinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:25973399

  4. Differentiating cerebellar and brainstem lesions with ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Hung Su; Yi-Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    This study applied both ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests in patients with\\u000a cerebellar disorders to determine whether VEMP test can differentiate between cerebellar and brainstem lesions. A total of\\u000a 12 patients with cerebellar disorder, including extended cerebellar lesion (involving the brainstem) in 8 and localized cerebellar\\u000a lesion (excluding the brainstem) in 4, were enrolled in

  5. Identification of sensory neural hearing loss in very preterm infants by brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, B C; Baudin, J; Conway, M J; Hazell, J W; Stewart, A L; Reynolds, E O

    1985-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded in 117 newborn infants of less than 33 weeks of gestation. The potentials were absent in 10 infants (bilaterally in eight and unilaterally in two) and present in 107. By 1 year of age nine of the 10 infants with absent brainstem auditory evoked potentials were shown to have sensory neural hearing loss and required hearing aids: the remaining infant had secretory otitis media. None of the 107 infants whose auditory evoked potentials were present were found to have sensory neural hearing loss but 13 had secretory otitis media. Measurement of brainstem auditory evoked potentials is an accurate method of identifying sensory neural hearing loss in very preterm infants. PMID:4038866

  6. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in acoustic tumor patients with normal auditory brainstem responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Matsuzaki; T. Murofushi; M. Mizuno

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the utility of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in detecting acoustic tumors, we report\\u000a two patients who were found to have normal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and abnormal VEMPs. To record VEMPs, electromyographic\\u000a responses to brief loud clicks (0.1 ms at 95 dBnHL) were amplified and averaged on the sternocleidomastoid muscle ipsilateral\\u000a to the stimulated

  7. Differentiating cerebellar and brainstem lesions with ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Hung; Young, Yi-Ho

    2011-06-01

    This study applied both ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests in patients with cerebellar disorders to determine whether VEMP test can differentiate between cerebellar and brainstem lesions. A total of 12 patients with cerebellar disorder, including extended cerebellar lesion (involving the brainstem) in 8 and localized cerebellar lesion (excluding the brainstem) in 4, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent caloric, visual suppression, and oVEMP and cVEMP tests via bone-conducted vibration stimuli. The abnormal rates for the caloric, visual suppression, and oVEMP and cVEMP tests were 62, 83, 88 and 75% in patients with extended cerebellar lesion and 0, 25, 0 and 0% in those with localized cerebellar lesion, respectively. The rate of abnormal oVEMP results significantly differed between the two groups, but caloric, visual suppression and cVEMP test results did not differ. In another ten healthy subjects, characteristic parameters of oVEMPs obtained under light and dark conditions did not significantly differ. In conclusion, ocular VEMP test can differentiate between cerebellar and brainstem lesions. Abnormal oVEMPs in patients with cerebellar disorder may indicate adjacent brainstem involvement. PMID:21170655

  8. Acoustically evoked potentials in two cephalopods inferred using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Yan, Hong Young; Chung, Wen-Sung; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2009-07-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether cephalopods can detect sound frequencies above 400 Hz. So far there is no proof for the detection of underwater sound above 400 Hz via a physiological approach. The controversy of whether cephalopods have a sound detection ability above 400 Hz was tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach, which has been successfully applied in fish, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles and birds. Using ABR we found that auditory evoked potentials can be obtained in the frequency range 400 to 1500 Hz (Sepiotheutis lessoniana) and 400 to 1000 Hz (Octopus vulgaris), respectively. The thresholds of S. lessoniana were generally lower than those of O. vulgaris. PMID:19275944

  9. Abnormalities of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in idiopathic Parkinson's disease are associated with clinical evidence of brainstem involvement.

    PubMed

    de Natale, Edoardo R; Ginatempo, Francesca; Paulus, Kai S; Pes, Giovanni M; Manca, Andrea; Tolu, Eusebio; Agnetti, Virgilio; Deriu, Franca

    2015-06-01

    Brainstem degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) may explain the occurrence of many non-motor symptoms in this condition. Purposes of the present work were to investigate brainstem function in PD through a battery of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) allowing a comprehensive brainstem exploration and to correlate VEMP findings with symptoms related to brainstem involvement. Cervical (cVEMP), masseter (mVEMP) and ocular (oVEMP) VEMPs were investigated in 24 PD patients and compared with those recorded in 24 age-matched controls. Presence of symptoms ascribable to brainstem dysfunction, such as daytime sleepiness, REM sleep behavior disorder and depression, was investigated through Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale, REM Sleep Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBD-SQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale. Postural instability was additionally assessed through mini-BESTest. The frequency of alteration of VEMPs in patients was 83.3 % when considering the whole set and 41.7 % for cVEMP, 66.7 % for mVEMP and 45.8 % for oVEMP. This was significantly different from controls, with absence being the prevalent alteration in PD. A significant inverse correlation between the number of altered VEMPs and mini-BESTest and a direct correlation with RBD-SQ were found. The VEMP battery under study allowed the identification of brainstem dysfunctions in PD patients, which correlated with clinical tests suggestive of postural and REM sleep disorders. VEMPs might represent a valuable tool of brainstem assessment in PD. PMID:25567081

  10. Effect of Prolonged Use of Mobile Phone on Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Darshan; Sharma, Rajiv; Arora, Khushdeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mobile phones are being widely used throughout the world. Electromagnetic waves generated from mobile phones have raised concerns as these may have adverse effects on human auditory system owing to the daily use of mobile phones. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the effects of long term mobile phone usage on auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR). Materials and Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional, case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Total 100 healthy subjects aged 18 to 30 years of both the genders were selected, out of which 67 subjects were long-term GSM mobile phone users (using mobile phone for more than 1 year) and 33 were controls who were mobile phone non users. Both the groups were investigated for ABR and changes were studied in both the ears of cases and controls to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic exposure. Results No significant difference (p>0.05) was found in latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes of ABR waves between cases and controls. Conclusion Our study shows that long term usage of mobile phones does not affect propagation of electrical stimuli along the auditory nerve to auditory brainstem centres.

  11. Altered brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a rat central sensitization model are similar to those in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Xianghong; Galbraith, Gary; Pikov, Victor; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Migraine symptoms often include auditory discomfort. Nitroglycerin (NTG)-triggered central sensitization (CS) provides a rodent model of migraine, but auditory brainstem pathways have not yet been studied in this example. Our objective was to examine brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in rat CS as a measure of possible auditory abnormalities. We used four subdermal electrodes to record horizontal (h) and vertical (v) dipole channel BAEPs before and after injection of NTG or saline. We measured the peak latencies (PLs), interpeak latencies (IPLs), and amplitudes for detectable waveforms evoked by 8, 16, or 32 KHz auditory stimulation. At 8 KHz stimulation, vertical channel positive PLs of waves 4, 5, and 6 (vP4, vP5, and vP6), and related IPLs from earlier negative or positive peaks (vN1-vP4, vN1-vP5, vN1-vP6; vP3-vP4, vP3-vP6) increased significantly 2 hours after NTG injection compared to the saline group. However, BAEP peak amplitudes at all frequencies, PLs and IPLs from the horizontal channel at all frequencies, and the vertical channel stimulated at 16 and 32 KHz showed no significant/consistent change. For the first time in the rat CS model, we show that BAEP PLs and IPLs ranging from putative bilateral medial superior olivary nuclei (P4) to the more rostral structures such as the medial geniculate body (P6) were prolonged 2 hours after NTG administration. These BAEP alterations could reflect changes in neurotransmitters and/or hypoperfusion in the midbrain. The similarity of our results with previous human studies further validates the rodent CS model for future migraine research. PMID:24680742

  12. A new vision on the averaging technique for the estimation of non-stationary Brainstem Auditory-Evoked Potentials: application of a metaheuristic method.

    PubMed

    Naït-Ali, Amine; Siarry, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this paper consists in highlighting the use of the averaging technique in some biomedical applications, such as evoked potentials (EP) extraction. We show that this technique, which is generally considered as classical, can be very efficient if the dynamic model of the signal to be estimated is a priori known. Therefore, using an appropriate model and under some specific conditions, one can show that the estimation can be performed efficiently even in case of a very low signal to noise ratio (SNR), which occurs when handling Brainstem Auditory-Evoked Potentials. PMID:16054617

  13. A model for simulation of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2009-08-01

    An important aspect of research in the continued development of cochlear implants is the in vivo assessment of signal processing algorithms. One technique that has been used is evoked potentials, the recording of neural responses to auditory stimulation. Depending on the latency of the observed response, the evoked potential indicates neural activity at the various neurological structures of the auditory system. Electrically evoked ABRs are commonly measured in hearing-impaired patients who have cochlear implants, via electrical stimulation delivered by electrodes in the implanted array. This research explores the use of MATLAB for the purpose of developing a model for electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The simulation model developed in this study takes as its input the stimulus current intensity level, and uses function vectors and equations derived from measured ABRs, to generate an approximation of the evoked surface potentials. A function vector is used to represent the combined firing of the neurons of the auditory nervous system that are needed to elicit a measurable response. Equations have been derived to represent the latency and stimulus amplitude scaling functions. The simulation also accounts for other neural activity that can be present in and contaminate an ABR recording, and reduces it through time-locked averaging of the simulated response. In the MATLAB simulation, the model performs well and delivers results that compare favorably with the results measured from the research subjects.

  14. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. I. Superior olivary complex.

    PubMed

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 45 days after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the superior olivary complex (SOC) to produce neuronal destruction while sparing fibers of passage and the terminals of axons of extrinsic origin connecting to SOC neurons. The components of the ABR in cat were labeled by their polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents labeled P1a and P1b. The correspondences we have assumed between the ABR components in cat and man are indicated by providing a Roman numeral designation for the human component in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P4 (V). With bilateral SOC destruction, there was a significant and marked attenuation of waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), P4 (V), P5 (VI), and the sustained potential shift (SPS) amounting to as much as 80% of preoperative values. Following unilateral SOC destruction the attenuation of many of these same ABR components, in response to stimulation of either ear, was up to 50%. No component of the ABR was totally abolished even when the SOC was lesioned 100% bilaterally. In unilaterally lesioned cats with extensive neuronal loss (greater than 75%) the latencies of the components beginning at P3 (IV) were delayed to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection site but not to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection. Binaural interaction components of the ABR were affected in proportion to the attenuation of the ABR. These results are compatible with multiple brain regions contributing to the generation of the components of the ABR beginning with P2 (III) and that components P3 (IV), P4 (V), and P5 (VI) and the sustained potential shift depend particularly on the integrity of the neurons of the SOC bilaterally. The neurons of the lateral subdivision (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of the SOC have a major role in generating waves P3 (IV) and P4 (V). PMID:1716568

  15. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. II. Cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 6 weeks after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally into the cochlear nucleus (CN) producing extensive neuronal destruction. The ABR components were labeled by the polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents, P1a and P1b. The assumed correspondence between the ABR components in cat and man is indicated by providing human Roman numeral designations in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P2 (III). To stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection, the ABR changes consisted of a loss of components P2 (III) and P3 (IV), and an attenuation and prolongation of latency of components P4 (V) and P5 (VI). The sustained potential shift from which the components arose was not affected. Wave P1a (I) was also slightly but significantly attenuated compatible with changes of excitability of nerve VIII in the cochlea secondary to cochlear nucleus destruction. Unexpectedly, to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection side, waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), and P4 (V) were also attenuated and delayed in latency but to a lesser degree than to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection. Changes in binaural interaction of the ABR following cochlear nucleus lesions were similar to those produced in normal animals by introducing a temporal delay of the input to one ear. The results of the present set of studies using kainic acid to induce neuronal loss in auditory pathway when combined with prior lesion and recording experiments suggest that each of the components of the ABR requires the integrity of an anatomically diffuse system comprising a set of neurons, their axons, and the neurons on which they terminate. Disruption of any portion of the system will alter the amplitude and/or the latency of that component. PMID:1716569

  16. Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses in Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Phan, Ha T. T.; Gardner, Judith M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Gordon, Anne; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were compared in 15 newborns with Down syndrome and 15 sex-, age-, and weight-matched control newborns. Participants had normal ABRs based upon values specific to 32- to 42-weeks postconceptional age. Although Wave III and Wave V component latencies and the Wave I-III interpeak latency (IPL) were shorter…

  17. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response in Children with Central Language Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, Leonard R.; Anderson, Theodora

    1983-01-01

    Two groups of 10 children between the ages of 94 and 165 months were paired for age (wthin 6 months) and sex and were compared for Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response patterns. One child in each pair showed evidence of central language disturbance as determined by neuropsychological testing. The other did not. All had normal hearing and IQs of 80…

  18. Development of Brainstem-Evoked Responses in Congenital Auditory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tillein, J.; Heid, S.; Lang, E.; Hartmann, R.; Kral, A.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the development of the auditory system in hearing and completely acoustically deprived animals, naive congenitally deaf white cats (CDCs) and hearing controls (HCs) were investigated at different developmental stages from birth till adulthood. The CDCs had no hearing experience before the acute experiment. In both groups of animals, responses to cochlear implant stimulation were acutely assessed. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (E-ABRs) were recorded with monopolar stimulation at different current levels. CDCs demonstrated extensive development of E-ABRs, from first signs of responses at postnatal (p.n.) day 3 through appearance of all waves of brainstem response at day 8?p.n. to mature responses around day 90?p.n.. Wave I of E-ABRs could not be distinguished from the artifact in majority of CDCs, whereas in HCs, it was clearly separated from the stimulus artifact. Waves II, III, and IV demonstrated higher thresholds in CDCs, whereas this difference was not found for wave V. Amplitudes of wave III were significantly higher in HCs, whereas wave V amplitudes were significantly higher in CDCs. No differences in latencies were observed between the animal groups. These data demonstrate significant postnatal subcortical development in absence of hearing, and also divergent effects of deafness on early waves II–IV and wave V of the E-ABR. PMID:22792488

  19. Electroencephalographic and evoked potential monitoring in the hyperbaric environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Litscher; Gerhard Friehs; Helfrid Maresch; Gert Pfurtscheller

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate brain bioelectrical activity during hyperbaric oxygenation by continuous and\\u000a simultaneous monitoring of electroenccphalographic and bimodal (auditory, somatosensory) evoked potentials. Multivariable\\u000a recordings (electroencephalogram, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, early somatosensory evoked potentials, heart rate,\\u000a heart rate variability, and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen) were measured with a new technique in 12 healthy male\\u000a volunteers

  20. Modified brainstem auditory evoked responses in patients with non-brainstem compressive cerebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L; Fino, John; Vannemreddy, Prasad; Charbel, Fady

    2012-01-01

    The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is sensitive to pontomesencephalic integrity, transtentorial brain herniation, and at times increased intracranial pressure (ICP). The authors report their experience utilizing a recently described rapid rate, binaural, click and 1,000-Hz tone-burst modification of the BAER (MBAER) in 22 symptomatic non-trauma patients with non-brainstem compressive space-taking cerebral lesions. The majority presented with mild to moderate clinical signs suggestive of increased ICP, and focal neurological deficits. The cerebral lesions, mostly tumors (17), averaged 4-5 cm in diameter, with radiological signs of mass effect such as flattening of the sulci, midline shift, and narrowing of the basal cisterns. A number of significant changes in Wave V and V (n) latency and less so amplitude were found in patients compared with age-matched normal volunteers, as well as those again studied after surgical decompression. Similar MBAER changes had been noted in normal volunteers placed in a dependent head position. Possible mechanisms to explain these findings are discussed. The methodology shows promise and if combined with automated peak recognition could make Neuro ICU monitoring practical. PMID:22327668

  1. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been used by neuroscientists for many years. The versatility of the method is attested to be the differing purposes to which it has been applied. Initially, SEPs were used to uncover basic principles of sensory processing. A casual glan...

  2. SUPERIOR COLLICULUS LESIONS AND FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM RAT CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally assumed that the primary response of the rat flash evoked potential (FEP) is activated by a retino-geniculate pathway, and that the second response reflects input to the cortex by way of the superior colliculus (SC) or other brainstem structures. In the present st...

  3. UNRECOGNIZED ERRORS DUE TO ANALOG FILTERING OF THE BRAIN-STEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is used as a tool both in clinical evaluation and in toxicological research, where the subject is most often the laboratory rat. As in other species, interpretation of the rat BAER waveform is based on the latencies and amplitudes of ...

  4. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF HYPOTHERMIA AND PENTOBARBITAL ON BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hypothermia and pentobarbital anesthesia, alone and in combination, on the brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) of rats. n experiment I, unanesthetized rats were cooled to colonic temperatures 0.5 and 1.0 degrees C...

  5. Amplitude and phase equalization of stimuli for click evoked auditory brainstem responses.

    PubMed

    Beutelmann, Rainer; Laumen, Geneviève; Tollin, Daniel; Klump, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    Although auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), the sound-evoked brain activity in response to transient sounds, are routinely measured in humans and animals there are often differences in ABR waveform morphology across studies. One possible reason may be the method of stimulus calibration. To explore this hypothesis, click-evoked ABRs were measured from seven ears in four Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) using three common spectrum calibration strategies: Minimum phase filter, linear phase filter, and no filter. The results show significantly higher ABR amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio, and better waveform resolution with the minimum phase filtered click than with the other strategies. PMID:25618102

  6. Somatosensory evoked potentials in syringomyelia.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, N E; Frith, R W; Synek, V M

    1986-01-01

    The two types of upper limb somatosensory evoked potential abnormality observed in nine patients with syringomyelia were reduced amplitude or absent cervical potentials and an abnormal central conduction time. Although this pattern of abnormalities resembles that observed in other intrinsic spinal cord lesions, it differs from peripheral nerve diseases and cervical radiculopathy in which the central conduction time is normal. PMID:3806117

  7. Evoked Potentials and Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, John P.; Schafer, Edward W. P.

    Evidence of a relationship between the electrical responses of the human brain and psychometric measure of intelligence is presented. These involuntary cortical responses, known as average evoked potentials are considered to be the electrical signs of information processing by the brain. The time delays of these responses from presentation of a…

  8. Electrically-Evoked Frequency-Following Response (EFFR) in the Auditory Brainstem of Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruxiang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Daoxing; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    It is still a difficult clinical issue to decide whether a patient is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant and to plan postoperative rehabilitation, especially for some special cases, such as auditory neuropathy. A partial solution to these problems is to preoperatively evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory neural pathways. For evaluating the strength of phase-locking of auditory neurons, which was not reflected in previous methods using electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), a new method for recording phase-locking related auditory responses to electrical stimulation, called the electrically evoked frequency-following response (EFFR), was developed and evaluated using guinea pigs. The main objective was to assess feasibility of the method by testing whether the recorded signals reflected auditory neural responses or artifacts. The results showed the following: 1) the recorded signals were evoked by neuron responses rather than by artifact; 2) responses evoked by periodic signals were significantly higher than those evoked by the white noise; 3) the latency of the responses fell in the expected range; 4) the responses decreased significantly after death of the guinea pigs; and 5) the responses decreased significantly when the animal was replaced by an electrical resistance. All of these results suggest the method was valid. Recording obtained using complex tones with a missing fundamental component and using pure tones with various frequencies were consistent with those obtained using acoustic stimulation in previous studies. PMID:25244253

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  10. The Evoked Potential in Pharmacopsychiatry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Saletu

    1977-01-01

    Somatosensory, visual and auditory evoked potentials (EP) were recorded in different psychiatric populations before as well as during psychotropic drug treatment. Drug-free schizophrenic patients showed shorter latencies, smaller amplitudes and an increased intraindividual variability in their EP than controls. Psychotic children but also children of schizophrenic mothers (so-called high-risk children) exhibited similar differences as compared to controls, suggesting a CNS

  11. Impact of modulating phase duration on electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses obtained during cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Bonne, N-X; Douchement, D; Hosana, G; Desruelles, J; Fayoux, P; Ruzza, I; Vincent, C

    2015-05-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of increasing phase duration (pulse width, T-pulse) using a biphasic pulse composed of an initial anodic active phase followed by a balancing cathodic phase on the electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) recorded at the time of cochlear implantation. Design eABRs recorded during 188 surgeries for cochlear implantation from 1999 to 2006 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed by two independent observers. All patients were fitted with a NEURELEC cochlear implant (CI) device, initially DIGISONIC(®) then DIGISONIC SP(®) (2004-2006). Result Immediately following cochlear implantation, stimulation by the CI resulted in reliable wave III and V eABR waveforms (mean wave III latency 2.23 ± 0.38 ms SD and wave V latency 4.28 ± 0.42 ms SD). Latencies followed an apical to basal gradient (0.32 ms increase in mean eV latency and 0.12 ms for eIII latency). With increasing phase duration, wave III and wave V latencies significantly decreased in association with a shortening of the eIII-eV interwave gap, while amplitudes of both waves increased. Conclusion The impact of increasing phase duration on latency and amplitude of brainstem responses in a large set of patients implanted with NEURELEC CIs was reported. PMID:25167217

  12. Prognostic significance of the auditory brainstem evoked response in high-risk neonates.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, A; Rosenblatt, B; Riley, P

    1988-02-01

    The prognostic significance of the auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) was examined in this prospective study of neonates at risk for neurodevelopmental sequelae. ABR testing was performed in the neonatal period (37 to 45 weeks conceptional age) and at two and/or six months corrected age. 34 high-risk newborns and 14 controls were followed to one year of age, when they received neurological and developmental assessments. Increased I to III and I to V interwave latencies predicted gross motor delay at one year, with a positive predictive power of 83 per cent and a specificity of 94.7 per cent. Increased brainstem conduction, dispersal of waves III to V and V/I amplitude ratio abnormalities predicted abnormal neurological findings at one year, with positive predictive values of 100, 100 and 80 per cent, respectively. A standard clinical examination of the newborn, performed on the at-risk and control infants at 40 weeks conceptional age, was not found to be strongly predictive of neurodevelopmental deficits at one year. PMID:3371571

  13. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Murad; Bay?r, Omer; Yüceege, Melike B; Karagöz, Tu?ba; F?rat, Hikmet; Ozdek, Ali; Ak?n, Istemihan; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) provokes oxidative stress and ischemia, which affects the central nervous system. The degeneration of neurons in the brainstem due to periodic hypoxia can be evaluated by vestibular and audiologic tests. The objective of this study is to determine brainstem damage in severe OSAS patients with the help of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses. Prospective, randomize, double-blind. Research-training hospital. We compared cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) responses between severe OSAS patients and a control group. 54 patients were included and divided into the OSAS group, with severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI >70), and a control group with snoring without OSAS (AHI <5). Both groups underwent cVEMP. Bilateral recordings with simultaneous binaural logon stimulations were used during VEMP recordings. The existing p1n1 and n2p2 responses, p1, n1, n2, and p2 latencies and amplitudes, and p1n1 and n2p2 intervals were measured. Statistically significant differences were revealed between patients and controls for the response rate of the p1n1, n2p2 and p1n1, n2p2 amplitudes. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the latencies of p1, n1, n2 and p2, or the p1n1 and n2p2 intervals. The VEMP response rate was lower in severe OSAS patients, and all amplitudes were shorter than in healthy subjects. VEMP recordings in severe OSAS subjects demonstrates abnormalities in brainstem pathways. It appears that brainstem damage in severe OSAS can be detected by cVEMP recordings. PMID:25288372

  14. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Patients With Acoustic Neuromas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihisa Murofushi; Masaki Matsuzaki; Masahiro Mizuno

    1998-01-01

    Background: To diagnose acoustic neuromas (ANs), the auditory brainstem response test and the caloric test have been used in addition to magnetic resonance imaging. The auditory brainstem response and the caloric tests mainly reflect functions of the auditory pathway, ie, the cochlear nerve and the superior vestibular nerve, respec- tively. Because the vestibular evoked myogenic poten- tial (VEMP) has been

  15. RECORDING OF VESTIBULAR EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sazgar; K. Akrami; S. Akrami; A. R. Karimi Yazdi

    It has been shown recently that loud clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting sternocleidomastoid muscles. Studies have suggested that these potentials are of vestibular origin, especially of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. A pilot study was undertaken in our hospital to record vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) for the first time in Iran. Eighteen healthy volunteers (32

  16. Evoked potentials as predictors of outcome in neonatal intensive care unit survivors: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, A; Rosenblatt, B

    1996-04-01

    Neonatal intensive care unit survivors are at substantial risk for a range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, and therefore a variety of clinical diagnostic techniques have been evaluated as predictors of outcome. We summarize the prognostic value of evoked potentials in newborns at risk. A review of the literature reveals that brainstem conduction abnormalities in auditory brainstem evoked potentials are associated with neuromotor impairment; however, there are many false negative studies. Visual evoked potentials are highly accurate in predicting neurologic deficits in early childhood in asphyxiated term neonates. Sensitivity and specificity are consistently high for somatosensory evoked potentials in term newborns; however, correlations with outcome in premature infants is controversial. Several studies have compared neonatal findings on neuroimaging studies and evoked potentials, and concordant results between these two tests are highly predictive. However, neurologic sequelae often can most accurately be predicted by visual or somatosensory evoked potentials. Evoked potentials may therefore be a useful adjunct to the clinical investigation and prognostication of outcome in the high risk newborn. PMID:8736401

  17. Evoked-Potential Correlates of Stimulus Uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Sutton; Margery Braren; Joseph Zubin; E. R. John

    1965-01-01

    The average evoked-potential waveforms to sound and light stimuli recorded from scalp in awake human subjects show differences as a function of the subject's degree of uncertainty with respect to the sensory modality of the stimulus to be presented. Differences are also found in the evoked potential as a function of whether or not the sensory modality of the stimulus

  18. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  19. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Lilian; Kingma, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction?Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective?To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results?Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion?This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system. PMID:25992068

  20. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Lilian; Kingma, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective?To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results?Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion?This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system. PMID:25992068

  1. [Instantaneous energy spectrum analysis for frequency following response of speech evoked brainstem response].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian; Fu, Qiuyang; Zhan, Chang'an; Liang, Yong; Wang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Speech evoked brainstem responses (s-ABRs) elicited by a speech syllable /da/ are composed of four parts: onset response (OR), transitional response, frequency following response (FFR) and offset response. FFR elicited by periodic events behaves like a quasi-periodic waveform corresponding to the stimulus sounds. The fast Fourier transform based spectra are commonly used to exam the characteristics of s-ABR in practice, which is, however, unable to trace the occurrence of the main components of s-ABR. The FFR is usually not obvious in the original individual s-ABR waveform. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to observe the FFR by an instantaneous energy spectrum performed on the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) after empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of the s-ABR. We demonstrated that the FFR is most pronounced on the second layer of IMFs. This finding suggests a new way which may be available to characterize and to detect the FFR better. This will benefit the clinic applications of s-ABRs. PMID:22616186

  2. Evoked Potentials in Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Tackmann; D. Kuhlendahl

    1979-01-01

    Nerve conduction, EEG, visual evoked potentials, electroretinograms and somatosensory evoked potentials were investigated in 3 children with the Bielschowsky-Jansky-type and in 1 child diagnosed as Spielmeyer-Vogt-type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Electroretinograph-ic responses were abolished in all of them. Electroencephalograms showed high amplitude, irregular delta-theta activity and spike- or polyspike-wave discharges without localized preponderance. As a characteristic feature for the Bielschowsky-Jansky

  3. [Clinical study of time-shift evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Chiba, H

    2000-05-01

    Quick change of the interaural time difference (ITD) generates moving sound stimuli. Specific biphasic event-related potentials called "time-shift evoked potentials (TSEPs)" can be recorded when this moving sound is given. The results of TSEPs in various types of hearing loss were analyzed in comparison with auditory brainstem response (ABR) and slow vertical response (SVR) in order to evaluate clinial applicability of TSEPs. Firstly, the detection threshold of TSEPs was established in groups of patients with low tone sensorineural hearing loss and with steep high tone sensorineural hearing loss. The usefulness of TSEPs was then evaluated in patients with retrocochlear hearing loss and with functional deafness. The patients with retrocochlear hearing loss were divided into 2 subgroups, one with auditory nerve disorder and the other with cortical disorder. It was found that TSEPs participate in the transference of auditory time-factors. They reflect the function of not only the auditory nerve and brainstem which form major components of ABR, but also the central nervous system superior to the inferior colliculus. TSEPs could be recorded in most patients with functional deafness and are more useful for its diagnosis than using the conventional directional hearing test. It is concluded that TSEPs is useful as a clinical test for detection of cortical disorder and functional deafness. PMID:10853341

  4. Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials as a Test of Otolith Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Al-Sebeih; Anthony Zeitouni

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the use of 75 auditory clicks rather than the usual 100–256 for production of the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) response and to assess if the VEMP correlates with measures of cochlear function such as hearing loss (decibels on pure-tone testing) or auditory brainstem response (ABR). Subjects and Methods: Testing of the VEMP was carried out on 24

  5. Modeling the vestibular evoked myogenic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Lütkenhöner; Wolfgang Stoll; Türker Basel

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) promises to become a routine method for assessing vestibular function, although the technique is not yet standardized. To overcome the problem that the VEMP amplitude depends not only on the inhibition triggered by the acoustic stimulation of the vestibular end organs in the inner ear, but also on the tone of the muscle

  6. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Preterm Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyra Erbek; Zeynel Gokmen; Servet Ozkiraz; Selim S. Erbek; Aylin Tarcan; Levent N. Ozluoglu

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether there was an association between perinatal risk factors of prematurity and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). A prospective case-control trial was designed. Fifty preterm newborns (100 ears) with a gestational age <37 weeks were included. The control group consisted of 20 healthy term infants (40 ears). VEMP recordings were performed, and

  7. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  8. Startle evoked movement is delayed in older adults: implications for brainstem processing in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tresch, Ursina A; Perreault, Eric J; Honeycutt, Claire F

    2014-06-01

    Little attention has been given to how age affects the neural processing of movement within the brainstem. Since the brainstem plays a critical role in motor control throughout the whole body, having a clear understanding of deficits in brainstem function could provide important insights into movement deficits in older adults. A unique property of the startle reflex is its ability to involuntarily elicit planned movements, a phenomenon referred to as startReact. The noninvasive startReact response has previously been used to probe both brainstem utilization and motor planning. Our objective was to evaluate deficits in startReact hand extension movements in older adults. We hypothesized that startReact hand extension will be intact but delayed. Electromyography was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle to detect startle and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) to quantify movement onset in both young (24 ± 1) and older adults (70 ± 11). Subjects were exposed to a startling loud sound when prepared to extend their hand. Trials were split into those where a startle did (SCM+) and did not (SCM-) occur. We found that startReact was intact but delayed in older adults. SCM+ onset latencies were faster than SCM- trials in both the populations, however, SCM+ onset latencies were slower in older adults compared to young (? = 8 msec). We conclude that the observed age-related delay in the startReact response most likely arises from central processing delays within the brainstem. PMID:24907294

  9. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Nan Chen; Shou-Jen Wang; Chi-Te Wang; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Yi-Ho Young

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for recording vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in newborns, used to investigate the maturation of sacculocollic reflex at birth.Twenty full-term newborns aged 2–5 days old were enrolled in this study. During natural sleep, each newborn underwent distortion product otoacoustic emission test, and VEMP test using the head rotation method. For comparison, 20 healthy adults

  10. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential in vestibular neuritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Nola; Luca Guastini; Barbara Crippa; Marco Deiana; Renzo Mora; Giovanni Ralli

    This study wants to show the diagnostic value of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in the diagnosis of vestibular\\u000a neuritis (VN), independently of the caloric test results. Twenty patients were enrolled with acute vertigo caused by VN. VEMP\\u000a was tested with the binaural simultaneous stimulation method. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded in the supine\\u000a patients from symmetrical sites over the

  11. Far-field brainstem responses evoked by vestibular and auditory stimuli exhibit increases in interpeak latency as brain temperature is decreased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. F.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreasing of brain temperature on the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in rats was investigated. Voltage pulses, applied to a piezoelectric crystal attached to the skull, were used to evoke stimuli in the auditory system by means of bone-conducted vibrations. The responses were recorded at 37 C and 34 C brain temperatures. The peaks of the BAER recorded at 34 C were delayed in comparison with the peaks from the 37 C wave, and the later peaks were more delayed than the earlier peaks. These results indicate that an increase in the interpeak latency occurs as the brain temperature is decreased. Preliminary experiments, in which responses to brief angular acceleration were used to measure the brainstem vestibular evoked response (BVER), have also indicated increases in the interpeak latency in response to the lowering of brain temperature.

  12. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials during Meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Deepeshwar, Singh; Naveen, Kalkuni Visweswaraiah; Pailoor, Subramanya

    2014-11-01

    The auditory sensory pathway has been studied in meditators, using midlatency and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The present study evaluated long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) during meditation. Sixty male participants, aged between 18 and 31 years (group mean ± SD, 20.5 ± 3.8 years), were assessed in 4 mental states based on descriptions in the traditional texts. They were (a) random thinking, (b) nonmeditative focusing, (c) meditative focusing, and (d) meditation. The order of the sessions was randomly assigned. The LLAEP components studied were P1 (40-60 ms), N1 (75-115 ms), P2 (120-180 ms), and N2 (180-280 ms). For each component, the peak amplitude and peak latency were measured from the prestimulus baseline. There was significant decrease in the peak latency of the P2 component during and after meditation (P < .001; analysis of variance and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment). The P1, P2, and N2 components showed a significant decrease in peak amplitudes during random thinking (P < .01; P < .001; P < .01, respectively) and nonmeditative focused thinking (P < .01; P < .01; P < .05, respectively). The results suggest that meditation facilitates the processing of information in the auditory association cortex, whereas the number of neurons recruited was smaller in random thinking and non-meditative focused thinking, at the level of the secondary auditory cortex, auditory association cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:25380593

  13. [Motor evoked potentials in thoracoabdominal aortic surgery].

    PubMed

    Magro, Cátia; Nora, David; Marques, Miguel; Alves, Angela Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic disease (aneurysm or dissection) has increased in recent decades. Surgery is the curative treatment but is associated to high perioperative morbidity and mortality risks. Paraplegia is one of the most severe complications, whose incidence has decreased significantly with the implementation of spinal cord protection strategies. No single method or combination of methods has proven to be fully effective in preventing paraplegia. This review is intended to analyse the scientific evidence available on the role of intraoperative monitoring with motor evoked potentials in the neurological outcome of patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. An online search (PubMed) was conducted. Relevant references were selected and reviewed. Intraoperative monitoring with motor evoked potentials (MEP) allows early detection of ischemic events and a targeted intervention to prevent the development of spinal cord injury, significantly reducing the incidence of postoperative paraplegia. MEP monitoring may undergo several intraoperative interferences which may compromise their interpretation. Neuromuscular blockade is the main limiting factor of anesthetic origin. It is essential to strike a balance between monitoring conditions and surgical and anesthetic needs as well as to evaluate the risks and benefits of the technique for each patient. MEP monitoring improves neurological outcome when integrated in a multidisciplinary strategy which must include multiple protective mechanisms that should be tailored to each hospital reality. PMID:24490197

  14. Model of visually evoked cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Kremlácek, J; Kuba, M; Holcík, J

    2002-01-01

    The pattern-reversal (P-VEPs) and the motion-onset (M-VEPs) of visual evoked potentials were modeled by means of three damped oscillators (O1, O2, O3) of identical construction. The O1, assumed to simulate the response of primary visual area (V1), was driven by the firing density of the lateral geniculate nuclei. 01 contributed mainly to the N75 and P100 peaks of the P-VEPs. The O2, driven by the O1 output, mimics the activity of V2, V3a, and MT. It contributed to the negative peak N145 of the P-VEPs or to the N160 in the M-VEPs. The O3 was suggested to model late slow processes probably of an attentive origin. The model parameters were set by optimization to follow the P-VEPs and M-VEPs obtained as a grand average of four young volunteers (Pz - A2 lead). The evoked potentials were described with normalized root mean square error lower than 13%. PMID:12071292

  15. Auditory- and Visual-Evoked Potentials in Mexican Infants Are Not Affected by Maternal Supplementation with 400 mg/d Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Second Half of Pregnancy1234

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng; Rivera, Juan A.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The evidence relating prenatal supplementation with DHA to offspring neurological development is limited. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant brainstem auditory-evoked responses and visual- evoked potentials in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from gestation wk 18–22 through delivery. DHA and placebo groups did not differ in maternal characteristics at randomization or infant characteristics at birth. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were measured at 1 and 3 mo in 749 and 664 infants, respectively, and visual-evoked potentials were measured at 3 and 6 mo in 679 and 817 infants, respectively. Left-right brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were moderately correlated (range, 0.26–0.43; all P < 0.001) and left-right visual-evoked potentials were strongly correlated (range, 0.79–0.94; all P < 0.001) within any assessment. Correlations across visits were modest to moderate (range, 0.09–0.38; all P < 0.01). The offspring of DHA-supplemented women did not differ from those of control women with respect to any outcome measure (all comparisons P > 0.10). We conclude that DHA supplementation during pregnancy did not influence brainstem auditory-evoked responses at 1 and 3 mo or visual-evoked potentials at 3 and 6 mo. PMID:22739364

  16. Subclinical neurotoxicity of mercury vapor revealed by a multimodality evoked potential study of chloralkali workers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Yeh, C Y; Wang, J D

    1995-02-01

    Pattern visual, brainstem auditory, and somatosensory evoked potential (EP) studies were performed on 26 chloralkali workers. The intensity of mercury vapor exposure in these workers was estimated from the individual working history. Mercury levels in blood, urine, and hair were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The EP findings were compared with those from individually matched normal subjects. In brainstem auditory and somatosensory EP studies, prolonged neural conduction times in the central nervous system (CNS) were found in workers exposed to mercury vapor. In the pattern visual EP study, mercury workers had higher interpeak amplitudes. Findings of this study suggested that chronic exposure to mercury vapor would affect the CNS functions. A multimodality EP study is a useful adjunct in evaluation of chronic mercury neurotoxicity, especially in an epidemiological study. PMID:7755016

  17. Significance of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Peripheral Vestibulopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Young Kim; Hee-Tae Kim; Seung-Hyun Kim; Juhan Kim; Myung-Ho Kim; Ki-Bum Sung

    Background : Loud monaural clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting ipsilateral sternocleido - mastoid muscle. Clinical studies have suggested that these myogenic potentials are of vestibular origin, especially infe - rior vestibular nerve. Neurophysiological experimental studies also suggest that they are most likely to be of saccular origin. These potentials are called vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Vestibular

  18. Methodological factors involved in neonatal screening using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory brainstem response testing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A Roger D; Kimm, Lindsay; Kennedy, Colin R

    2003-08-01

    The methodological factors involved in screening neonates for hearing loss, using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and automated auditory brainstem responses, have been evaluated from a large sample of neonates. The risk factors, commonly used to select babies for a targeted screen, have very little correlation with failing TEOAE testing. The parameters used to determine passing or failing the TEOAE test and the false alarm rate change markedly with age in the first few days of life as, of course, did the percentage of babies who failed the test. The stimulus level used was the default setting for the Otodynamics equipment but the stimulus level measured in the ear canal decreased over the first 140 h of life. It is thought that this reflects the impedance changes in outer and middle ears and possible changes in middle ear dynamics. The methodological variables investigated here can illuminate some of the differences in previous reports of neonatal screening, in particular the reported hit and false alarm rates. PMID:12948603

  19. A comparison of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory brainstem responses for pre-discharge neonatal hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul; Iqbal, Mohammed; Mitchell, Simon

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two hearing-screening methods in well newborn infants within the postnatal ward environment prior to discharge. Eighty-one newborn infants underwent one-step hearing screening by measurement of automated auditory brainstem responses (aABRs), using the ALGO-3 screener. These were compared with a further cohort of 81 neonates who underwent two-step screening using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) followed by aABR. The pass rate was 78/81 (96.3%) for the one-step screen, 74/81 (91.4%) for the two-step screen, and 54/81 (66.7%) for TEOAE alone. There was no significant difference between cohorts in time required to complete the screening protocol. We conclude that pre-discharge hearing screening of newborn infants on the postnatal ward is feasible and acceptable. Use of TEOAE alone for pre-discharge screening is associated with an excessively high false-positive rate. At our institution, one-step screening resulted in a lower referral rate compared with a two-step approach. The performance of aABR screening may be affected by prior TEOAE screening. PMID:14658852

  20. [Auditory evoked potentials under attentional lapses].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, I E; Bryzgalov, D V; Osokina, E S; Viazovtseva, A A; Antonenko, A S; Arkhipova, E A; Chernyshev, B V

    2014-01-01

    In order to study spontaneous attentional lapses the experimental task was used that created a moderately high attentional load and involved response choice based on stimulus feature conjunction. The participant's average correct response rate was 85.1%; they made errors in 9.6% trials and response omissions in 5.4% trials. Peak N1 of the evoked potential was consistent across all behavioral outcomes, while peak P2 amplitude was significantly greater before errors and response omissions compared to correct responses. The analysis of polygraphic indexes (ECG, EMG, SGR) did not reveal any arousal level reduction before attentional lapses. The proposed interpretation of the results obtained is based on the assumption that attentional lapses are mediated by the suppression of external stimuli information processing caused by the state of mind-wandering. PMID:25723016

  1. Evoked potentials for evaluation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, P; Kappos, L

    2001-12-01

    The role of evoked potentials (EP) in the assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has changed over the last decade. This is largely due to progress in imaging techniques. But while MRI has a greater diagnostic sensitivity, EP remain a useful diagnostic tool in many clinical situations. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate the utility of EP for monitoring and predicting the course of the disease in patient groups, although not yet in individuals. For these purposes, EP show better results than conventional MRI. In the near future, new developments in electrophysiology, immunology and imaging may allow to differentiate between different subtypes of MS early in the course, and consequently to tailor therapeutic measures more precisely to the individual patients. PMID:11738188

  2. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric test results in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sujeet, Kumar Sinha; Niraj, Kumar Singh; Animesh, Barman; Rajeshwari, G; Sharanya, R

    2014-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder is a type of hearing loss where outer hair cell function are normal (as evidenced by the preservation of OAEs and cochlear microphonics), whereas auditory nerve functions are abnormal (as evidenced by abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials beginning with wave I of the ABR) and acoustic reflexes to ipsilateral and contralateral tones are absent. It is likely that in cases with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder not only the cochlear nerve, but also the vestibular nerves might get involved. The present study was conducted with an aim of finding out the inferior and superior vestibular nerve involvement through cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and Caloric test results respectively in individuals with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders. Total 26 participants who fulfilled the criteria of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder participated for the study. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials results showed absence of responses from most of the subjects also caloric responses showed bilateral hypofunctional responses in most of the participants, which is suggestive of involvement of both the inferior as well as superior vestibular nerve in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders. Additionally there was no association between the pattern and degree of hearing loss to caloric test results and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials results findings. PMID:25095776

  3. Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Faldella, G; Govoni, M; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C

    1996-01-01

    The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a preterm formula supplemented with LCP (PF-LCP) (n = 21), or a traditional preterm formula (PF) (n = 25). In the breast milk and PF-LCP groups the morphology and latencies of the waves that reflect the visual projecting system were similar; in the PF group the morphology was quite different and the wave latencies were significantly longer. This could mean that the maturation pattern of VEPs in preterm infants who did not receive LCP was slower. Moreover, a higher level of erythrocyte LCP, especially DHA, was found in breast milk and PF-LCP groups compared with the PF group. ERG and BAEP recordings were the same in all three groups. These results suggest that a well balanced LCP supplement in preterm formulas can positively influence the maturation of visual evoked potentials in preterm infants when breast milk is not available. PMID:8949693

  4. Cervicothoracic Multisegmental Transpinal Evoked Potentials in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Jonathan; Li, Alan; Hazan, Royi; Knikou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish the neurophysiological properties of the transpinal evoked potentials (TEPs) following transcutaneous electric stimulation of the spine (tsESS) over the cervicothoracic region, changes in the amplitude of the TEPs preceded by median nerve stimulation at group I threshold, and the effects of tsESS on the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex in thirteen healthy human subjects while seated. Two re-usable self-adhering electrodes, connected to function as one electrode (cathode), were placed bilaterally on the clavicles. A re-usable electrode (anode) was placed on the cervicothoracic region covering from Cervical 4 – Thoracic 2 and held under constant pressure throughout the experiment. TEPs were recorded bilaterally from major arm muscles with subjects seated at stimulation frequencies of 1.0, 0.5, 0.33, 0.2, 0.125, and 0.1 Hz, and upon double tsESS pulses delivered at an inter-stimulus interval of 40 ms. TEPs from the arm muscles were also recorded following median nerve stimulation at the conditioning-test (C-T) intervals of 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 ms. The FCR H-reflex was evoked and recorded according to conventional methods following double median nerve pulses at 40 ms, and was also conditioned by tsESS at C-T intervals that ranged from ?10 to +50 ms. The arm TEPs amplitude was not decreased at low-stimulation frequencies and upon double tsESS pulses in all but one subject. Ipsilateral and contralateral arm TEPs were facilitated following ipsilateral median nerve stimulation, while the FCR H-reflex was depressed by double pulses and following tsESS at short and long C-T intervals. Non-invasive transpinal stimulation can be used as a therapeutic modality to decrease spinal reflex hyper-excitability in neurological disorders and when combined with peripheral nerve stimulation to potentiate spinal output. PMID:24282479

  5. Adaptive stimulus artifact reduction in noncortical somatosensory evoked potential studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Parsa; Philip A. Parker; Robert N. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) are an important class of bioelectric signals which contain clinically valuable information. The surface measurements of these potentials are often contaminated by a stimulus evoked artifact. The stimulus artifact (SA), depending upon the stimulator and measurement system characteristics, may obscure some of the information carried by the SEP's. Conventional methods for SA reduction employ hardware-based circuits

  6. Brain Evoked Potentials and Intelligence: The Hendrickson Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, P. T.; Eysenck, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt to replicate the results with averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) of D. E. Hendrickson and A. E Hendrickson (1982) with 40 adults confirms a negative correlation between AEP variability and IQ. The Hendrickson paradigm is seen as no more than a well-controlled auditory evoked potential. (SLD)

  7. Pattern electroretinogram, visual evoked potential and psychophysical functions in maculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Junghardt; Hannes Wildberger; Béla Török

    1995-01-01

    To compare pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials with psychophysical examinations, such as visual acuity, static (automated) perimetry and color vision in unilateral maculopathies of various origins, 20 patients with unilateral retinal diseases within the macula and the posterior pole were tested. Pattern electroretinography, visual evoked potential testing and static perimetry (Octopus program M1) were performed with three different test

  8. The role of sensory and motor evoked potentials in the prognosis of Pott's paraplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. K. Misra; J. Kalita

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In view of paucity of evoked potential changes in Pott's paraplegia, it is proposed to evaluate the role of motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in predicting the outcome.Methods: Consecutive patients with Pott's paraplegia during 1993–2003 were subjected to detailed clinical, radiological and evoked potential study. The latter comprised of tibial somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP)

  9. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Krbot Skoric, Magdalena; Adamec, Ivan; Habek, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate vestibular nerve involvement in patients with Bell's palsy with ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP and cVEMP). Ten patients who were diagnosed with Bell's palsy and ten healthy controls were included. All patients underwent VEMP recordings within 6 days after their initial presentation. Patients with Bell's palsy had greater oVEMP asymmetry ratio comparing to healthy controls (-38.4 ± 28.7 % vs -1.3 ± 19.3 %, p = 0.005). As well N10 latencies of the oVEMP response were prolonged comparing to healthy controls (11.575 vs 9.72 ms). There was no difference in cVEMP asymmetry ratio or latencies between groups. We found no correlation between House-Brackmann grading scale and oVEMP asymmetry ratio (r = 0.003, p = 0.994). There are three possible explanations for increased oVEMP amplitudes on the affected side: (1) oVEMP response on the ipsilateral eye could be contaminated by facial nerve activity (blink reflex); (2) the amplitude of N10-P33 could be affected through the stapedial reflex; and (3) increased oVEMP amplitude could be the consequence of the vestibular nerve dysfunction itself, with prolonged latencies of the N10 oVEMP further supporting this explanation. The results of this study indicate possible involvement of the superior branch of the vestibular nerve in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24916836

  10. Auditory evoked potential measurements in elasmobranchs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Brandon; Mann, David

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were first used to examine hearing in elasmobranchs by Corwin and Bullock in the late 1970s and early 1980s, marking the first time AEPs had been measured in fishes. Results of these experiments identified the regions of the ear and brain in which sound is processed, though no actual hearing thresholds were measured. Those initial experiments provided the ground work for future AEP experiments to measure fish hearing abilities in a manner that is much faster and more convenient than classical conditioning. Data will be presented on recent experiments in which AEPs were used to measure the hearing thresholds of two species of elasmobranchs: the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicencis. Audiograms were analyzed and compared to previously published audiograms obtained using classical conditioning with results indicating that hearing thresholds were similar for the two methods. These data suggest that AEP testing is a viable option when measuring hearing in elasmobranchs and can increase the speed in which future hearing measurements can be obtained.

  11. Auditory evoked potential measurements with cetaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, David; Cook, Mandy; Bauer, Gordon; Fellner, Wendi; Wells, Randy

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) allow researchers to measure the hearing abilities of animals that would be difficult or impossible to train for behavioral measurements of hearing. The hearing abilities of live-stranded cetaceans and wild dolphins can only be made with AEP techniques. In these situations, time with the animal is often restricted to an hour or less, and there is often little control over the acoustic environment in which the tests are performed. AEP measurements may be made while the animals are in air or in shallow pools. For cetaceans in air, sounds are typically presented with a suction cup jawphone. For cetaceans in water, sounds may be presented in a direct field (with the transducer located at some distance from the test subject) or with a jawphone. In each of these situations it is important to understand how thresholds derived from AEP measurements compare with behavioral hearing measurements. Examples of AEP measurements from wild and live-stranded cetaceans are presented to illustrate their usefulness and the constraints under which these measurements must be made. AEP measurements from bottlenose dolphins in air and in water are also compared with their behavioral audiograms.

  12. Clinical aspects of the visually evoked potential.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, G W

    1977-01-01

    The visually evoked potential (VEP) was studied in normal and abnormal human subjects, and in Rhesus monkeys with central, paracentral, and peripheral photocoagulation lesions. A relatively simple protocol for clinical VEP testing is described. The monkeys showed similar VEP responses but these were smaller in amplitude than those obtained from human subjects. Central, but not paracentral or peripheral retinal lesions were associated with VEP abnormalities. For both monkey and human subjects, some variability of responses between normal and subjects was noted. Generally, there are differences in VEP responses obtained from the affected eye of abnormal subjects who had one eye which could serve as a control, as compared to responses from the normal eye. In these subjects as well as in subjects with two abnormal eyes, computer analysis of digitized VEP data from 10 Hz stimulus responses was performed. Fourier transformation analyses showed abnormalities which could be detected easily by evaluating the pattern of the amplitudes of the fundamental and first three harmonics. With this technique, it was possible to group correctly normal VEP's with eyes with normal visual acuity (greater than or equal to 20/30 or 0.67), and abnormal VEP's with eyes with poor visual acuity (less than 20/30 or 0.67) in 72% of cases. Analysis of the data obtained with 1 Hz and 10 Hz stimulation suggests that the components of the VEP related to visual acuity occur within the first 60-100 msec of the response, corresponding to the primary evoked response of Chiganek. The second, smaller wave of the response complex to 10 Hz flash stimuli corresponds to the primary evoked response, and is closely related to visual acuity. This was further supported in another series in which the digitized data was filtered around the stimulating frequency. It was possible to recognize visually this VEP waveform and subjectively interpret the record correctly in 85% of eyes with regard to visual acuity. Therefore, the clinician can "read" the VEP record in response to nonpatterned flash stimuli. This test was further validated in a series of patients with opacities of the ocular media, such as cataract, corneal scarring, and vitreous hemorrhage. VEP promises to become a procedure of diagnostic and prognostic value in ophthalmology. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 6 D FIGURE 6 E FIGURE 6 F FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 8 D FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C PMID:613533

  13. Processing Negativity: An Evoked-Potential Reflection of Selective Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naatanen, Risto

    1982-01-01

    Studies of selective attention using evoked-potential techniques in humans are reviewed and evaluated. These studies disclose so-called processing negativity, an endogenous negative brain potential elicited by the delivery of stimuli which elicit attention. (Author/MP)

  14. Enhanced neuronal excitability in adult rat brainstem causes widespread repetitive brainstem depolarizations with cardiovascular consequences

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Frank; Bauer, Reinhard; Ebersberger, Andrea; Lehmenkühler, Alfred; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    The brainstem of the adult rat is relatively resistant to spreading depolarization (SD) but after enhancement of excitability SD can be evoked by local application of KCl. In the present experiments, we observed that the enhanced excitability even triggers prolonged periods of repetitive depolarizations (RDs), which elicit significant cardiovascular changes. In contrast to KCl-evoked SDs with amplitudes of ?24?mV and spreading velocity of 4?mm/min, spontaneous RDs had amplitudes of 7 to 12?mV, propagated up to 30 times faster than KCl-evoked SDs, and depolarized larger brainstem areas including the contralateral side. Similarly as SD, RDs depended on glutamatergic neurotransmission and were blocked by MK-801 or by the calcium channel blocker agatoxin. They depended on sodium channels and were blocked by tetrodotoxin. Functionally, the invasion of RDs into the spinal trigeminal and other nuclei evoked bursts of action potentials, indicating that specific neuronal systems are affected. In fact, during episodes of RDs the blood pressure and the local blood flow at the surface of the brainstem and the cortex increased substantially. Brainstem RDs did not propagate into the cerebral cortex. We propose to consider brainstem RPs as a pathophysiological mechanism whose significance for brainstem disease states should be further explored. PMID:22453631

  15. Information Delivery and the Sensory Evoked Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Sutton; Patricia Tueting; Joseph Zubin; E. R. John

    1967-01-01

    The waveform of evoked responses recorded from human scalp is not determined solely by the physical eliciting stimulus, but also varies as a function of the effective information provided by the stimulus. There is a positive component whose latency is determined by the point in time at which ambiguity is reduced, and whose shape and amplitude are influenced by whether

  16. Auditory evoked potentials and electroencephalograms correlates to intracranial pressure 

    E-print Network

    Chandrasekhar, Mahesh

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Umanath for his encouragement and support. Finally, I would like thank my parents for their help and encouragement. vn TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION . II BACKGROUND A. Anatomy and Physiology of Neurons 1. Neurons and Nerve... Impulse 2. The Brain 3. Production of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and In- tracranial pressure (ICP) B. Pathology of Brain Damage in Head Injury . C. Electroencephalogram D. Evoked Potentials . 1. Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) E. Previous Studies 8...

  17. Comparison of Short Tone Burst-evoked and Click-evoked Vestibular Myogenic Potentials in Healthy Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei-Jun Wu; An-Suey Shiao; Yih-Liang Yang; Guo-She Lee

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is one of the clinical tools to evaluate vestibular function. The VEMP can be recorded from sternocleidomastoid muscle by auditory stimulation with various sound stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the VEMP responses evoked by short tone burst (STB) with those evoked by click stimuli in healthy young individuals. Methods: Twenty-two

  18. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: Past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Rosengren; M. S. Welgampola; J. G. Colebatch

    2010-01-01

    Since the first description of sound-evoked short-latency myogenic reflexes recorded from neck muscles, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become an important part of the neuro-otological test battery. VEMPs provide a means of assessing otolith function: stimulation of the vestibular system with air-conducted sound activates predominantly saccular afferents, while bone-conducted vibration activates a combination of saccular and utricular afferents. The

  19. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in superior canal dehiscence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Rosengren; S T Aw; G M Halmagyi; N P McAngus Todd; J G Colebatch

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Patients with superior canal dehiscence (SCD) have large sound-evoked vestibular reflexes with pathologically low threshold. We wished to determine whether a recently discovered measure of the vestibulo-ocular reflex—the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (OVEMP)—produced similar high-amplitude, low-threshold responses in SCD, and could differentiate patients with SCD from normal control patients.Methods:Nine patients with CT-confirmed SCD and 10 normal controls were stimulated

  20. Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Drake, M E; Brendle, A; Erwin, C W

    1985-04-01

    A patient with typical clinical and electromyographic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was found to have abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Evoked responses are generally considered to be normal in ALS despite occasional pathological and clinical evidence of sensory involvement. Thus, abnormal SEPs are considered to argue against a diagnosis of ALS. Based on the present case and a review of the literature, we suggest that abnormal SEPs need not exclude a diagnosis of ALS. PMID:2579797

  1. Visual evoked potentials in dissociated vertical deviation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Kriss, A; Timms, C; Elston, J; Taylor, D; Gresty, M

    1989-01-01

    Pattern reversal and flash evoked potentials were recorded in 13 children with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). No electrophysiological evidence was found to support the notion that patients with DVD have an anomalous (albinoid) projection of visual fibres originating from the temporal retina of each eye. However, DVD patients had significantly smaller monocular and binocular pattern evoked responses than age matched controls. Explanations are given for this finding and for the occipital VEP asymmetries reported by other workers. PMID:2713304

  2. Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials?

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P.M.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Kluk, Karolina; Whittle, Elizabeth; Colebatch, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vestibular threshold, systematic changes were observed in the morphology of the potentials and in the intensity dependence of their amplitude and latency. These changes were absent in a patient without functioning vestibular receptors. In particular, for the healthy subjects there was a fronto-central negativity, which appeared at about 42 ms, referred to as an N42, prior to the AEP N1. Source analysis of both the N42 and N1 indicated involvement of cingulate cortex, as well as bilateral superior temporal cortex. Our findings are best explained by vestibular receptors contributing to what were hitherto considered as purely auditory evoked potentials and in addition tentatively identify a new component that appears to be primarily of vestibular origin. PMID:24321822

  3. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo. " The pattern evok...

  4. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Using Different Test Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Dessai Teja; Bhat, Jayashree S.; Kumar, Kaushlendra

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Ocular Evoked Myogenic Potential (oVEMP) are short latency potentials evoked by higher acoustic stimulation. In this study, we aimed at comparing the click, 500?Hz mixed modulated, and 500?Hz short duration tone burst stimuli using oVEMP. Material. Click, 500?Hz mixed modulated and 500?Hz short duration tone burst stimuli were used for the study. Method. Conventional sampling and conveneint study design were used. Sixty healthy subjects underwent contralateral oVEMP testing maintaining 30 degrees upward gaze. Single channel electrode montage was applied to record oVEMP response. Results. On statistical analysis the three stimuli evoked equal response rates (100%), and when latency of n1 and p1 and peak-peak amplitude were compared, the click evoked showed significantly early latency and lower peak-peak amplitude than the 500?Hz stimuli. Five hundred Hz stimuli did not show significant difference in latency and peak-peak amplitude of n1-p1. Discussion. Thus, 500?Hz stimuli can evoke better latency and peak-peak amplitude. oVEMP has good clinical significance in diagnosing subjects with vestibular dysfunction. To add to the sensitivity of the oVEMP test, 500?Hz stimuli may also be used as it can evoke better oVEMP responses in clinical population with good morphology. PMID:23986874

  5. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: optimal stimulation and clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Ho Young

    2006-01-01

    Summary  By easily stimulating the ear with loud sound and recording on tonically contracted neck muscles, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test can reflect inner ear function other than the cochlea and semicircular canal. This expands the test battery for clinicians to explore saccular disease, adding a potential usefulness to the sacculo-collic reflex. The ideal stimulation mode for VEMPs is as

  6. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in patients with acoustic neuromas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihito Takeichi; Touru Sakamoto; Satoshi Fukuda; Yukio Inuyama

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the utility of VEMP (vestibular-evoked myogenic potential) in the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas.Methods: Eighteen patients with unilateral acoustic neuromas were subjected to this study. Myogenic potential responding to loud click stimuli was recorded at ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. A normal range of VEMP was obtained from 20 controls. VEMP responses were compared with both, clinical symptoms and results

  7. Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis participants

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Maryam Sadat; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Hajabolhassani, Fahimeh; Jalaee, Shohreh; Zakeri, Hassanali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that affects brain and spinal cord. The infratentorial region contains the cerebellum and brainstem. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency myogenic responses. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a manifestation of vestibulocolic reflex and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) contributes to the linear vestibular–ocular reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate cVEMP and oVEMP in MS patients with and without infratentorial plaques and compare the findings with normal controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, latency and amplitude of cVEMP and oVEMP were recorded in 15 healthy females with mean age of 31.13±9.27 years, 17 female MS patients with infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 29.88±8.93 years, and 17 female MS patients without infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 30.58±8.02 years. All patients underwent a complete clinical neurological evaluation and brain MRI scanning. Simple random sampling method was used in this study and data were analyzed using one way ANOVA through SPSS v22. Results: The latency of N1-P1 and P13 in MS participants with and without infratentorial plaques were significantly prolonged compared to normal controls (p<0.001). Additionally latency of P13- N23-N1 and P1 in MS patients with infratentorial plaques were significantly prolonged compared to patients without infratentorial plaques subjects (p<0.001). Conclusion: Abnormality of both cVEMP and oVEMP in MS patient with infratentorial plaque are more than that of MS patient without infratentorial plaque. Recording both ocular and cervical VEMPs are appropriate electrophysiologic methods assessing the function of both ascending and descending central vestibular pathways. PMID:26034721

  8. On hemispheric differences in evoked potentials to speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.; Benson, P.; Smith, T. S.; Schulman-Galambos, C.; Osier, H.

    1975-01-01

    Confirmation is provided for the belief that evoked potentials may reflect differences in hemispheric functioning that are marginal at best. Subjects were right-handed and audiologically normal men and women, and responses were recorded using standard EEG techniques. Subjects were instructed to listen for the targets while laying in a darkened sound booth. Different stimuli, speech and tone signals, were used. Speech sounds were shown to evoke a response pattern that resembles that to tone or clicks. Analysis of variances on peak amplitude and latency measures showed no significant differences between hemispheres, however, a Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in hemispheres for certain target tasks.

  9. Human auditory evoked potentials. II - Effects of attention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picton, T. W.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Attention directed toward auditory stimuli, in order to detect an occasional fainter 'signal' stimulus, caused a substantial increase in the N1 (83 msec) and P2 (161 msec) components of the auditory evoked potential without any change in preceding components. This evidence shows that human auditory attention is not mediated by a peripheral gating mechanism. The evoked response to the detected signal stimulus also contained a large P3 (450 msec) wave that was topographically distinct from the preceding components. This late positive wave could also be recorded in response to a detected omitted stimulus in a regular train and therefore seemed to index a stimulus-independent perceptual decision process.

  10. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) can detect asymptomatic saccular hydrops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Yee Lin; Ferdinand C. A. Timmer; Brad S. Oriel; Guangwei Zhou; John J. Guinan; Sharon G. Kujawa; Barbara S. Herrmann; Saumil N. Merchant; Steven D. Rauch

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the useful of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing for detecting endolymphatic hydrops, especially in the second ear of patients with unilateral Meniere disease (MD). Methods: This study was performed at a tertiary care academic medical center. Part I consisted of postmortem temporal bone specimens from the temporal bone collection of

  11. Age-Related Changes in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krister Brantberg; Kerstin Granath; Nadine Schart

    2007-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to sound stimulation (500 Hz tone burst, 129 dB SPL) were studied in 1000 consecutive patients. VEMP from the ear with the larger amplitude were evaluated based on the assumption that the majority of the tested patients probably had normal vestibular function in that ear. Patients with known bilateral conductive hearing loss, with

  12. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Patients with Idiopathic Bilateral Vestibulopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Matsuzaki; Toshihisa Murofushi

    2001-01-01

    Idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy (IBV) is an acquired bilateral peripheral vestibular disorder of unknown cause. Three patients diagnosed as IBV by neuro-otological examination were reported. They underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing which reflects the functionality of the sacculo-collic pathway. As a result, 2 of the 3 patients showed bilateral absence of VEMPs and one showed unilateral absence. The VEMPs

  13. Visual evoked potentials study in chronic idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Stojkovic; J de Seze; J. F Hurtevent; C Arndt; A Beaume; J. C Hache; P Vermersch

    2000-01-01

    Background: The frequency of the association between chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CIDP) and central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions is probably underestimated.Objective: To investigate the occurrence of combined central and peripheral demyelination in CIDP patients and to correlate visual evoked potential (VEP) abnormalities with CNS demyelinating lesions, observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging, and antibodies against glycolipids.Methods: Nerve conduction studies,

  14. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  15. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  16. COMPARABILITY OF RAT AND HUMAN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments was conducted to assess the comparability of physiological processes in rat and human visual systems. n the first set of experiments, transient visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were elicited by the onset of sine-wave gratings of various spatial frequencies....

  17. Strategies for minimizing 60 Hz pickup during evoked potential recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Stecker; Terry Patterson

    1996-01-01

    Electrical interference at mains power supply frequency can adversely affect the recording of evoked potentials and can be especially destructive in an operating room setting. We investigated 60Hz interference in electrode cables running from subject to preamplifier and further examined methods to eliminate such interference. We conclude that braiding electrode wires is highly efficacious in such interference reduction, presumably by

  18. Common Spatial Patterns for Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potentials*

    E-print Network

    Choi, Seungjin

    of a specific frequency is used. Thus far, spatial information was not examined in depth in SSSEP BCI, because be periodic. By examining this periodic response with time-frequency analysis, we can detect the typeCommon Spatial Patterns for Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potentials* Yunjun Nam1, Andrzej

  19. Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Visual Evoked Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Wang; Xiaorong Gao; Bo Hong; Chuan Jia; Shangkai Gao

    2008-01-01

    Recently, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain- computer interfaces (BCIs) have become a hot spot in the study of neural engineering, rehabilitation, and brain science. In this article, we review BCI systems based on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Although the performance of this type of BCI has already been evaluated by many research groups through a variety of laboratory demonstrations, researchers are still

  20. Equipotential Maps of Pattern-Evoked Potentials in Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Adachi-Usami

    1984-01-01

    Pattern-evoked cortical potentials for half field stimuli were recorded from 16 electrodes on the scalp, and equipotential maps were constructed. For right and left half field stimuli, the maximal values of the maps were found over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual half field stimulated. For lower half field binocular stimuli, the maxima were more anterior than for monocular stimuli

  1. Recommendations for the clinical use of somatosensory-evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cruccu; M. J. Aminoff; G. Curio; J. M. Guerit; R. Kakigi; F. Mauguiere; P. M. Rossini; R.-D. Treede; L. Garcia-Larrea

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) is in the process of updating its Recommendations for clinical practice published in 1999. These new recommendations dedicated to somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) update the methodological aspects and general clinical applications of standard SEPs, and introduce new sections dedicated to the anatomical–functional organization of the somatosensory system and to special clinical applications, such as

  2. Memory impairment and auditory evoked potential gating deficit in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming H. Hsieh; Kristina Liu; Shi-Kai Liu; Ming-Jang Chiu; Hai-Gwo Hwu; Andrew C. N. Chen

    2004-01-01

    Impaired sensory gating and memory function were reported in a study of 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. The P50 component of the auditory evoked potential was used as an index of gating. Explicit memory was tested with the Wechsler Memory Scale and implicit memory by artificial grammar learning. The schizophrenic patients showed deficits in both

  3. Characteristics and clinical applications of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Welgampola, Miriam S; Colebatch, James G

    2005-05-24

    A recent technique of assessing vestibular function, the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), is an otolith-mediated, short-latency reflex recorded from averaged sternocleidomastoid electromyography in response to intense auditory clicks delivered via headphones. Since their first description 10 years ago, VEMPs are now being used by investigators worldwide, and characteristic changes observed with aging and in a variety of peripheral and central vestibulopathies have been described. Additional methods of evoking VEMPs, which use air- and bone-conducted short-tone bursts, forehead taps, and short-duration transmastoid direct current (DC) stimulation, have been described, and these complement the original technique. Click-evoked VEMPs are attenuated or absent in a proportion of patients with vestibular neuritis, herpes zoster oticus, late Meniere disease, and vestibular schwannomas; their amplitudes are increased and thresholds are pathologically lowered in superior semicircular canal dehiscence presenting with the Tullio phenomenon. VEMPs evoked by clicks and DC are useful when monitoring the efficacy of intratympanic gentamicin therapy used for chemical vestibular ablation. Prolonged p13 and n23 peak latencies and decreased amplitudes have been observed in association with central vestibulopathy. VEMPs evoked by clicks are a robust, reproducible screening test of otolith function. DC stimulation enables differentiation of labyrinthine from retrolabyrinthine lesions; bone-conducted stimuli permit VEMP recording despite conductive hearing loss and deliver a relatively larger vestibular stimulus for a given level of auditory perception. PMID:15911791

  4. Auditory evoked potentials and impairments to psychomotor activity evoked by falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B; Verbitskaya, Yu S; Lavrova, T P

    2010-05-01

    Sounds provide the most suitable stimuli for studies of information processes occurring in the brain during falling asleep and at different stages of sleep. The widely used analysis of evoked potentials averaged for groups of subjects has a number of disadvantages associated with their individual variability. Thus, in the present study, measures of the individual components of auditory evoked potentials were determined and selectively summed for individual subjects, with subsequent analysis by group. The aim of the present work was to identify measures of auditory evoked potentials providing quantitative assessment of the dynamics of the brain's functional state during the appearance of errors in activity associated with decreases in the level of waking and falling asleep. A monotonous psychomotor test was performed in the lying position with the eyes closed; this consisted of two alternating parts: the first was counting auditory stimuli from 1 to 10 with simultaneous pressing of a button, and the second was counting stimuli from 1 to 5 silently without pressing the button, and so on. Computer-generated sound stimuli (duration 50 msec, envelope filling frequency 1000 Hz, intensity 60 dB) were presented binaurally with interstimulus intervals of 2.4-2.7 sec. A total of 41 subjects took part (both genders, mean age 25 years), of which only 23 fell asleep; data for 14 subjects with sufficient episodes of falling asleep were analyzed. Comparison of measures of auditory evoked potentials (the latencies and amplitudes of the N1, P2, N2, and P3 components) during correct and erroneous psychomotor test trials showed that decreases in the level of consciousness elicited significant increases in the amplitudes of the components of the vertex N1-P2-N2 complex in series without button pressing. The greatest changes in auditory evoked potentials in both series were seen in the N2 component, with latency 330-360 msec, which has a common origin with the EEG theta rhythm and is characteristic of the first stage of sleep. PMID:20339938

  5. A portable system for marine mammal auditory-evoked potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Houser, Dorian S.

    2001-05-01

    Limitations to behavioral measures of hearing sensitivity in marine mammals include the time and expense typically required to train subjects. These limitations have resulted in limited subjects and lingering questions regarding intraspecific variability. An alternative to behavioral methods is the electrophysiological method, where passive electrodes are used to measure auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) generated by the brain in response to sound stimuli. Marine mammal AEP measurements have been limited by the complexity of the technique and the limited applicability of commercially available AEP systems. In this paper, a portable, laptop computer-based system for marine mammal AEP measurements will be presented. The system features commercial off-the-shelf components, including a data acquisition PC card, biopotential amplifier, and programmable attenuator. The system is housed in a rugged, shock-resistant case. Custom software is used to present sound stimuli, record evoked responses, and analyze the resulting data. The system has been used to measure auditory brainstem responses to clicks and tone pips and envelope following responses to amplitude-modulated tones in bottlenose dolphins. Preliminary data obtained with the system will be presented and compared to behavioral hearing measures. [Work supported by the ILIR at SPAWARSYSCEN-SD and the ONR.

  6. An analytical model of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Lütkenhöner; Türker Basel

    2011-01-01

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) can be modeled (scaling factors aside) as a convolution of the motor unit action potential (MUAP) of a representative motor unit, h(t), with the temporal modulation of the MUAP rate of all contributing motor units, r(t). Accordingly, the variance modulation associated with the VEMP can be modeled as a convolution of r(t) with the

  7. Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Menière patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kingma; H. P. Wit

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation\\u000a with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured\\u000a at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric\\u000a VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular

  8. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Ipsilateral Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Ohki; Masaki Matsuzaki; Keiko Sugasawa; Toshihisa Murofushi

    2002-01-01

    We recorded vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in 12 patients diagnosed as having ipsilateral delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH). Seventy-five percent (9\\/12) of the patients showed decreased or absent VEMPs in the affected ears. Almost all patients had normal VEMPs in the unaffected ears. In addition, in 4 patients, VEMPs were recorded before and 3 h after oral glycerol administration (1.3

  9. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Versino; Silvia Colnaghi; Roberto Callieco; Roberto Bergamaschi; Alfredo Romani; Vittorio Cosi

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are saccular responses to loud acoustic stimuli and are recordable from the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle ipsilaterally to the stimulated ear. This study aimed to investigate VEMPs in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), and to compare these findings with both clinical and instrumental data.Methods: We recorded VEMPs from 70 MS patients, whose clinical data were

  10. Development of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Preterm Neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Jen Wang; Chun-Nan Chen; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Yi-Ho Young

    2008-01-01

    Our recent study successfully recorded vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses in full-term newborns. However, when VEMP responses are elicited in preterm neonates remains unclear. This study employed the VEMP test in 27 low-risk preterm and 25 healthy full-term neonates without sedation to investigate the development of VEMP response after birth. Fourteen (26%) of 54 ears in preterm neonates exhibited

  11. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials eliciting: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Eleftheriadou; Eleftherios Koudounarakis

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the favoured approach for unilateral testing of saccular function is the recently developed method of vestibular-evoked\\u000a myogenic potentials (VEMPs). VEMP testing is a reliable technique, since it selectively stimulates and investigates each lateral\\u000a canal in isolation from the other, providing information for the assessment of otolith function and inferior vestibular nerve\\u000a integrity. The aim of this study was to

  12. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in vestibular migraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Baier; N. Stieber; M. Dieterich

    2009-01-01

    Sound-induced vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) can be used to investigate saccular function, measured from the\\u000a tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) in response to loud sound stimuli. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to assess VEMPs in patients with vestibular migraine and to determine whether saccular function is affected by the disease.\\u000a Furthermore, tests such as tilts of subjective visual

  13. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in Behcet’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyra Erbek; Selim S. Erbek; Sema Yilmaz; Eftal Yucel; Levent N. Ozluoglu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and their clinical significance in\\u000a Behcet’s disease. Twenty-six patients with Behcet’s disease and 25 healthy volunteers were evaluated for pure tone audiometry,\\u000a caloric response, and VEMPs. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 53.8% of patients with Behcet’s disease, which was significantly\\u000a higher than controls. Four patients had

  14. Potential Asphyxia and Brainstem Abnormalities in Sudden and Unexpected Death in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Bradley B.; Paterson, David S.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Duncan, Jhodie R.; Mena, Othon J.; Krous, Henry F.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sudden and unexplained death is a leading cause of infant mortality. Certain characteristics of the sleep environment increase the risk for sleep-related sudden and unexplained infant death. These characteristics have the potential to generate asphyxial conditions. We tested the hypothesis that infants may be exposed to differing degrees of asphyxia in sleep environments, such that vulnerable infants with a severe underlying brainstem deficiency in serotonergic, ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic, or 14-3-3 transduction proteins succumb even without asphyxial triggers (eg, supine), whereas infants with intermediate or borderline brainstem deficiencies require asphyxial stressors to precipitate death. METHODS: We classified cases of sudden infant death into categories relative to a “potential asphyxia” schema in a cohort autopsied at the San Diego County Medical Examiner’s Office. Controls were infants who died with known causes of death established at autopsy. Analysis of covariance tested for differences between groups. RESULTS: Medullary neurochemical abnormalities were present in both infants dying suddenly in circumstances consistent with asphyxia and infants dying suddenly without obvious asphyxia-generating circumstances. There were no differences in the mean neurochemical measures between these 2 groups, although mean measures were both significantly lower (P < .05) than those of controls dying of known causes. CONCLUSIONS: We found no direct relationship between the presence of potentially asphyxia conditions in the sleep environment and brainstem abnormalities in infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Brainstem abnormalities were associated with both asphyxia-generating and non–asphyxia generating conditions. Heeding safe sleep messages is essential for all infants, especially given our current inability to detect underlying vulnerabilities. PMID:24218471

  15. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no significant difference between the ulnar muscle action potentials or for the median and ulnar distal motor and sensory latencies in the right and left hands of this group of volunteers. PMID:696811

  16. Improved processing of the steady-state evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Norcia, A M

    1993-01-01

    Two related procedures for estimating the parameters of steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are introduced. The first procedure involves an initial stage of digital bandpass filtering followed by a Discrete Fourier Transform analysis. In the second method, a high resolution method based on parametric modelling is applied to the filtered data. The digital pre-filter consists of a non-phase shifting Chebychev bandpass filter. The parametric modelling method considers the evoked-response-plus-noise distribution to consist of a set of exponentially damped sinusoids. The frequency, amplitude, phase and damping factors of these components are estimated by calculating the mean of the forward and backward prediction filters and linear regression. We compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new procedures to the conventional Discrete Fourier Transform method for Monte Carlo simulations utilizing known sinusoids buried in white noise, known sinusoids buried in human EEG noise and for a sample of visual evoked potential data. Both of the new methods produce substantially more accurate and less variable estimates of test sinusoid amplitude. For VEP recording, the EEG background noise level is reduced by 5-6 dB over that obtained with the DFT. The new methods also provide approximately 5 dB better SNR than the DFT for detection of sinusoids based on the Rayleigh statistic. The parametric modelling approach is particularly suited for the analysis of very short data records including cycle-by-cycle analysis of the SSEP. PMID:7688287

  17. Auditory Evoked Potentials in Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris(Mirounga angustirostris( )

    E-print Network

    Reichmuth, Colleen

    Auditory Evoked Potentials in Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize the responses elicited by different evoked responses to estimate hearing sensitivity. Clicks and tone pips were presented to individual seals

  18. CHLORDIMEFORM PRODUCES CONTRAST-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to the insecticide/acaricide chlordimeform (CDM) produces large, selective and transient changes in visual evoked potentials of rats. Experiments were conducted investigating the influence of physical characteristics of the evoking stimuli on the CDM effect. Adult ...

  19. Evoked depolarizing and hyperpolarizing potentials in reticulospinal axons of lamprey.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G; Wickelgren, W O

    1978-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from reticulospinal axons (Müller axons) in the lamprey spinal cord. Electrical stimuli applied to the spinal cord surface elicited depolarizing and hyperpolarizing 'synaptic-like' potentials in Müller axons. The physiological basis of these evoked potentials was investigated. 2. The depolarizing response was not the result of increased extracellular K, as demonstrated by the constancy of the undershoot of the axonal action potential during the depolarization, by the failure of the response to summate during repetitive stimulation and by the failure of the response amplitude to vary as predicted when the [K] of the saline was varied. 3. When the membrane potential of the axon was varied by passing current through a micro-electrode, the amplitude of the depolarizing evoked potential decreased at membrane potentials positive to the resting potential and increased up to a maximum when the axon was hyperpolarized by about 10 mV. The extrapolated 'reversal potential' for the depolarizing response was about 15 mV positive to the normal -80 mV resting potential of the axon. However, the amplitude of the response did not continue to grow with hyperpolarizations greater than 10 mV, and, thus, the response did not behave as would a normal depolarizing synaptic potential. 4. Müller axons make numerous electrical synapses with spinal motoneurones and interneurones, and this suggested that the depolarizing response might be a coupling potential. In agreement with this idea, quantitative correspondence was found between changes in the input resistance of the axon produced by the depolarizing response and the variation in the depolarizing response amplitude. Thus, although the depolarizing response mimicked in some ways the behaviour of an excitatory synaptic potential, we conclude that it is a coupling potential. 5. The hyperpolarizing response also appeared to be a coupling potential. Its amplitude was not changed by hyperpolarizing the axon up to 30 mV and was decreased by depolarizing the axon sufficiently to decrease the axon's input resistance. 6. It is proposed that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing evoked potentials in lamprey Müller axons are a result of passive flow of current from cells activated by the spinal cord stimulus and electrically coupled to Müller axons. PMID:671362

  20. Properties of rectified averaging of an evoked-type signal: theory and application to the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Colebatch

    2009-01-01

    The properties of rectified averages were investigated using the VEMP (vestibular-evoked myogenic potential) as an example\\u000a of an evoked-type response. Recordings were made of surface EMG from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles of six volunteers,\\u000a unstimulated, at different levels of tonic activation and then in response to clicks of different intensities. The stochastic\\u000a properties of the surface EMG recorded were shown

  1. Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Menière patients

    PubMed Central

    Wit, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular (most likely otolith) system at the side of hearing loss. The diagnostic value of VEMP amplitude asymmetry measurement in individual patients is low, because of the large overlap of the VEMP amplitude asymmetry range for unilateral Menière patients with that for normal subjects. PMID:20665043

  2. The division of attention and the human auditory evoked potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hink, R. F.; Van Voorhis, S. T.; Hillyard, S. A.; Smith, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of the scalp-recorded, auditory evoked potential to selective attention was examined while subjects responded to stimuli presented to one ear (focused attention) and to both ears (divided attention). The amplitude of the N1 component was found to be largest to stimuli in the ear upon which attention was to be focused, smallest to stimuli in the ear to be ignored, and intermediate to stimuli in both ears when attention was divided. The results are interpreted as supporting a capacity model of attention.

  3. A novel shape analysis technique for somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Sherman, David; Thakor, Nitish; All, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) have been shown to be an important electrophysiological measure to assess the integrity of the spinal cord. However the peaks in the SEP waveform are often undetectable due to low signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. Sometimes they also become indistinct during injury when the SEP flattens. Hence time-domain analysis methods are often subject to errors, and need human-expert intervention. In this paper, we propose a new technique for analyzing the shape of the evoked potentials, in which slope information is obtained for the entire signal in specific time bins. Apart from solving the problems associated with present methods, this technique has an added advantage of analyzing the SEP signal as a whole rather than simply a few peaks. The efficacy of this technique was investigated on SEP signals recorded from 12 rats before and after contusion spinal cord injury at thoracic vertebra T8. The statistical analysis results revealed significant effect of injury to hindlimbs, whereas almost none to forelimbs. Thus, the results show high potential of this technique to differentiate between normal and injured spinal cord. PMID:19163762

  4. The effect of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Shaibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghaseminejad, Azizeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a significant global health problem with serious short- and long-term consequences. This study examined the long term effects of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) among preschool-aged children. Methods: Thirty-one children with preterm and 20 children with term birth histories aged 5.5 to 6.5 years were studied. Each child underwent VEMPs testing using a 500 Hz tone-burst stimulus with a 95 dB nHL (normal hearing level) intensity level. Results: The mean peak latencies of the p13 and n23 waves in the very preterm group were significantly longer than for the full-term group (p? 0.041). There was a significant difference between very and mildly preterm children in the latency of peak p13 (p= 0.003). No significant differences existed between groups for p13-n23 amplitude and the interaural amplitude difference ratio. The tested ear and gender did not affect the results of the test. Conclusion: Prolonged VEMPs in very preterm children may reflect neurodevelopmental impairment and incomplete maturity of the vestibulospinal tract (sacculocollic reflex pathway), especially myelination. VEMPs is a non-invasive technique for investigating the vestibular function in young children, and considered to be an appropriate tool for evaluating vestibular impairments at the low brainstem level. It can be used in follow-ups of the long-term effects of preterm birth on the vestibular system. PMID:25405140

  5. Stimulus dependencies of the gerbil brain-stem auditory-evoked response (BAER). III: Additivity of click level and rate with noise level.

    PubMed

    Burkard, R; Voigt, H F

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were performed that evaluated the effects of ipsilateral-direct broadband noise maskers on the gerbil brain-stem auditory-evoked response (BAER) to click stimuli. In experiment 1, clicks were presented at 27 Hz at levels including 70, 80, 90, and 100 dB pSPL. Noise conditions included a no-noise control, and included noise levels varying in 10-dB increments from 20 dB SPL to a maximum noise level of 50, 60, 70, and 80 dB SPL for click levels of 70, 80, 90, and 100 dB pSPL, respectively. Gerbil BAER peaks were labeled with small roman numerals to distinguish them from human BAER peaks. The dependent variables included waves i and v latencies and amplitudes. Peak latencies increased and peak amplitudes decreased with decreasing click level and increasing noise level. To a first approximation, peak latencies and amplitudes showed changes with increasing noise level that were similar across click level. With increasing click level, there was little or no effect on the i-v interval. There was an increase in the i-v interval with increasing noise level. In experiment 2, click level was held constant at 90 dB pSPL, and click rates included 15, 40, 65, and 90 Hz. For each click rate, noise conditions included a no-noise control, and noise levels included 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 dB SPL. With increasing click rate and noise level, there was an increase in peak latencies, an increase in the i-v interval, and a decrease in peak amplitudes. The magnitude of peak latency and amplitude shifts with increasing click rate was dependent on noise level. Specifically, the magnitude of rate-dependent changes decreased with increasing level of broadband noise. These data are compared to human BAER experiments, and are found to be in fundamental agreement. PMID:2269738

  6. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, S M; Welgampola, M S; Colebatch, J G

    2010-05-01

    Since the first description of sound-evoked short-latency myogenic reflexes recorded from neck muscles, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become an important part of the neuro-otological test battery. VEMPs provide a means of assessing otolith function: stimulation of the vestibular system with air-conducted sound activates predominantly saccular afferents, while bone-conducted vibration activates a combination of saccular and utricular afferents. The conventional method for recording the VEMP involves measuring electromyographic (EMG) activity from surface electrodes placed over the tonically-activated sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles. The "cervical VEMP" (cVEMP) is thus a manifestation of the vestibulo-collic reflex. However, recent research has shown that VEMPs can also be recorded from the extraocular muscles using surface electrodes placed near the eyes. These "ocular VEMPs" (oVEMPs) are a manifestation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Here we describe the historical development and neurophysiological properties of the cVEMP and oVEMP and provide recommendations for recording both reflexes. While the cVEMP has documented diagnostic utility in many disorders affecting vestibular function, relatively little is known as yet about the clinical value of the oVEMP. We therefore outline the known cVEMP and oVEMP characteristics in common central and peripheral disorders encountered in neuro-otology clinics. PMID:20080441

  7. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials, clinical evaluation, and imaging findings in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Güven, Hayat; Bay?r, Omer; Aytaç, Emrah; Ozdek, Ali; Como?lu, Selim Selçuk; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2014-02-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), short-latency electromyographic responses elicited by acoustic stimuli, evaluate the function of vestibulocollic reflex and may give information about brainstem function. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential contribution of VEMP to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty patients with MS and 30 healthy control subjects were included in this study. The frequency of VEMP p1-n1 and n2-p2 waves; mean p1, n1, n2, and p2 latency; and mean p1-n1 and n2-p2 amplitude were determined. The relation between clinical and imaging findings and VEMP parameters was evaluated. The p1-n1 and n2-p2 waves were more frequently absent in MS than in control subjects [p1-n1 wave absent: MS, 25 (25 %) ears; control, 6 (10 %) ears; P ? 0.02] [n2-p2 wave absent: MS, 44 (44 %) ears; control, 7 (12 %) ears; P ? 0.001]. The mean p1-n1 amplitude was lower in MS than in control subjects (MS, 19.1 ± 7.2 ?V; control, 23.3 ± 7.4 ?V; P ? 0.002). A total of 24/50 (48 %) MS patients had VEMP abnormalities (absent responses and/or prolonged latencies). VEMP abnormalities were more frequent in patients with than without vestibular symptoms (P ? 0.02) and with brainstem functional system score (FSS) ? 1 than FSS = 0 (P ? 0.02). In patients with MS, absence of p1-n1 wave was more frequent in patients with than without vestibular symptoms [absence of p1-n1 wave: vestibular symptoms, 9 (45 %) ears; no vestibular symptoms, 16 (20 %) ears; P ? 0.03] and patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ? 5.5 [absence of p1-n1 wave: EDSS ? 5.5, 7 (70 %) ears; EDSS <5.5, 18 (20 %) ears; P ? 0.001]. Abnormal VEMP may be noted in MS patients, especially those with vestibular symptoms and greater disability. The VEMP test may complement other studies for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with MS. PMID:23807120

  8. Abnormal Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Medial Medullary Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Je-Young; Song, Hyun-Seok; Koo, Ja-Won; Lee, Hak-Seung

    2009-01-01

    Background The medial vestibulospinal tract (MVST), which descends in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), may mediate the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in the contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle. We report herein abnormal VEMPs in a patient with medial medullary infarction (MMI) that appeared to involve the MLF. Case Report A patient with infarction involving the right medial medulla showed decreased p13-n23 amplitude and increased p13/n23 latencies of the VEMPs on the right side. These abnormal VEMPs recorded in an MMI patient support the theory that VEMPs are mediated by the MVST contained within the MLF. Conclusions VEMPs may represent a valuable tool for investigating vestibular dysfunction originating from the saccule, even in patients with central vestibulopathies, which is not readily defined by conventional vestibular function tests. PMID:19587819

  9. Evoked potentials are modified by long term exposure to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Blain, L; Lachapelle, P; Molotchnikoff, S

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of New Zealand albino rabbits were respectively exposed to 350 and 700 ppm of trichloroethylene (TRI) 4 hrs/day, 4 days/week for 12 weeks. Weekly, visual evoked potentials (VEP) recordings were obtained under mesopic condition. Blood samples were also collected weekly to determine the concentration of TRI and its metabolites. Recordings from the 350 ppm group showed a significant (p less than 0.001) decrease in the amplitude of VEPs, while a significant (p less than 0.001) increase was observed in the 700 ppm group. Both effects were reversed to baseline values within six weeks after the last exposure. The observed modifications in VEP amplitudes were related to blood level of trichloroethanol. These results thus confirm the neuro-ophthalmotoxicity of TRI and support the hypothesis that trichloroethanol is a reliable marker of the effective neurotoxic dose of this organic solvent. PMID:1508420

  10. Auditory evoked potential response and hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Paulraj, M P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H Bin; Hema, C R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research. PMID:25893012

  11. Hierarchical Codebook Visually Evoked Potentials for fast and flexible BCIs.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, Hannes; Finke, Andrea; Ritter, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces provide a direct communication channel from the brain to a technical device. One major problem in state-of-the-art BCIs is their low communication speed. BCIs based on Codebook Visually Evoked Potentials (cVEP) outperform all other non-invasive approaches in terms of information transfer rate. Used only in spelling tasks so far, more flexibility with respect to stimulus structure and properties is needed. We propose using hierarchical codebook vectors together with varying color schemes to increase the stimulus flexibility. An off-line study showed that our novel hcVEP approach is capable of discriminating groups of targets after only 250 ms of stimulus flickering and the final target within the group after 1s. The accuracies are 81% and 67%, respectively. Different color schemes (black/white and green/red) are equally effective. PMID:24110303

  12. Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Norms and Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Isaradisaikul, Suwicha; Navacharoen, Niramon; Hanprasertpong, Charuk; Kangsanarak, Jaran

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is a vestibular function test used for evaluating saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Parameters of VEMP testing include VEMP threshold, latencies of p1 and n1, and p1-n1 interamplitude. Less commonly used parameters were p1-n1 interlatency, interaural difference of p1 and n1 latency, and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio. This paper recommends using air-conducted 500?Hz tone burst auditory stimulation presented monoaurally via an inserted ear phone while the subject is turning his head to the contralateral side in the sitting position and recording the responses from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Normative values of VEMP responses in 50 normal audiovestibular volunteers were presented. VEMP testing protocols and normative values in other literature were reviewed and compared. The study is beneficial to clinicians as a reference guide to set up VEMP testing and interpretation of the VEMP responses. PMID:22577386

  13. Uniqueness of the generators of brain evoked potential maps.

    PubMed

    Amir, A

    1994-01-01

    This study considers the uniqueness of neuronal generators of human brain evoked potentials measured on the scalp using the physical and mathematical properties of the volume conductor model. The results are applicable to a realistic, nonhomogeneous head shape where the potential map is known on a continuous set of points on the scalp. It is shown that sources which occupy "zero volume" in space such as point dipoles or sources distributed on an open surface or a line are uniquely defined by the potential maps. Finite volume nonoverlapping sources are also uniquely defined by their potential map. However, there are infinitely many different but overlapping sources which can create the same map. Several examples of such sources are provided. It is shown that there is a unique, minimum volume source which can be defined in this case. Results suggest that if a reconstruction of the sources starts from a continuous scalp map (obtained by interpolation of the data between electrode sites), one can obtain unique results concerning the source parameters that are not available in a search for a source whose potential map fits only at a discrete set of points. PMID:8200662

  14. Effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) in epileptics.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, U; Selvamurthy, W; Singh, S H; Gupta, H L; Mukhopadhyay, S; Thakur, L

    2000-03-01

    The effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on 32 patients with primary idiopathic epilepsy on regular and maintained antiepileptic medication was studied. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I practiced Sahaja Yoga meditation twice daily for 6 months under proper guidance; group II practiced postural exercises mimicking the meditation for the same duration; and group III was the control group. Visual Contrast Sensitivity (VCS), Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP), Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP), and Mid Latency Responses (MLR) were recorded initially (0 month) and at 3 and 6 months for each group. There was a significant improvement in VCS following meditation practice in group I participants. Na, the first prominent negative peak of MLR and Pa, the positive peak following Na did not register changes in latency. The Na-Pa amplitude of MLR also showed a significant increase. There were no significant changes in the absolute and interpeak latencies of BAEP. The reduced level of stress following meditation practice may make patients more responsive to specific stimuli. Sahaja Yoga meditation appears to bring about changes in some of the electrophysiological responses studied in epileptic patients. PMID:10832506

  15. Spinal Cord-Evoked Potentials and Muscle Responses Evoked by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in 10 Awake Human Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Houlden; Michael L. Schwartz; Charles H. Tator; Peter Ashby; William A. MacKay

    1999-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects.

  16. Assessing functioning of the prefrontal cortical subregions with auditory evoked potentials in sleep–wake cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaowen Tian; Bi Hu; Peng Li; Zhonggui Zhao; Xinping Ouyang; Shouhong Zhou; Yuanye Ma

    2006-01-01

    Our previously observations showed that the amplitude of cortical evoked potentials to irrelevant auditory stimulus (probe) recorded from several different cerebral areas was differentially modulated by brain states. At present study, we simultaneously recorded auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the freely moving rhesus monkey to investigate state-dependent changes

  17. Relationship between Visual Evoked Potentials and Subjective Differences between Emotional Expressions in “Face Diagrams”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. A. Izmailov; S. G. Korshunova; E. N. Sokolov

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between visual evoked potentials resulting from substitution of one image of a human “face diagram” for another and assessment of perceived differences between the emotional expressions of these faces were studied. Emotions were altered by changing the curvature of the mouth and\\/or the slope of the brows. Unlike the traditional approach, in which visual evoked potentials are recorded

  18. Cortical Sources of the Early Components of the Visual Evoked Potential

    E-print Network

    Sereno, Martin

    Cortical Sources of the Early Components of the Visual Evoked Potential Francesco Di Russo,1 of Cognitive Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, California Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the neural generators of the early components of the visual evoked potential (VEP) to isoluminant checkerboard stimuli

  19. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in the human fetus during labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari Eswaran; James D. Wilson; Curtis L. Lowery; Greg Sharp; Roger M. Hawk; Pam Murphy; Sonia Pennington

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to record, during labor, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials of the fetus from standard fetal scalp electrodes. Study Design: A personal computer–based instrument was developed to record, during labor, brain stem auditory evoked potentials from 10 fetuses ranging in gestational age from 36 to ?40 weeks. Auditory stimulus was provided by clicks

  20. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  1. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a sign of hearing loss , multiple sclerosis , acoustic neuroma , or stroke. Abnormal results may also be due to: Brain injury Brain malformation Brain tumor Central pontine myelinolysis Speech disorders

  2. Visual evoked potential importance in the complex mechanism of amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça, Regina; Abbruzzese, Stefania; Bagolini, Bruna; Nofroni, Italo; Ferreira, Eliana Lucia; Odom, James Vernon

    2013-10-01

    To compare the visual evoked potential (VEP) responses of amblyopic eyes with VEP responses of sound eyes in amblyopic children. A study of 65 amblyopic children with pattern-reversal VEPs elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large, medium and small checks. The children were classified into three groups: Group A, 22 children with anisometropic amblyopia; Group B, 16 children with exotropic strabismic amblyopia; and Group C, 27 children with esotropic strabismic amblyopia. Visual acuity (VA) was significantly worse in the amblyopic eye as compared to the sound eye. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the amblyopic and sound eye of amblyopic children in the three groups for VEP P1 amplitude and latencies for any check sizes. VEP is a very important tool in understanding the complex amblyopic mechanism. Although the sound eye has superior VA, the absence of differences in VEP P1 amplitudes and latencies demonstrate the functional abnormality of the eye considered 'good'. More studies are necessary to explain why the sound eye in amblyopic children cannot be considered completely normal. Special attention should therefore be paid to amblyopic treatment, as patching can have a negative effect on the sound eye. PMID:23417145

  3. Measuring action potential-evoked transmission at individual synaptic contacts

    PubMed Central

    Nauen, David W; Bi, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the neuronal culture experimental system, the total synaptic connection between two neurons can consist of large numbers of synaptic sites, each behaving probabilistically. Studies of synaptic function with paired recordings typically consider the summed response across all of these sites and from this infer the average response. Understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity could be improved by examination of activity at as few synaptic sites as possible. To this end, we develop a system for recording responses from individual contacts. It relies on a precisely regulated pneumatic/hydrostatic pressure system to create a microenvironment within which individual synapses are active, and an acoustic signature method to monitor the stability of this microenvironment noninvasively. With this method we are able to record action potential-evoked postsynaptic currents consistent with individual quanta. The approach does not distort synaptic current waveforms and permits stable recording for several hours. The method is applied to address mechanisms of short-term plasticity, the variability of latency at individual synaptic sites and, in a preliminary experiment, the independence of nearby synapses on the same axon. PMID:22626987

  4. Automated data acquisition and analysis of neural evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Quint, S R; Greenwood, R S; Howard, J F; Gomez, J V

    1985-05-01

    A software system to collect, analyze and store trains of neural evoked potentials is presented. Real-time waveform capture permits sampling of a variable-duration data window of 6 to 399.6 ms with a sample delay accurately adjustable up to 1 001 ms (20 microseconds resolution). The digitized representation of each waveform is stored for individual analysis. Off-line processing determines 17 parameters of each waveform, including an arrow-selected amplitude and time. Individual processing of waveforms preserves all degrees of freedom for statistical analysis across waveforms. Ensemble averages may optionally be formed from the individual waveforms with processing performed on the averaged responses. The software provides MENU-selectable support functions including stimulus-to-artifact timing, storage and retrieval of data and calculated parameters, digital display of waveforms, data calibration and gain modification, table referenced data editing, file management, simple statistics, hardcopy output, and optional database interfacing with output formatted for compatibility with a statistics package (SAS). PMID:3849376

  5. Source reconstruction of sensory and cognitive evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Curtis W.

    2005-04-01

    Cortical activity reflected in auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) is often evaluated using only a small subset of all the recorded data. Conclusions based on this approach can be misleading, with no utility in identifying the underlying neural generators of the scalp recorded activity. Techniques that make use of all of the AEP data range from relatively simple methods, such as global field power, to more advanced approaches including independent components analysis (ICA), dipole modeling, and current density reconstruction. The objective of this presentation is to describe analysis of the component-structure of AEPs using these advanced techniques. Results of the ICA analysis will be used to generate spatial filters characterizing the specific scalp distribution associated with each ICA pattern. The cortical origin of each ICA scalp distribution will then be determined using current density reconstruction. The analysis will be applied to standard AEPs as well as the mismatch negativity in normal hearing and cochlear implant users. The results will demonstrate the unique suitability of neuroimaging based on AEPs for understanding the effects of cochlear implant use on cortical activity associated with cognitive processing in children and in adults.

  6. Electroretinogram and visual-evoked potential measurements in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Strain, G M; Claxton, M S; Prescott-Mathews, J S; LaPhand, D J

    1991-01-01

    Electroretinogram (ERG) and visual-evoked potential (VEP) recordings were taken from ten Suffolk-cross sheep. Stimuli for VEP were 1.5 flashes of white light/s; ERG stimuli were single flashes. The ERG measurements of the a and b wave latencies and a-to-b amplitude were measured between the lower eyelid and the vertex, with ground on the nuchal crest. The VEP after monocular stimulation were measured between the nuchal crest and the interorbital line, with ground on the vertex. Measurements consisted of the latencies to seven alternating positive and negative peaks P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, N3 and P4, and six amplitudes, P1-N1, N1-P2, P2-N2, N2-P3, P3-N3 and N3-P4. Average latencies for the a and b waves were 13.6 and 28.2 ms; the mean ab amplitude was 131.68 microV. Average latencies for the seven VEP peaks were 35.0, 43.1, 52.8, 64.1, 74.5, 90.4 and 112.2 ms. Mean amplitudes ranged from 3.90 to 8.29 microV. PMID:1884277

  7. Long-latency evoked potentials to irrelevant, deviant stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, E.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Occasional shifts of loudness in a repetitive train of clicks elicited a late-positive wave (P3a) in nonattending subjects which peaked at a mean latency of 258 msec and had a frontocentral scalp distribution; P3a was typically preceded by an 'N2' component at 196 msec. The P3a wave was distinguishable from the longer-latency (378 msec) parietocentrally distributed 'P3b' wave that was evoked by the same stimulus in an actively attending subject, thus confirming the findings of Squires et al. (1975). Infrequently presented single sounds did not produce large or consistent N2-P3a components; the critical condition for the generation of an N2-P3a wave seemed to be that the infrequent sounds represent a deviation (intensity increment or decrement) from a repetitive background. Furthermore, increasing the repetition rate of the background clicks drastically reduced N1-P2 amplitude but had little effect on the amplitude of N2-P3a. This suggests that N2-P3a is not simply a delayed N1-P2 'vertex potential', but rather reflects the operation of a 'mismatch' detector, which registers deviations from an ongoing auditory background.

  8. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs): usefulness in clinical neurotology.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister

    2009-11-01

    Testing vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) may be the most important new clinical test for evaluation of vestibular function developed during the past 100 years since the introduction of the caloric test. VEMPs are easily recordable and therefore suitable for everyday testing in clinical neurotology. VEMPs in response to air-conducted sound stimulation using surface electrodes over the sternocleidomastoid muscles reveal saccular function, inferior vestibular nerve function, and vestibulocollic connections. At present, VEMPs are of clinical importance for estimating the severity of peripheral vestibular damage due to different pathophysiologic processes such as Ménière's disease, vestibular neuritis, and vestibular schwannoma. VEMPs can also be used to document vestibular hypersensitivity to sounds (Tullio phenomenon). In addition, VEMP testing constitutes an electrophysiologic method that is able to detect subclinical lesions in central vestibular pathways in patients with multiple sclerosis. In the near future, testing ocular VEMPs (OVEMPs) in response to bone-conducted vibration may prove to be of clinical importance for the evaluation of utricular function. PMID:19834866

  9. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials eliciting: an overview.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Koudounarakis, Eleftherios

    2011-03-01

    Recently, the favoured approach for unilateral testing of saccular function is the recently developed method of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). VEMP testing is a reliable technique, since it selectively stimulates and investigates each lateral canal in isolation from the other, providing information for the assessment of otolith function and inferior vestibular nerve integrity. The aim of this study was to provide a current review of the different methods used to record VEMPs. We noticed discrepancies in relation to the ways used to record the VEMPs in relation to the following factors: types of stimuli used (clicks or tone bursts) and body muscles tested, patient position at the time of recording, response, type of phone used and way of stimulus presentation (mono or binaural, ipsi or contralateral) and others. As a conclusion, despite the numerous studies in the field, there is no consensus in the literature as to the best recording method for VEMPs. However, the new ocular VEMPs in response to bone conducted vibration seem to be of clinical importance for the evaluation of utricular function. Further research is needed to support its clinical usefulness. PMID:20963599

  10. A short latency vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) produced by bone-conducted acoustic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil P. McAngus Todd; Sally M. Rosengren; James G. Colebatch

    2003-01-01

    In this paper data are presented from an experiment which provides evidence for the existence of a short latency, acoustically evoked potential of probable vestibular origin. The experiment was conducted in two phases using bone-conducted acoustic stimulation. In the first phase subjects were stimulated with 6-ms, 500-Hz tone bursts in order to obtain the threshold VT for vestibular evoked myogenic

  11. Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring following severe closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Moulton, R J; Shedden, P M; Tucker, W S; Muller, P J

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the results of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring in 65 patients with severe head injury. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring data were available for 63 patients, and arterial-jugular oxygen content (AVDO2) data for 52 patients. Eighty-nine percent of patients with no SSEP activity beyond 50 msec post-stimulus in either hemisphere died or were vegetative survivors (3 month Glasgow Outcome Score). All 17 patients with a good or moderate outcome had long latency cortical activity (i.e. > or = 70 msec post-stimulus) in both hemispheres. Among patients with absent activity in 1 hemisphere, 53% died and 47% were severely disabled (chi 2 = 40, p = 0.0000). In the latter group, age was a significant factor among patients who died or were severely disabled (p < 0.02). Forty-four of 65 patients had either clear-cut deterioration or improvement in SSEPs over the course of monitoring. There were no significant differences in peak ICP between patients with improving or deteriorating SSEPs. In contrast, those with deteriorating SSEPs had a significant drop in AVDO2, compared with patients with improving SSEPs (p < 0.01). Long-term continuous monitoring of SSEPs shows that following severe injury, neurologic function may undergo significant change in approximately two-thirds of patients. Furthermore, ICP does not appear to play a prominent role in neurologic deterioration. AVDO2 measurements indicate that deterioration is more likely associated with perturbation of cerebral oxidative metabolism. SSEP monitoring following severe head injury has proven prognostic value, and is recommended for patients who must be pharmacologically paralyzed for ICP or ventilator management. PMID:7923995

  12. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in medical students: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, Siddaraju; Ali, Syed Sadat; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The median nerve N20 component constitutes the initial response of the primary somatosensory cortex to somatosensory stimulation of the upper extremity. Knowledge of the underlying generators is important for basic understanding of the initial sequence of cortical activation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, normative data of cortical evoked potentials in particular of N20 wave onset and peak latencies by median nerve stimulation in a group of 100 medical students aged between 18 and 30 years were documented and the effect of physiological variables were studied. Descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used to analyze the healthy subjects and to compare N20 latencies for handedness, respectively. Regression analysis was used to show association between average N20 latencies and physiological variables from which regression formulae were calculated to predict normative values of these parameters. Results: The results of the study indicated that N20 onset and peak latency values are significantly affected by limb length at 95% confidence level. Height is showing as a significant factor affecting N20 onset latencies but it is probably because of high correlation of height with limb length. Age though on linear regression showed some significant correlation with N20 onset and peak latency, multiple regressions showed that it does not affect N20 onset and peak latencies in the presence of other variables. Handedness did not affect both N20 onset and peak latency values. Conclusion: Physiological variables do affect the N20 latencies and these should be standardized before usage for research in basic sciences at all age groups. PMID:24223371

  13. Electroencephalography and visually evoked potentials during moderate hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tamburrano, G; Lala, A; Locuratolo, N; Leonetti, F; Sbraccia, P; Giaccari, A; Busco, S; Porcu, S

    1988-06-01

    The effects of hypoglycemia per se on the electroencephalogram (EEG) and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in eight normal young adults. The EEG and VEPs were recorded before and during hypoglycemic clamp studies, carried out at plasma insulin and glucose concentrations of about 287 pmol/L and 2.38 mmol/L, respectively. From the mean power EEG spectra obtained during each testing condition, several parameters in each frequency band considered were compared statistically. During the eyes closed recording, the mean frequency of the alpha-band (8-13 Hz) decreased from 10.1 +/- 0.2 (+/- SE) Hz in both the right and left frontal leads during euglycemia to 8.8 +/- 0.2 and 8.8 +/- 0.1 Hz (left and right frontal leads, respectively; P less than 0.05) during hypoglycemia. In the same leads, the peak frequency decreased from 10.6 +/- 0.4 and 10.3 +/- 0.4 Hz to 9.6 +/- 0.4 and 9.5 +/- 0.3 Hz, respectively (P less than 0.05). A similar pattern of variation was found during the eyes open recording. In contrast, mean VEP latencies did not vary significantly; they were 118 +/- 3 ms (smallest image size; square wave signals subtending 30 min of arc) and 116 +/- 3 ms (largest image size; square wave signals subtending 60 min of arc) during euglycemia to 121 +/- 3 and 119 +/- 3 ms, respectively, during hypoglycemia. This study demonstrates that the earliest hypoglycemia-induced EEG alterations occur in the frontal regions and can be quantified in terms of decreased mean and peak frequencies of the alpha-band. VEP latency is less sensitive. If confirmed in diabetic patients, these data may provide a theoretical basis for developing a portable device to detect early hypoglycemia in those patients who lack warning symptoms. PMID:3286674

  14. Pain-Related Evoked Potential in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung Joon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jong Heon; Jung, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Jun; Park, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the normal data of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited with a concentric surface electrode among normal, healthy adults and the relationship between PREP and pain intensity. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers (22 men and 38 women; aged 36.4±10.7 years; height, 165.4±7.8 cm) were enrolled. Routine nerve conduction study (NCS) was done to measure PREP following electrical stimulation of hands (C7 dermatome) and feet (L5 dermatome). Negative peak (N), positive peak (P) latencies, peak to peak (NP) amplitudes, conduction velocity (CV), and verbal rating scale (VRS) score were obtained. Linear regression analysis tested for significant relevance between variables of PREP and VRS score. Results Normal NCS results were obtained in all subjects. N latency of hand PREP was 163.8 ±40.0 ms (right) and 161.0±39.9 ms (left). N latency of foot PREP was 178.0±43.9 ms (right), 180.4±43.4 ms (left). NP amplitude of hands was 20.6±10.6 µV (right) and 21.9±11.6 µV (left). NP amplitude of feet was 18.8±8.3 µV (right) and 19.0±8.4 µV (left). The calculated CV was 13.2±4.7 m/s and VRS score was 3.8±1.0. A highly significant positive correlation was evident between VRS score and NP amplitude (y=0.1069x+1.781, r=0.877, n=60, p<0.0001). Conclusion PREP among normal, healthy adults revealed a statistically significant correlation between PREP amplitude and VRS score. PMID:25750879

  15. The effects of adult male mouse urine odor on evoked potentials in adult female mice 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Troy Edwin

    1985-01-01

    potential due to castrate male mouse urine odor. An olfactometer was designed for saturating air with the urine and then delivering this stimulus to a female mouse during inspiration. Respiration was monitored by impedance pneumography. Evoked potential... data were collected from three mice for each stimulus (water, castrate mouse urine, and intact mouse urine) and subsequently analyzed. The power spectrum and coherence spectrum were used to locate and identify the odor evoked potentials. The results...

  16. Dynamics of Infant Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials (CAEPs) for Tone and Speech Tokens

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Barbara; Whitaker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to tones and speech sounds were obtained in infants to: 1) further knowledge of auditory development above the level of the brainstem during the first year of life; 2) establish CAEP input-output functions for tonal and speech stimuli as a function of stimulus level and to 3) elaborate the data-base that establishes CAEP in infants tested while awake using clinically relevant stimuli, thus providing methodology that would have translation to pediatric audiological assessment. Hypotheses concerning CAEP development were that the latency and amplitude input-output functions would reflect immaturity in encoding stimulus level. In a second experiment, infants were tested with the same stimuli used to evoke the CAEPs. Thresholds for these stimuli were determined using observer-based psychophysical techniques. The hypothesis was that the behavioral thresholds would be correlated with CAEP input-output functions because of shared cortical response areas known to be active in sound detection. Design 36 infants, between the ages of 4-12 months (mean= 8 months, s.d.=1.8 months) and 9 young adults (mean age 21 years) with normal hearing were tested. First, CAEPs amplitude and latency input-output functions were obtained for 4 tone bursts and 7 speech tokens. The tone bursts stimuli were 50 ms tokens of pure tones at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kHz. The speech sound tokens, /a/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /m/, /s/, and /?/, were created from natural speech samples and were also 50 ms in duration. CAEPs were obtained for tone burst and speech token stimuli at 10 dB level decrements in descending order from 70 dB SPL. All CAEP tests were completed while the infants were awake and engaged in quiet play. For the second experiment, observer-based psychophysical methods were used to establish perceptual threshold for the same speech sound and tone tokens. Results Infant CAEP component latencies were prolonged by 100-150 ms in comparison to adults. CAEP latency-intensity input output functions were steeper in infants compared to adults. CAEP amplitude growth functions with respect to stimulus SPL are adult-like at this age, particularly for the earliest component, P1-N1. Infant perceptual thresholds were elevated with respect to those found in adults. Furthermore, perceptual thresholds were higher, on average, than levels at which CAEPs could be obtained. When CAEP amplitudes were plotted with respect to perceptual threshold (dB SL), the infant CAEP amplitude growth slopes were steeper than in adults. Conclusions Although CAEP latencies indicate immaturity in neural transmission at the level of the cortex, amplitude growth with respect to stimulus SPL is adult-like at this age, particularly for the earliest component, P1-N1. The latency and amplitude input-output functions may provide additional information as to how infants perceive stimulus level. The reasons for the discrepancy between electrophysiologic and perceptual threshold may be due to immaturity in perceptual temporal resolution abilities and the broad-band listening strategy employed by infants. The findings from the current study can be translated to the clinical setting. It is possible to use tonal or speech sound tokens to evoke CAEPs in an awake, passively alert infant, and thus determine whether these sounds activate the auditory cortex. This could be beneficial in the verification of hearing aid or cochlear implant benefit. PMID:23722003

  17. Real time mapping of rat midbrain neural circuitry using auditory evoked potentials

    E-print Network

    Sereno, Martin

    of electrophysiology as a high temporal resolution activity marker for neural circuits. The electroencephalogram (EEG of the inferior colliculus; EEG, electroencephalogram; EP, evoked potentials; EVF, electric vector ¢eld; IC

  18. Investigation of brachial plexus traction lesions by peripheral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J Jones

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral, spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 26 patients with unilateral traction injuries of the brachial plexus ganglia. Of 10 cases explored surgically the recordings correctly anticipated the major site of the lesion in eight.

  19. Evaluation of brain function in acute carbon monoxide poisoning with multimodality evoked potentials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Shoulin (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Beijing (China)); Xu, Guanghua; Fang, Guangchai; Pan, Xiaowen (Navy Hospital, Beijing (China))

    1993-02-01

    The median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP), and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were studied in 109 healthy adults and in 88 patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The upper limits for normal values of peak and interpeak latencies of multimodalities of evoked potentials in the reference group were established by a stepwise multiple regression analysis. SEP changes selectively affecting N32 and N60 were found in 78.8% of patients. There was prolonged PI00 latency of VEP in 58.2% of the cases examined. The prevalence of BAEP abnormalities in comatose patients (36%) was significantly higher than that (8.6%) in conscious patients. BAEP abnormalities were most frequently seen in comatose patients who had diminished brain stem reflexes (77.8%). It has been found that a consistent abnormality involving N2O and subsequent peaks in SEP, a remarkable prolongation of PI00 latency in VEP, or a prolongation of Ill-V interpeak latency in BAEP as well as the reoccurrence of evoked potential abnormalities after initial recovery all indicate unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute CO poisoning. The multimodality evoked potentials have proved to be sensitive indicators in the evaluation of brain dysfunction and in the prediction of prognosis of acute CO poisoning and the development of delayed encephalopathy. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Potentiation by cadmium ion of ATP-evoked dopamine release in rat phaeochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, M.; Koizumi, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Inoue, K.; Ito, K.; Inoue, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of cadmium ion (Cd2+) on release of dopamine and on an inward current evoked by extracellular ATP were investigated in rat phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells. 2. Cd2+ (100 microM-3 mM) potentiated the dopamine release evoked by 30 microM ATP from the cells. Cd2+ (100 microM) shifted the concentration-response curve of ATP-evoked dopamine release to the left without affecting the maximal response. 3. Suramin (30 microM) completely abolished the dopamine release evoked by 30 microM ATP but only partially inhibited the release evoked by 100 microM ATP consistent with its role as a competitive antagonist. The response evoked by 30 microM ATP in the presence of Cd2+ (300 microM) was comparable to that observed with 100 microM ATP alone; however, only the former was almost completely inhibited by suramin. 4. Cd2+ (100 microM) potentiated an inward current activated by 30 microM ATP alone. A higher concentration of Cd2+ (300 microM) had a smaller effect on amplitude potentiation but significantly prolonged the duration of the current. 5. The time-course of the ATP-evoked dopamine release was investigated using a real-time monitoring system for dopamine release. Although Cd2+ (300 microM) had little effect on the time-course of activation the ATP-evoked dopamine release, it produced a long-lasting dopamine release which slowly returned to the baseline. 6. Taken together, these observations suggest that Cd2+ enhances ATP-evoked dopamine release by affecting P2-purinoceptor/channels. The enhancement may be attributed to a Cd(2+)-dependent increase in sensitivity to ATP. PMID:8851516

  1. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task - Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of vertex-evoked potential studies conducted to determine how decision confidence level and decision probability interact to determine P3 amplitude for both signal-present and signal-absent decisions. They support the contention that the form of the vertex-evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical response regarding the presence or absence of a threshold-level signal.

  2. Slow excitatory synaptic potentials evoked by distension in myenteric descending interneurones of guinea-pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, P D J; Bornstein, J C

    2002-01-01

    The functional significance of the slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in myenteric neurones is unknown. We investigated this using intracellular recording from myenteric neurones in guinea-pig ileum, in vitro. In all, 121 neurones responded with fast EPSPs to distension of the intestine oral to the recording site. In 28 of these neurones, distension also evoked depolarizations similar to the slow EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation in the same neurones. Intracellular injection of biocytin and immunohistochemistry revealed that neurones responding to distension with slow EPSPs were descending interneurones, which were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Other neurones, including inhibitory motor neurones and interneurones lacking NOS, did not respond to distension with slow EPSPs, but many had slow EPSPs evoked electrically. Slow EPSPs evoked electrically or by distension in NOS-immunoreactive descending interneurones were resistant to blockade of NK1 or NK3 tachykinin receptors (SR 140333, 100 nm; SR 142801, 100 nm, respectively) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (PHCCC, 10–30 ?m), when the antagonists were applied in the recording chamber of a two-chambered organ bath. However, slow EPSPs evoked electrically in inhibitory motor neurones were substantially depressed by SR 140333 (100 nm). Blockade of synaptic transmission in the stimulation chamber of the organ bath abolished slow EPSPs evoked by distension, indicating that they arose from activity in interneurones, and not from anally directed, intrinsic sensory neurones. Thus, distension evokes slow EPSPs in a subset of myenteric neurones, which may be important for intestinal motility. PMID:11882690

  3. Influence of sweet suppressing agent on gustatory brain evoked potentials generated by taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Min, B C; Sakamoto, K

    1998-01-01

    A measurement system was employed to detect gustatory evoked potentials from human scalp by stimulus of a taste solution with the use of a laser beam device. The evoked potentials for four taste qualities (i.e., sweet-sucrose, salty-sodium chloride, sour-tartaric acid, and bitter-quinine-HCl) were measured before and after treatment with a sweet suppressing agent (i.e., gymnema sylvestre extract) to the tongue of a human. The solution was given to the chorda tympani nerve located 20 mm from the apex of the tongue and 15 mm from the left side of the center line. The maximum potential level and its latency were evaluated. Artificial saliva was used as a control solution. The evoked potentials obtained were averaged by eight evoked potentials to detect the peak of the evoked potential more clearly. The latencies for taste stimuli were found on two kinds of peaks at approximately 50 ms and 180 ms. These peaks are P1 and P2. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of sweet suppressing agent on P1 and P2. The influence of the sweet suppressing agent to evoked potential by salty, sour, and bitter taste stimuli was not recognized, but the responses to sweet (sucrose) were abolished after treatment with a sweet suppressing agent. It was recognized that the peak P2 originated from the taste stimulus. The peak P1 did not suffer the influence of the sweet suppression, so it was considered that the response to P1 was due to sensations other than the gustatory response, such as somatosense. PMID:9575639

  4. Efficacy of transcranial motor-evoked myogenic potentials to detect spinal cord ischemia during operations for thoracoabdominal aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter de Haan; Cor J. Kalkman; Bas A. de Mol; Leon H. Ubags; Dirk J. Veldman; Michael J. H. M. Jacobs

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Motor-evoked myogenic potentials after transcranial electrical stimulation monitor the vulnerable motoneuronal system of the spinal cord. This study reports our initial experiences with motor-evoked potentials to assess the adequacy of spinal cord perfusion during operations for thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Methods: In 20 patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aneurysm operations, myogenic motor-evoked potentials were recorded. In 18 patients retrograde aortic perfusion was used.

  5. An indirect component in the evoked compound action potential of the vagal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordelman, Simone C. M. A.; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    The vagal nerve plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It not only regulates the heart but also sends sensory information from the heart back to the brain. We hypothesize that the evoked vagal nerve compound action potential contains components that are indirect via the brain stem or coming via the neural network on the heart. In an experimental study of 15 pigs, we identified four components in the evoked compound action potentials. The fourth component was found to be an indirect component, which came from the periphery. The latency of the indirect component increased when heart rate and contractility were decreased by burst stimulation (P = 0.01; n = 7). When heart rate and contractility were increased by dobutamine administration, the latency of the indirect component decreased (P = 0.01; n = 9). This showed that the latency of the indirect component of the evoked compound action potentials may relate to the state of the cardiovascular system.

  6. Giant visually-evoked potentials without myoclonus in the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J; Bancher, C; Mamoli, B

    1999-08-01

    In a 64-year old woman with progressive visual impairment for 4 weeks, probable Creutzfeld-Jakob disease without myoclonus was diagnosed after rapidly progressive mental deterioration had also developed, and CSF and EEG showed characteristic findings. Pattern-reversal and flash visually-evoked potentials, recorded 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks after onset, showed a maximum P100 latency of 210 ms, 8 weeks after onset, and a maximum N75/P100 amplitude of 33.1 microV, 5 weeks after onset. While the P100 latency progressively increased, the N75/P100 amplitude continuously decreased after reaching its maximum. In the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease giant visually-evoked potentials may be recorded during the early stages of the disease, even in the absence of myoclonus. Visually-evoked potentials may prove useful in diagnosing Creutzfeld-Jakob disease with atypical initial presentation. PMID:10500266

  7. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  8. Maturation of Peripheral and Brainstem Auditory Function in the First Year Following Perinatal Asphyxia: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Ze D.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 44 infants who suffered asphyxia during the perinatal period examined the influence of perinatal asphyxia on the maturation of auditory pathways by serial recordings of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The general maturational course of the BAEP following asphyxia was similar to a control group. (Author/CR)

  9. Cannabinoid 1 and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Receptors Discretely Modulate Evoked Glutamate Separately from Spontaneous Glutamate Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Andresen, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Action potentials trigger synaptic terminals to synchronously release vesicles, but some vesicles release spontaneously. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate both of these processes. At cranial primary afferent terminals, the GPCR cannabinoid 1 (CB1) is often coexpressed with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel present on most afferents. Here we tested whether CB1 activation modulates synchronous, action potential-evoked (eEPSCs) and/or spontaneous (sEPSCs) EPSCs at solitary tract nucleus neurons. In rat horizontal brainstem slices, activation of solitary tract (ST) primary afferents generated ST-eEPSCs that were rapidly and reversibly inhibited from most afferents by activation of CB1 with arachidonyl-2?-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or WIN 55,212-2 [R-(+)-(2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)(1-naphthalenyl) methanone monomethanesulfonate]. The CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide] blocked these responses. Despite profound depression of ST-eEPSCs during CB1 activation, sEPSCs in these same neurons were unaltered. Changes in temperature changed sEPSC frequency only from TRPV1+ afferents (i.e., thermal sEPSC responses only occurred in TRPV1+ afferents). CB1 activation failed to alter these thermal sEPSC responses. However, the endogenous arachidonate metabolite N-arachidonyldopamine (NADA) promiscuously activated both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors. NADA inhibited ST-eEPSCs while simultaneously increasing sEPSC frequency, and thermally triggered sEPSC increases in neurons with TRPV1+ afferents. We found no evidence for CB1/TRPV1 interactions suggesting independent regulation of two separate vesicle pools. Together, these data demonstrate that action potential-evoked synchronous glutamate release is modulated separately from TRPV1-mediated glutamate release despite coexistence in the same central terminations. This two-pool arrangement allows independent and opposite modulation of glutamate release by single lipid metabolites. PMID:24920635

  10. Cannabinoid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors discretely modulate evoked glutamate separately from spontaneous glutamate transmission.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jessica A; Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2014-06-11

    Action potentials trigger synaptic terminals to synchronously release vesicles, but some vesicles release spontaneously. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate both of these processes. At cranial primary afferent terminals, the GPCR cannabinoid 1 (CB1) is often coexpressed with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel present on most afferents. Here we tested whether CB1 activation modulates synchronous, action potential-evoked (eEPSCs) and/or spontaneous (sEPSCs) EPSCs at solitary tract nucleus neurons. In rat horizontal brainstem slices, activation of solitary tract (ST) primary afferents generated ST-eEPSCs that were rapidly and reversibly inhibited from most afferents by activation of CB1 with arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or WIN 55,212-2 [R-(+)-(2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)(1-naphthalenyl) methanone monomethanesulfonate]. The CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide] blocked these responses. Despite profound depression of ST-eEPSCs during CB1 activation, sEPSCs in these same neurons were unaltered. Changes in temperature changed sEPSC frequency only from TRPV1(+) afferents (i.e., thermal sEPSC responses only occurred in TRPV1(+) afferents). CB1 activation failed to alter these thermal sEPSC responses. However, the endogenous arachidonate metabolite N-arachidonyldopamine (NADA) promiscuously activated both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors. NADA inhibited ST-eEPSCs while simultaneously increasing sEPSC frequency, and thermally triggered sEPSC increases in neurons with TRPV1(+) afferents. We found no evidence for CB1/TRPV1 interactions suggesting independent regulation of two separate vesicle pools. Together, these data demonstrate that action potential-evoked synchronous glutamate release is modulated separately from TRPV1-mediated glutamate release despite coexistence in the same central terminations. This two-pool arrangement allows independent and opposite modulation of glutamate release by single lipid metabolites. PMID:24920635

  11. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: dose-dependent effects on evoked potentials in the hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Kujtan, P W; Carlen, P L; Kapur, B M

    1983-04-01

    The effects of (-) trans-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolite cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated on evoked responses in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the guinea pig transverse hippocampal slice. In both areas orthodromically evoked responses were enhanced by 10(-7) M THC, while 10(-6) M THC caused depression. Antidromic responses were not significantly affected. Antidromically-evoked inhibition in the CA1 region was decreased at low doses and unaffected at higher doses, while the facilitation by orthodromic interaction was unaffected at both dose ranges. The early part of the orthodromic field potential corresponding to the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) was enhanced at 10(-7) M in both areas. CBD (10(-6) M) decreased facilitation in CA1, and caused delayed excitation in the dentate granule layer. This study supports the conclusion that the biphasic effects of THC are dose dependent. PMID:6305469

  12. Slow excitatory synaptic potentials evoked by distension in myenteric descending interneurones of guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Thornton, P D J; Bornstein, J C

    2002-03-01

    The functional significance of the slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) in myenteric neurones is unknown. We investigated this using intracellular recording from myenteric neurones in guinea-pig ileum, in vitro. In all, 121 neurones responded with fast EPSPs to distension of the intestine oral to the recording site. In 28 of these neurones, distension also evoked depolarizations similar to the slow EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation in the same neurones. Intracellular injection of biocytin and immunohistochemistry revealed that neurones responding to distension with slow EPSPs were descending interneurones, which were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Other neurones, including inhibitory motor neurones and interneurones lacking NOS, did not respond to distension with slow EPSPs, but many had slow EPSPs evoked electrically. Slow EPSPs evoked electrically or by distension in NOS-immunoreactive descending interneurones were resistant to blockade of NK(1) or NK(3) tachykinin receptors (SR 140333, 100 nM; SR 142801, 100 nM, respectively) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (PHCCC, 10-30 microM), when the antagonists were applied in the recording chamber of a two-chambered organ bath. However, slow EPSPs evoked electrically in inhibitory motor neurones were substantially depressed by SR 140333 (100 nM). Blockade of synaptic transmission in the stimulation chamber of the organ bath abolished slow EPSPs evoked by distension, indicating that they arose from activity in interneurones, and not from anally directed, intrinsic sensory neurones. Thus, distension evokes slow EPSPs in a subset of myenteric neurones, which may be important for intestinal motility. PMID:11882690

  13. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in patients with Meniere's disease with drop attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand C. A. Timmer; Guangwei Zhou; John J. Guinan; Sharon G. Kujawa; Barbara S. Herrmann; Steven D. Rauch

    2006-01-01

    Objective. In this retrospective study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) thresholds are more often elevated or absent in patients with Meniere's disease experiencing Tumarkin drop attacks than in other patients with Meniere's disease. Methods: Subjects included normal subjects (n = 14) and patients with unilateral Meniere's disease by AAO-HNS (1995) diagnostic criteria with (n =

  14. Could vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) also be useful in the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Carlo Modugno; Giorgio Magnani; Cristina Brandolini; Gabriella Savastio; Antonio Pirodda

    2006-01-01

    The role of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) is at this time indisputable in the study of vestibular disorders. Furthermore, VEMPs are widely accepted as a diagnostic tool when a superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is suspected, presenting in such cases a lowering of threshold values able to raise a recordable response due to increased inner ear immittance. According to

  15. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Güzin Akkuzu; Babur Akkuzu; Levent N. Ozluoglu

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to investigate vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and Meniere’s disease, and to determine if this type of testing is valuable for assessing the vestibular system. A prospective controlled clinical study was designed in a tertiary referral center setting. The 62 participants included 17 healthy controls and 45 other subjects selected from

  16. Indication of the Side of Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops by Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoya Egami; Munetaka Ushio; Tatsuya Yamasoba; Toshihisa Murofushi; Shinichi Iwasaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) can be clinically classified into ipsi- and contralateral types. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the results of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and caloric testing and the clinical type of DEH. Methods: The data of 33 patients with DEH who underwent both VEMPs and caloric testing were retrospectively examined. The type of

  17. PEAK N160 OF RAT FLASH EVOKED POTENTIAL: DOES IT REFLECT HABITUATION OR SENSITIZATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flash evoked potentials recorded from awake rats contain a negative peak occurring about 160 msec after the flash (N160). This peak has been associated with a specific level of arousal, and/or habituation by various authors. The current studies attempted to determine whether chan...

  18. Minimization of cochlear implant stimulus artifact in cortical auditory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip M. Gilley; Anu Sharma; Michael Dorman; Charles C. Finley; Arunachalam S. Panch; Kathryn Martin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare two methods of minimizing cochlear implant artifact in cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) recordings. Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, we assessed the use of independent component analysis (ICA) as a pre-processing filter. In the second, we explored the use of an optimized differential reference (ODR) for minimizing artifacts. Results: Both ICA and the ODR

  19. An Auditory Evoked Potential Measurement System to Study Tinnitus Maroof H. Choudhury

    E-print Network

    Barreto, Armando

    An Auditory Evoked Potential Measurement System to Study Tinnitus Maroof H. Choudhury Biomedical.edu Abstract Tinnitus is a consciously experienced `ringing' sensation in the auditory system, which, so far can only be diagnosed by behavioral response. The study of Tinnitus has resulted in a number

  20. WITHIN-SESSION CHANGES IN PEAK N160 AMPLITUDE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The negative peak occurring approximately 160 msec after stimulation (peak N 160) flash evoked potentials (FEPS) of rats changes with repeated testing. abituation, sensitization, and arousal have all been invoked to explain these changes, but few studies have directly tested thes...

  1. Preservation of the Cortical Somatosensory-Evoked Potential During Dexmedetomidine Infusion in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bai-Han Li; Jeffrey S. Lohmann; H. Gregg Schuler; Arthur J. Cronin

    2003-01-01

    Successful somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) monitoring has been performed during the adminis- tration of dexmedetomidine to patients, but a system- atic investigation of the dose response of the SEP to dexmedetomidine has not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a range of dexme- detomidine doses on the cortical SEP in rats. Twelve rats were initially anesthetized with

  2. Clinical evaluation criteria for the assessment of impaired pain sensitivity by thulium-laser evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Spiegel; C Hansen; R.-D Treede

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Cortical potentials evoked by carbon dioxide laser pulses have been applied in clinical practice to study nociceptive pathways for several years. In this study, we evaluate the properties of an infrared laser (thulium-YAG) with a penetration depth in the skin that matches the intracutaneous depth of nociceptors.Methods: Temperature measurements and modelling showed that the thulium laser generates painful intracutaneous

  3. ALTERATIONS IN FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS (FEPS) IN RATS PRODUCED BY 3,3'-IMINODIPROPIONITRILE (IDPN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    -3,-3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) is a neurotoxicant that produces changes in flash evoked potentials (FEPs) 18 weeks after treatment (52). e examined dose and time-related effects of IDPN on FEPs at earlier time points than previously studied. dult male Long-Evans rats were gi...

  4. INVESTIGATIONS OF AMITRAZ NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS. 2. EFFECTS ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of amitraz neurotoxicity in rats. II. Effects on visual evoked potentials. Boyes, W.K. and Moser, V.C. (1986) Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 00,000-000. As a part of a series of studies investigating the possible neurotoxicity of amitraz (AMZ), a formamidine pesticide, vis...

  5. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  6. EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: A COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (tDCS) ON SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS/computational modeling approach aimed at studying the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS (EPs) recorded from the somatosensory cortex of the rabbit under tDCS. Results showed that the model

  7. Large Evoked Potentials to Dynamic Random-Dot Correlograms and Stereograms Permit Quick Determination of Stereopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Julesz; W. Kropfl; B. Petrig

    1980-01-01

    The combination of three technological innovations permits the fast and objective determination of stereopsis in nonverbal subjects: (i) It is shown that dynamic random-dot correlograms (RDC) are as effective as dynamic random-dot stereograms (RDS) in eliciting large evoked potentials (EP), and that the generation of RDC is simpler than that of RDS. (ii) The presentation of RDC in the form

  8. Noise reduction in brain evoked potentials based on third-order correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Gharieb; A. Cichocki

    2001-01-01

    We use third-order correlations (TOC) in developing a filtering technique for the recovery of brain evoked potentials (EPs). The main idea behind the presented technique is to pass the noisy signal through a finite impulse response filter whose impulse response is matched with the shape of the noise-free signal. It is shown that it is possible to estimate the filter

  9. Noise Reduction in Brain Evoked Potentials Based on Third-Order Correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Gharieb; Andrzej Cichocki

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we use third-order correlations (TOC) in developing a filtering technique for the recovery of brain evoked potentials (EPs). The main idea behind the presented technique is to pass the noisy signal through a finite impulse response filter whose impulse response is matched with the shape of the noise-free signal. It is shown that it is possible to

  10. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) -based Brain Spelling System with Synchronous and Asynchronous Typing Modes

    E-print Network

    1 NBC15 Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) - based Brain Spelling System with Synchronous, 3000 Leuven, Belgium Abstract -- The paper presents an EEG-based wireless brain-computer interface (BCI) with which subjects can mind- spell text on a computer screen. The application is based on the detection

  11. Transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials as a prognostic indicator for motor recovery in stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Dominkus; W Grisold; V Jelinek

    1990-01-01

    Transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (MEP) were examined in 33 patients within three days after stroke. Normal values for MEP and motor central conduction time (CCT) were obtained in 46 healthy controls whose MEPs were evaluated during slight voluntary muscle contraction and at rest. Two months later 23 patients were re-examined clinically and electrophysiologically. Motor function change was correlated with

  12. Characterization of Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential Amplitude Growth Function in Cochlear Implant Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyan Zhu; Qing Tang; Fan-Gang Zeng; Tian Guan; Datian Ye

    2010-01-01

    A multichannel cochlear implant (CI) is designed to take advantage of the tonotopic arrangement of auditory nerve fibers within a cochlea. The electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) is a safe and reliable objective measure for qualifying neural survival and local spatial resolution in the cochlea. The present study was aimed to explore the effect of recording position on the

  13. RAT FLASH EVOKED POTENTIAL PEAK N160 AMPLITUDE: MODULATION BY RELATIVE FLASH INTENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flash evoked potential (FEP) of rats has a large negative (N160) approximately 160 msec following stimulation. his peak has been reported to be modulated by the subject's state of behavioral arousal and influenced by several test parameters. hese experiments bind the influenc...

  14. Parkinson's disease and aging: Changes of somatosensory evoked potentials in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Garkavenko; M. Ya. Voloshin; L. I. Limanskaya; M. S. Podol'skii

    1994-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the median nerve were compared in patients with Parkinson's disease and individuals without clinical manifestations of extrapyramidal insufficiency (46 and 55 persons, respectively). The amplitude of the N31 component was found to diminish in Parkinsonian patients while the latency of the P44 component increased significantly. In addition, these parameters depended on

  15. FOCAL LESIONS OF VISUAL CORTEX: EFFECTS ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Focal lesions were placed in the visual cortex of Long-Evans hooded rats, immediately below skull screw recording electrodes. Lesions were produced by heat and extended an average depth of about 0.9 mm below the cortical surface. Evoked potentials recorded from the electrode over...

  16. Mismatched Negativity in Evoked Potentials at Short-Term Acoustic Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Aleksandrov; M. E. Babanin

    2000-01-01

    Mismatched negativity (MMN) is a special kind of endogenous evoked potentials, which is related to the mechanisms of involuntary attention. MMN is recorded each time when the acoustic signal differs from the standard stimuli of some parameters such as duration, frequency, or intensity [1]. In this case, the MMN parameters do not depend on whether the test subject is aware

  17. Changes in visual evoked potentials in children on chronic dialysis treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ducati; D. Cattarelli; M. Cenzato; A. Landi; A. Edefonti; L. Capitanio; M. Pavani; R. Villani

    1985-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in 20 children undergoing dialysis for chronic renal failure. VEP before treatment (72 h after last dialysis) were pathological in 17 patients (85%); responses obtained 3 h after treatment were abnormal in only 6 cases (30%). Furthermore, all patients improved after treatment, except two who were unchanged. However, VEP recorded immediately after dialysis were

  18. Motor Evoked Potentials in Predicting Recovery from Upper Extremity Paralysis after Acute Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk T. Hendricks; Jaco W. Pasman; Jacques van Limbeek; Machiel J. Zwarts

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The use of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in predicting recovery after stroke still appears to be somehow equivocal. We assessed the prognostic value of MEPs with respect to arm and hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. Methods: This cohort study included 43 consecutive acute stroke patients with complete paralysis of the upper extremity. MEPs of the abductor digiti

  19. Amplitude of somatosensory cortical evoked potentials is correlated with spontaneous activity of spinal neurones in the cat.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E; Rojas-Piloni, G; Martínez, L; Vázquez, D; Vélez, D; Méndez, I; Flores, A

    2002-05-01

    Simultaneous recordings of cortical evoked potentials in the posterior sigmoid gyrus, and spontaneous negative cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) of the L6 lumbar spinal segment, were made in the anaesthetised cat. The electrodes were positioned in cortical and spinal somatosensory regions where the largest spontaneous and evoked negative potentials were detected. Evoked potentials were produced by electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves or by mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw skin. We found that both electrically and mechanically cortical evoked potentials were facilitated during the spontaneous negative CDPs. The magnitude of such facilitation was proportional to the amplitude of the 'conditioning' spontaneous negative CDPs. This led to a high positive correlation between amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous negative CDPs and fluctuations of the cortical evoked potentials. This observation suggests that transmission of cutaneous sensory information in ascending pathways could be facilitated when dorsal horn spinal neurones are active. PMID:11959416

  20. Potential application of ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in Meniere's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2013-02-01

    By stimulating the ear with air-conducted sound or bone-conducted vibration stimuli, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) can be recorded on the contracted neck muscles, termed cervical VEMP (cVEMP), and on the extraocular muscles, termed ocular VEMP (oVEMP). These two electrophysiological tests expand the test battery for clinicians to explore the dynamic otolithic function, adding a potential usefulness to the sacculocollic reflex and vestibulo-ocular reflex, respectively. The inner ear test battery, including audiometry, and cVEMP, oVEMP and caloric tests, is designed for complete evaluation of the inner ear function, namely, the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals, respectively. Using this test battery to study the localization and prevalence of hydrops formation reveals that the declining function in the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals mimics the declining sequence of hydrops formation in temporal bone studies. This study reviewed the physiological results in Meniere's patients via the inner ear test battery, especially the potential application of the oVEMP and cVEMP tests, to correlate with the histopathological findings of Meniere's disease. PMID:23070719

  1. Preservation of motor evoked potentials under anesthesia in children with spinal muscular atrophy type II undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jonathan A; Roy, François D; Mahood, James K

    2013-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a progressive condition in which movement is gradually lost as a result of the loss of spinal motor neurons. Individuals with this condition may require surgical correction of a secondary scoliosis. Motor evoked potentials were recorded using transcranial electrical stimulation in four such individuals undergoing surgery. All the patients were nonambulatory and in wheelchairs. Motor evoked potentials were recordable in both upper and lower limb muscles, with similar stimulation parameters to control subjects undergoing surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. The amplitudes of the motor evoked potentials were similar to those in control subjects, although the latencies were shorter reflective of the smaller stature of the spinal muscular atrophy patients. The relative preservation of the motor evoked potentials despite the patients' poor voluntary motor control suggests that there is a selective preservation of the motor neurons mediating the motor evoked potential in spinal muscular atrophy and a maintenance of the conduction velocities of the corticospinal tract. PMID:23912577

  2. Differences by sex, ear, and sexual orientation in the time intervals between successive peaks in auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Dennis; Hsieh, Michelle D; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Champlin, Craig A

    2010-12-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data from two studies originally designed for other purposes were reanalyzed. The auditory brainstem response (ABR), middle-latency response (MLR), and long-latency response (LLR) were measured. The latencies to each of several peaks were measured for each subject for each ear of click presentation, and the time intervals between successive peaks were calculated. Of interest were differences in interpeak intervals between the sexes, between people of differing sexual orientations, and between the two ears of stimulation. Most of the differences obtained were small. The largest sex differences were for interval I ? V in the ABR and interval N1 ? N2 of the LLR (effect sizes > 0.6). The largest differences between heterosexuals and nonheterosexuals were for the latency to Wave I in both sexes, for the interval Na ? Nb in females, and for intervals V ? Na and Nb ? N1 in males (effect sizes > 0.3). The largest difference for ear stimulated was for interval N1 ? N2 in heterosexual females (effect size ?0.5). No substantial differences were found in the AEP intervals between women using, and not using, oral contraceptives. Left/right correlations for the interpeak intervals were mostly between about 0.4 and 0.6. Correlations between the ipsilateral intervals were small; i.e., interval length early in the AEP series was not highly predictive of interval length later in the series. Interpeak intervals appear generally less informative than raw latencies about differences by sex and by sexual orientation. PMID:20875848

  3. Potential Long Term Benefits of Acute Hypothermia after Spinal Cord Injury: Assessments with Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Maybhate, Anil; Hu, Charles; Bazley, Faith A.; Yu, Qilu; Thakor, Nitish V.; Kerr, Candace L.; All, Angelo H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neuroprotection by hypothermia has been an important research topic over last two decades. In animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI), the primary focus has been assessing effects of hypothermia on behavioral and histological outcomes. While a few studies have investigated electrophysiological changes in descending motor pathways with motor evoked potentials recorded during cooling, we report here, hypothermia induced increased electrical conduction in the ascending spinal cord pathways with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in injured rats. In our experiments these effects lasted long after the acute hypothermia and were accompanied with potential long term improvements in motor movement. Design Laboratory Investigation. Setting University Medical School. Subjects 21 Female Lewis Rats. Interventions Hypothermia. Measurements and Main Results All animals underwent spinal cord contusion, with the NYU-Impactor, by a 12.5mm weight drop at thoracic vertebra T8. A group (n=10) was randomly assigned for a systemic 2hr. hypothermia episode (32±0.5°C) initiated ~2.0hrs post-injury. 11 rats were controls with post-injury temperature maintained at 37±0.5°C for 2hrs. The two groups underwent pre-injury, weekly post-injury (up to 4wks) SSEP recordings and standard motor behavioral tests (BBB). Three randomly selected rats from each group were euthanized for histological analysis at post-injury Day 3 and Day 28. Compared to controls, the hypothermia group showed significantly higher SSEP amplitudes post-injury; with longer latencies. The BBB scores were also higher immediately after injury and 4 weeks later in the hypothermia group. Importantly, specific changes in the BBB scores in hypothermia group (not seen in controls) indicated regained functions critical for motor control. Histological evaluations showed more tissue preservation in hypothermia group. Conclusions Post-SCI, early systemic hypothermia provided significant neuroprotection weeks after injury via improved sensory electrophysiological signals in rats. This was accompanied by higher motor behavioral scores and more spared tissue in acute and post-acute periods after injury. PMID:22001581

  4. An information flow technique for category related evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R K; Williams, W J; Shevrin, H

    1992-02-01

    We report a technique for studying interactions among many subsystems of a biological system. A general mathematical technique is developed for information flow among various subsystems of a system when two or more classes of stimuli are presented to the system. The technique is validated by various simulation studies and then applied to a brain system. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated for visual event related potentials (ERP's) obtained from human subjects suffering from phobias. The stimuli are briefly flashed words and phrases. The word classes are pleasant, unpleasant, conscious, and unconscious. The conscious class consists of words known by the patient to relate to the problem, whereas the unconscious class of words consists of words related to deep conflicts which are not recognized by the patient. It is demonstrated that information flow is suppressed under supraliminal presentation of the unconscious class, but is strong under subliminal presentation. The technique has the potential of being an objective indicator of conflictual relationships in these patients. The principle of the technique can be applied to any system in which interactions among subsystems are to be analyzed. PMID:1612620

  5. BODY TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT ACTIONS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AND AXONAL TRANSPORT IN OPTIC SYSTEM OF RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), flash evoked potentials (FEPs), optic nerve axonal transport, and body temperature were measured in hooded rats treated with either saline or the formamidine insecticide/acaricide, chlordimeform (CDM). Rats receiving CDM had low body te...

  6. [Lumbar cord potentials evoked by stimulation of the nerves of the lower limb in man].

    PubMed

    Georgesco, M; Benezech, J; Zhu, Y; Henry, A; Cadilhac, J

    1985-07-01

    Lumbar cord potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial and sural nerves at the ankle were recorded with monopolar epidural electrodes, at T11-T12 level in 20 subjects and were compared with surface recorded potentials. Two quadriplegic patients with spinal section were included in this group. Curare was given in two cases. Xylocaine block of peripheral nerve was carried out in 4 cases. Double shock study was done in 5 cases. The lumbar cord evoked potentials show two successive components: a 'primary' negative-positive spike response with a latency of 19-35 msec, and the 'secondary' waves with latencies up to 200 msec. The 'primary' response is mainly produced by the afferent volley in the fibres of the dorsal roots and of their intramedullary prolongations. There is no evidence which suggests that it is correlated with presynaptic inhibition. The secondary components may be divided into the early and the late waves. The early waves (40-90 msec) are related to the polysynaptic activities from the afferent fibres of small diameters. The late waves are under the influence of supraspinal mechanism and may be related to long-loop reflexes. The clinical implications of these evoked potentials are discussed. PMID:4048607

  7. [Ipsilateral masking of auditory evoked potentials: a method of studying multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, A; Collette, J L; Bellotto, R; Felisati, G; Pavani, M; Cesaro, P; Degos, J D; Peynegre, R

    1984-01-01

    20 normal subjects and 39 patients with multiple sclerosis were the control and the test groups. Auditory brainstem potentials to 60 dB nHL, 11/s clicks, were recorded under ipsilateral broad-band noise masking at S/N ratio of + 60 dB (unmasked condition), + 20 dB, + 10 dB and 0 dB. In the control group the ABP were absent only in 1 subject at S/N = 0 dB. In the group of 16/39 patients with definite multiple sclerosis, 11 had no ABP at S/N = 0 dB, 6 at S/N = + 10 dB and 5 at S/N = + 20 dB. The ABP waveform per se, in the same subjects, was abnormal in 7 and doubtful in 5. These results are discussed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of the test to be applied. The best predictive value is achieved by combining a strict morphological criterion with the results of the ipsilateral masking. Moreover, the ipsilateral masking test positive findings are equally distributed in the group of patients with and without signs of neurological involvement of the brainstem. PMID:6534258

  8. Topographical correlations of lateral medullary infarction with caloric and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Tseng; Yi-Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation of caloric- and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) results with topographical\\u000a lesions of lateral medullary infarction. Five patients with lateral medullary infarction were enrolled in this study. Each\\u000a patient underwent a battery of tests, including audiometry, caloric test, VEMP test, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)\\u000a study. Gaze nystagmus was observed in four patients (80%), while abnormal

  9. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with contralateral delayed endolymphatic hydrops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Ohki; Masaki Matsuzaki; Keiko Sugasawa; Toshihisa Murofushi

    2002-01-01

    We studied vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in nine patients with unilateral profound hearing loss followed\\u000a by contralateral delayed hearing fluctuation and episodic vertigo. This condition has been called contralateral delayed endolymphatic\\u000a hydrops. Five of nine ears with profound hearing loss (56%) showed an absence of VEMPs. One ear (11%) showed decreased responses,\\u000a and three ears (33%) had normal responses.

  10. Steady-state sweep visual evoked potential processing denoised by wavelet transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinar A. Weiderpass; Jorge F. Yamamoto; Solange R. Salomão; Adriana Berezovsky; Josenilson M. Pereira; Paula Y. Sacai; José P. de Oliveira; Marcio A. Costa; Marcelo N. Burattini

    2008-01-01

    Visually evoked potential (VEP) is a very small electrical signal originated in the visual cortex in response to periodic visual stimulation. Sweep-VEP is a modified VEP procedure used to measure grating visual acuity in non-verbal and preverbal patients. This biopotential is buried in a large amount of electroencephalographic (EEG) noise and movement related artifact. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) plays a

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of the cortical sources of the steady-state visual evoked potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Di Russo; Sabrina Pitzalis; Teresa Aprile; Grazia Spitoni; Fabiana Patria; Alessandra Stella; Donatella Spinelli; Steven A. Hillyard

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the neural generators of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) to repetitive, 6 Hz pattern-reversal stimulation. Multichannel scalp recordings of SSVEPs and dipole modeling techniques were combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and retinotopic mapping in order to estimate the locations of the cortical sources giving rise to the SSVEP elicited by pattern reversal.

  12. Electroencephalogram and visual evoked potential generation in a mathematical model of coupled cortical columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben H. Jansen; Vincent G. Rit

    1995-01-01

    This study deals with neurophysiologically based models simulating electrical brain activity (i.e., the electroencephalogram or EEG, and evoked potentials or EPs). A previously developed lumped-parameter model of a single cortical column was implemented using a more accurate computational procedure. Anatomically acceptable values for the various model parameters were determined, and a multi-dimensional exploration of the model parameter-space was conducted. It

  13. Pattern Visual Evoked Cortical Potentials in Patients With Toxic Optic Neuropathy Caused by Toluene Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kiyokawa; Atsushi Mizota; Michihiko Takasoh; Emiko Adachi-Usami

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Electrophysiological evaluation of the visual function of patients with toxic neuropathy caused by toluene abuse.Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 25.6 years, eight men and seven women) were diagnosed with bilateral optic neuropathy. Pattern visual evoked cortical potentials (PVECPs) and clinical symptoms were investigated.Results: Visual acuities at the initial visit were less than 0.1 in 5 cases and 0.1–1.0 in

  14. Attempts to elicit an evoked potential in the pigeon using a magnetic field stimulus

    E-print Network

    Randolph, William Robert

    1984-01-01

    , or combinations of both. It is generally agreed that the largest gap in the geomagnetic navigation theory is the question of the sensory mechanism. Obviously, to navigate in two dimensions, a bird must measure two parameters that form a bicoordinate grid...ATTEMPTS TO ELICIT AN EVOKED POTENTIAL IN THE PIGEON USING A MAGNETIC FIELD STIMULUS A Thesis by WILLIAM ROBERT RANDOLPH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  15. Variability of motor potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation depends on muscle activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren G. Darling; Steven L. Wolf; Andrew J. Butler

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether motor cortex excitability assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is less variable when subjects maintain a visually controlled low-level contraction of the muscle of interest. We also examined the dependence of single motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude on stimulation intensity and pre-stimulus muscle activation level using linear and non-linear multiple regression

  16. Brain-computer interface based on the high-frequency steady-state visual evoked potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yijun; Wang Ruiping; Gao Xiaorong; Gao Shangkai

    2005-01-01

    Low-frequency steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are used as the input signal in the present SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI). This prototype system has a high information transfer rate. On the other hand, it has some limitations including visual fatigue, false positive, and some possibility of causing a seizure. These drawbacks can be largely eliminated when using high-frequency stimulations. In this

  17. Middle and long latency somatosensory evoked potentials after painful laser stimulation in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lorenz; K. Grasedyck; B. Bromm

    1996-01-01

    Ten femalespatients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) were investigated with laser evoked potentials (LEPs) after hand stimulations and compared with 10 female pain-free and age-matched control patients. FS patients exhibited significantly lower heat pain thresholds than controls (P < 0.05) and had higher amplitudes of LEP components N170 (P < 0.01) and P390 (P < 0.05) in response to intensities of

  18. Experimental fetal neurosurgery: effects of in-utero manipulations on somatosensory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Yingling; Claudia Meuli-Simmen; Martin Meuli; Gregory B. Timmel; Michael Harrison; N. Scott Adzick

    1999-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were used to objectively evaluate sensory function in neonatal sheep after experimental\\u000a fetal surgery. Posterior tibial (PTN) and ulnar (UN) nerves were stimulated electrically and averaged SEP were recorded from\\u000a scalp electrodes placed over the somatosensory cortex. Animals with experimentally-created myelomeningocele (MMC) showed no\\u000a SEP to PTN stimulation, but normal SEP to UN stimulation. In-utero repair

  19. Assessment of sensory function in neonatal sheep with somatosensory evoked potentials: methodology and normative data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Yingling; Claudia Meuli-Simmen; Martin Meuli; Gregory B. Timmel; N. Scott Adzick; Michael Harrison

    1999-01-01

    Fetal sheep are increasingly used as animal models for fetal surgical interventions such as repair of myelomeningocele. Since\\u000a behavioral observations cannot provide objective information about preservation of sensory function, we have developed a technique\\u000a for reliably recording somatosensory evoked potentials in neonatal sheep. We determined anatomic criteria for placement of\\u000a recording electrodes over the somatosensory cortex using external landmarks, and

  20. Visual contrast response functions in Parkinson's disease: evidence from electroretinograms, visually evoked potentials and psychophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Langheinrich; L Tebartz van Elst; W. A Lagrèze; M Bach; C. H Lücking; M. W Greenlee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Visual contrast detection thresholds and suprathreshold contrast discrimination thresholds were compared to luminance and flash\\/pattern electroretinograms (ERG) and visually evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with Parkinson's disease (n=31), patients with multiple system atrophy (n=6), patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (n=6) and control patients without central nervous disease (n=33).Methods: The stimuli were luminance modulated full-field (flash) or horizontally oriented sinewave

  1. Steady-State Visually Evoked Potential topography associated with a visual vigilance task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Silberstein; Mark A. Schier; Andrew Pipingas; Joseph Ciorciari; Stephen R. Wood; David G. Simpson

    1990-01-01

    Summary This paper describes data which demonstrate a correlation between the magnitude of the Steady-State Visually Evoked Potential (SSVEP) and visual vigilance. The SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp sites and elicited by a 13Hz uniform visual flicker presented continuously while subjects undertook a visual vigilance task. Fifteen right-handed males were required to view three times a series of 180

  2. Evoked potential correlates of selective attention with multi-channel auditory inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Ten subjects were presented with random, rapid sequences of four auditory tones which were separated in pitch and apparent spatial position. The N1 component of the auditory vertex evoked potential (EP) measured relative to a baseline was observed to increase with attention. It was concluded that the N1 enhancement reflects a finely tuned selective attention to one stimulus channel among several concurrent, competing channels. This EP enhancement probably increases with increased information load on the subject.

  3. Can Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials Help Differentiate Ménière Disease from Vestibular Migraine?

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Janky, Kristen L.; Schubert, Michael C.; Carey, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize both cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP, oVEMP) responses to air-conducted sound (ACS) and midline taps in Ménière disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and controls, as well as to determine if cVEMP or oVEMP responses can differentiate MD from VM. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Unilateral definite MD patients (n = 20), VM patients (n = 21) by modified Neuhauser criteria, and age-matched controls (n = 28). cVEMP testing used ACS (clicks), and oVEMP testing used ACS (clicks and 500-Hz tone bursts) and midline tap stimuli (reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker). Outcome parameters were cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes and oVEMP n10 amplitudes. Results Relative to controls, MD and VM groups both showed reduced click-evoked cVEMP (P < .001) and oVEMP (P < .001) amplitudes. Only the MD group showed reduction in tone-evoked amplitudes for oVEMP. Tone-evoked oVEMPs differentiated MD from controls (P = .001) and from VM (P = .007). The oVEMPs in response to the reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker midline taps showed no differences between groups (P > .210). Conclusions Using these techniques, VM and MD behaved similarly on most of the VEMP test battery. A link in their pathophysiology may be responsible for these responses. The data suggest a difference in 500-Hz tone burst–evoked oVEMP responses between MD and MV as a group. However, no VEMP test that was investigated segregated individuals with MD from those with VM. PMID:22267492

  4. Stimulus-evoked potentials contribute to map the epileptogenic zone during stereo-EEG presurgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boido, Davide; Kapetis, Dimos; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Pastori, Chiara; Galbardi, Barbara; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Cardinale, Francesco; Francione, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Presurgical monitoring with intracerebral electrodes in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy represents a standard invasive procedure to localize the sites of seizures origin, defined as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During presurgical evaluation, intracerebral single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) is performed to define the boundaries of eloquent areas and to evoke seizure-associated symptoms. Extensive intracranial exploration and stimulation generate a large dataset on brain connectivity that can be used to improve EZ detection and to understand the organization of the human epileptic brain. We developed a protocol to analyse field responses evoked by intracranial stimulation. Intracerebral recordings were performed with 105-162 recording sites positioned in fronto-temporal regions in 12 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Recording sites were used for bipolar SPES at 1 Hz. Reproducible early and late phases (<60 ms and 60-500 ms from stimulus artefact, respectively) were identified on averaged evoked responses. Phase 1 and 2 responses recorded at all and each recording sites were plotted on a 3D brain reconstructions. Based on connectivity properties, electrode contacts were primarily identified as receivers, mainly activators or bidirectional. We used connectivity patterns to construct networks and applied cluster partitioning to study the proprieties between potentials evoked/stimulated in different regions. We demonstrate that bidirectional connectivity during phase 1 is a prevalent feature that characterize contacts included in the EZ. This study shows that the application of an analytical protocol on intracerebral stimulus-evoked recordings provides useful information that may contribute to EZ detection and to the management of surgical-remediable epilepsies. PMID:24706574

  5. [Evoked potentials in neurologically asymptomatic persons during the early stages of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Malessa, R; Heuser-Link, M; Brockmeyer, N; Goos, M; Schwendemann, G

    1989-12-01

    There are few reports on the relevance of evoked potentials in neurologically asymptomatic HIV seropositives. We studied 31 HIV infected males without AIDS or associated clinical neurological abnormalities. Visual evoked potentials by foveal checkerboard stimulation revealed a prolonged VEP latency in 37% of them. HIV seropositives with a pathologic VEP latency showed a significant reduction of their absolute numbers of peripheral blood T-helper cells. This increase of the mean VEP-latency was already significant in HIV seropositives with a T-helper cell count greater than 400/microliters. In 47% of the HIV seropositives the AEP peak I latency was prolonged in combination with a significant decrease of the AEP interpeak latency I-V suggesting endocochlear lesions at peripheral endings of the acoustic nerve or at the basal hair cells. HIV seropositives with a T-helper cell count less than 400/microliters revealed a significant prolongation of the mean AEP interpeak latency III-V indicating a central conduction defect in HIV-seropositives with an immune deficit. Somatosensory evoked potentials after median and tibial nerve stimulation were within the normal range. Since the VEP P100 latencies were significantly longer in HIV seropositives with a normal AEP peak I compared to those with prolonged AEP peak I latencies we postulate that there are different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying. PMID:2532594

  6. Somatosensory evoked potentials associated with tactile stimulation at detection threshold in man.

    PubMed

    Soininen, K; Järvilehto, T

    1983-11-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by sub- and supraliminal tactile pulses were studied during continuous threshold measurement. Two threshold methods were used: a modified tracking method and a detection method. With both methods threshold estimates of the same order of magnitude were obtained. Stimuli just above the threshold elicited a distinct somatosensory evoked potential with components P50, P100, N190 and P400. No such SEP was associated with the subliminal stimuli. However, in some cases some potential oscillations were obtained, time-locked to the subliminal stimuli; these are suggested to be due to errors in responding. In control experiments detected stimuli elicited a distinct SEP, but no SEP was associated with undetected stimuli of identical amplitude. The results indicate that in the psychophysical threshold determination the neural processing reflected in the SEP is associated only with supraliminal tactile stimulation. The lack of evoked brain activity associated with subliminal tactile stimuli supports the hypothesis derived from human microneurographic studies, stating that the tactile detection threshold may be based on an extremely small peripheral input, perhaps only on a single impulse in a single peripheral fiber. PMID:6194968

  7. Abnormal visual evoked potentials in children with "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome due to infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Lahat, E; Berkovitch, M; Barr, J; Paret, G; Barzilai, A

    1999-11-01

    Visual illusions characterized by distortion of form, size, reciprocal position of objects, movement, or color, labeled as "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, were discussed in children with infectious mononucleosis, as well as in other clinical conditions, such as migraine, epilepsy, use of certain hallucinogenic drugs, etc. The purpose of our study was to investigate for the first time visual evoked potential results in children with "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome associated with infectious mononucleosis. Five children with "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome associated with infectious mononucleosis underwent visual evoked potential studies during and after their clinical symptoms. Visual evoked potential results during the disease demonstrated statistically significant high amplitudes of P100-N145 in all children compared to the control group. A few weeks later, repeated studies after the resolution of the complaints were normal. Since the same findings can be observed in patients with migraine, we postulate that a common pathophysiologic underlying abnormality, which can cause transient focal decreased cerebral perfusion, could be involved in the disease process of these two conditions. PMID:10593551

  8. Concomitant hypertension, bradycardia, and loss of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials during pedicle hook removal: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ambardekar, A P; Sestokas, A K; Schwartz, D M; Flynn, J M; Rehman, M

    2010-12-01

    Neurophysiologic monitors in the form of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tceMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have become widely used modalities to monitor spinal cord function during major orthopedic spine procedures. In combination with invasive and non-invasive clinical monitoring and an anesthesia information management system (AIMS), we promptly recognized an acute change in hemodynamic and neurophysiologic parameters, managed intraoperative spinal cord contusion, and successfully minimized iatrogenic injury to the spinal cord during corrective spine surgery. PMID:21210192

  9. A short latency vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) produced by bone-conducted acoustic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAngus Todd, Neil P.; Rosengren, Sally M.; Colebatch, James G.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper data are presented from an experiment which provides evidence for the existence of a short latency, acoustically evoked potential of probable vestibular origin. The experiment was conducted in two phases using bone-conducted acoustic stimulation. In the first phase subjects were stimulated with 6-ms, 500-Hz tone bursts in order to obtain the threshold VT for vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). It was confirmed that the difference between bone-conducted auditory and acoustic vestibular thresholds was slightly over 30 dB. The estimated threshold was then used as a reference value in the second part of the experiment to stimulate subjects over a range of intensities from -6 to +18 dB (re:VT). Averaged EEG recordings were made with eight Ag/AgCl electrodes placed on the scalp at Fpz, F3, F4, F7, F8, Cz, T3, and T4 according to the 10-20 system. Below VT auditory midlatency responses (MLRs) were observed. Above VT two additional potentials appeared: a positivity at about 10 ms (P10) which was maximal at Cz, and a negativity at about 15 ms (N15) which was maximal at Fpz. Extrapolation of the growth functions for the P10 and N15 indicated a threshold close to VT, consistent with a vestibular origin of these potentials. Given the low threshold of vestibular acoustic sensitivity it is possible that this mode may make a contribution to the detection of and affective responses to loud low frequency sounds. The evoked potentials may also have application as a noninvasive and nontraumatic test of vestibular projections to the cortex.

  10. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials. Apomorphine-induced transient potentiation of frontal components Clin. Parkinson's disease and in parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo M. Rossini; M. Antonietta Bassetti; Patrizio Pasqualetti

    1995-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation have been recorded from parietal and frontal districts Clin. 43 parkinsonians, 17 patients with parkinsonism and 35 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Latency\\/ amplitude characteristics of the parietal P14-N20-P25 and of the frontal P20-N30-P40 wave complexes before and after (10, 20, 30 and 60 min) subcutaneous administration of apomorphine chloride

  11. Neuronal current magnetic resonance imaging of evoked potentials and neural oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xia

    Despite its great success, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique relies on changes in cerebral hemodynamic parameters to infer the underlying neural activities, and as a result is limited in its spatial and temporal resolutions. In this dissertation, we discuss the feasibility of neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI), a novel technique in which the small magnetic field changes caused by neuronal electrical activities are directly measured by MRI. Two studies are described. In the first study, we investigated the feasibility of detecting the magnetic field produced by sensory evoked potentials. To eliminate the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect on the MRI signal, which confounded most previous studies, an octopus visual system model was developed, which, for the first time, allowed for an in vivo investigation of nc-MRI in a BOLD-free environment. Electrophysiological responses were measured in the octopus retina and optical lobe to guide the nc-MRI acquisition. Our results indicated that no nc-MRI signal change related to neuronal activation could be detected at 0.2°/0.2% threshold for signal phase/magnitude respectively, while robust electrophysiological responses were recorded. In the second study, we discuss the feasibility of detecting neural oscillations with MRI, Based on previous studies, a novel approach was proposed in which an external oscillatory field was exploited as the excitation pulse under a spin-locked condition. This approach has the advantages of increased sensitivity and lowered physiological noise. Successful detection of sub-nanotesla field was demonstrated in phantom. Our results suggest that evoked potentials are too weak for nc-MRI detection with the current hardware, and that previous positive findings were likely due to hemodynamic confounders. On the other hand, oscillatory magnetic field can be efficiently detected in phantom. Given the stronger equivalent current dipoles produced by neural oscillations compared to evoked potentials, they might be a more promising candidate for future nc-MRI studies.

  12. Histogram based quantification of spinal cord injury level using somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hasan; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Kerr, Douglas; Thakor, Nitish; All, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses an entropy based metric to study the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) in rodents afflicted with focal demyelination spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been shown that amplitude characteristics of the SEP signal are a strong indicator of the integrity of the spinal cord sensory pathways. Compared to conventional correlation based metrics, the metric used in this paper exploits the amplitude histogram of SEP signals to provide a robust assessment of the different degrees of demyelination in the spinal cord. Results are presented using actual SEP signals collected on rodents with various levels of SCI. PMID:21096668

  13. Auditory evoked potential: a proposal for further evaluation in children with learning disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Frizzo, Ana C. F.

    2015-01-01

    The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author’s experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last 10 years, auditory evoked potential (AEP) has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population.

  14. Assessment of an ICA-based noise reduction method for multi-channel auditory evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirahmadizoghi, Siavash; Bell, Steven; Simpson, David

    2015-03-01

    In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of hearing threshold. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the signal and also detected hearing thresholds significantly lower than with the single channel alternative.

  15. An animal model of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in guinea pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Hua Yang; Shing-Hwa Liu; Shou-Jen Wang; Yi-Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to establish an animal model of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) in guinea pigs. Ten healthy\\u000a and 10 gentamicin-treated guinea pigs underwent oVEMP test using a hand-held bone-conducted vibrator placed on the animal’s\\u000a forehead. All 10 healthy animals exhibited bilateral oVEMPs at the stimulus intensity of 139 dB force level (FL), with a mean\\u000a threshold and latencies of

  16. [Research for De-noising in the detection of chromatic visual evoked potential based on wavelet].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kai; Hou, Minxian; Ye, Guanrong; Yang, Yabo

    2006-06-01

    The signal analysis technology based on wavelet was used to detect the chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP). The method was based on wavelet transform modulus maxima reconstruction. The test signal was decomposed using the dyadic discrete time wavelet transform "Mallat" algorithm, and the modulus maxima distribution of each scale was obtained. Signal was de-noised as the Lipschitz coefficient. The POCS method was used to reconstruction the original signal. The news method proved not only good for de-noising but also for decreasing the times of test by the simulation result. PMID:16856376

  17. Underwater Anesthesia of Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) for Measurement of Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Emily F; Piniak, Wendy E D; Lester, Lori A; Harms, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into the biology of aquatic and semiaquatic species, including those involving sensory specialization, often require creative solutions to novel questions. We developed a technique for safely anesthetizing a semiaquatic chelonian species, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), for measurement of auditory evoked potentials while animals were completely submerged in water. Custom-modified endotracheal tubes were used to obtain a watertight seal on both sides of the glottis and prevent aspiration of water during testing. No adverse effects were seen after the procedures, and assessment of venous blood-gas partial pressures and lactate concentrations indicated that sufficient gas exchange was maintained under anesthesia through manual ventilation. PMID:24351768

  18. Emotional Body-Word Conflict Evokes Enhanced N450 and Slow Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianling; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Xin; Wang, Lu; Chen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Emotional conflict refers to the influence of task irrelevant affective stimuli on current task set. Previously used emotional face-word tasks have produced certain electrophysiological phenomena, such as an enhanced N450 and slow potential; however, it remains unknown whether these effects emerge in other tasks. The present study used an emotional body-word conflict task to investigate the neural dynamics of emotional conflict as reflected by response time, accuracy, and event-related potentials, which were recorded with the aim of replicating the previously observed N450 and slow potential effect. Results indicated increased response time and decreased accuracy in the incongruent condition relative to the congruent condition, indicating a robust interference effect. Furthermore, the incongruent condition evoked pronounced N450 amplitudes and a more positive slow potential, which might be associated with conflict-monitoring and conflict resolution. The present findings extend our understanding of emotional conflict to the body-word domain. PMID:24819150

  19. Does Migraine-Associated Vertigo Share a Common Pathophysiology With Meniere's Disease? Study With Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Murofushi; H Ozeki; A Inoue; A Sakata

    2009-01-01

    To clarify if migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) and Meniere's disease (MD) share a common pathophysiology, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were measured in 11 patients with MAV, 11 with unilateral MD and eight healthy subjects. As acoustic stimuli, tone bursts (TB; 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) were presented. In healthy subjects, 500-Hz TB evoked the largest amplitude. To quantify this tendency,

  20. Alterations of evoked potentials in the medial lemniscus of the rat due to acute and chronic elevations in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Garsik, J T; Low, W C; Whitehorn, D

    1984-07-23

    The influence of elevated blood pressure on evoked field potentials in the medial lemniscus induced by peripheral stimulation was studied in the rat. Acute hypertension as a result of phenylephrine infusions reduced the size of this response in individual Wistar Kyoto rats. Chronic renal hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats also caused a reduction in the dorsal column-medial lemniscal evoked response. These results confirm an inhibitory action of elevated blood pressure on transmission through the dorsal column nuclei. PMID:6466984

  1. Tuning of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to AC sound shows two separate peaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander S. Zhang; Sendhil Govender; James G. Colebatch

    2011-01-01

    The ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) is a relatively new method used to assess otolith-ocular pathways\\u000a in humans. When elicited using air-conducted (AC) sound stimulation, the oVEMP is thought to reflect mostly saccular activation.\\u000a However, it has been recently suggested that utricular afferents may also contribute to the AC evoked oVEMP. While previous\\u000a frequency tuning studies of the AC

  2. The impact of synaptic conductance on action potential waveform: evoking realistic action potentials with a simulated synaptic conductance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Postlethwaite, Michael; Forsythe, Ian D

    2009-10-15

    Most current clamp studies trigger action potentials (APs) by step current injection through the recording electrode and assume that the resulting APs are essentially identical to those triggered by orthodromic synaptic inputs. However this assumption is not always valid, particularly when the synaptic conductance is of large magnitude and of close proximity to the axon initial segment. We addressed this question of similarity using the Calyx of Held/MNTB synapse; we compared APs evoked by long duration step current injections, short step current injections and orthodromic synaptic stimuli. Neither injected current protocol evoked APs that matched the evoked orthodromic AP waveform, showing differences in AP height, half-width and after-hyperpolarization. We postulated that this 'error' could arise from changes in the instantaneous conductance during the combined synaptic and AP waveforms, since the driving forces for the respective ionic currents are integrating and continually evolving over this time-course. We demonstrate that a simple Ohm's law manipulation of the EPSC waveform, which accounts for the evolving driving force on the synaptic conductance during the AP, produces waveforms that closely mimic those generated by physiological synaptic stimulation. This stimulation paradigm allows supra-threshold physiological stimulation (single stimuli or trains) without the variability caused by quantal fluctuation in transmitter release, and can be implemented without a specialised dynamic clamp system. Combined with pharmacological tools this method provides a reliable means to assess the physiological roles of postsynaptic ion channels without confounding affects from the presynaptic input. PMID:19560491

  3. [Recording cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: part 1: anatomy, physiology, methods and normal findings].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Hörmann, K; Pfaar, O

    2010-10-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have gained in clinical significance in recent years, now forming an integral part of neurootological examinations to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. They are sensitive to low-frequency acoustic stimuli. When stimulated, receptors in the sacculus and utriculous are activated. By means of reflexive connections, myogenic potentials can be recorded when the relevant muscles are tonically activated. The vestibulocolic (sacculocollic) reflex travels from the otolith organs over the central circuitry to the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. Myogenic potentials can be recorded by means of cervical VEMP (cVEMP). The vestibuloocular reflex crosses contralaterally to the extraocular eye muscle. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) are recorded periocularly, preferably from the inferior oblique muscle. Various stimulation methods are used including air conduction and bone conduction. PMID:20927621

  4. Association Between Evoked Potentials and Balance Recovery in Subacute Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between baseline motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) responses in the lower extremities and balance recovery in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients. Methods MEPs and SSEPs were evaluated in 20 subacute hemiparetic stroke patients before rehabilitation. Balance (static posturography and Berg Balance Scale [BBS]), motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA]) and the ability to perform activities of daily living (Modified Barthel Index [MBI]) were evaluated before rehabilitation and after four-weeks of rehabilitation. Posturography outcomes were weight distribution indices (WDI) expressed as surface area (WDI-Sa) and pressure (WDI-Pr), and stability indices expressed as surface area (SI-Sa) and length (SI-L). In addition, all parameters were evaluated during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Results The MEP (+) group showed significant improvements in balance except WDI-Sa (EC), FMA, and MBI, while the MEP (-) group showed significant improvements in the BBS, FMA, and MBI after rehabilitation. The SSEP (+) group showed significant improvements in balance except SI-Sa (EO), FMA, and MBI, while the SSEPs (-) group showed significant improvements in the BBS, MBI after rehabilitation. The changes in the SI-Sa (EO), SI-L (EO), total MBI, and several detailed MBI subscales in the MEP (+) group after rehabilitation were significantly larger than those in the MEP (-) group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initial assessments of MEPs and SSEPs might be beneficial when predicting balance recovery in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients.

  5. Color vision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot visual evoked potential study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Banaschewski, Tobias; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to manifest visual problems (including ophthalmological and color perception, particularly for blue–yellow stimuli), but findings are inconsistent. Accordingly, this study investigated visual function and color perception in adolescents with ADHD using color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which provides an objective measure of color perception. Method Thirty-one adolescents (aged 13–18), 16 with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD, and 15 healthy peers, matched for age, gender, and IQ participated in the study. All underwent an ophthalmological exam, as well as electrophysiological testing color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which measured the latency and amplitude of the neural P1 response to chromatic (blue–yellow, red–green) and achromatic stimuli. Result No intergroup differences were found in the ophthalmological exam. However, significantly larger P1 amplitude was found for blue and yellow stimuli, but not red/green or achromatic stimuli, in the ADHD group (particularly in the medicated group) compared to controls. Conclusion Larger amplitude in the P1 component for blue–yellow in the ADHD group compared to controls may account for the lack of difference in color perception tasks. We speculate that the larger amplitude for blue–yellow stimuli in early sensory processing (P1) might reflect a compensatory strategy for underlying problems including compromised retinal input of s-cones due to hypo-dopaminergic tone. PMID:25435188

  6. Diminished n1 auditory evoked potentials to oddball stimuli in misophonia patients.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Arjan; van Diepen, Rosanne; Mazaheri, Ali; Petropoulos-Petalas, Diamantis; Soto de Amesti, Vicente; Vulink, Nienke; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Misophonia (hatred of sound) is a newly defined psychiatric condition in which ordinary human sounds, such as breathing and eating, trigger impulsive aggression. In the current study, we investigated if a dysfunction in the brain's early auditory processing system could be present in misophonia. We screened 20 patients with misophonia with the diagnostic criteria for misophonia, and 14 matched healthy controls without misophonia, and investigated any potential deficits in auditory processing of misophonia patients using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during an oddball task. Subjects watched a neutral silent movie while being presented a regular frequency of beep sounds in which oddball tones of 250 and 4000?Hz were randomly embedded in a stream of repeated 1000?Hz standard tones. We examined the P1, N1, and P2 components locked to the onset of the tones. For misophonia patients, the N1 peak evoked by the oddball tones had smaller mean peak amplitude than the control group. However, no significant differences were found in P1 and P2 components evoked by the oddball tones. There were no significant differences between the misophonia patients and their controls in any of the ERP components to the standard tones. The diminished N1 component to oddball tones in misophonia patients suggests an underlying neurobiological deficit in misophonia patients. This reduction might reflect a basic impairment in auditory processing in misophonia patients. PMID:24782731

  7. Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychological Tests Validate Positron Emission Topography (PET) Brain Metabolism in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Damle, Uma J.; Kerner, Mallory; Dushaj, Kristina; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Topography (PET) brain hypometabolism (HM) correlates with diminished cognitive capacity and risk of developing dementia. However, because clinical utility of PET is limited by cost, we sought to determine whether a less costly electrophysiological measure, the P300 evoked potential, in combination with neuropsychological test performance, would validate PET HM in neuropsychiatric patients. We found that patients with amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairment and HM (n?=?43) evidenced significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, delayed latencies, and neuropsychological deficits, compared to patients with normal brain metabolism (NM; n?=?187). Data from patients with missing cognitive test scores (n?=?57) were removed from the final sample, and logistic regression modeling was performed on the modified sample (n?=?173, p?=?.000004). The logistic regression modeling, based on P300 and neuropsychological measures, was used to validate membership in the HM vs. NM groups. It showed classification validation in 13/25 HM subjects (52.0%) and in 125/148 NM subjects (84.5%), correlating with total classification accuracy of 79.8%. In this paper, abnormal P300 evoked potentials coupled with cognitive test impairment validates brain metabolism and mild/moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). To this end, we cautiously propose incorporating electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessments as cost-effective brain metabolism and MCI indicators in primary care. Final interpretation of these results must await required additional studies confirming these interesting results. PMID:23526928

  8. TMS-induced motor evoked potentials in Wilson's disease: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bembenek, Jan P; Kurczych, Katarzyna; Cz?onkowska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a metabolic brain disease resulting from improper copper metabolism. Although pyramidal symptoms are rarely observed, subclinical injury is highly possible as copper accumulates in all brain structures. The usefulness of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in pyramidal tracts damage evaluation still appears to be somehow equivocal. We searched for original papers assessing the value of transcranial magnetic stimulation elicited MEPs with respect to motor function of upper and lower extremity in WD. We searched PubMed for original papers evaluating use of MEPs in WD using key words: "motor evoked potentials Wilson's disease" and "transcranial magnetic stimulation Wilson's disease." We found six articles using the above key words. One additional article and one case report were found while viewing the references lists. Therefore, we included eight studies. Number of patients in studies was low and their clinical characteristic was variable. There were also differences in methodology. Abnormal MEPs were confirmed in 20-70% of study participants. MEPs were not recorded in 7.6-66.7% of patients. Four studies reported significantly increased cortical excitability (up to 70% of patients). Prolonged central motor conduction time was observed in four studies (30-100% of patients). One study reported absent or prolonged central motor latency in 66.7% of patients. Although MEPs may be abnormal in WD, this has not been thoroughly assessed. Hence, further studies are indispensable to evaluate MEPs' usefulness in assessing pyramidal tract damage in WD. PMID:25808411

  9. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Response to Three Test Positions and Two Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Todai, Janvi K.; Congdon, Sharon L.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Cohen, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine how eye closure, test positions, and stimulus frequencies influence ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Study Design This study used a within-subjects repeated measures design. Methods Twenty asymptomatic subjects were each tested on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in three head/eye conditions at 500 Hz and 1000 Hz using air-conducted sound: 1) Sitting upright, head erect, eyes open, looking up. 2) Lying supine, neck flexed 30 degrees, eyes open and looking up. 3) Lying supine, neck flexed 30 degrees, eyes closed and relaxed. Four dependent variables measured were n10, p16, amplitude, and threshold. Results The supine position/ eyes open was comparable to sitting/ eyes open and better than supine/ eyes closed. Eyes closed resulted in lower amplitude, higher threshold, and prolonged latency. Significantly fewer subjects provided responses with eyes closed than with eyes open. No significant differences were found between both eyes open conditions. Both n10 and p16 were lower at 1000 Hz than at 500 Hz. Amplitude and threshold were higher at 1000 Hz than at 500 Hz. Conclusion Supine eyes open is a reliable alternative to sitting eyes open in patients who cannot maintain a seated position. Testing at 1000 Hz provides a larger response with a faster onset that fatigues faster than at 500 Hz. The increased variability and decreased response in the eyes closed position suggest that the eyes closed position is not reliable. PMID:24178911

  10. Laminar separation of light-evoked K+ flux and field potentials in frog retina.

    PubMed

    Karwoski, J; Criswell, M H; Proenza, L M

    1978-07-01

    Light-evoked changes in [K+] 0 and field potentials were recorded from the retinas of grass frogs. In the proximal retina, light induced an increase in [K+]0. This increase had components at light onset and offset, was maximal with small spot stimulation, and reached greatest amplitude at the same depth as the proximal negative response (PNR). Extracellular dye marking revealed that this depth was within the inner plexiform layer. The off-components of both the K+ increase and PNR occurred distal to the on-components, thus supporting recent proposal that "off" synapases lie distal to "on" synapses. Since a well-developed M-wave, having a time course nearly identical to the K+ increase, was also seen in the proximal retina, this field potential appears to be a normal component of the intraretinal electroretinogram. PMID:669896

  11. Objective threshold estimation and measurement of the residual background noise in auditory evoked potentials of goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianqiang; Braun, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of papers using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) published over the last 10 years (Table I) demonstrates that most AEP studies in animals have used subjective methods for auditory threshold determination. Subjective methods greatly reduce the value of statistical hypothesis testing and jeopardize tests of hypothetical experimental group differences in hearing sensitivity. Correspondingly, many attempts have been made to develop objective threshold determination methods, but these have not been used widely. Further, they seldom include an appreciation of the effects of residual noise in the AEP. In this study, AEPs evoked by tonal and noise stimuli in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were recorded and the residual background noise was measured and analyzed in detail. High variability was found in residual noise, but can be effectively controlled with a simple modification of averaging routines. Considerable interobserver disagreements were found using subjective threshold estimation. An objective method of threshold determination was developed based on comparison between AEP amplitude and controlled residual noise, using a signal detection theory approach to set specific threshold criteria. The usefulness of AEP in hypothesis testing for auditory function requires more control over residual background noise amplitudes and the use of objective threshold determination techniques. PMID:19045791

  12. Electromotive triggering and single sweep analysis of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs).

    PubMed

    Hecker, D; Lohscheller, J; Schorn, B; Koch, K; Schick, B; Dlugaiczyk, J

    2013-03-15

    Cervical (c) and ocular (o) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) provide important tools for measuring otolith function. However, two major drawbacks of this method are encountered in clinical practice. First, recording of oVEMPs is compromised by small n10 amplitudes. Second, VEMP analysis is currently based on the averaging technique, resulting in a loss of information compared to single sweep analysis. Here, we (1) developed a novel electromotive trigger mechanism for evoking VEMPs by bone-conducted vibration to the forehead and (2) established maximum entropy extraction of complex wavelet transforms for calculation of phase synchronization between VEMP single sweeps. Both c- and oVEMPs were recorded for n=10 healthy individuals. The oVEMP n10 amplitude was consistently higher (right: 24:849:71 V ; left: 27:4014:55 V ) than previously described. Stable VEMP signals were reached after a smaller number of head taps (oVEMPs < 6; cVEMPs < 11) compared to current recommendations. Phase synchronization vectors and phase shift values were successfully determined for simulated and clinically recorded VEMPs, providing information about the impact of noise and phase jitter on the VEMP signal. Thus, the proposed method constitutes an easy-to-use approach for the fast detection and analysis of VEMPs in clinical practice. PMID:23529108

  13. Characterization of age-related changes in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Basta, Dietmar; Todt, Ingo; Ernst, Arne

    2007-01-01

    A tone-burst stimulation of 500 Hz seems to be clinically most appropriate to elicit vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) because those VEMPs can be recorded at the lowest stimulus intensity possible. However, little is known about gender and age-related changes of the amplitude in tone-burst (500 Hz) evoked VEMPs. The aim of the present paper was therefore to investigate the influence of gender and age on VEMP amplitude in relation to the tonic muscle activity. VEMPs of 64 healthy subjects were recorded ipsilaterally during air- or bone-conducted tone burst stimulation. The EMG of the tonically activated sternocleidomastoid muscle was recorded ipsilaterally with surface electrodes. Averages were taken for P1/N1 amplitudes of male and female volunteers within 3 different age groups. Although the amplitude decreased with increasing age the tonic activity was not significant different between the age groups. Consequently the relation between VEMP amplitude and tonic muscle activity decreased with increasing age. The normative values of the age-dependent relation between VEMP amplitude and tonic muscle activity were described by the 90% confidence interval of the individual values. Normative thresholds were calculated. Normal saccular receptor function could be diagnosed if the VEMP amplitude is above (or equal to) the normative value at a given tonic muscle activity and age. Normative data as described above are required to diagnose isolated saccular defects, which are indicative of a vestibular disorder. PMID:18413902

  14. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes by dephosphorylating and desensitizing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a calcium calcineurin, dephosphorylated TRPV1. The WIN-induced desensitization of TRPV1 was mediated by calcineurin, because

  15. Neuromodulation of motor-evoked potentials during stepping in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Parag; Lavrov, Igor; Shah, Prithvi; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Gerasimenko, Yury

    2013-01-01

    The rat spinal cord isolated from supraspinal control via a complete low- to midthoracic spinal cord transection produces locomotor-like patterns in the hindlimbs when facilitated pharmacologically and/or by epidural electrical stimulation. To evaluate the role of epidural electrical stimulation in enabling motor control (eEmc) for locomotion and posture, we recorded potentials evoked by epidural spinal cord stimulation in selected hindlimb muscles during stepping and standing in adult spinal rats. We hypothesized that the temporal details of the phase-dependent modulation of these evoked potentials in selected hindlimb muscles while performing a motor task in the unanesthetized state would be predictive of the potential of the spinal circuitries to generate stepping. To test this hypothesis, we characterized soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle responses as middle response (MR; 4–6 ms) or late responses (LRs; >7 ms) during stepping with eEmc. We then compared these responses to the stepping parameters with and without a serotoninergic agonist (quipazine) or a glycinergic blocker (strychnine). Quipazine inhibited the MRs induced by eEmc during nonweight-bearing standing but facilitated locomotion and increased the amplitude and number of LRs induced by eEmc during stepping. Strychnine facilitated stepping and reorganized the LRs pattern in the soleus. The LRs in the TA remained relatively stable at varying loads and speeds during locomotion, whereas the LRs in the soleus were strongly modulated by both of these variables. These data suggest that LRs facilitated electrically and/or pharmacologically are not time-locked to the stimulation pulse but are highly correlated to the stepping patterns of spinal rats. PMID:23761695

  16. Sensory-evoked LTP driven by dendritic plateau potentials in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Frédéric; Pagès, Stéphane; Kehayas, Vassilis; Baptista, Daniela; Tatti, Roberta; Carleton, Alan; Holtmaat, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    Long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) is thought to be a key process in cortical synaptic network plasticity and memory formation. Hebbian forms of LTP depend on strong postsynaptic depolarization, which in many models is generated by action potentials that propagate back from the soma into dendrites. However, local dendritic depolarization has been shown to mediate these forms of LTP as well. As pyramidal cells in supragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex spike infrequently, it is unclear which of the two mechanisms prevails for those cells in vivo. Using whole-cell recordings in the mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo, we demonstrate that rhythmic sensory whisker stimulation efficiently induces synaptic LTP in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells in the absence of somatic spikes. The induction of LTP depended on the occurrence of NMDAR (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor)-mediated long-lasting depolarizations, which bear similarities to dendritic plateau potentials. In addition, we show that whisker stimuli recruit synaptic networks that originate from the posteromedial complex of the thalamus (POm). Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing POm neurons generated NMDAR-mediated plateau potentials, whereas the inhibition of POm activity during rhythmic whisker stimulation suppressed the generation of those potentials and prevented whisker-evoked LTP. Taken together, our data provide evidence for sensory-driven synaptic LTP in vivo, in the absence of somatic spiking. Instead, LTP is mediated by plateau potentials that are generated through the cooperative activity of lemniscal and paralemniscal synaptic circuitry. PMID:25174710

  17. Superimposition of a cartoon program as an aid in recording pattern visual evoked potentials in children.

    PubMed

    Shors, T J; Eriksen, K J; Wright, K W

    1987-01-01

    Superimposition of a television program onto the black and white checkerboard stimulus used in performing the pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) has been found useful in testing adults and children. This study tested normal-vision children under two conditions: with the cartoon superimposition and with the standard black and white checkerboard. P100 amplitudes were decreased slightly with the superimposition, but the variability was not significantly different. Waveforms and latencies were not altered by the addition of the cartoon. The use of cartoon superimposition therefore can be helpful in maintaining attention during P-VEP testing in children, as long as the diminished amplitude characteristic is taken into account. PMID:3681608

  18. Central-tendency estimation and nearest-estimate classification of multi-channel evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kota, Srinivas; Yarlagadda, Phani; Gupta, Lalit; Molfese, D L

    2009-01-01

    By modeling evoked potentials (EPs) as random vectors in which the EP samples are random variables, a generalized strategy is introduced to determine multivariate central-tendency estimates such as the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, median, tri-mean, and trimmed-mean. Additionally, a generalized strategy is introduced to develop minimum-distance classifiers based on central tendency estimates. Furthermore, procedures are developed to fuse the decisions of the nearest-estimate classifiers for multi-channel EP classification. The central-tendency estimates of real EPs are compared and it is shown that although the mathematical operations to compute the estimates are quite different, the EP estimates are similar with respect to their overall waveform shapes and latencies. It is also shown that by fusing the classifier decisions across multiple channels, the classification accuracy can be improved significantly when compared with the accuracies of individual channel classifiers. PMID:19965215

  19. A comparative study of recording procedures for motor evoked potential signals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Iyer, Shrivats; All, Angelo H

    2009-01-01

    Motor evoked potential (MEP) signals serve as an objective measure of the functional integrity of motor pathways in the spinal cord. Hence, they provide a reliable assessment of the extent of spinal cord injury (SCI). There are two methods currently being used for serial MEP recordings in rats: a low-frequency and a high-frequency method. In this paper, we compared the two methods and determined the better method for MEP recordings. We also compared the effect of two anesthetic agents - inhalational isoflurane and intraperitoneal ketamine - on the MEP signals. We found that under ketamine anesthesia, low-frequency stimulation led to more consistent results, while high-frequency stimulation required greater stimulation intensity and was prone to unwanted side-effects including excessive head twitches. We further found that isoflurane anesthesia severely depressed the MEP response for both low-frequency and high-frequency stimulation which rendered the resulting signal unusable. PMID:19964577

  20. Evoked potential versus behavior to detect minor insult to the spinal cord in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Thakor, Nitish V; All, Angelo H

    2009-08-01

    Reliable outcome measurement is needed for spinal cord injury research to critically evaluate the severity of injury and recovery thereafter. However, such measurements can sometimes be affected by minor, injury to the spinal cord during surgical procedures, including laminectomy. The open-field Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) behavior motor scores are subjective and prone to human error. We investigated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) as an electrophysiological measure to assess the integrity of the spinal cord after injury. In our experiment, control rats with a minor unintentional spinal cord insult during laminectomy showed a decrease in SEP amplitude by 16% to 18%, which recovered in around 7 days. However, there was no change in the BBB scores for the same animals over the same period. This highlights the sensitivity of SEP to minor insult as compared to BBB. These differences may be beneficial in accurate evaluation of the severity and progression of spinal cord injury, and subsequent recovery. PMID:19419872

  1. Effects of diabetes mellitus type ? with or without neuropathy on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Behnoush; Hajiabolhassan, Fahimeh; Fatahi, Jamileh; Nasli Esfahani, Ensieh; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type ? is a metabolic disorder that affects multiple systems including the inner ear. Patients with diabetes mellitus commonly complain about dizziness, floating sensation, tinnitus and sweating. The aim of this study was to compare vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) between diabetic patients with or without neuropathy. Subjects included 14 patients with diabetes mellitus type ? with polyneuropathy, 10 patients with diabetes mellitus type ? without polyneuropathy and 24 healthy volunteers. Range of age in participants was 15-40 years old. The VEMPs were recorded with 500 Hz tone bursts with intensity at 95 dB. There was statistically significant difference between the groups in P13 and N23 latencies (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in absolute and relative amplitudes. Prolonged latencies of the VEMP suggest lesions in the retrolabyrinthine, especially in the vestibulospinal tract. PMID:23585317

  2. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7–36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs. PMID:24828128

  3. Possible long term effects of chemical warfare using visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  4. Visually Evoked Potentials in a Patient with a Fyodorov-Zuev Keratoprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Roy; Barak, Adiel; Newman, Hadas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a visually evoked potential (VEP) examination performed on a patient with a keratoprosthesis. Methods We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with a Fyodorov-Zuev keratoprosthesis in the right eye complained of gradual visual deterioration in that eye. His past medical history consisted of failed corneal graft procedures due to corneal dystrophy and an Ahmed valve implantation due to secondary glaucoma. A clinical examination and an ultrasound demonstrated vitreal opacities. In order to assess the visual status, a flash VEP test was conducted. Results VEP recorded from the right eye consisted of a broadened and poorly formed positive P1 wave, with a subnormal amplitude, but a normal latency. Consequently, the patient underwent a pars plana vitrectomy. Conclusion This case demonstrates the viability of VEP exams in patients with keratoprostheses. PMID:25759664

  5. The N2-P3 complex of the evoked potential and human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Brian F.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    The N2-P3 complex and other endogenous components of human evoked potential provide a set of tools for the investigation of human perceptual and cognitive processes. These multidimensional measures of central nervous system bioelectrical activity respond to a variety of environmental and internal factors which have been experimentally characterized. Their application to the analysis of human performance in naturalistic task environments is just beginning. Converging evidence suggests that the N2-P3 complex reflects processes of stimulus evaluation, perceptual resource allocation, and decision making that proceed in parallel, rather than in series, with response generation. Utilization of these EP components may provide insights into the central nervous system mechanisms modulating task performance unavailable from behavioral measures alone. The sensitivity of the N2-P3 complex to neuropathology, psychopathology, and pharmacological manipulation suggests that these components might provide sensitive markers for the effects of environmental stressors on the human central nervous system.

  6. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs. PMID:25242846

  7. Vertex potentials evoked during auditory signal detection - Relation to decision criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Hillyard, S. A.; Lindsay, P. H.

    1973-01-01

    Vertex potentials were recorded from eight subjects performing in an auditory threshold detection task with rating scale responses. The amplitudes and latencies of both the N1 and the late positive (P3) components were found to vary systematically with the criterion level of the decision. These changes in the waveshape of the N1 component were comparable to those produced by varying the signal intensity in a passive condition, but the late positive component in the active task was not similarly related to the passively evoked P2 component. It was suggested that the N1 and P3 components represent distinctive aspects of the decision process, with N1 signifying the quantity of signal information received and P3 reflecting the certainty of the decision based upon that information.

  8. Abnormal visual-evoked potentials in leukemic children after cranial radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, A.; Tomarchio, S.; Pero, G.; Consoli, G.; Marina, R.; Rizzari, C.; Schiliro, G.

    1985-01-01

    Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in 55 asymptomatic children with leukemia or solid tumors in remission in order to detect subclinical demyelination of the optic pathway after CNS prophylaxis. In group I (11 patients with ALL studied prospectively), VEP latency was increased in ten after cranial radiation (CR) as compared with previous values. Group II (18 patients with ALL in maintenance) and group III (16 patients with ALL off therapy) were studied retrospectively and VEP latency was found above normal limits in 33 and 31%, respectively. In group IV (four patients with solid tumors and six with leukemia, all of whom received no CR), VEP latency was normal despite periodical intrathecal methotrexate administrations to five of them. The authors conclude that CR determines a slowing of conduction on VEP test, probably due to demyelination of the optic pathway, in a high proportion of patients. The future clinical significance of these findings must be established throughout a prolonged follow-up period.

  9. [Visual evoked potentials and functional asymmetry in children with with different degrees of intellectual retardation].

    PubMed

    Katargina, T A; Kryzhanovskaia, I L; Petrova, M A

    1993-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEP) to flash and patterned visual stimuli have been recorded from occipital and central brain regions in 7-8-year-old boys with normal intellect (20 cases), with mental retardation (15 cases) and with oligophrenia of a debile degree (27 cases). A significant elongation of late-component latency has been revealed in motor brain areas VEP in oligophrenia group compared to normal subjects. A negative correlation between P190 component latency of motor area VEP to patterned visual stimulus and general and non-verbal intellectual indices has been stated in full right-handed subjects with intellectual deficiency. Such a relation was absent in right-handed patients with left dominant eye. PMID:8042397

  10. Slow negative evoked potentials in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): myogenic versus neurogenic influences.

    PubMed

    Fria, T J; Saad, M M; Doyle, W J; Cantekin, E I

    1984-02-01

    The influence of myogenic activity on the generation of slow negative evoked potentials (SN10) to octave, toneburst stimuli (0.5-2 Hz) was investigated in 5 rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) by comparing responses obtained prior to and during total paralysis induced with curare. The SN10 could be easily elicited during paralysis, regardless of stimulus intensity, rate, or frequency. During paralysis, there were no systematic changes in either response latency or amplitude; variability in latency was less than 10% and changes in response amplitude were within 30%. These findings suggest that the myogenic contribution to the SN10 response is negligible and that this response is of neurogenic origin in the rhesus monkey. PMID:6198169

  11. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials of haemodialysed patients with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sazgar, Amir A; Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Akrami, Kamyar; Akrami, Shahram; Abbasi, Mohammad R; Rasool, Farhan

    2008-04-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) can cause malfunction of multiple organs, including auditory and vestibular systems. During recent years, a significant amount of research has demonstrated the direct involvement of the otolith organs in stabilizing body and gaze which led to the development of specific functional tests. Stable gaze and body are more important in patients with ESRD, as they have an increased risk of bone fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate saccule and related neural pathways in haemodialysed patients with chronic renal failure. Twenty patients (40 ears) with ESRD were tested for vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Results were compared with those of 16 healthy controls (32 ears). VEMP response was significantly different between subjects and patients with ESRD. There was a significant difference between the presence and absence of VEMP waves in ESRD patient when compared with creatinine levels. PMID:17926055

  12. Auditory evoked potentials for the assessment of depth of anaesthesia: different configurations of artefact detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Daniela; Stockmanns, Gudrun; Gallinat, Michael; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Monitoring the depth of anaesthesia has become an important research topic in the field of biosignal processing. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have been shown to be a promising tool for this purpose. Signals recorded in the noisy environment of an operating theatre are often contaminated by artefacts. Thus, artefact detection and elimination in the underlying electroencephalogram (EEG) are mandatory before AEP extraction. Determination of a suitable artefact detection configuration based on EEG data from a clinical study is described. Artefact detection algorithms and an AEP extraction procedure encompassing the artefact detection results are presented. Different configurations of artefact detection algorithms are evaluated using an AEP verification procedure and support vector machines to determine a suitable configuration for the assessment of depth of anaesthesia using AEPs. PMID:17313341

  13. Experimental fetal neurosurgery: effects of in-utero manipulations on somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Yingling, C D; Meuli-Simmen, C; Meuli, M; Timmel, G B; Harrison, M; Adzick, N S

    1999-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were used to objectively evaluate sensory function in neonatal sheep after experimental fetal surgery. Posterior tibial (PTN) and ulnar (UN) nerves were stimulated electrically and averaged SEP were recorded from scalp electrodes placed over the somatosensory cortex. Animals with experimentally-created myelomeningocele (MMC) showed no SEP to PTN stimulation, but normal SEP to UN stimulation. In-utero repair of the MMC resulted in preservation of neurologic function and normal PTN SEP. In-utero thoracic spinal-cord transection resulted in no regeneration, and no SEP to PTN stimulation. In-utero unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve, even with attempted repair, resulted in little or no regeneration and absent or grossly abnormal PTN SEP from the affected side. In summary, the SEP technique provides valuable information concerning preservation of sensory function in a variety of experimentally created neurologic abnormalities and can aid in functional evaluation of experimental therapeutic fetal interventions. PMID:10631727

  14. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in the evaluation of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Lilian; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Tavares, Maurício Campelo; Sousa-Pereira, Sílvio Roberto; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2009-10-01

    Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is the most severe and disabling form of schistosomiasis. The diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory, and image data. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is a neurophysiologic test that assesses the vestibulospinal pathway through acoustic or galvanic stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical spinal abnormalities in patients with SMR. Fifty-two subjects were evaluated, of whom 29 had SMR and 30 did not (normal control). Normal VEMP was observed in all volunteers without SMR. Abnormal VEMP was recorded in 34% of the group with SMR. After treatment, abnormal VEMP was found in 80% of those with persistent neurologic abnormalities. VEMP is a functional test, and the alteration may precede image abnormalities. This procedure may be useful for early diagnosis of schistosomal cervical spinal cord involvement. PMID:19815864

  15. Current source-density analysis of light-evoked field potentials in rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Karwoski, C J; Xu, X

    1999-01-01

    The technique of current source-density analysis was applied to several components of the light-evoked field potentials (electroretinogram) from the retina of the superfused eyecup of rabbit. The depth distributions of the major current sources and sinks were: b-wave--sink at outer plexiform layer, source at inner plexiform layer; M-wave--sink at inner plexiform layer, source at retinal surface; and slow PIII--source near outer plexiform layer, sink at retinal surface. These distributions, along with the sensitivities of these responses to certain pharmacological agents, support earlier studies that Müller cells generate the M-wave and slow PIII, but that depolarizing bipolar cells directly generate the b-wave. PMID:10367970

  16. [Extraction of evoked related potentials by using the combination of independent component analysis and wavelet analysis].

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Chen, Shuyue; Sun, Yuqiang; Ma, Zhenghua

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we present a new method of combining Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Wavelet de-noising algorithm to extract Evoked Related Potentials (ERPs). First, the extended Infomax-ICA algorithm is used to analyze EEG signals and obtain the independent components (Ics); Then, the Wave Shrink (WS) method is applied to the demixed Ics as an intermediate step; the EEG data were rebuilt by using the inverse ICA based on the new Ics; the ERPs were extracted by using de-noised EEG data after being averaged several trials. The experimental results showed that the combined method and ICA method could remove eye artifacts and muscle artifacts mixed in the ERPs, while the combined method could retain the brain neural activity mixed in the noise Ics and could extract the weak ERPs efficiently from strong background artifacts. PMID:20842836

  17. Changes in visual evoked potentials in children on chronic dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Ducati, A; Cattarelli, D; Cenzato, M; Landi, A; Edefonti, A; Capitanio, L; Pavani, M; Villani, R

    1985-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in 20 children undergoing dialysis for chronic renal failure. VEP before treatment (72 h after last dialysis) were pathological in 17 patients (85%); responses obtained 3 h after treatment were abnormal in only 6 cases (30%). Furthermore, all patients improved after treatment, except two who were unchanged. However, VEP recorded immediately after dialysis were worse in 4 of 7 patients than before treatment, probably as an effect of the dysequilibrium syndrome; they improved spontaneously afterwards. The acute changes caused by dialysis seem to be more evident in children than in adults. No correlations have been found between blood chemistry indexes and VEP modifications. Finally, VEP have proved to be more sensitive than EEG in identifying a central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction in these uremic patients. PMID:4084912

  18. Intraoperative transcranial electrical motor evoked potential monitoring during spinal surgery under intravenous ketamine or etomidate anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yang, L H; Lin, S M; Lee, W Y; Liu, C C

    1994-01-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), monitoring the motor function directly, are superior to somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in monitoring the motor system during spinal surgery. Reliable MEPs are difficult to elicit under normal anaesthesia. Using intravenous anaesthesia with either ketamine or etomidate infusion, we performed intraoperative MEP monitoring in 12 spinal operations for 11 cases from February 1992 to May 1992. For anaesthesia, ketamine was used in 5, etomidate in 7, fentanyl was supplemented in all, muscle relaxation at 30% to 50% of pre-anaesthetic muscle power was maintained with atracurium or vencuronium infusion. Transcranial bipolar electrical stimulation was used to induce MEPs. Concomitant SSEP monitoring was performed in 3. No significant anaesthesia related side effects were noted except one episode of unpleasant dream occurred in the ketamine anaesthesia group. Successful monitoring was achieved in 10 sessions. In 5 of which warning to the surgeons was made due to sudden MEP deterioration, which recovered followed by definite management in four and persisted in one. In the other 5 sessions, no warning was made due to stationary or gradual change in MEPs. Bilateral two-channel recordings were used in 3 sessions. In 2 of which unilateral transient change was noted. Loss of SSEPs was noted in one despite unchanged MEPs, in whom only new sensory deficits occurred postoperatively. Compared to the baseline MEPs in terms of latency and amplitude, the final MEPs improved in 5 sessions, did not change significantly in 4 sessions, deteriorated in one session, and were correlated well with the immediate postoperative motor status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7942202

  19. Corticomotor and somatosensory evoked potential evaluation of acute spinal cord injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baskin, D S; Simpson, R K

    1987-06-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and corticomotor evoked potentials (CMEPs) were utilized to study acute blunt spinal cord trauma. Rats, anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride, were subjected to a parasagittal craniotomy and a midthoracic laminectomy. SSEPs were cortically recorded and CMEPs were transcortically produced using epidural ball and disc electrodes. SSEPs were elicited and CMEPs were recorded via hindlimb percutaneous needle electrodes. After control records were made, animals were subjected to a 25-, 50-, or 75-g/cm impact to the dorsal cord surface via a modified weight drop procedure. Evaluation of neurological injury was made by SSEP and CMEP analysis as well as by physical testing with noxious stimulation applied to the hindlimb. Neurohistopathological verification of each spinal cord lesion was performed. No significant change in SSEP configuration was identified in animals subjected to a 25-g/cm cord impact; however, a small decrement in CMEP amplitude was consistently observed. Although vocalization to noxious stimulation was present, flexion activity was less than normal. Animals subjected to a 50-g/cm cord impact also showed no change in SSEP wave forms. All components of the CMEP were greatly attenuated with this injury. Either very weak movement or no movement to noxious stimulation was present without vocalization. After a 75-g/cm cord impact, both SSEPs and CMEPs were abolished. There was no movement or vocalization in response to noxious stimulation. Serial sections of the spinal cords revealed incremental destruction with increasing severity of injury. These results support the hypothesis that CMEPs are a more sensitive indicator of residual spinal cord function after injury than are SSEPs. PMID:3614567

  20. Visual and motor evoked potentials in the course of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, P; Borggrefe-Chappuis, A; Schindler, C; Kappos, L

    2001-11-01

    While evoked potentials are sensitive tools for diagnosing multiple sclerosis, little is known about their prognostic value and their role in determining the course of the disease. To validate the visual and motor evoked potentials (VEP and MEP) as measures for the course of multiple sclerosis, we examined prospectively 30 patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), VEP and MEP were measured at entry and after 6, 12 and 24 months. The Spearman rank correlation was used for statistical analysis. Applying multiple regression in 15 randomized patients allowed derivation of a formula for predicting changes in EDSS score based on changes in MEP and VEP. Validation was done by comparing the predicted with the real changes in EDSS in the other 15 patients. The number of pathological VEP and MEP results correlated at all four measurement points with the EDSS (rho > or = 0.6, P < or = 0.01). When the latencies of VEP and MEP were combined using the sum of their Z scores, correlation with the EDSS was even more significant (rho > or = 0.6, P < 0.001). Changes over time of electrophysiological data and EDSS were also correlated (rho = 0.43, P < 0.05). Moreover, VEP and MEP at baseline correlated with the EDSS after 2 years (rho = 0.43,P = 0.03). Reliable prediction of the course of multiple sclerosis for individual patients is not possible from VEP and MEP data. However, we conclude that, for groups of patients with secondary progressive or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis the combined testing of VEP and MEP yields numerical data that allow objective estimation of the course and prognosis of the disease. PMID:11673318

  1. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Effects on Neglect: A Visual-Evoked Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Spinelli, Donatella; Vallar, Giuseppe; Di Russo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in six right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect (USN), using both standard clinical tests (reading, line, and letter cancelation, and line bisection), and electrophysiological measures (steady-state visual-evoked potentials, SSVEP). TENS was applied on left neck muscles for 15?, and measures were recorded before, immediately after, and 60? after stimulation. Behavioral results showed that the stimulation temporarily improved the deficit in all patients. In cancelation tasks, omissions and performance asymmetries between the two hand-sides were reduced, as well as the rightward deviation in line bisection. Before TENS, SSVEP average latency to stimuli displayed in the left visual half-field [LVF (160?ms)] was remarkably longer than to stimuli shown in the right visual half-field [RVF (120?ms)]. Immediately after TENS, latency to LVF stimuli was 130?ms; 1?h after stimulation the effect of TENS faded, with latency returning to baseline. TENS similarly affected also the latency SSVEP of 12 healthy participants, and their line bisection performance, with effects smaller in size. The present study, first, replicates evidence concerning the positive behavioral effects of TENS on the manifestations of left USN in right-brain-damaged patients; second, it shows putatively related electrophysiological effects on the SSVEP latency. These behavioral and novel electrophysiological results are discussed in terms of specific directional effects of left somatosensory stimulation on egocentric coordinates, which in USN patients are displaced toward the side of the cerebral lesion. Showing that visual-evoked potentials latency is modulated by proprioceptive stimulation, we provide electrophysiological evidence to the effect that TENS may improve some manifestations of USN, with implications for its rehabilitation. PMID:23966919

  2. Electrocorticogram spectral analysis and somatosensory evoked potentials as tools to assess electrical stunning efficiency in ducks.

    PubMed

    Beyssen, C; Babile, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-06-01

    1. Fast Fourier transformations (FFTs) of electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals and averaging of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used for assessing the impact of electrical stunning of ducks in a waterbath set to deliver a constant current of 150 mA, 600 Hz alternating current (AC) for 4 s. The effectiveness of stunning was determined on the basis of induction of epileptiform activity in the ECoG followed by a decrease in total power content to less than 10% of pre-stun values and abolition of SEPs. 2. One out of 10 birds was killed by the stun. FFT analysis of the ECoG signals of the remaining 9 birds showed that only one bird had a decrease of the total power to less than 10% of the pre-stun values for up to 70 s post-stun. The SEPs were retained in 6 out of 9 ducks and and 4 of them retained the evoked responses throughout the post-stun period. In the two birds showing abolition of SEPs, this was associated with a decrease in the total power content to below 10% of the pre-stun value. 3. The present experiment confirmed that the abolition of SEPs and the decrease of the total power below 10% of the pre-stun value for assessing unconsciousness after an electrical stunning in various species are also applicable to ducks. Based on this, it is concluded that electrical waterbath stunning of ducks using 150 mA of 600 Hz AC is ineffective. PMID:15327129

  3. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Are Heavily Dependent on Type I Hair Cell Activity of the Saccular Macula in Guinea Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June-Horng Lue; An-Shiou Day; Po-Wen Cheng; Yi-Ho Young

    2009-01-01

    This study applied the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test to guinea pigs coupled with electronic microscopic examination to determine whether VEMPs are dependent on type I or II hair cell activity of the saccular macula. An amount of 0.05 ml of gentamicin (40 mg\\/ml) was injected directly overlaying, but not through, the round window membrane of the left ear

  4. Large Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Response to Bone-Conducted Sounds in Patients with Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krister Brantberg; Lennart Löfqvist; Per-Anders Fransson

    2004-01-01

    Dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is a ‘new’ vestibular entity. Among these patients, the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to air-conducted sounds are large. In the present study, VEMP in response to bone-conducted sounds were studied in 5 normal subjects, in 3 patients after (unilateral) labyrinthectomy and in 4 patients with (unilateral) superior canal dehiscence syndrome. The

  5. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: A method to assess vestibulo-spinal conduction in multiple sclerosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Sartucci; F Logi

    2002-01-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), elicited by acoustic stimulation, have been proposed in the assessment of the vestibulo-cervical reflex pathways. The procedure has been previously validated in several otovestibular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) in the attempt to clarify the underlying physiopathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical utility of VEMPs in detecting

  6. Longitudinal Study of Averaged Auditory Evoked Potentials in Normal Children from Birth to Three Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlrich, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    This study examined individual patterns of the maturation of auditory evoked potential (AEP) in normal infants to determine whether longitudinal data show less variability than cross-sectional data, and to further assess the effect of stage of sleep on AEP. The AEPs for 10 children were examined by repeated testing between the ages of about two…

  7. Changes in the centrifugal gating effect on somatosensory evoked potentials depending on the level of contractile force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wasaka; H. Nakata; T. Kida; R. Kakigi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) during the preparatory period of self-initiated plantar flexion at different force levels of muscle contraction and elucidated the mechanism behind the centrifugal gating effect on somatosensory information processing. We recorded SEPs following stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa during the preparatory period of a 20% maximal voluntary

  8. The Performance of Electroencephalogram Bispectral Index and Auditory Evoked Potential Index to Predict Loss of Consciousness During Propofol Infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Schraag; Ulrich Bothner; Roger Gajraj; Gavin N. C. Kenny; Michael Georgieff

    1999-01-01

    The bispectral index (BIS) of the electroencephalogram and middle latency auditory evoked potentials are likely candidates to measure the level of unconscious- ness and, thus, may improve the early recovery profile. We prospectively investigated the predictive perfor- mance of both measures to distinguish between the conscious and unconscious state. Twelve patients un- dergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery during re- gional

  9. Somatosensory evoked potential spinal cord monitoring reduces neurologic deficits after scoliosis surgery: results of a large multicenter survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc R. Nuwer; Edgar G. Dawson; Linda G. Carlson; Linda E. A. Kanim; John E. Sherman

    1995-01-01

    Neurologic deficits were compared to somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) spinal cord monitoring in a survey of spinal orthopedic surgeons. Experienced SEP spinal cord monitoring teams had fewer than one-half as many neurologic deficits per 100 cases compared to teams with relatively little monitoring experience. Experienced SEP monitoring teams also had fewer neurologic deficits than were seen in previous surveys of

  10. Strategies to prevent neurologic deficit based on motor-evoked potentials in type I and II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. H. M. Jacobs; Sven A. Meylaerts; Peter de Haan; Bas A. de Mol; Cor J. Kalkman

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were monitored during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair to assess spinal cord ischemia and evaluate the subsequent protective strategies to prevent neurologic deficit. Methods: Between January 1996 and December 1997, 52 consecutive patients with type I (n = 24) and type II (n = 28) TAAA underwent surgery (mean patient age, 60 years; range, 21–78 years).

  11. Interpretation of high-resolution current source density profiles: a simulation of sublaminar contributions to the visual evoked potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig E. Tenke; Charles E. Schroeder; Joseph C. Arezzo; Herbert G. Vaughan

    1993-01-01

    Current source density (CSD) analysis provides an index of the location, direction, and density of transmembrane currents that arise with synchronous activation of neural tissue and that generate an evoked potential profile in the extracellular medium. In neocortex and other laminated structures, a simplified, one-dimensional CSD analysis can be computed by differentiation of voltages sampled at discrete points in a

  12. Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potentials as a Tool in the Clinical Assessment of Children With Posterior Fossa Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Goldie; Jan van Eyes; Tallie Z. Baram

    1987-01-01

    The use of brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) as a diagnostic modality in children with posterior fossa neoplasms is described. Thirty-one patients were examined; their diagnoses were medulloblastoma (12), brain stem glioma (9), cerebellar astrocytoma (6), and ependymoma (4). Distinct differences in the type and severity of waveform abnormalities were observed among the different tumor types, possibly related to

  13. Use of auditory evoked potentials for intra-operative awareness in anesthesia: a consciousness-based conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuebao; Suo, Puxia; Yuan, Xin; Yao, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have been used as a measure of the depth of anesthesia during the intra-operative process. AEPs are classically divided, on the basis of their latency, into first, fast, middle, slow, and late components. The use of auditory evoked potential has been advocated for the assessment of Intra-operative awareness (IOA), but has not been considered seriously enough to universalize it. It is because we have not explored enough the impact of auditory perception and auditory processing on the IOA phenomena as well as on the subsequent psychological impact of IOA on the patient. More importantly, we have seldom tried to look at the phenomena of IOP from the perspective of consciousness itself. This perspective is especially important because many of IOA phenomena exist in the subconscious domain than they do in the conscious domain of explicit recall. Two important forms of these subconscious manifestations of IOA are the implicit recall phenomena and post-operative dreams related to the operation. Here, we present an integrated auditory consciousness-based model of IOA. We start with a brief description of auditory awareness and the factors affecting it. Further, we proceed to the evaluation of conscious and subconscious information processing by auditory modality and how they interact during and after intra-operative period. Further, we show that both conscious and subconscious auditory processing affect the IOA experience and both have serious psychological implications on the patient subsequently. These effects could be prevented by using auditory evoked potential during monitoring of anesthesia, especially the mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAERs). To conclude our model with present hypothesis, we propose that the use of auditory evoked potential should be universal with general anesthesia use in order to prevent the occurrences of distressing outcomes resulting from both conscious and subconscious auditory processing during anesthesia. PMID:25326858

  14. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms?2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  15. Effect of isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Vipin, Ashwati; Thow Xin Yuan; Mir, Hasan; Thakor, Nitish; Al-Nashash, Hasan; All, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are widely used in the clinic as well as research to study the functional integrity of the different parts of sensory pathways. However, most general anesthetics, such as isoflurane, are known to suppress SEPs, which might affect the interpretation of the signals. In animal studies, the usage of anesthetics during SEP measurements is inevitable due to which detailed effect of these drugs on the recordings should be known. In this paper, the effect of isoflurane on SEPs was studied in a rat model. Both time and frequency properties of the cortical recordings generated by stimulating the tibial nerve of rat's hindlimb were investigated at three different isoflurane levels. While the anesthetic agent is shown to generally suppress the amplitude of the SEP, the effect was found to be nonlinear influencing more substantially the latter part of waveform. This finding will potentially help us in future work aiming at separating the effects of anesthetics on SEP from those due to injury in the ascending neural pathways. PMID:25570940

  16. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Children with a Hearing Loss: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoît; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the patterns of neural activity in the central auditory system in children with hearing loss. Methods. Cortical potentials and mismatch responses (MMRs) were recorded from ten children aged between 9 and 10 years: five with hearing loss and five with normal hearing in passive oddball paradigms using verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Results. Results indicate a trend toward larger P1 amplitude, a significant reduction in amplitude, and latency of N2 in children with hearing loss compared to control. No significant group differences were observed for the majority of the MMRs conditions. Conclusions. Data suggest that the reduced auditory input affects the pattern of cortical-auditory-evoked potentials in children with a mild to moderately severe hearing loss. Results suggest maturational delays and/or deficits in central auditory processing in children with hearing loss, as indicated by the neurophysiological markers P1 and N2. In contrast, negative MMR data suggest that the amplification provided by the hearing aids could have allowed children with hearing loss to develop adequate discriminative abilities. PMID:22291717

  17. Reconsiderations about the abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska-Pniewska, B; Gasik, R; Kostera-Pruszczyk, A; Emeryk-Szajewska, B

    1999-03-01

    The frequency of involvement of sensory pathways in motor neuron disease (MND) remains the matter of controversy. For this reason the purpose of the present work was to test how often sensory system involvement might be detected by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) studies and then to verify the presence of alteration of the sensory conduction and to detect the frequency of abnormalities of somatosensory peripheral, spinal, subcortical and cortical potentials in MND. SEP were tested after median nerve stimulation at the wrist, recorded from Erb's point, Ce2, Ce7 and scalp. Pearson's correlation coefficients test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for statistical analysis. 74 patients (22 women and 52 men) were examined. Mean age of patients was 54.07 +/- 11.24 years; mean duration of the disease -19.25 +/- 15.87 months. SEP were abnormal in 39 of 74 patients (about 53%) whereas the sensory NCV in median nerve was abnormal in 14 of 74 patients (19%). The most frequent pattern of abnormalities consisted of the absence or delay of cortical responses. The mean values of SEP latencies (N9, N11, N13, N20 and P25) were significantly increased in MND patients (p < 0.05) as compared with controls. The N9 and N11 latencies correlated with the duration of the disease. The results of our study (concerning a large group of MND patients) suggest that the involvement of sensory pathways is not rare in MND. PMID:10207680

  18. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  19. Influence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on photically evoked after-discharge potentials.

    PubMed

    Turkanis, S A; Chiu, P; Borys, H K; Karler, R

    1977-04-29

    Two cannabinoids, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and several reference drugs were compared relative to their effects in a recently developed anticonvulsant test system, the after-discharge potentials of the visually evoked response; the potentials were recorded electrophysiologically from electrodes permanently mounted over the visual cortices of conscious rats. In anticonvulsant doses, trimethadione and ethosuximide produced an extensive depression of after-discharge activity, whereas diphenylhydantoin and cannabidiol exerted no such effect. In contrast, anticonvulsant doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and subconvulsant doses of pentylenetetrazol markedly increased after-discharge activity, which may represent a manifestation of their central nervous system excitatory properties. The data from the present study support our previously published ovservations from several other anticonvulsant tests that indicate the anticonvulsant characteristics of cannabidiol resemble those of diphenylhydantoin rather than those of trimethadione and that the central excitatory properties of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol distinguish it from cannabidiol. The results consistently suggest that the cannabinoids will be effective against grand mal but not absence seizures. PMID:407606

  20. Echo-location and evoked potentials of bats after ablation of inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Suga, N.

    1969-01-01

    1. Echo-location and evoked potentials of blinded Yuma bats (Myotis yumanensis) were studied before and after ablation of the inferior colliculus (I.C.). A task of obstacle-avoidance was given to the bats: hits and misses of strands in the flight path were counted. Orientation sounds emitted by the bats during flight were recorded. 2. Bilateral ablation of the dorso-medial region of I.C. including the internuclear cortex and commissure had no effect on obstacle-avoidance performance. The bats avoided even strands of 0·2 mm diameter with orientation sounds. 3. Bilateral ablation of the dorsal half of I.C. including the external nucleus (lateral cortex) also had no effect on echo-location. 4. Bilateral ablation of the ventral half of I.C. caused severe deficiency in ability to avoid obstacles. The main nucleus appeared to be very important for echo-location. When bilateral ablation including the main nucleus was moderate, the bats failed to avoid strands of less than 0·5 mm diameter in spite of detecting them, but avoided large obstacles such as 3·7 mm strands. With severe bilateral ablation including the main nucleus, the bats did not avoid even the 3·7 mm strands in spite of frequent emission of orientation sounds, but often avoided crashing into the wall. 5. Severe unilateral ablation of I.C. including the main nucleus and a part of the lateral lemniscus had no effect on ability to avoid obstacles. Since sound localization by such bats are not explained by Van Bergeijk's model based on Békésy's, a modification of Van Bergeijk's model has to be considered. 6. Of the positive evoked potentials recorded with an active electrode placed at the dorsal surface of I.C., the slow component with a 7-9 msec peak latency reflected activity of inferior collicular neurones, while the fast component (N4) with a 3 msec peak latency represented activity of ascending lateral lemniscal fibres. PMID:5387030

  1. Echo-location and evoked potentials of bats after ablation of inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Suga, N

    1969-08-01

    1. Echo-location and evoked potentials of blinded Yuma bats (Myotis yumanensis) were studied before and after ablation of the inferior colliculus (I.C.). A task of obstacle-avoidance was given to the bats: hits and misses of strands in the flight path were counted. Orientation sounds emitted by the bats during flight were recorded.2. Bilateral ablation of the dorso-medial region of I.C. including the internuclear cortex and commissure had no effect on obstacle-avoidance performance. The bats avoided even strands of 0.2 mm diameter with orientation sounds.3. Bilateral ablation of the dorsal half of I.C. including the external nucleus (lateral cortex) also had no effect on echo-location.4. Bilateral ablation of the ventral half of I.C. caused severe deficiency in ability to avoid obstacles. The main nucleus appeared to be very important for echo-location. When bilateral ablation including the main nucleus was moderate, the bats failed to avoid strands of less than 0.5 mm diameter in spite of detecting them, but avoided large obstacles such as 3.7 mm strands. With severe bilateral ablation including the main nucleus, the bats did not avoid even the 3.7 mm strands in spite of frequent emission of orientation sounds, but often avoided crashing into the wall.5. Severe unilateral ablation of I.C. including the main nucleus and a part of the lateral lemniscus had no effect on ability to avoid obstacles. Since sound localization by such bats are not explained by Van Bergeijk's model based on Békésy's, a modification of Van Bergeijk's model has to be considered.6. Of the positive evoked potentials recorded with an active electrode placed at the dorsal surface of I.C., the slow component with a 7-9 msec peak latency reflected activity of inferior collicular neurones, while the fast component (N(4)) with a 3 msec peak latency represented activity of ascending lateral lemniscal fibres. PMID:5387030

  2. Translational aspects of rectal evoked potentials: a comparative study in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Thomas Dahl; Graversen, Carina; Coen, Steven J.; Hultin, Leif; Aziz, Qasim; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistencies between species has stunted the progress of developing new analgesics. To increase the success of translating results between species, improved comparable models are required. Twelve rats received rectal balloon distensions on 2 different days separated by 24.3 (SD 24.6) days. Rectal balloon distensions were also performed in 18 humans (mean age: 34 yr; range: 21–56 yr; 12 men) on two separate occasions, separated by 9.3 (SD 5.5) days. In rats, cerebral evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded by use of implanted skull-electrodes to distension pressure of 80 mmHg. In humans surface electrodes and individualized pressure, corresponding to pain detection threshold, were used. Comparison of morphology was assessed by wavelet analysis. Within- and between-day reproducibility was assessed in terms of latencies, amplitudes, and frequency content. In rats CEPs showed triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, and power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ? 0.5). Peak-to-peak amplitude between the first positive and negative potential were the most reproducible characteristic within and between days (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC) (ICC = 0.99 and ICC = 9.98, respectively). In humans CEPs showed a triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, or power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ? 0.2). Latency to the second negative potential (ICC = 0.98) and the second positive potential (ICC = 0.95) was the most reproducible characteristic within and between days. A unique and reliable translational platform was established assessing visceral sensitivity in rats and humans, which may improve the translational process of developing new drugs targeting visceral pain. PMID:23703652

  3. Investigation of auditory brainstem function in elderly diabetic patients with presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Kovacií, Jelena; Lajtman, Zoran; Ozegovi?, Ivan; Knezevi?, Predrag; Cari?, Tomislav; Vlasi?, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We performed brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations in 100 patients older than 60 years and having type I diabetes mellitus and presbycusis. The aim of our investigation was to compare the BAEP results of this group with those of healthy controls with presbycusis and to look for possible correlations between alteration of the auditory brainstem function and the aging of elderly diabetic patients. Absolute and interpeak latencies of all waves were prolonged significantly in the study group of diabetic patients. The amplitudes of all waves I through V were diminished in the study group as compared to those in the control group, with statistical significance present for all waves. Analysis of the latencies (waves I, II, I, and V), interpeak latencies (I-V), and amplitudes (I, II, III, and V) of BAEP revealed a significant difference between those of diabetics and those of healthy elderly controls with presbycusis. These data support a hypothesis that there is a brainstem neuropathy in diabetes mellitus that can be assessed with auditory brainstem response testing even in the group of elderly patients with sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:19842349

  4. HYPOTHERMIA AND CHLOROPENT ANESTHESIA DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT THE FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anesthetics and body temperature alterations are both known to alter parameters of sensory-evoked responses. However few studies have quantitatively assessed the contributions of hypothermia to anesthetic-induced changes. Two experiments were performed. In the first, chronically ...

  5. Recognition of stimulus displays: An electrophysiological analysis. [human evoked potentials as control inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, V. S.

    1975-01-01

    Late components of evoked waveforms recorded from the frontal areas of the brain are correlated with an observer's interpretation of a stimulus display. The possible use of such signals as control inputs is discussed.

  6. Neonatal brainstem dysfunction risks infant social engagement

    PubMed Central

    Sopher, Koreen; Kurtzman, Lea; Galili, Giora; Feldman, Ruth; Kuint, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The role of the brainstem in mediating social signaling in phylogenetic ancestral organisms has been demonstrated. Evidence for its involvement in social engagement in human infants may deepen the understanding of the evolutionary pathway of humans as social beings. In this longitudinal study, neonatal brainstem functioning was measured by auditory brainstem-evoked responses (ABRs) in 125 healthy neonates born prematurely before 35 weeks’ gestational age. At 4 months, infants were tested in a set of structured vignettes that required varying levels of social engagement and cardiac vagal tone was assessed. Data show that neonates with a disrupted I–V waveform, evident mostly by delayed wave V, exhibit shorter latencies to gaze averts in episodes involving direct face-to-face interactions but engage gaze as controls when interacting with masked agents or with agents whose faces are partly veiled by toys. Analysis of variance of infants’ social engagement with ABR, neonatal risk, maternal stress and cardiac vagal tone showed a main effect for ABR and an ABR by gestational age interaction. The integrity of brainstem transmission of sensory information during the final weeks of gestation may scaffold the development of social disengagement, thereby attesting to the brainstem's preserved evolutionary role in developing humans as social organisms prior to engaging in social encounters. PMID:22146141

  7. Saccular function in otosclerosis patients: bone conducted-vestibular evoked myogenic potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Amali, Amin; Mahdi, Parvane; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Khorsandi Ashtiyani, Mohammad Taghi; Yazdani, Nasrin; Vakili, Varasteh; Pourbakht, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular involvements have long been observed in otosclerotic patients. Among vestibular structures saccule has the closest anatomical proximity to the sclerotic foci, so it is the most prone vestibular structure to be affected during the otosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to investigate the saccular function in patients suffering from otosclerosis, by means of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The material consisted of 30 otosclerosis patients and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent audiometric and VEMP testing. Analysis of tests results revealed that the mean values of Air-Conducted Pure Tone Average (AC-PTA) and Bone-Conducted Pure Tone Average (BC-PTA) in patients were 45.28 ± 15.57 and 19.68 ± 10.91, respectively and calculated 4 frequencies Air Bone Gap (ABG) was 25.64 ± 9.95. The VEMP response was absent in 14 (28.57%) otosclerotic ears. A statistically significant increase in latency of the p13 was found in the affected ears (P=0.004), differences in n23 latency did not reach a statistically significant level (P=0.112). Disparities in amplitude of p13-n23 in between two study groups was statistically meaningful (P=0.009), indicating that the patients with otosclerosis had lower amplitudes. This study tends to suggest that due to the direct biotoxic effect of the materials released from the otosclerosis foci on saccular receptors, there might be a possibility of vestibular dysfunction in otosclerotic patients. PMID:24659067

  8. Normative data for vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population.

    PubMed

    Khan, Feroze K; Balraj, Achamma; Lepcha, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    To establish normative data of vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population. Prospective study design using a sample of convenience. Eighty five normal controls ranging between the ages 7 and 71 years were asked to provide a written signed consent for the study. Demographic characteristics of the patients were summarized using descriptive statistical methods using SPSS-17 analysing software. The outcome variable (VEMP recording) was expressed in percentiles as function of age. In all patients the stimulus which gave the best response was 95 dB (97.7 %) and 100 dB (95 %). The mean of wave latencies (p1 & n1) for 95-VEMP were, 11.2 ± 3.2 and 17.3 ± 4.7 ms on the right and 11.0 ± 2.8 and 17.0 ± 4.2 ms on the left respectively. The amplitude was 45.1 ± 54 mV on right and 46.9 ± 61.6 mV on the left. The mean of latency difference was 0.87 ms. The VEMP is a relatively simple test. The VEMP response rate was maximum in the younger age group; the optimum intensity was 95 dB. The asymmetry ratio interpretation should be done according to the age specific values. PMID:24822153

  9. Capacity of Rectified Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Correcting Asymmetric Muscle Contraction Power

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Woo; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Rectified vestibular evoked myogenic potential (rVEMP) is new method that simultaneously measures the muscle contraction power during VEMP recordings. Although there are a few studies that have evaluated the effect of the rVEMP, there is no study that has evaluated the capacity of rVEMP during asymmetrical muscle contraction. Methods Thirty VEMP measurements were performed among 20 normal subjects (mean age, 28.2±2.1 years; male, 16). VEMP was measured in the supine position. The head was turned to the right side by 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45° and the VEMPs were recorded in each position. The interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio was calculated by the conventional non-rectified VEMP (nVEMP) and rVEMP. Results The nVEMP IAD increased significantly according to increasing neck rotation. The IAD in rVEMP was almost similar from 0° to 30°. However, the IAD was significantly larger than the other positions when the neck was rotated 45°. When IAD during 0° was set as a standard, the IAD of the rVEMP was significantly smaller that the nVEMP only during the 30°rotaion. Conclusion Rectified VEMP is capable of correcting asymmetrical muscle contraction power. In contrast, it cannot correct the asymmetry if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 44.8% or larger. Also, it is not necessary if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 22.5% or smaller. PMID:24353859

  10. Reduced postactivation depression of soleus H reflex and root evoked potential after transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jennifer C; Stein, Richard B; Roy, François D

    2015-07-01

    Postactivation depression of the Hoffmann (H) reflex is associated with a transient period of suppression following activation of the reflex pathway. In soleus, the depression lasts for 100-200 ms during voluntary contraction and up to 10 s at rest. A reflex root evoked potential (REP), elicited after a single pulse of transcutaneous stimulation to the thoracolumbar spine, has been shown to exhibit similar suppression. The present study systematically characterized the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on postactivation depression using double-pulse H reflexes and REPs. A TMS pulse reduced the period of depression to 10-15 ms for both reflexes. TMS could even produce postactivation facilitation of the H reflex, as the second reflex response was increased to 243 ± 51% of control values at the 75-ms interval. The time course was qualitatively similar for the REP, yet the overall increase was less. While recovery of the H reflex was slower in the relaxed muscle, the profile exhibited a distinct bimodal shape characterized by an early peak at the 25-ms interval, reaching 72 ± 23% of control values, followed by a trough at 50 ms, and then a gradual recovery at intervals > 50 ms. The rapid recovery of two successively depressed H reflexes, ?25 ms apart, was also possible with double-pulse TMS. The effect of the TMS-induced corticospinal excitation on postactivation depression may be explained by a combination of pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, although further investigation is required to distinguish between them. PMID:25995355

  11. Somatosensory evoked potentials are unchanged by reflex sympathetic dystrophy and by stellate ganglion block.

    PubMed

    Hyman, S A; Parris, W C; Prysi, N H; Skelley, C; Lindsey, K

    1991-09-01

    Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were monitored in patients with chronic pain before and after stellate ganglion blockade. A change caused by the syndrome or by the block would suggest that SEPs might be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. We observed 20 subjects. Group I (n = 10) had chronic pain not involving the upper extremity. Group II (n = 8) had reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the arm. All patients underwent unilateral stellate ganglion block using an anterior paratracheal approach. The SEPs were recorded by median nerve stimulation on the blocked (affected) side and unblocked (unaffected) side before and 30 min after the block. Recording sites were ipsilateral brachial plexus, the cervical spinal cord, and the contralateral sensory cortex. There were no between-group differences before or after the block. Paired analysis within each group showed that the SEPs were not different from baseline (unaffected side before block) at any time throughout the study. We conclude that since SEPs are not changed by the reflex sympathetic dystrophy or stellate ganglion block, they would not be useful in the evaluation of pain or in determining the effectiveness of sympathetic block. Both the pain and the block appear to involve alteration of conducting pathways separate from those monitored by median nerve SEPs. PMID:1809431

  12. Evoked potential and behavioral outcomes for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    All, Angelo H; Agrawal, Gracee; Walczak, Piotr; Maybhate, Anil; Bulte, Jeff W M; Kerr, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    A reliable outcome measurement is needed to assess the effects of experimental lesions in the rat spinal cord as well as to assess the benefits of therapies designed to modulate them. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) behavioral scores can be indicative of the functionality in motor pathways. However, since lesions are often induced in the more accessible dorsal parts associated with the sensory pathways, the BBB scores may not be ideal measure of the disability. We propose somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) as a complementary measure to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. We used the focal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, in which focal demyelinating lesions were induced by injecting cytokine-ethidium bromide into dorsal white matter after MOG-IFA immunization. Both the SEP and BBB measures reflected injury; however, the SEP was uniformly and consistently altered after the injury whereas the BBB varied widely. The results suggest that the SEP measures are more sensitive and reliable markers of focal spinal cord demyelination compared to the behavioral measures like the BBB score. PMID:20508959

  13. Effect of MOG Sensitization on Somatosensory Evoked Potential in Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    All, Angelo H.; Walczak, Piotr; Agrawal, Gracee; Gorelik, Michael; Lee, Christopher; Thakor, Nitish V.; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Kerr, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is commonly used as an immunogen to induce an immune response against endogenous myelin, thereby modeling multiple sclerosis in rodents. When MOG is combined with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), multifocal, multiphasic disease ensues; whereas when MOG is combined with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), clinical disease is usually absent. MOG-IFA immunized animals can be induced to have neurological disease after intraspinal injections of cytokines and ethidium bromide (EtBr). In this study, we investigated whether MOG-IFA immunized rats exhibited subclinical injury as defined by Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SEP) recordings. The titration of Anti-MOG-125 antibodies showed robust peripheral mounting of immune response against myelin in MOG-immunized rats. However the SEP measures showed no significant change over time. Upon injecting cytokine-EtBr in the spinal cord after MOG sensitization, the SEP recordings showed reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, suggestive of axonal injury and demyelination in the dorsal column, respectively. These findings were later confirmed using T2-weighted MRI and histological hematoxilin-eosin stain of the spinal cord. This report establishes that MOG-IFA immunization alone does not alter neuronal conduction in SEP-related neural-pathways and that longitudinal in-vivo SSEP recordings provide a sensitive read-out for focal myelitis (MOG-IFA & intraspinal cytokine-EtBr) in rats. PMID:19423134

  14. Plasticity associated changes in cortical somatosensory evoked potentials following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; All, Angelo H; Thakor, Nitish V; Maybhate, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a number of physiological and neurological changes resulting in loss of sensorimotor function. Recent work has shown that the central nervous system is capable of plastic behaviors post-injury, including axonal regrowth and cortical remapping. Functional integrity of afferent sensory pathways can be quantified using cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded upon peripheral limb stimulation. We implanted 15 rats with transcranial screw electrodes and recorded SSEPs from cortical regions corresponding to each limb before and after a mild or moderate contusion injury. We report a post-injury increase in the mean amplitude of cortical SSEPs upon forelimb stimulation. SSEP amplitudes for mild and moderate SCI groups increased by 183% ± 95% and 107% ± 38% over baseline, respectively, while hindlimb SSEPs decreased by 58% ± 14% and 79% ± 4%. In addition, we report increased SSEP amplitude measured from the anatomically adjacent hindlimb region upon forelimb stimulation (increase of 90% ± 19%). Our results show that previously allocated hindlimb cortical regions are now activated by forelimb stimulation, suggesting an expansion in the area of cortical forelimb representation into hindlimb regions after an injury. This result is indicative of adaptive plasticity in undamaged areas of the CNS following SCI. PMID:22254728

  15. Effect of MOG sensitization on somatosensory evoked potential in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    All, Angelo H; Walczak, Piotr; Agrawal, Gracee; Gorelik, Michael; Lee, Christopher; Thakor, Nitish V; Bulte, Jeff W M; Kerr, Douglas A

    2009-09-15

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is commonly used as an immunogen to induce an immune response against endogenous myelin, thereby modeling multiple sclerosis in rodents. When MOG is combined with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), multifocal, multiphasic disease ensues; whereas when MOG is combined with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), clinical disease is usually absent. MOG-IFA immunized animals can be induced to have neurological disease after intraspinal injections of cytokines and ethidium bromide (EtBr). In this study, we investigated whether MOG-IFA immunized rats exhibited subclinical injury as defined by somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recordings. The titration of anti-MOG-125 antibodies showed robust peripheral mounting of immune response against myelin in MOG-immunized rats. However the SEP measures showed no significant change over time. Upon injecting cytokine-EtBr in the spinal cord after MOG sensitization, the SEP recordings showed reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, suggestive of axonal injury and demyelination in the dorsal column, respectively. These findings were later confirmed using T2-weighted MRI and histological hematoxylin-eosin stain of the spinal cord. This report establishes that MOG-IFA immunization alone does not alter neuronal conduction in SEP-related neural-pathways and that longitudinal in-vivo SEP recordings provide a sensitive read-out for focal myelitis (MOG-IFA and intraspinal cytokine-EtBr) in rats. PMID:19423134

  16. Multi-limb acquisition of motor evoked potentials and its application in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shrivats; Maybhate, Anil; Presacco, Alessandro; All, Angelo H

    2010-11-30

    The motor evoked potential (MEP) is an electrical response of peripheral neuro-muscular pathways to stimulation of the motor cortex. MEPs provide objective assessment of electrical conduction through the associated neural pathways, and therefore detect disruption due to a nervous system injury such as spinal cord injury (SCI). In our studies of SCI, we developed a novel, multi-channel set-up for MEP acquisition in rat models. Unlike existing electrophysiological systems for SCI assessment, the set-up allows for multi-channel MEP acquisition from all limbs of rats and enables longitudinal monitoring of injury and treatment for in vivo models of experimental SCI. The article describes the development of the set-up and discusses its capabilities to acquire MEPs in rat models of SCI. We demonstrate its use for MEP acquisition under two types of anesthesia as well as a range of cortical stimulation parameters, identifying parameters yielding consistent and reliable MEPs. To validate our set-up, MEPs were recorded from a group of 10 rats before and after contusive SCI. Upon contusion with moderate severity (12.5mm impact height), MEP amplitude decreased by 91.36±6.03%. A corresponding decline of 93.8±11.4% was seen in the motor behavioral score (BBB), a gold standard in rodent models of SCI. PMID:20832429

  17. Effect of MOG sensitization on somatosensory evoked potential in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    All, Angelo H.; Walczak, Piotr; Agrawal, Gracee; Gorelik, Michael; Lee, Christopher; Thakor, Nitish V.; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Kerr, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is commonly used as an immunogen to induce an immune response against endogenous myelin, thereby modeling multiple sclerosis in rodents. When MOG is combined with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), multifocal, multiphasic disease ensues; whereas when MOG is combined with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), clinical disease is usually absent. MOG–IFA immunized animals can be induced to have neurological disease after intraspinal injections of cytokines and ethidium bromide (EtBr). In this study, we investigated whether MOG–IFA immunized rats exhibited subclinical injury as defined by somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recordings. The titration of anti-MOG-125 antibodies showed robust peripheral mounting of immune response against myelin in MOG-immunized rats. However the SEP measures showed no significant change over time. Upon injecting cytokine–EtBr in the spinal cord after MOG sensitization, the SEP recordings showed reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, suggestive of axonal injury and demyelination in the dorsal column, respectively. These findings were later confirmed using T2-weighted MRI and histological hematoxylin–eosin stain of the spinal cord. This report establishes that MOG–IFA immunization alone does not alter neuronal conduction in SEP-related neural-pathways and that longitudinal in-vivo SEP recordings provide a sensitive read-out for focal myelitis (MOG–IFA and intraspinal cytokine–EtBr) in rats. PMID:20508959

  18. Enhancing detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials using individual training data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the performance of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) has improved gradually in the past decades, it still does not meet the requirement of a high communication speed in many applications. A major challenge is the interference of spontaneous background EEG activities in discriminating SSVEPs. An SSVEP BCI using frequency coding typically does not have a calibration procedure since the frequency of SSVEPs can be recognized by power spectrum density analysis (PSDA). However, the detection rate can be deteriorated by the spontaneous EEG activities within the same frequency range because phase information of SSVEPs is ignored in frequency detection. To address this problem, this study proposed to incorporate individual SSVEP training data into canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to improve the frequency detection of SSVEPs. An eight-class SSVEP dataset recorded from 10 subjects in a simulated online BCI experiment was used for performance evaluation. Compared to the standard CCA method, the proposed method obtained significantly improved detection accuracy (95.2% vs. 88.4%, p<0.05) and information transfer rates (ITR) (104.6 bits/min vs. 89.1 bits/min, p<0.05). The results suggest that the employment of individual SSVEP training data can significantly improve the detection rate and thereby facilitate the implementation of a high-speed BCI. PMID:25570631

  19. Continuous- and discrete-time stimulus sequences for high stimulus rate paradigm in evoked potential studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin; Zhan, Chang'an A

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  20. An improved genetically encoded red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator for detecting optically evoked action potentials.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takuya; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools to image activities of defined cell populations. Here, we developed an improved red fluorescent GECI, termed R-CaMP1.07, by mutagenizing R-GECO1. In HeLa cell assays, R-CaMP1.07 exhibited a 1.5-2-fold greater fluorescence response compared to R-GECO1. In hippocampal pyramidal neurons, R-CaMP1.07 detected Ca(2+) transients triggered by single action potentials (APs) with a probability of 95% and a signal-to-noise ratio >7 at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The amplitudes of Ca(2+) transients linearly correlated with the number of APs. The expression of R-CaMP1.07 did not significantly alter the electrophysiological properties or synaptic activity patterns. The co-expression of R-CaMP1.07 and channelrhodpsin-2 (ChR2), a photosensitive cation channel, in pyramidal neurons demonstrated that R-CaMP1.07 was applicable for the monitoring of Ca(2+) transients in response to optically evoked APs, because the excitation light for R-CaMP1.07 hardly activated ChR2. These technical advancements provide a novel strategy for monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with single cell resolution. PMID:22808076

  1. Dose-dependent effect of nutritional sulfite intake on visual evoked potentials and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nihal; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Derin, Narin; Akpinar, Deniz; Agar, Aysel; Aslan, Mutay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the dose-dependent effect of sulfite (SO?²?) ingestion on brain and retina by means of electrophysiological and biochemical parameters. Fifty two male Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were randomized into four experimental groups of 13 rats as follows; control (C), sulfite treated groups (S(1); 10 mg/kg/day, S?; 100mg/kg/day, S?; 260 mg/kg/day). Control rats were administered distilled water, while the other three groups were given sodium metabisulfite (Na?S?O?) of amounts mentioned above, via gavage for a period of 35 days. All components of visual evoked potential (VEP) were prolonged in S? and S? groups compared with S? and C groups. Plasma-S-sulfonate levels, which are an indicator of sulfur dioxide (SO?) exposure, were increased in Na?S?O? treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the significant increments in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels occurred with increasing intake of Na?S?O?. Though not significant, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were observed to decrease with increasing doses of Na?S?O?. In conclusion, Na?S?O? treatment in rats caused a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and all VEP latencies. The data indicate that lipid peroxidation could play an important role in sulfite toxicity. PMID:20875852

  2. Masking the Auditory Evoked Potential in TMS-EEG: A Comparison of Various Methods.

    PubMed

    Ter Braack, Esther M; de Vos, Cecile C; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG). Because TMS pulses are accompanied by a clicking sound, it is very likely that part of the response in the EEG consists of an auditory evoked potential (AEP). Different methods have been applied to mask the sound of TMS. However, it is unclear which masking method is most effective in reducing the AEP. In this study we explore the presumed contribution of the AEP to the response and evaluate different ways to mask the TMS clicking sound. Twelve healthy subjects and one completely deaf subject participated in this study. Eight different masking conditions were evaluated in nine hearing subjects. The amplitude of the N100-P180 complex was compared between the different masking conditions. We were not able to completely suppress the N100-P180 when the coil was placed on top of the head. Using an earmuff or exposing the subjects to white or adapted noise caused a small but significant reduction in N100-P180 amplitude, but the largest reduction was achieved when combining a layer of foam, placed between coil and head, with white or adapted noise. The deaf subject also showed a N100-P180 complex. We conclude that both the TMS clicking sound and cortical activation by the magnetic pulse contribute to the N100-P180 amplitude. PMID:23996091

  3. Comparing the Efficacy of Excitatory Transcranial Stimulation Methods Measuring Motor Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The common aim of transcranial stimulation methods is the induction or alterations of cortical excitability in a controlled way. Significant effects of each individual stimulation method have been published; however, conclusive direct comparisons of many of these methods are rare. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three widely applied stimulation methods inducing excitability enhancement in the motor cortex: 1?mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), and 1?mA transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) within one subject group. The effect of each stimulation condition was quantified by evaluating motor-evoked-potential amplitudes (MEPs) in a fixed time sequence after stimulation. The analyses confirmed a significant enhancement of the M1 excitability caused by all three types of active stimulations compared to sham stimulation. There was no significant difference between the types of active stimulations, although the time course of the excitatory effects slightly differed. Among the stimulation methods, tRNS resulted in the strongest and atDCS significantly longest MEP increase compared to sham. Different time courses of the applied stimulation methods suggest different underlying mechanisms of action. Better understanding may be useful for better targeting of different transcranial stimulation techniques. PMID:24804104

  4. Dolphin hearing during echolocation: evoked potential responses in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee

    2011-06-15

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses were recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to accept suction-cup EEG electrodes and detect targets by echolocation. AEP recording was triggered by the echolocation clicks of the animal. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28 and -22 dB were used at a target distance of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The results demonstrated that the AEP appeared to both outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes during echolocation, with AEP complexes consisting of alternative positive and negative waves. The echo-related AEP amplitudes were obviously lower than the outgoing click-related AEP amplitudes for all the targets at the investigated target distances. However, for targets with target strengths of -22 and -28 dB, the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the echo-related AEPs were dependent on the target distances. The echo-related AEP response amplitudes increased at further target distances, demonstrating an overcompensation of echo attenuation with target distance in the echo-perception system of the dolphin biosonar. Measurement and analysis of outgoing click intensities showed that the click levels increased with target distance (R) by a factor of approximately 10 to 17.5 logR depending on target strength. The results demonstrated that a dual-component biosonar control system formed by intensity compensation behavior in both the transmission and receiving phases of a biosonar cycle exists synchronously in the dolphin biosonar system. PMID:21613519

  5. New Approach for Exploring Cerebral Functional Connectivity: Review of Cortico-cortical Evoked Potential.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Takeharu; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki

    2015-05-15

    There has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of brain function. The intrinsic architecture of neuronal connections forms a key component of the cortical organization in our brain. Many imaging studies, such as noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, have now enabled visualization of the white matter fiber tracts interconnecting the functional cortical areas in the living brain. Although such a structural connectome is essential for understanding of cortical function, the anatomical information alone is not sufficient. Practically, few techniques allow the investigation of the excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms of the cortex in vivo in humans. Several attempts have been made to track neuronal connectivity by applying direct electrical stimuli to the brain in order to stimulate subdural and/or depth electrodes and record responses from the functionally connected cortex. In vivo single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) and/or cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) were recently introduced to track various brain networks. This article reviews the concepts, significance, methods, mechanisms, limitations, and clinical applications of CCEP in the analysis of these dynamic connections. PMID:25925755

  6. Short-term food deprivation increases amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Schulz, André; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Dierolf, Angelika M; Lutz, Annika; van Dyck, Zoé; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional state (i.e., fasting or nonfasting) may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate days: when satiated (standardized food intake) and after an 18-h food deprivation period. On both days, heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) and cardiac and autonomic nervous system activation indices (heart rate, normalized low frequency heart rate variability [nLF HRV]) were assessed. The HEP is an EEG pattern that is considered an index of cortical representation of afferent cardiovascular signals. Average HEP activity (R wave +455-595?ms) was enhanced during food deprivation compared to normal food intake. Cardiac activation did not differ between nutritional conditions. Our results indicate that short-term food deprivation amplifies an electrophysiological correlate of the cortical representation of visceral-afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. This effect could not be attributed to increased cardiac activation, as estimated by heart rate and nLF HRV, after food deprivation. PMID:25431244

  7. [Effect of the middle ear status on the recording of vestibular evoked myogenic potential--VEMP].

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Agnieszka; Hassmann-Pozna?ska, Elzbieta; Topolska, Ma?gorzata Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the middle ear status on the recording of air- and bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Forty eight children were included in the study, ranging in age from 4 to 10 years. All of the children underwent otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and air- and bone-conducted VEMP in response to click. There were 3 groups according to the condition of the middle ear: group I--52 ears (type A and C1 tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group II--23 ears (type C2 and B tympanogram, pure tone average < or = 20 dB), group III--21 (type B tympanogram, pure tone average > 20 dB). The threshold, presence of correct waveform morphology of the response and latency was evaluated. The condition of the middle ear has no significant effect on the recording of VEMP and mean level of the response threshold with bone stimulation, based on the performed studies. However, with air stimulation it has effect on the recording of VEMP, increase of the mean threshold response and shortening of latency p13 and n23. PMID:16095098

  8. Preservation of tap vestibular evoked myogenic potentials despite resection of the inferior vestibular nerve.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Sound and skull-tap induced vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were studied in a 43-year-old man following inferior vestibular neurectomy. Surgery was performed because of a small acoustic neuroma. Postoperative caloric testing suggested sparing of superior vestibular nerve function on the operated side. In response to sound stimulation there were no VEMP on the operated side, irrespective of whether sounds were presented by air- or bone-conduction. This suggests sound-induced VEMP to be critically dependent on inferior vestibular nerve function and this is in agreement with present knowledge. However, VEMP were obtained in response to forehead skull taps, i.e. positive-negative VEMP not only on the healthy side but also on the operated side. This suggests remnant vestibular function on the operated side of importance for forehead skull tap VEMP, because with complete unilateral vestibular loss there are no (positive-negative) VEMP on the lesioned side. Thus, forehead skull-tap VEMP depend, at least partly, on the superior vestibular nerve function. PMID:15328448

  9. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in response to bone-conducted sound in patients with otosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Toru; Fujimori, Kiyoko; Mishiro, Yasuo; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Saccular dysfunction is a major cause of balance problems in patients with otosclerosis. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in response to bone-conducted sound (BC-VEMP) testing is useful for diagnosis of these patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of balance problems in patients with otosclerosis using BC-VEMP. Methods: Subjects comprised 25 patients with unoperated otosclerosis (9 men and 16 women). They were divided into two groups depending on type of balance problems. Results of cochleo-vestibular functions including pure-tone audiometry, caloric testing, and BC-VEMP testing were compared between the two groups. Results: Ten patients had complained of dizziness and/or vertigo (disequilibrium group), and the other 15 patients had not (Non-disequilibrium group). Nine patients showed abnormal results on BC-VEMP testing in the disequilibrium group, while one patient had abnormal results in the non-disequilibrium group (p < 0.001). PMID:22830649

  10. An indicator of probable semicircular canal dehiscence: ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Manzari, Leonardo; Burgess, Ann M; McGarvie, Leigh A; Curthoys, Ian S

    2013-07-01

    The n10 component of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to sound and vibration stimuli is a crossed response that has enhanced amplitude and decreased threshold in patients with CT-verified superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD). However, demonstrating enhanced VEMP amplitude and reduced VEMP thresholds requires multiple trials and can be very time consuming and tiring for patients, so a specific indicator of probable SCD that is fast and not tiring would be preferred. Here we report a 1-trial indicator: that the oVEMP n10 in response to a very high frequency stimulus (4000 Hz), either air-conducted sound (ACS) or bone conducted vibration (BCV), is such a fast indicator of probable SCD. In 22 healthy subjects, oVEMP n10 at 4000 Hz was not detectable; however, in all 22 CT-verified SSCD patients tested, oVEMP n10 responses were clearly present to 4000 Hz to either ACS or BCV stimuli. PMID:23674567

  11. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to air conduction (AC oVEMP): useful in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Rogowski, M; Hörmann, K; Schaaf, H; Löhler, J

    2011-01-01

    Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) stimuli can be used to measure otolith function using air (AC) and bone conducted (BC) stimuli. Cervical VEMPs reflect saccular function and can be recorded using air conduction (AC), whereas oVEMPs reflect probably predominantly utricular function. Air- and bone-conducted vibration can be used, because AC oVEMP methodology seems to be fast and simple in clinical practice to measure otolith function. In this study we discuss the advantages and problems of AC oVEMP stimulation. AC oVEMP can be easily and quickly obtained within a few seconds. N10 (first negative peak) and p15 (first positive peak) latencies may be used as parameters for clinical interpretation but amplitude fluctuations are relatively large. For daily clinical use of VEMP visualization in a normogram seems feasible. Especially the AC oVEMP methodology (100 dB nHL, tone burst 500 Hz) is fast and efficient in clinical practice to measure otolith function, predominantly utricular function. PMID:22078282

  12. Application of time–frequency analysis to somatosensory evoked potential for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Y; Luk, K; Lu, W; Leong, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the improvement in the reliability of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring by applying time–frequency analysis to somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). Methods: 34 patients undergoing scoliosis surgery were studied. SEP were recorded during different stages of scoliosis surgery. Averaged SEP signals were analysed intraoperatively by short time Fourier transform (STFT). The time–frequency characteristics of SEP were observed during surgery. The main peak in the time–frequency interpretation of SEP was measured in peak time, peak frequency, and peak power. The changes in these variables were compared with the changes in latency and amplitude during different surgical stages. Results: During different surgical stages, changes in peak times and peak powers were found to correlate with the changes in latency and amplitude, respectively. Peak time showed more variability than latency (p < 0.01), while peak power showed less variability than amplitude (p < 0.01). The peak frequency of SEP appeared to be unchanged during surgery. SEP signals were found to have specific time–frequency characteristics, with the time–frequency distribution of the signals being located in a particular time–frequency space. Conclusions: Time–frequency analysis of SEP waveforms reveals stable and easily identifiable characteristics. Peak power is recommended as a more reliable monitoring parameter than amplitude, while peak time monitoring was not superior to latency measurement. Applying time–frequency analysis to SEP can improve the reliability of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. PMID:12486272

  13. [A significant increase in intraoperative flash visual evoked potential amplitude during craniopharyngioma surgery-case report].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Fujiwara, Satoru; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-04-01

    The flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is a useful diagnostic modality for visual preservation during surgery. Decreased VEP amplitude is recognized to indicate visual deterioration;however, whether intraoperative VEP can detect visual improvement remains unclear. We describe a craniopharyngioma case with a significant increase in VEP amplitude during surgery. A 67-year-old woman presented with progressive gait disturbance and impaired consciousness. Head magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar-suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasm upward with significant ventricular dilation. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was E3V3M5. Visual fields and acuity could not be examined because of impaired consciousness, and she could not see/recognize objects on a table. Preoperative VEP showed reproducible waveforms. Tumor removal by the extended transsphenoidal approach was performed with VEP monitoring. Increased VEP amplitude was observed after dural incision and persisted until the surgery ended. Postoperative VEP waveforms were also reproducible, but visual fields/acuity could not be examined because of cognitive dysfunction. Useful visual function was restored, and she became independent in daily life. The histological diagnosis was craniopharyngioma. The patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for hydrocephalus 16 days after tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation. Intraoperative VEP may indicate visual improvement during surgery, which is a useful objective assessment for visual function in patients with impaired consciousness and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25838303

  14. Estimation of latency changes and relative amplitudes in somatosensory evoked potentials using wavelets and regression.

    PubMed

    Angel, A; Linkens, D C; Ting, C H

    1999-06-01

    Changes in onset latency and relative amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) may be a convenient and reliable neurophysiological indicator of depth of anesthesia. However, to derive the components is very difficult mathematically and visual inspection or alternatively the peak-latency estimation is usually employed. A methodology for estimating the components was developed for both real-time and off-line applications based on the combination of the wavelet transforms (WT), geometric analysis, artificial intelligence (AI), and mathematical analysis of the first positive wave of SEPs. The WT together with AI constitutes a feature extraction engine for localizing the first positive peak and negative valley and hence relative amplitudes. The latency change between two averages is obtained by shifting one average toward another to achieve a best match along the positive inflections. The inflection, based on the peak, is modeled as a regression line and is refined using a steepness inference algorithm. Results from simulation and anesthetized rats show that it is reliable in comparison with visual inspection, robust to amplitude variation and signal distortion, and efficient in computation, and hence it is suitable for automation. Comparisons of interobserver variability and analysis of method agreement suggest that the method can be used as a substitute for estimations by visual inspection. PMID:10356303

  15. Skill-specific changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and reaction times in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Horiuchi, Yoko; Nakazawa, Sho; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2013-03-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether specific training in athletes affects the long-latency SEPs related to information processing of stimulation. The long-latency SEPs P100 and N140 were recorded at midline cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, and Pz) in response to stimulation of the index finger of the dominant hand in fifteen baseball players (baseball group) and in fifteen athletes in sports such as swimming, track and field events, and soccer (sports group) that do not require fine somatosensory discrimination or motor control of the hand. The long-latency SEPs were measured under a passive condition (no response required) and a reaction time (RT) condition in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The peak P100 and peak N140 latencies and RT were significantly shorter in the baseball group than the sports group. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between RT and both the peak P100 and the peak N140 latencies. Specific athletic training regimens that involve the hand may induce neuroplastic alterations in the cortical hand representation areas playing a vital role in rapid sensory processing and initiation of motor responses. PMID:23224701

  16. Whole-scalp EEG mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gindrat, Anne-Dominique; Quairiaux, Charles; Britz, Juliane; Brunet, Denis; Lanz, Florian; Michel, Christoph M; Rouiller, Eric M

    2015-07-01

    High-density scalp EEG recordings are widely used to study whole-brain neuronal networks in humans non-invasively. Here, we validate EEG mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for the long-term investigation of large-scale neuronal networks and their reorganisation after lesions requiring a craniotomy. SSEPs were acquired from 33 scalp electrodes in five adult anaesthetized animals after electrical median or tibial nerve stimulation. SSEP scalp potential maps were identified by cluster analysis and identified in individual recordings. A distributed, linear inverse solution was used to estimate the intracortical sources of the scalp potentials. SSEPs were characterised by a sequence of components with unique scalp topographies. Source analysis confirmed that median nerve SSEP component maps were in accordance with the somatotopic organisation of the sensorimotor cortex. Most importantly, SSEP recordings were stable both intra- and interindividually. We aim to apply this method to the study of recovery and reorganisation of large-scale neuronal networks following a focal cortical lesion requiring a craniotomy. As a prerequisite, the present study demonstrated that a 300-mm(2) unilateral craniotomy over the sensorimotor cortex necessary to induce a cortical lesion, followed by bone flap repositioning, suture and gap plugging with calcium phosphate cement, did not induce major distortions of the SSEPs. In conclusion, SSEPs can be successfully and reproducibly recorded from high-density EEG caps in macaque monkeys before and after a craniotomy, opening new possibilities for the long-term follow-up of the cortical reorganisation of large-scale networks in macaque monkeys after a cortical lesion. PMID:24791748

  17. Normative data for P1\\/N1-latencies of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by air- or bone-conducted tone bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Basta; Ingo Todt; Arne Ernst

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveThe response characteristics of acoustically elicited vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) largely depend on the stimuli applied. A tone-burst stimulation of 500Hz seems to be clinically most appropriate because those VEMPs can be elicited at the lowest stimulus intensity possible. The aim of the present paper was to describe normative data for tone-burst evoked VEMPs.

  18. Evoked Potentials of the Somatic Cortex and EMG Reactions of the Shoulder Muscles Elicited by Passive Extension of the Elbow Joint in Unanesthetized Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Dovgalets; A. N. Tal'nov

    2004-01-01

    We recorded electromyographic (EMG) reactions from the flexors of the elbow joint and evoked potentials (EP) from the somatic cortex (fields 3, 4, and 6) of unanesthetized cats. These reactions were elicited by perturbation of an external extensor loading applied to the arm and evoking passive extension of the elbow joint. Perturbation of the loading was performed in two modes:

  19. Video Outside Versus Video Inside the Web: Do Media Setting and Image Size Have an Impact on the Emotion-Evoking Potential of Video?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Verhagen, Plon W.

    To explore the educational potential of video-evoked affective responses in a Web-based environment, the question was raised whether video in a Web-based environment is experienced differently from video in a traditional context. An experiment was conducted that studied the affect-evoking power of video segments in a window on a computer screen…

  20. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 evokes nociception through substance P release from primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoki; Une, Yujiro; Miyano, Kanako; Abe, Hiromi; Hisaoka, Kazue; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying substance P (SP) release from primary sensory neurons in response to activation of the non-selective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), SP release from cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons was measured, using radioimmunoassay, by stimulating TRPA1 with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a TRPA1 agonist. AITC-evoked SP release occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) inhibitor SB203580 significantly attenuated AITC-evoked SP release. The in vivo effect of AITC-evoked SP release from primary sensory neurons in mice was evaluated. Hind paw intraplantar injection of AITC induced nociceptive behaviors and inflammation (edema, thermal hyperalgesia). AITC-induced thermal hyperalgesia and edema were inhibited by intraplantar pre-treatment with either SB203580 or neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist CP96345. Moreover, intrathecal pre-treatment with either CP96345 or SB203580 inhibited AITC-induced nociceptive behaviors and thermal hyperalgesia. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that intraplantar AITC injection induced the phosphorylation of p38 in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons containing SP. These findings suggest that activation of TRPA1 evokes SP release from the primary sensory neurons through phosphorylation of p38, subsequent nociceptive behaviors and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the data also indicate that blocking the effects of TRPA1 activation at the periphery leads to significant antinociception. PMID:22182301

  1. Motion-onset auditory-evoked potentials critically depend on history.

    PubMed

    Grzeschik, Ramona; Böckmann-Barthel, Martin; Mühler, Roland; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether motion history affects motion-onset auditory-evoked potentials (motion-onset AEPs). AEPs were recorded from 33 EEG channels in 16 subjects to the motion onset of a sound (white noise) virtually moving in the horizontal plane at a speed of 60 deg/s from straight ahead to the left (-30 degrees ). AEPs for baseline and adaptation were compared. A stimulus trial comprised three consecutive phases: 2,000 ms adaptation phase, 1,000 ms stationary phase, and 500 ms test phase. During the adaptation phase of the adaptation condition, a sound source moved twice from +30 degrees to -30 degrees to top up preceding adaptation. In the baseline condition, neither top-up nor pre-adaptation were exerted. For both conditions, a stationary sound was presented centrally in the stationary phase, moving leftwards in the test phase. Typical motion-onset AEPs were obtained for the baseline condition, namely a fronto-central response complex dominated by a negative and a positive component, the so-called change-N1 and change-P2 after around 180 and 250 ms, respectively. For the adaptation condition, this complex was shifted significantly into the positive range, indicating that adaptation abolished a negativity within a time window of approximately 160 to 270 ms. A respective shift into the negative range was evident at occipito-parietal sites. In conclusion, while adaptation has to be taken into account as a potential confound in the design of motion-AEP studies, it might also be of benefit in order to isolate AEP correlates of motion processing. PMID:20352201

  2. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients suffering from an unilateral acoustic neuroma: a study of 170 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamàs Patko; Pierre-Paul Vidal; Nicolas Vibert; Patrice Tran Ba Huy; Catherine de Waele

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of investigating the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP's) induced by clicks and 500 Hz short tone burst (STB) for the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas.Methods: We studied the average responses to 100dB clicks and 500 Hz STB in the ipsilateral sternomastoid muscle. Ninety-five healthy subjects and 170 patients suffering from a unilateral acoustic neuroma were included

  3. Glycerol pure tone audiometry and glycerol vestibular evoked myogenic potential: representing specific status of endolymphatic hydrops in the inner ear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Ho Ban; Jong Kyu Lee; Sung Min Jin; Kyung Chul Lee

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study attempts to explore the effect of glycerol on vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in patients\\u000a with definite unilateral Meniere’s disease (MD) and to investigate whether the test reflects different pathologic states of\\u000a endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in the inner ear by comparing the results of glycerol pure tone audiometry (PTA). Twenty-eight\\u000a patients with definite unilateral MD were studied.

  4. Navigating a smart wheelchair with a brain-computer interface interpreting steady-state visual evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Mandel; Thorsten Lüth; Tim Laue; Thomas Röfer; Axel Gräser; Bernd Krieg-brückner

    2009-01-01

    In order to allow severely disabled people who cannot move their arms and legs to steer an automated wheelchair, this work proposes the combination of a non-invasive EEG-based human-robot interface and an autonomous navigation system that safely executes the issued commands. The robust classification of steady-state visual evoked potentials in brain activity allows for the seamless projection of qualitative directional

  5. Electrical stimulation of the human common peroneal nerve elicits lasting facilitation of cortical motor-evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Knash; Aiko Kido; Monica Gorassini; K. Ming Chan; Richard B. Stein

    2003-01-01

    Motor-evoked potentials (MEP) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were shown to be facilitated by repetitive electrical stimulation of the common peroneal (CP) nerve at intensities above motor threshold. The TA electromyogram (EMG) and ankle flexion force were recorded in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the leg area of the motor cortex to evaluate the excitability of cortico-spinal-muscular

  6. Habituation of the Visually Evoked Potential and Its Vascular Response: Implications for Neurovascular Coupling in the Healthy Adult

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hellmuth Obrig; Heike Israel; Matthias Kohl-Bareis; Kamil Uludag; Rüdiger Wenzel; Bianca Müller; Guy Arnold; Arno Villringer

    2002-01-01

    In the human, visually evoked potentials (VEP) and cerebral oxygenation changes, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), are assessed to elucidate the relation between electrophysiological and vascular responses to a checkerboard stimulus reversing at 3 Hz. Habituation of either response is analysed on two time scales. Within the 1-min stimulation period we find a decrease in P100N135-component amplitude, closely coupled

  7. Impaired visual evoked potential and primary axonopathy of the optic nerve in the diabetic BB\\/W-rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. F. Sima; W.-X. Zhang; P. V. Cherian; S. Chakrabarti

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The spontaneously diabetic BB\\/W-rat has emerged as an important model system for somatic and autonomic diabetic polyneuropathy. In this study we examined visual evoked potentials and the presence of morphometric and structural changes in the optic nerve and the retinal ganglion cells and their afferent axons contained in the retinal nerve fibre layer. A six-month duration of diabetes mellitus was

  8. Intraoperative Myogenic Motor Evoked Potentials Induced by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Exposed Motor Cortex Under Isoflurane and Sevoflurane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiko Kawaguchi; Takanori Sakamoto; Hideyuki Ohnishi; Kiyoshi Shimizu; Jun Karasawa; Hitoshi Furuya

    1996-01-01

    We monitored myogenic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during intracranial surgery in 21 patients anes- thetized with nitrous oxide in oxygen, fentanyl, and 0.75-1.5 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane (n = 11) or sevoflurane (n = 10). The exposed motor cortex was stimulated with a single or train-of-five rectangular pulses at a high frequency (500 Hz), while the compound muscle

  9. Novel subtype of idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy: bilateral absence of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in the presence of normal caloric responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chisato Fujimoto; Toshihisa Murofushi; Yasuhiro Chihara; Mitsuya Suzuki; Tatsuya Yamasoba; Shinichi Iwasaki

    2009-01-01

    To characterize clinical features of those patients who showed an absence of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses\\u000a in the presence of normal caloric responses bilaterally, we reviewed clinical records of 1,887 consecutive outpatients who\\u000a complained of balance problems, and identified three patients, who showed absent VEMPs in the presence of normal caloric responses\\u000a bilaterally with unknown causes. All three

  10. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to sound and vibration: characteristics in vestibular migraine that enable separation from Menière’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachael L Taylor; Alessandro S Zagami; William PR Gibson; Deborah A Black; Michael G Halmagyi; Miriam S Welgampola

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: It can be difficult to distinguish vestibular migraine (VM) from Menière’s disease (MD) in its early stages. Using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), we sought to identify test parameters that would help discriminate between these two vestibular disorders.Methods: We first recorded ocular and cervical VEMPs (oVEMP\\/cVEMP) to air-conducted clicks and bone-conducted vibration in 30 control participants, 30 participants with clinically

  11. Extracting visual evoked potentials from EEG data recorded during fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior fMRI scan, TMS could be used to link the fMRI activations with evoked potentials recorded. However, conducting such experiments presents significant technical challenges given the high amplitude artifacts introduced into the EEG signal by the magnetic pulse, and the difficulty to successfully target areas that were functionally defined by fMRI. Here we describe a methodology for combining these three common tools: TMS, EEG, and fMRI. We explain how to guide the stimulator's coil to the desired target area using anatomical or functional MRI data, how to record EEG during concurrent TMS, how to design an ERP study suitable for EEG-TMS combination and how to extract reliable ERP from the recorded data. We will provide representative results from a previously published study, in which fMRI-guided TMS was used concurrently with EEG to show that the face-selective N1 and the body-selective N1 component of the ERP are associated with distinct neural networks in extrastriate cortex. This method allows us to combine the high spatial resolution of fMRI with the high temporal resolution of TMS and EEG and therefore obtain a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of various cognitive processes. PMID:24893706

  12. Visual Evoked Cortical Potential (VECP) Elicited by Sinusoidal Gratings Controlled by Pseudo-Random Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Carolina S.; Souza, Givago S.; Gomes, Bruno D.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of contrast detection mechanisms to the visual cortical evoked potential (VECP) have been investigated studying the contrast-response and spatial frequency-response functions. Previously, the use of m-sequences for stimulus control has been almost restricted to multifocal electrophysiology stimulation and, in some aspects, it substantially differs from conventional VECPs. Single stimulation with spatial contrast temporally controlled by m-sequences has not been extensively tested or compared to multifocal techniques. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of spatial frequency and contrast of sinusoidal gratings on the VECP elicited by pseudo-random stimulation. Nine normal subjects were stimulated by achromatic sinusoidal gratings driven by pseudo random binary m-sequence at seven spatial frequencies (0.4–10 cpd) and three stimulus sizes (4°, 8°, and 16° of visual angle). At 8° subtence, six contrast levels were used (3.12–99%). The first order kernel (K1) did not provide a consistent measurable signal across spatial frequencies and contrasts that were tested–signal was very small or absent–while the second order kernel first (K2.1) and second (K2.2) slices exhibited reliable responses for the stimulus range. The main differences between results obtained with the K2.1 and K2.2 were in the contrast gain as measured in the amplitude versus contrast and amplitude versus spatial frequency functions. The results indicated that K2.1 was dominated by M-pathway, but for some stimulus condition some P-pathway contribution could be found, while the second slice reflected the P-pathway contribution. The present work extended previous findings of the visual pathways contribution to VECP elicited by pseudorandom stimulation for a wider range of spatial frequencies. PMID:23940546

  13. Lack of cold pressor test-induced effect on visual-evoked potentials in migraine.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Gianluca; Currà, Antonio; Serrao, Mariano; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Gorini, Manuela; Porretta, Elisa; Alibardi, Alessia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Pierelli, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    In patients with migraine, the various sensory stimulation modalities, including visual stimuli, invariably fail to elicit the normal response habituation. Whether this lack of habituation depends on abnormal activity in the sub-cortical structures responsible for processing incoming information as well as nociception and antinociception or on abnormal cortical excitability per se remains debateable. To find out whether inducing tonic pain in the hand by cold pressure test (CPT) alters the lack of visual-evoked potential (VEP) habituation in migraineurs without aura studied between attacks we recorded VEPs in 19 healthy subjects and in 12 migraine patients during four experimental conditions: baseline; no-pain (hand held in warm water, 25 degrees C); pain (hand held in cold water, 2-4 degrees C); and after-effects. We measured P100 amplitudes from six blocks of 100 sweeps, and assessed habituation from amplitude changes between the six sequential blocks. In healthy subjects, the CPT decreased block 1 VEP amplitude and abolished the normal VEP habituation (amplitude decrease to repeated stimulation) in patients with migraine studied between attacks; it left block 1 VEP amplitude and abnormal VEP habituation unchanged. These findings suggest that the interictal cortical dysfunction induced by migraine prevents the cortical changes induced by tonic painful stimulation both during pain and after pain ends. Because such cortical changes presumably reflect plasticity mechanisms in the stimulated cortex, our study suggests altered plasticity of sensory cortices in migraine. Whether this abnormality reflects abnormal functional activity in the subcortical structures subserving tonic pain activation remains conjectural. PMID:20012123

  14. Characterization of Graded MASCIS Contusion Spinal Cord Injury using Somatosensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Gracee; Kerr, Candace; Thakor, Nitish V.; All, Angelo H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Electrophysiological analysis using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and behavioral assessment using Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale were compared over time for graded MASCIS contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective To study SEP responses across different contusion injury severities and to compare them with BBB scores. Summary of Background Data For any SCI therapy evaluation, it is important to accurately and objectively standardize the injury model. The graded MASCIS contusion injuries on dorsal spine have been standardized using BBB, which is subjective and prone to human errors. Furthermore, dorsal pathway disruption does not always produce locomotor deficits. SEP monitoring provides an advantage of providing a reliable and objective assessment of the functional integrity of dorsal sensory pathways. Methods Four groups of Fischer rats received contusion at T8 using NYU-MASCIS impactor from impact heights of 6.25 (mild), 12.5 (moderate), 25 (severe), or 50 mm (very severe). The control group underwent laminectomy only. SEP and BBB recordings were performed once prior to injury, and then weekly for up to 7 weeks. Results Graded levels of injury produced concomitant attenuations in hindlimb SEP amplitudes. Following injury, 25 and 50 mm groups together differed significantly from 12.5 and 6.25 mm groups (p<0.01). From week 5, differences between 12.5 and 6.25 mm groups also became apparent (p<0.01), which showed significant electrophysiological improvement. However, no significant differences were observed between 25 and 50 mm groups, which showed negligible electrophysiological recovery. While comparable differences between different groups were also detected by BBB after injury (p<0.001), BBB was less sensitive in detecting any improvement in 6.25 and 12.5 mm groups. Conclusion SEP amplitudes and BBB scores decrease corresponding to increase in injury severity, however these show different temporal patterns of recovery. These results demonstrate the utility of SEPs, in conjunction with BBB, to monitor therapeutic interventions in SCI research. PMID:20354478

  15. The Parameters of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in the Severe Visual Loss Patients in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the characteristics of the pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in patients with severe visual loss and normal controls, and to demonstrate the range of PVEP parameters in normal Koreans. Methods The patients were divided into three groups according to visual acuity: group 1, ranging from no light perception to less than 0.02; group 2, ranging from 0.02 to 0.1; and group 3, ranging from 0.125 to 0.25. Group 4 was established as a healthy control group. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the PVEP parameters were calculated for group 4. The PVEP parameters were compared among these four groups, and the amplitudes were evaluated with respect to the 95% CIs. We used the area under the curve to integrate the sensitivity and the specificity of the PVEP parameter quantitative values (7.01 to 9.57 µV and 6.75 to 10.11 µV). Results A total of 101 eyes were investigated. The 95% CIs of the P100 and N135 amplitudes of group 4 were 7.01 to 9.57 µV and 6.75 to 10.11 µV, respectively. The amplitudes of P100 and N135 were significantly higher in group 4 (p < 0.001). The P100 and N135 amplitude were below the 95% CI in all group 1 patients. The area under the curve of the P100 amplitude was the highest (0.789). Conclusions No legally blind patient in the present study exhibited a value within the 95% CI of the controls. The P100 amplitude may be the best parameter for defining blindness in patients. PMID:26028947

  16. Laser-evoked potentials: prognostic relevance of pain pathway defects in patients with acute radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Jürgen; Hauck, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The radicular pain syndrome is a major problem in public health care that can lead to chronic back and leg pain in 30%. Ischalgia and back pain are the most prominent signs of dorsal root affection. Until now, no clinical or neurophysiological test procedure exists that evaluates the function of the dorsal root and predicts the prognosis of patients suffering from RPS. We have recently demonstrated that laser-evoked potentials (LEP) are able to demonstrate dorsal root damage. With this study, we investigated 54 patients with acute radicular symptoms and compared LEP parameters (side to side difference of latency and amplitude, transformed to a z-score) with their state of health after 3 months to calculate their predictive value for outcome prognosis. Most significantly, the latency difference between the LEP of the affected dermatome relative to the contralateral healthy dermatome was able to predict the prognosis. Latency z score above two demonstrates a 91% specificity (33% sensitivity) for a poor outcome at 3 months. A significant relation between amplitude changes and the main outcome measure could not be shown. Only extreme changes (z score >10) in amplitude show a high specificity for the persistence of ischialgia in particular (specificity 0.94; sensitivity 0.35). All other parameters, such as clinical scores or other LEP parameters, were not able to predict the outcome of patients. We propose that clinical testing using LEP with latency analysis is a useful tool for estimating the course of disease, so that patients with poor predictive parameters can be treated more invasively at early disease stages to avoid persistence of radiculopathy. PMID:19777272

  17. Seeing the pain of others while being in pain: a laser-evoked potentials study.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, Massimiliano; Betti, Viviana; Le Pera, Domenica; De Armas, Liala; Miliucci, Roberto; Restuccia, Domenico; Avenanti, Alessio; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-04-15

    Seeing actions, emotions and feelings of other individuals may activate resonant mechanisms that allow the empathic understanding of others' states. Being crucial for implementing pro-social behaviors, empathy is considered as inherently altruistic. Here we explored whether the personal experience of pain make individuals less inclined to share others' pain. We used laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) to explore whether observation of painful or non-noxious stimuli delivered to a stranger model induced any modulation in the pain system of onlookers who were suffering from pain induced by the laser stimuli. After LEPs recording, participants rated intensity and unpleasantness of the laser pain, and of the pain induced by the movie in themselves and in the model. Mere observation of needles penetrating the model's hand brought about a specific reduction of the N1/P1 LEP component, related to the activation of somatic nodes of the pain matrix. Such reduction is stronger in onlookers who rated the pain intensity induced by the pain movie as higher in themselves and lower in the model. Conversely, the N2a-P2 component, supposedly associated to affective pain qualities, did not show any specific modulation during observation of others' pain. Thus, viewing 'flesh and bone' pain in others specifically modulates neural activity in the pain matrix sensory node. Moreover, this socially-derived inhibitory effect is correlated with the intensity of the pain attributed to self rather than to others suggesting that being in pain may bias the empathic relation with stranger models towards self-centred instead than other-related stances. PMID:18291679

  18. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (?2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long-term hearing/speech performance. PMID:23991008

  19. Sensory Attenuation Assessed by Sensory Evoked Potentials in Functional Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Chen, Jui-Cheng; Pareés, Isabel; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Kilner, James Morvan; Edwards, Mark John

    2015-01-01

    Background Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) have features associated with voluntary movement (e.g. distractibility) but patients report movements to be out of their control. One explanation for this phenomenon is that sense of agency for movement is impaired. The phenomenon of reduction in the intensity of sensory experience when movement is self-generated and a reduction in sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) amplitude at the onset of self-paced movement (sensory attenuation) have been linked to sense of agency for movement. Methods We compared amplitude of SEPs from median nerve stimulation at rest and at the onset of a self-paced movement of the thumb in 17 patients with FMD and 17 healthy controls. Results Patients showed lack of attenuation of SEPs at the onset of movement compared to reduction in amplitude of SEPs in controls. FMD patients had significantly different ratios of movement onset to rest SEPs than did healthy controls at each electrode: 0.79 in healthy controls and 1.35 in patients at F3 (t = -4.22, p<0.001), 0.78 in healthy controls and 1.12 at patients C3 (t = -3.15, p = 0.004) and 0.77 in healthy controls and 1.05 at patients P3 (t = -2.88, p = 0.007). Conclusions Patients with FMD have reduced sensory attenuation as measured by SEPs at onset of self-paced movement. This finding can be plausibly linked to impairment of sense of agency for movement in these patients. PMID:26091500

  20. Early clinical and subclinical visual evoked potential and Humphrey's visual field defects in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Anand; Rae, William; Bhigjee, Ahmed; Connolly, Cathy; Devparsad, Natasha; Michowicz, Andrew; Harrison, Thomas; Loyse, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP) testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF) testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9%) right eyes and 50/74 (67.6%) left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5) ms and 119.8 (±15.7) ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10) ms (p<0.001). Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6%) right eyes and 32/45 (71.1%) left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM. PMID:23285220

  1. Early Clinical and Subclinical Visual Evoked Potential and Humphrey's Visual Field Defects in Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Anand; Rae, William; Bhigjee, Ahmed; Connolly, Cathy; Devparsad, Natasha; Michowicz, Andrew; Harrison, Thomas; Loyse, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP) testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF) testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9%) right eyes and 50/74 (67.6%) left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5) ms and 119.8 (±15.7) ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10) ms (p<0.001). Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6%) right eyes and 32/45 (71.1%) left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM. PMID:23285220

  2. Modulation of upper extremity motor evoked potentials by cutaneous afferents in humans.

    PubMed

    Kofler, M; Fuhr, P; Leis, A A; Glocker, F X; Kronenberg, M F; Wissel, J; Stetkarova, I

    2001-06-01

    The excitability of motoneurons controlling upper limb muscles in humans may vary with cutaneous nerve stimulation. We investigated the effect of noxious and non-noxious conditioning stimuli applied to right and left digit II and right digit V on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from right thenar eminence, abductor digiti minimi, biceps and triceps brachii muscles in twelve healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied at interstimulus intervals (ISI) ranging from 40 to 160 ms following conditioning distal digital stimulation. TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) were compared at ISI 80 ms. Painful digital stimulation caused differential MEP amplitude modulation with an early maximum inhibition in hand muscles and triceps brachii followed by a maximum facilitation in arm muscles. Stimulation of different digits elicited a similar pattern of MEP modulation, which largely paralleled the behavior of cutaneous silent periods in the same muscles. Contralateral digital stimulation was less effective. MEPs following TMS and TES did not differ in their response to noxious digital stimulation. MEP latencies were shortened by cutaneous stimuli. The observed effects were stimulus intensity dependent. We conclude that activation of A-alpha and A-delta fibers gives rise to complex modulatory effects on upper limb motoneuron pools. A-delta fibers initiate a spinal reflex resulting in MEP amplitude reduction in muscles involved in reaching and grasping, and MEP amplitude facilitation in muscles involved in withdrawal. These findings suggest a protective reflex mediated by A-delta fibers that protects the hand from harm. A-alpha fibers induce MEP latency shortening possibly via a transcortical excitatory loop. PMID:11377265

  3. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in three patients with large vestibular aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Schmerber, Sébastien; Habiby Kermany, Mohammad; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2004-04-01

    An enlarged vestibular aqueduct (LVA) is a common congenital inner ear anomaly responsible for some unusual vestibular and audiological symptoms. Most of the cases show bilateral early onset and progressive hearing loss in children. The gross appearance on CT scan of the inner ear is generally normal. However, precise measurements of the inner ear components reveal abnormal dimensions, which may account for the accompanying auditory and vestibular dysfunction. Despite extensive studies on hearing and the vestibular apparatus, saccular function is not studied. To our knowledge this is the first report of saccular malfunction in three patients with LVA by means of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Conventional audiograms revealed bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss in two patients and mixed type hearing loss in one patient. Two of the patients complained about vertigo and dizziness but vestibular assessments of the patients showed normal results. The diagnosis had been made by high-resolution CT scans and MR images of the skull that showed LVA in the absence of other anomalies. The VEMP threshold measured from the ear with LVA in two patients with unilateral enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct was 75-80 dB nHL whereas the threshold from normal ears was 95 dB nHL. The third patient with mixed type hearing loss and bilateral LVA had VEMP responses despite a big air-bone gap in the low frequency range. The VEMP in this patient was greater in amplitude and lower in threshold in the operated ear (the patient had a tympanoplasty which did not improve her hearing). These findings and results of other patients with Tullio phenomenon and superior semicircular canal dehiscence, who also showed lower VEMP threshold, confirmed the theory of a 'third window' that allows volume and pressure displacements, and thus larger deflection of the vestibular sensors, which would cause the vestibular organ to be more responsive to sound and pressure changes. PMID:15051138

  4. The Effect of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Visual Evoked Potentials in Professional Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Croft, Rodney J.; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Robert J.; Kennedy, Gerard A.; Crewther, David; Howard, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that as little as 18 hours of sleep deprivation can cause deleterious effects on performance. It has also been suggested that sleep deprivation can cause a “tunnel-vision” effect, in which attention is restricted to the center of the visual field. The current study aimed to replicate these behavioral effects and to examine the electrophysiological underpinnings of these changes. Design: Repeated-measures experimental study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Participants: Nineteen professional drivers (1 woman; mean age = 45.3 ± 9.1 years). Interventions: Two experimental sessions were performed; one following 27 hours of sleep deprivation and the other following a normal night of sleep, with control for circadian effects. Measurements & Results: A tunnel-vision task (central versus peripheral visual discrimination) and a standard checkerboard-viewing task were performed while 32-channel EEG was recorded. For the tunnel-vision task, sleep deprivation resulted in an overall slowing of reaction times and increased errors of omission for both peripheral and foveal stimuli (P < 0.05). These changes were related to reduced P300 amplitude (indexing cognitive processing) but not measures of early visual processing. No evidence was found for an interaction effect between sleep deprivation and visual-field position, either in terms of behavior or electrophysiological responses. Slower processing of the sustained parvocellular visual pathway was demonstrated. Conclusions: These findings suggest that performance deficits on visual tasks during sleep deprivation are due to higher cognitive processes rather than early visual processing. Sleep deprivation may differentially impair processing of more-detailed visual information. Features of the study design (eg, visual angle, duration of sleep deprivation) may influence whether peripheral visual-field neglect occurs. Citation: Jackson ML; Croft RJ; Owens K; Pierce RJ; Kennedy GA; Crewther D; Howard ME. The effect of acute sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials in professional drivers. SLEEP 2008;31(9):1261-1269. PMID:18788651

  5. Color discrimination ellipses of trichromats measured with transient and steady state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruno D; Souza, Givago S; Lima, Monica G; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Saito, Cézar A; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of different forms of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to measure color discrimination thresholds and to plot color discrimination ellipses (MacAdam, 1942). Five normal trichromats (24.5 +/- 2.6 years-old) were monocularly tested. Stimuli consisted of sinusoidal isoluminant chromatic gratings made from chromaticity pairs located along four different color directions radiating from one reference point of the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram (u' = 0.225; v' = 0.415). Heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) was used to obtain the isoluminance condition for every subject and for all chromaticity pairs. VEPs were elicited using two cycles per degree grating stimuli at three different temporal configurations: transient, onset (300 ms)/offset (700 ms), 1 Hz fundamental frequency; steady-state, onset (50 ms)/offset (50 ms), 10 Hz fundamental frequency; and steady-state pattern reversal at 5 Hz fundamental frequency (10 Hz phase reversal). VEP amplitude was measured using transient VEP N1-P1 components and steady state VEP first (10 Hz) and second (20 Hz) harmonics. VEP amplitude was plotted as a function of chromatic distance in the CIE 1976 color space and the data points were extrapolated to zero amplitude level to obtain chromatic discrimination thresholds. The results were compared with psychophysical measurements performed using the same stimulus configurations and with the pseudoisochromatic method of Mollon-Reffin (one-way ANOVA). For all subjects and all stimulation methods, the ellipses showed small sizes, low ellipticities, and were vertically oriented. Despite some consistent differences in the results obtained with different procedures, there was no statistical difference between ellipses obtained electrophysiologically and psychophysically. For steady state VEPs, ellipses obtained from second harmonic amplitudes were larger and more elongated in the tritan direction than those obtained with first harmonic amplitudes. PMID:18598404

  6. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  7. Effect of sevoflurane concentration on visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Yosuke; MAEHARA, Seiya; ITOH, Yoshiki; HAYASHI, Miri; KUBO, Akira; ITAMI, Takaharu; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane concentration on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEPs). Six clinically normal laboratory-beagle dogs were used. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane was detected from all subjects by tail clamp method. The refractive power of the right eyes of all subjects was corrected to ?2 diopters after skiascopy. For P-VEP recording, the recording and reference electrode were positioned at inion and nasion, respectively, and the earth electrode was positioned on the inner surface. To grasp the state of CNS suppression objectively, the bispectral index (BIS) value was used. The stimulus pattern size and distance for VEP recording were constant, 50.3 arc-min and 50 cm, respectively. P-VEPs and BIS values were recorded under sevoflurane in oxygen inhalational anesthesia at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 2.75 sevoflurane MAC. For analysis of P-VEP, the P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude were estimated. P-VEPs were detected at 0.5 to 1.5 MAC in all dogs, and disappeared at 2.0 MAC in four dogs and at 2.5 and 2.75 MAC in one dog each. The BIS value decreased with increasing sevoflurane MAC, and burst suppression began to appear from 1.5 MAC. There was no significant change in P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude with any concentration of sevoflurane. At concentrations around 1.5 MAC, which are used routinely to immobilize dogs, sevoflurane showed no effect on P-VEP. PMID:25373729

  8. Evaluation of multifocal visual evoked potentials in patients with Graves' orbitopathy and subclinical optic nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rico, Consuelo; Rodríguez-González, Natividad; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Blanco, Román

    2012-08-01

    Dysthyroid optic neuropathy is the most serious, although infrequent (8-10 %) complication in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). It is known that early stages of compressive optic neuropathy may produce reversible visual field defects, suggesting axoplasmic stasis rather than ganglion cell death. This observational, cross-sectional, case-control study assessed 34 consecutive patients (65 eyes) with Graves' hyperthyroidism and longstanding GO and 31 age-matched control subjects. The patients' multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) were compared to their clinical and psychophysical (standard automated perimetry [SAP]) and structural (optic coherence tomography [OCT]) diagnostic test data. Abnormal cluster defects were found in 12.3 % and 3.1 % of eyes on the interocular and monocular amplitude analysis mfVEP probability plots, respectively. As well, mfVEP latencies delays were found in 13.8 and 20 % of eyes on the interocular and monocular analysis probability plots, respectively. Interestingly, 19 % of patients with GO had ocular hypertension, and a strong correlation between intraocular pressure measured at upgaze and mfVEP latency was found. MfVEP amplitudes and visual acuity were significantly related to each other (P < 0.05), but not with the latencies delays. However, relationships between the interocular or monocular mfVEP amplitudes and latencies analysis and SAP indices or OCT data were not statistically significant. One-third of our patients with GO showed changes in the mfVEP, indicating significant subclinical optic nerve dysfunction. In this sense, the mfVEP may be a useful diagnostic tool in the clinic for early diagnosis and monitoring of optic nerve function abnormalities in patients with GO. PMID:22581376

  9. Mid-latency auditory evoked potentials and circulatory response to loud sounds.

    PubMed

    Schwender, D; Haessler, R; Klasing, S; Madler, C; Pöppel, E; Peter, K

    1994-03-01

    We investigated in 60 patients scheduled for elective aorto-coronary bypass grafting if loud sounds by themselves can induce cardiovascular responses and if these could be related to mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP). Anaesthesia was induced in group I (n = 20) with flunitrazepam-fentanyl 0.01 mg kg-1 and maintained with flunitrazepam-fentanyl 1.2 mg h-1. Patients in groups II (n = 20) and III (n = 20) received etomidate 0.25 mg kg-1 and fentanyl 0.005 mg kg-1 for induction and 0.6-1.2 vol% isoflurane and fentanyl 1.2 mg h-1, or propofol 4-8 mg kg-1 h-1 and fentanyl 1.2 mg h-1 for maintenance of general anaesthesia. After preparation of the sternum the operation was stopped for several minutes. Then, as a loud auditory stimulus, the sound of the running sternotomy saw was presented to the patients by putting the saw inverted on the sternum for several seconds. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (SAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance and MLAEP were measured in the awake state, before and after presentation of the sound. Latencies of the peak V, Na, Pa, Nb and P1 were measured. In group I there were statistically significant increases in HR (63.5-70.2 beat min-1), SAP (123.9-146-5 mm Hg) and PCWP (9.2-11.7 mm Hg) after presentation of the sound. These haemodynamic changes were not observed in patients in groups II and III. In the awake state, AEP had high peak -to-peak amplitudes and a periodic waveform.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130050

  10. Multifocal visual evoked potential in optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Manju; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar; Ravi, Priya; Sen, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of optic neuritis (ON), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and compressive optic neuropathy (CON) on multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitudes and latencies, and to compare the parameters among three optic nerve disorders. Materials and Methods: mfVEP was recorded for 71 eyes of controls and 48 eyes of optic nerve disorders with subgroups of optic neuritis (ON, n = 21 eyes), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION, n = 14 eyes), and compressive optic neuropathy (CON, n = 13 eyes). The size of defect in mfVEP amplitude probability plots and relative latency plots were analyzed. The pattern of the defect in amplitude probability plot was classified according to the visual field profile of optic neuritis treatment trail (ONTT). Results: Median of mfVEP amplitude (log SNR) averaged across 60 sectors were reduced in ON (0.17 (0.13-0.33)), ION (0.14 (0.12-0.21)) and CON (0.21 (0.14-0.30)) when compared to controls. The median mfVEP relative latencies compared to controls were significantly prolonged in ON and CON group of 10.53 (2.62-15.50) ms and 5.73 (2.67-14.14) ms respectively compared to ION group (2.06 (-4.09-13.02)). The common mfVEP amplitude defects observed in probability plots were diffuse pattern in ON, inferior altitudinal defect in ION and temporal hemianopia in CON eyes. Conclusions: Optic nerve disorders cause reduction in mfVEP amplitudes. The extent of delayed latency noted in ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lesser compared to subjects with optic neuritis and compressive optic neuropathy. mfVEP amplitudes can be used to objectively assess the topography of the visual field defect. PMID:24088641

  11. Monocular activation of visual cortex in normal and monocularly deprived cats: an analysis of evoked potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Mitzdorf, U; Singer, W

    1980-01-01

    The unilaterally induced patterns of prominent excitatory post-synaptic activity within Areas 17 and 18 were investigated in normal and monocularly deprived cats. They were elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerves and evaluated with the one-dimensional current source-density method. 1. In Area 18 of normal cats the unilaterally and bilaterally induced current source-density patterns closely resemble each other. None of the mono-, di- or tri-synaptic activities is potentiated by binocular convergence. 2. In Area 18 of monocularly deprived cats the synaptic currents elicited by stimulating the nerve on the deprived side lead to approximately the same spatial and temporal distribution of sinks and sources as those induced from the normal eye; but the amplitudes are considerably smaller. This reduction is similar for mono-, di- and trisynaptic responses which indicates (a) that the imbalance between activity from the deprived and non-deprived eye is mainly due to reduced input to the cortical target cells from the deprived eye and (b) that the activity from the deprived eye still relayed to these cells is passed on to supra- and infragranular layers without diminution and in the same way as activity from the normal eye. 3. The imbalance of afferent activity from the deprived and non-deprived eye is apparent in the evoked potentials recorded from the white matter. This indicates that activity from the deprived eye is already strongly reduced in the thalamo-cortical fibres. 4. In monocularly deprived, but not in normal cats the monosynaptic activities from the two eyes are often segregated in depth within layer IV. 5. In Area 17 of both normal and deprived cats only a small fraction of the potential monosynaptic activity can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerves because of transmission failure in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Comparison of the current source-density patterns elicited from the normal and deprived nerve in monocularly deprived cats indicates that activity produced by fast conducting afferents is more affected (reduced) by deprivation that that conveyed by slower afferents. PMID:7441534

  12. A chronic implant to record electroretinogram, visual evoked potentials and oscillatory potentials in awake, freely moving rats for pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Irene; Loizzo, Stefano; Lopez, Luisa; Fadda, Antonello; Loizzo, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Electroretinogram (ERG), widely used to study the pharmacological effects of drugs in animal models (e.g., diabetic retinopathy), is usually recorded in anesthetized rats. We report here a novel simple method to obtain chronic implantation of electrodes for simultaneous recording at the retinal and cortical levels in freely moving, unanesthetized animals. We recorded cortical (VEPs) and retinal (ERGs) responses evoked by light (flash) stimuli in awake rats and compared the results in the same rats anesthetized with urethane (0.6 mg/kg) before and after the monocular administration of scopolamine methyl bromide (1 per thousand solution). We also compared the retinal responses with those derived from a classic acute corneal electrode. Anesthesia induced consistent changes of several VEP and ERG parameters like an increase of both latency and amplitude. In particular, the analysis of the variation of latency, amplitude, and spectral content of rapid oscillatory potentials could be important for a functional evaluation of the visual system in unanesthetized versus anesthetized animals. PMID:15656271

  13. A Chronic Implant to Record Electroretinogram, Visual Evoked Potentials and Oscillatory Potentials in Awake, Freely Moving Rats for Pharmacological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Irene; Loizzo, Stefano; Lopez, Luisa; Fadda, Antonello; Loizzo, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Electroretinogram (ERG), widely used to study the pharmacological effects of drugs in animal models (e.g., diabetic retinopathy), is usually recorded in anesthetized rats. We report here a novel simple method to obtain chronic implantation of electrodes for simultaneous recording at the retinal and cortical levels in freely moving, unanesthetized animals. We recorded cortical (VEPs) and retinal (ERGs) responses evoked by light (flash) stimuli in awake rats and compared the results in the same rats anesthetized with urethane (0.6 mg/kg) before and after the monocular administration of scopolamine methyl bromide (1‰solution). We also compared the retinal responses with those derived from a classic acute corneal electrode. Anesthesia induced consistent changes of several VEP and ERG parameters like an increase of both latency and amplitude. In particular, the analysis of the variation of latency, amplitude, and spectral content of rapid oscillatory potentials could be important for a functional evaluation of the visual system in unanesthetized versus anesthetized animals. PMID:15656271

  14. Investigation of auditory brainstem function in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Ferenc; Várkonyi, Tamás T; Rovó, László; Lengyel, Csaba; Légrády, Péter; Jóri, József; Czigner, Jenö; Kiss, József G

    2003-01-01

    We performed brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) examinations in 15 patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. We applied cardiovascular reflex tests for assessment of autonomic neuropathy. The aim of our investigation was to compare the BAEP results of this patient group with those of controls and to look for the possible correlation between alteration of the auditory brainstem function and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Analysis of the latencies (waves I, II, III, and V) and the interpeak latencies (I-III and I-V) of BAEP revealed a significant difference between those of diabetics and those of healthy controls. The amplitudes of waves I, III, and V were definitely lower in comparison with amplitudes of healthy controls. We observed a positive correlation between the overall autonomic score and the latencies (waves III and V) and interpeak latencies (I-III, I-V). These data support the hypothesis that long-standing diabetes mellitus and diabetic neuropathy might be revealed as a cause of certain dysfunctions of the central auditory pathways. PMID:15106279

  15. CHLORDIMEFORM PRODUCES PROFOUND, SELECTIVE, AND TRANSIENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF HOODED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rat visual function was tested after acute exposure to chlordimeform (CDM), a formamidine insecticide/acaricide. Adult male Long-Evans rats were surgically implanted with epidural recording electrodes overlying visual cortex and tested 1 week later. Pattern reversal-evoked potent...

  16. n-Hexane-induced changes in nerve conduction velocities and somatosensory evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mutti; F. Ferri; G. Lommi; S. Lotta; S. Lucertini; I. Franchini

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen women from a shoe factory were examined clinically and their cerebral evoked responses to 256 electrical stimulations of the median nerve were averaged. Neurophysiological investigations included maximal motor (MCV) and distal sensory (dSCV) nerve conduction velocity measurement on ulnar, median, and peroneal nerves. A referent group was composed of 15 age-matched women without exposure to neurotoxic chemicals. MCVs and

  17. Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials in the Delta Range (0.5-5 Hz)

    E-print Network

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    , recorded from the nervous system of human or animal, while stimulating sense organs. EEG evoked po of a transient visual stimuli, an EEG response in the visual areas can be recorded. However, flash VEP ( = 0.5- 5 Hz), using EEG responses recorded during continuous flash VEP stimulation. 2 Methods 2.1 EEG

  18. Serotoninergic modulation of sensory transmission to brainstem reticulospinal cells.

    PubMed

    Antri, Myriam; Auclair, François; Albrecht, Jonathan; Djeudjang, Nsima; Dubuc, Réjean

    2008-08-01

    Sensory inputs are subjected to modulation by central neural networks involved in controlling movements. It has been shown that serotonin (5-HT) modulates sensory transmission. This study examines in lampreys the effects of 5-HT on sensory transmission to brainstem reticulospinal (RS) neurons and the distribution of 5-HT cells that innervate RS cells. Cells were recorded intracellularly in the in vitro isolated brainstem of larval lampreys. Trigeminal nerve stimulation elicited disynaptic excitatory responses in RS neurons, and bath application of 5-HT reduced the response amplitude with maximum effect at 10 mum. Local ejection of 5-HT either onto the RS cells or onto the relay cells decreased sensory-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in RS cells. The monosynaptic EPSPs elicited from stimulation of the relay cells were also reduced by 5-HT. The reduction was maintained after blocking either N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. The local ejection of glutamate over RS cells elicited excitatory responses that were only slightly depressed by 5-HT. In addition, 5-HT increased the threshold for eliciting sustained depolarizations in response to trigeminal nerve stimulation but did not prevent them. Combined 5-HT immunofluorescence with axonal tracing revealed that the 5-HT innervation of RS neurons of the middle rhombencephalic reticular nucleus comes mainly from neurons in the isthmic region, but also from neurons located in the pretectum and caudal rhombencephalon. Our results indicate that 5-HT modulates sensory transmission to lamprey brainstem RS cells. PMID:18702689

  19. Beta-zone parapapillary atrophy and multifocal visual evoked potentials in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ketner, Scott; Teng, Christopher C.; Ehrlich, Joshua R.; Raza, Ali S.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) responses due to beta-zone parapapillary atrophy (?PPA). Patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) with or without standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) abnormalities were referred for mfVEP testing during a 2-year period. Eyes with good quality optic disc stereophotographs and reliable SAP results were included. The mfVEP monocular mean latency delays (ms) and amplitudes (SNR) were analyzed. Age, SAP mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and spherical equivalent (SE) were analyzed in the multivariate model. Generalized estimated equations were used for comparisons between groups after adjusting for inter-eye associations. Of 394 eyes of 200 patients, 223 (57%) had ?PPA. The ?PPA eyes were older (59.6 ± 13.7 vs. 56.5 ± 13.7 year, P = 0.02), more myopic (?4.0 ± 3.5 vs. ?1.3 ± 3.5 D, P < 0.01), and had poorer SAP scores (MD: ?4.9 ± 5.2 vs. ?2.6 ± 5.2 dB, P < 0.01; PSD: 4.3 ± 2.9 vs. 2.5 ± 3.0 dB, P < 0.01). By univariate analysis, mean latencies were longer in ?PPA eyes (6.1 ± 5.3 vs. 4.0 ± 5.5 ms, P < 0.01). After adjusting for differences in SE, age, and SAP MD, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.09). ?PPA eyes had lower amplitude log SNR (0.49 ± 0.16 vs. 0.56 ± 0.15, P < 0.01), which lost significance (P = 0.51) after adjusting for MD and PSD. Although eyes with ?PPA had significantly lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies than eyes without ?PPA, these differences were attributable to differences in SAP severity, age, and refractive error. Thus, ?PPA does not appear to be an independent factor affecting mfVEP responses in eyes with GON. PMID:21735265

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Effects on Single and Paired Flash Visual Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Strigaro, Gionata; Mayer, Isabella; Chen, Jui-Cheng; Cantello, Roberto; Rothwell, John C

    2015-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the occipital cortex has a controversial effect on the visual cortex excitability. Paired flash visual evoked potentials (paired F-VEPs) offer a unique method to express neural inhibition within the visual system. However, no studies have explored the effects of tDCS on F-VEPs in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of single- and paired-F-VEPs during and after tDCS in healthy humans. Twenty-six healthy volunteers participated. F-VEPs were recorded from occipital electrodes with closed eyes. Stimuli were single flashes, intermingled to flash pairs at the interstimulus interval of 125, 62.5, 50, 33.3, 16.6, and 11.1 ms (internal frequency of 8, 16, 20, 30, 60, and 90 Hz). The single F-VEP was split into a "main complex" and a "late response." As to paired stimuli, the "test" F-VEP emerged from electronic subtraction of the single-F-VEP to the paired-F-VEP. In experiment 1, the return electrode was located on the scalp and we studied changes in F-VEPs after anodal, cathodal (1 mA, 15 min) and sham stimulation. A second experiment was performed in which F-VEPs were recorded before, during and after tDCS stimulation (anodal and cathodal) with the return electrode on the neck. F-VEPs recorded in experiment 1 did not detect any significant change after tDCS. In experiment 2 anodal polarization significantly increased the P2 latency (P = .031) and reduced the amplitude of the "late response" of the single F-VEP (P = .008). As for the paired F-VEPs, no significant changes were detected. In conclusion, low-intensity anodal tDCS has weak inhibitory aftereffects on the single F-VEP and no effects on the paired F-VEPs. Further methodological studies are needed to improve polarization efficacy. PMID:25253432

  1. Semi-automatic attenuation of cochlear implant artifacts for the evaluation of late auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Viola, Filipa Campos; De Vos, Maarten; Hine, Jemma; Sandmann, Pascale; Bleeck, Stefan; Eyles, Julie; Debener, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Electrical artifacts caused by the cochlear implant (CI) contaminate electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from implanted individuals and corrupt auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Independent component analysis (ICA) is efficient in attenuating the electrical CI artifact and AEPs can be successfully reconstructed. However the manual selection of CI artifact related independent components (ICs) obtained with ICA is unsatisfactory, since it contains expert-choices and is time consuming. We developed a new procedure to evaluate temporal and topographical properties of ICs and semi-automatically select those components representing electrical CI artifact. The CI Artifact Correction (CIAC) algorithm was tested on EEG data from two different studies. The first consists of published datasets from 18 CI users listening to environmental sounds. Compared to the manual IC selection performed by an expert the sensitivity of CIAC was 91.7% and the specificity 92.3%. After CIAC-based attenuation of CI artifacts, a high correlation between age and N1-P2 peak-to-peak amplitude was observed in the AEPs, replicating previously reported findings and further confirming the algorithm's validity. In the second study AEPs in response to pure tone and white noise stimuli from 12 CI users that had also participated in the other study were evaluated. CI artifacts were attenuated based on the IC selection performed semi-automatically by CIAC and manually by one expert. Again, a correlation between N1 amplitude and age was found. Moreover, a high test-retest reliability for AEP N1 amplitudes and latencies suggested that CIAC-based attenuation reliably preserves plausible individual response characteristics. We conclude that CIAC enables the objective and efficient attenuation of the CI artifact in EEG recordings, as it provided a reasonable reconstruction of individual AEPs. The systematic pattern of individual differences in N1 amplitudes and latencies observed with different stimuli at different sessions, strongly suggests that CIAC can overcome the electrical artifact problem. Thus CIAC facilitates the use of cortical AEPs as an objective measurement of auditory rehabilitation. PMID:22234161

  2. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  3. Beta-zone parapapillary atrophy and multifocal visual evoked potentials in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Ketner, Scott; Teng, Christopher C; Ehrlich, Joshua R; Raza, Ali S; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

    2011-08-01

    We investigated changes in multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) responses due to beta-zone parapapillary atrophy (ßPPA). Patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) with or without standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) abnormalities were referred for mfVEP testing during a 2-year period. Eyes with good quality optic disc stereophotographs and reliable SAP results were included. The mfVEP monocular mean latency delays (ms) and amplitudes (SNR) were analyzed. Age, SAP mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and spherical equivalent (SE) were analyzed in the multivariate model. Generalized estimated equations were used for comparisons between groups after adjusting for inter-eye associations. Of 394 eyes of 200 patients, 223 (57%) had ßPPA. The ßPPA eyes were older (59.6 ± 13.7 vs. 56.5 ± 13.7 year, P = 0.02), more myopic (-4.0 ± 3.5 vs. -1.3 ± 3.5 D, P < 0.01), and had poorer SAP scores (MD: -4.9 ± 5.2 vs. -2.6 ± 5.2 dB, P < 0.01; PSD: 4.3 ± 2.9 vs. 2.5 ± 3.0 dB, P < 0.01). By univariate analysis, mean latencies were longer in ßPPA eyes (6.1 ± 5.3 vs. 4.0 ± 5.5 ms, P < 0.01). After adjusting for differences in SE, age, and SAP MD, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.09). ßPPA eyes had lower amplitude log SNR (0.49 ± 0.16 vs. 0.56 ± 0.15, P < 0.01), which lost significance (P = 0.51) after adjusting for MD and PSD. Although eyes with ßPPA had significantly lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies than eyes without ßPPA, these differences were attributable to differences in SAP severity, age, and refractive error. Thus, ßPPA does not appear to be an independent factor affecting mfVEP responses in eyes with GON. PMID:21735265

  4. Brainstem Neurons Survive the Identical Ischemic Stress That Kills Higher Neurons: Insight to the Persistent Vegetative State

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, C. Devin; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Kim, Danielle; Jin, Albert Y.; Andrew, R. David

    2014-01-01

    Global ischemia caused by heart attack, pulmonary failure, near-drowning or traumatic brain injury often damages the higher brain but not the brainstem, leading to a ‘persistent vegetative state’ where the patient is awake but not aware. Approximately 30,000 U.S. patients are held captive in this condition but not a single research study has addressed how the lower brain is preferentially protected in these people. In the higher brain, ischemia elicits a profound anoxic depolarization (AD) causing neuronal dysfunction and vasoconstriction within minutes. Might brainstem nuclei generate less damaging AD and so be more resilient? Here we compared resistance to acute injury induced from simulated ischemia by ‘higher’ hippocampal and striatal neurons versus brainstem neurons in live slices from rat and mouse. Light transmittance (LT) imaging in response to 10 minutes of oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) revealed immediate and acutely damaging AD propagating through gray matter of neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex. In adjacent brainstem nuclei, OGD-evoked AD caused little tissue injury. Whole-cell patch recordings from hippocampal and striatal neurons under OGD revealed sudden membrane potential loss that did not recover. In contrast brainstem neurons from locus ceruleus and mesencephalic nucleus as well as from sensory and motor nuclei only slowly depolarized and then repolarized post-OGD. Two-photon microscopy confirmed non-recoverable swelling and dendritic beading of hippocampal neurons during OGD, while mesencephalic neurons in midbrain appeared uninjured. All of the above responses were mimicked by bath exposure to 100 µM ouabain which inhibits the Na+/K+ pump or to 1–10 nM palytoxin which converts the pump into an open cationic channel. Therefore during ischemia the Na+/K+ pump of higher neurons fails quickly and extensively compared to naturally resilient hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. The selective survival of lower brain regions that maintain vital functions will support the persistent vegetative state. PMID:24802253

  5. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials and subjective visual vertical testing in patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed

    2014-11-20

    Otolith function in subjects with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is investigated through vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) testing. The study group included 62 patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (30 females, 32 males), with age range 24-56 years (40.6 ± 9.1). The control group included 44 healthy volunteers of similar age and gender distribution. The entire study group had: (1) serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/ml; (2) normal bone mineral density as indicated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with T-score >-1; (3) normal middle ear function; (4) Age is ?60 years. All subjects enrolled in the current study underwent audiovestibular evaluation consisting of pure-tone audiometry, immittancemetry, cervical VEMP (cVEMP), ocular VEMP (oVEMP), and SSV. The entire control group had normal cVEMP, two subjects had abnormal oVEMP. Thirty-three subjects (53 %) in the study group had abnormal oVEMP and 31 subjects (50 %) had abnormal cVEMP. Forty-one (66 %) had abnormal VEMP when abnormal VEMP was considered as either abnormal oVEMP or cVEMP. The entire control and study groups had normal SSV test results. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with development of otolith dysfunction affecting both the utricle and saccule. This was suggested by the high prevalence of abnormal ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) in the study group. PMID:25411075

  6. Feasibility of intraoperative motor-evoked potential monitoring for skull base tumors with a high risk of postoperative motor deterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimiaki Hashiguchi; Takato Morioka; Fumiaki Yoshida; Koji Yoshimoto; Tadahisa Shono; Yoshihiro Natori; Shinji Nagata; Tomio Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To establish the validity and utility of motor-evoked potential (MEPs) monitoring for skull base tumor resection, we explored\\u000a the relationship between MEP monitoring results and postoperative motor function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  MEPs were successfully monitored during 76 operations in 68 patients with a high risk of motor morbidity. MEP monitoring data\\u000a were correlated with perioperative clinical motor function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  MEPs remained stable in 56

  7. The amplitude of lower leg motor evoked potentials is a reliable measure when controlled for torque and motor task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubertus J. A. van Hedel; Christian Murer; Volker Dietz; Armin Curt

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives\\u000a   Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes have the disadvantage of a high variability when repeatedly assessed. This affects\\u000a the reliability of MEP amplitude measurements taken during the course of motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The study\\u000a investigated the reliability of anterior tibial (TA) MEP measures controlled for dorsal flexion torque and motor task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   TA MEPs were recorded

  8. Determining electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds: A comparison of computer versus human analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Glassman, E. Katelyn; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Current cochlear implants (CIs) have telemetry capabilities for measuring the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™; Cochlear) and Neural Response Imaging (NRI; Advanced Bionics [AB]) can measure ECAP responses across a range of stimulus levels to obtain an amplitude growth function. Software-specific algorithms automatically mark the leading negative peak, N1, and the following positive peak/plateau, P2, and apply linear regression to estimate ECAP threshold. Alternatively, clinicians may apply expert judgments to modify the peak markers placed by the software algorithms, and/or use visual detection to identify the lowest level yielding a measurable ECAP response. The goals of this study were to: (1) assess the variability between human and computer decisions for (a) marking N1 and P2, and (b) determination of linear regression threshold (LRT) and visual detection threshold (VDT); and (2) compare LRT and VDT methods within and across human and computer decision methods. Design ECAP amplitude growth functions were measured for three electrodes in each of 20 ears (10 Cochlear Nucleus® 24RE/CI512, and 10 AB CII/90K). LRT, defined as the current level yielding an ECAP with zero amplitude, was calculated for both computer- (C-LRT) and human-picked peaks (H-LRT). VDT, defined as the lowest level resulting in a measurable ECAP response, was also calculated for both computer- (C-VDT) and human-picked peaks (H-VDT). Because NRI assigns peak markers to all waveforms but does not include waveforms with amplitudes less than 20 ?V in its regression calculation, C-VDT for AB subjects was defined as the lowest current level yielding an amplitude ?20 ?V. Results Overall, there were significant correlations between human and computer decisions for peak-marker placement, LRT, and VDT for both manufacturers (r = 0.78 to 1.00, p < 0.001). For Cochlear devices, LRT and VDT correlated equally well for both computer- and human-picked peaks (r = 0.98 to 0.99, p < 0.001), which likely reflects the well-defined NRT algorithm and the lower noise floor in the 24RE and CI512 devices. For AB devices, correlations between LRT and VDT for both peak-picker methods were weaker than for Cochlear devices (r = 0.69 to 0.85, p < 0.001), which likely reflect the higher noise floor of the system. Disagreement between computer and human decisions regarding the presence of an ECAP response occurred for 5.0 % of traces for Cochlear devices and 2.1 % of traces for AB devices. Conclusions Results indicate that human and computer peak-picking methods can be used with similar accuracy for both Cochlear and AB devices. Either C-VDT or C-LRT can be used with equal confidence for Cochlear 24RE and CI512 recipients because both methods are strongly correlated with human decisions. However for AB devices, greater variability exists between different threshold determination methods. This finding should be considered in the context of using ECAP measures to assist with programming CIs. PMID:22885406

  9. Cortical configuration by stimulus onset visual evoked potentials (SO-VEPs) predicts performance on a motion direction discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Zalar, Bojan; Martin, Tim; Kavcic, Voyko

    2015-06-01

    The slowing of information processing, a hallmark of cognitive aging, has several origins. Previously we reported that in a motion direction discrimination task, older as compared to younger participants showed prolonged non-decision time, an index of an early perceptual stage, while in motion onset visual evoked potentials (MO-VEPs) the P1 component was enhanced and N2 was diminished. We did not find any significant correlations between behavioral and MO-VEP measures. Here, we investigated the role of age in encoding and perceptual processing of stimulus onset visually evoked potentials (SO-VEPs). Twelve healthy adults (age<55years) and 19 elderly (age>55years) performed a motion direction discrimination task during EEG recording. Prior to motion, the stimulus consisted of a static cloud of white dots on a black background. As expected, SO-VEPs evoked well defined P1, N1, and P2 components. Elderly participants as compared to young participants showed increased P1 amplitude while their P2 amplitude was reduced. In addition elderly participants showed increased latencies for P1 and N1 components. Contrary to the findings with MO-VEPs, SO-VEP parameters were significant predictors of average response times and diffusion model parameters. Our electrophysiological results support the notion that slowing of information processing in older adults starts at the very beginning of encoding in visual cortical processing, most likely in striate and extrastriate visual cortices. More importantly, the earliest SO-VEP components, possibly reflecting configuration of visual cortices and encoding processes, predict subsequent prolonging and tardiness of perceptual and higher-level cognitive processes. PMID:25889693

  10. Clinical Use of Skull Tap Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials for the Diagnoses of the Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Erdem; Lachowska, Magdalena; Piercha?a, Katarzyna; Morawski, Krzysztof; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Delgado, Rafael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To document our experiences using a new skull tapping induced Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (tap VEMPs) technique combined with standard Auditory Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (AC VEMPs) for advanced clinical assessment of cerebellopontine angle tumor (CPAT) patients. Design and Study Sample. Three patients were selected in order to highlight observations shown in a larger patient population and to show the variability of the findings. Both tap VEMPs and AC VEMPs were acquired from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) with EMG-based biofeedback and monitoring. Results. The usefulness of VEMPs was demonstrated, indicating the presence of a tumor and contributing additional information as to the involved nerve bundles in two out of the three cases. Conclusion. Due to the sensory organ dependency and related innervations differences, acquiring both AC VEMPs and tap VEMPs is likely to increase the probability of diagnosing CPATs and provide more information on the involved vestibular nerve bundles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the possible expansion and combination of tap VEMPs and AC VEMPs techniques into a clinical diagnostic battery for advanced assessment of CPAT patients and its contribution as a guideline for the use of tap VEMPs in general. PMID:24804198

  11. Late auditory evoked potentials in elderly long-term hearing-aid users with unilateral or bilateral fittings.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Sibylle; Probst, Rudolf; Bodmer, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term unilateral and bilateral amplification on central auditory processing in elderly people with symmetrical hearing loss using late auditory evoked potentials. It was hypothesized that in the unilateral setting stimulation of the aided ear would yield an acclimatization effect with larger amplitudes and shorter latencies of the components P1, N1 and P2 compared to those of the unaided ear. Auditory evoked potentials were elicited by 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz pure tones at 55, 70 and 85 dB SPL presentation level delivered either to the left or right ear. Unilaterally and bilaterally fitted experienced hearing-aid users and a control group of normally hearing adults, all aged at least 60 years, participated. The responses of the unilateral hearing-aid users did not differ significantly for any of the components P1, N1 or P2 between the aided and unaided ears, but a significant interaction between ear and frequency was present for P2 amplitudes. P2 amplitudes were significantly smaller for the 0.5- and 1-kHz stimuli and tended to be larger for the 2-kHz stimulus in the aided ear suggesting an acclimatization effect. Larger P2 amplitudes were observed in the unilaterally fitted group, which was interpreted as a correlate of more effortful auditory processing in unilaterally fitted people. PMID:21569828

  12. Audiogram of a stranded Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) measured using auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Aude F; Nachtigall, Paul E; Quintos, Christopher T; Schofield, T David; Look, Dera A; Levine, Gregg A; Turner, Jason P

    2011-07-15

    Quantifying and understanding the impact of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals has been the focus of many researchers both in laboratory settings as well as in the field. This study presents the audiogram of a sub-adult Blainville's beaked whale that stranded in Hawaii. The hearing measurements were conducted using the non-invasive auditory brainstem response technique. A total of 11 sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones were tested ranging from 5.6 to 160 kHz. The audiogram data indicated that the region of best hearing was found between 40 and 50 kHz with thresholds below 50 dB. This frequency range partially overlaps with the frequency modulated upsweep that Blainville's beaked whales have been reported to use during echolocation. These results match the frequency range obtained from the hearing measurements of a Gervais' beaked whale previously tested using contact acoustic stimulation and emphasize the importance of obtaining rapid hearing measurements on live stranded animals to improve the understanding of poorly known species. PMID:21697433

  13. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (p<0.05) smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  14. Air- and bone-conducted Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) in otosclerosis: recordings before and after stapes surgery

    PubMed Central

    Trivelli, M; D’Ascanio, L; Pappacena, M; Greco, F; Salvinelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study was to investigate, in a randomized prospective trial, air-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (AC-VEMPs) and bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (BC-VEMPs) before and after successful stapedotomy. Enrolled in the study were 41 consecutive patients (32 female, 9 male; mean age 36 years) (42 ears) with otosclerosis. Audiological evaluations and diagnosis of otosclerosis were made according to the guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium. Successful stapedotomy was carried out in all otosclerotic ears. Air- and bone-conducted 4-frequency pure tone average (4-PTA), air-bone gap (ABG), AC- and BC-VEMPs were evaluated pre- and post-operatively. As far as concerns results, pre-operatively, AC- and BC-VEMPs could be recorded in 9 (21.4%) and 16 (38.1%) otosclerotic ears, respectively. Lower ABG was detected in patients with AC-VEMPs in comparison to those in whom air-conducted potentials (p = 0.032) could not be elicited. At 12-month post-operative follow-up, AC-VEMPs were present in 11 (26.2%) ears, while BC-VEMPs could be elicited in 15 (35.7%) cases. Reduced bone-conduction 4-PTA was observed in patients with BC-VEMPs in comparison to those without recordable bone-conducted potentials pre- and post-operatively (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively). A significantly (p = 0.022) lower air-conducted 4-PTA was measured post-stapedotomy in patients with BC-VEMPs in comparison to those without elicitable bone-conducted potentials. In conclusion, VEMPs reduced elicitability, in otosclerosis, is likely due to conductive hearing loss and inner ear impairment. PMID:20559467

  15. On the significance of giant somatosensory evoked potentials in cortical myoclonus.

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, J C; Obeso, J A; Marsden, C D

    1984-01-01

    Four patients with cortical myoclonus were studied. All had reflex muscle jerking and grossly enlarged somatosensory evoked responses (SEPs) following electrical stimulation of the digital nerves. In addition, three of the patients had spontaneous or action-induced myoclonus. Back-averaging the EEG from these spontaneous muscle jerks showed a large positive wave over the contralateral somatomotor cortex which preceded the jerk by about 20 ms. Administration of lisuride (0.1 mg iv) reduced the severity of the reflex and spontaneous myoclonus, but had no effect on, or increased the size of the SEP. Two of the patients also received 1 mg clonazepam iv. As with lisuride, the severity of myoclonic jerking was reduced although the size of the SEP was increased. It is concluded that the usual association between giant SEPs and reflex muscle jerking can be abolished by acute administration of lisuride and clonazepam in patients with cortical myoclonus. PMID:6420519

  16. The origin, and application of somatosensory evoked potentials as a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Steven R.; Murphy, Bernadette; Lee, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentionals (SEPs) can be used to elucidate differences in cortical activity associated with a spinal manipulation (SM) intervention. The purpose of this narrative review is to overview the origin and application of SEPs, a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity. Summaries of: 1) parameters for SEP generation and waveform recording; 2) SEP peak nomenclature, interpretation and generators; 3) peaks pertaining to tactile information processing (relevant to both chiropractic and other manual therapies); 4) utilization and application of SEPs; 5) SEPs concurrent with an experimental task and at baseline/control/pretest; 6) SEPs pain studies; and 7) SEPs design (pre/post) and neural reorganization/neuroplasticity; and 8) SEPs and future chiropractic research are all reviewed. Understanding what SEPs are, and their application allows chiropractors, educators, and other manual therapists interested in SM to understand the context, and importance of research findings from SM studies that involve SEPs. PMID:24932021

  17. Non-linearity of visual evoked potentials in cerveau isolé and midpontine pretrigeminal cats.

    PubMed

    Shibagaki, M; Kiyono, S; Kawashima, T; Watanabe, S

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics of the visual evoked responses to the flickering flash stimulation were studied in the cerveau isolé and midpontine pretrigeminal cats. The flash stimulation frequency was changed stepwise between 1 and 30 Hz in increasing and decreasing order. In all cases of both preparations, with drawing of fixed sweep speed of 200 msec in whole length, P1 and N1 latencies in the successive response slightly prolonged progressively 1 to about 20 Hz and thereafter shortened about 20-30 Hz stimulus frequencies in the course of the increasing phase, and vice versa in the course of the decreasing phase. Moreover, no difference in each latency (P1, N1, P2, N2) was found at the same stimulus frequency during increasing and decreasing phases. In the amplitude taken from the P1-N1 component, the peak was found in 5-9 Hz frequency bands. This peak was higher during the decreasing phase than during the increasing phase, which indicated a hysteresis phenomenon. A peak of power for the 1st harmonics was found at 3-6 Hz driving frequency bands, and that of the 2nd harmonics at 6-10 Hz. In the state without flash stimulus, no peaks or valleys in the power spectrum were found in specific frequencies, for example 3-10 Hz. The peak in the amplitude and that in the power spectrum at 3-10 Hz stimulus frequency bands suggested an entrainment phenomenon induced by forced oscillation. The phenomena of entrainment and hysteresis suggest the existence of a non-linear structure in the oscillation generating systems of visual evoked response. PMID:2578379

  18. Contribution of Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) testing in the assessment and the differential diagnosis of otosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tramontani, Ourania; Gkoritsa, Eleni; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Korres, Stavros G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical importance of Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) in the assessment and differential diagnosis of otosclerosis and otologic diseases characterized by “pseudo-conductive” components. We also investigated the clinical appearance of balance disorders in patients with otosclerosis by correlating VEMP results with the findings of caloric testing and pure tone audiometry(PTA). Material/Methods Air-conducted(AC) 4-PTA, bone-conducted(BC) 4-PTA, air-bone Gap(ABG), AC, BC tone burst evoked VEMP, and calorics were measured preoperatively in 126 otosclerotic ears. Results The response rate of the AC-VEMPs and BC-VEMPs was 29.36% and 44.03%, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the means of ABG, AC 4-PTA, and BC 4-PTA in the otosclerotic ears in relation to AC-VEMP elicitability. About one-third of patients presented with disequilibrium. A statistically significant interaction was found between calorics and dizziness in relation to PTA thresholds. No relationship was found between calorics and dizziness with VEMPs responses. Conclusions AC and BC VEMPs can be elicited in ears with otosclerosis. AC-VEMP is more vulnerable to conductive hearing loss. Evaluation of AC-VEMP thresholds can be added in the diagnostic work-up of otosclerosis in case of doubt, enhancing differential diagnosis in patients with air-bone gaps. Otosclerosis is not a cause of canal paresis or vertigo. PMID:24509900

  19. The Efficiency of Simultaneous Binaural Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials: A Comparative Study with Monaural Acoustic Stimulation in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Beom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the test-retest reliability and convenience of simultaneous binaural acoustic-evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP). Methods Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of ear diseases participated in this study. All subjects underwent oVEMP test with both separated monaural acoustic stimulation and simultaneous binaural acoustic stimulation. For evaluating test-retest reliability, three repetitive sessions were performed in each ear for calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for both monaural and binaural tests. We analyzed data from the biphasic n1-p1 complex, such as latency of peak, inter-peak amplitude, and asymmetric ratio of amplitude in both ears. Finally, we checked the total time required to complete each test for evaluating test convenience. Results No significant difference was observed in amplitude and asymmetric ratio in comparison between monaural and binaural oVEMP. However, latency was slightly delayed in binaural oVEMP. In test-retest reliability analysis, binaural oVEMP showed excellent ICC values ranging from 0.68 to 0.98 in latency, asymmetric ratio, and inter-peak amplitude. Additionally, the test time was shorter in binaural than monaural oVEMP. Conclusion oVEMP elicited from binaural acoustic stimulation yields similar satisfactory results as monaural stimulation. Further, excellent test-retest reliability and shorter test time were achieved in binaural than in monaural oVEMP. PMID:23205222

  20. Age effect on far field potentials from the brain stem after transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas J. Fallgatter; Ann-Christine Ehlis; Thomas M. Ringel; Martin J. Herrmann

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new electrophysiological method for the assessment of vagus nerve function in the brainstem has been proposed in healthy participants. Before this procedure may be applied to patients with neurodegenerative diseases, its feasibility in elderly healthy participants and a possible age effect on the measurement have to be investigated. The vagus sensory evoked potentials (VSEP) after transcutaneous electric stimulation

  1. The effect of oral prednisolone on visual evoked potential latencies in acute optic neuritis monitored in a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski; Hans-Christoph Diener; Klaus Dietz; Eberhart Zrenner

    1995-01-01

    The Tübingen study of optic neuritis treatment was started in 1980 to apply new and sensitive tests for monitoring a potential therapeutical steroid effect on the course of acute optic neuritis. Visual evoked potentials were used to assess an effect of oral methylprednisolone in a randomized, controlled trial. Forty-eight patients with acute optic neuritis were treated orally either with methylprednisolone

  2. RAT AND HUMAN VISUAL-EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDED UNDER COMPARABLE CONDITIONS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF PREDICTING HUMAN NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A search was undertaken for contributions of sustained and transient visual elements to the rat visual-evoked potential (VEP) using procedures similar to those used in humans (Hudnell et al., in preparation). voked potentials were recorded following either pattern-reversal or pat...

  3. INHALATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE (COS) PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND ALTERED BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENSORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISHCER 344N RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the amount of carbonyl sulfide (COS) emissions and the lack of toxicological data, COS was listed in the Clean Air Act of 1990 as a Hazardous Air Pollutant. In 1999 COS was nominated by the US EPA to the National Toxicology Program for additional toxicological investig...

  4. 12 WEEK EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND CHANGES IN BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENAORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISCHER 344N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, is a metabolite of carbon disulfide, is produced by the combustion of organic material, and is found occurring in nature. COS was included in a Toxic Substances Control Act request f...

  5. [Visual evoked potentials produced by monocular flash stimuli in the cerebral cortex of the rabbit. I. Typography].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cobo, J C; Ruiz-Beramendi, M; Pérez-Arroyo, M

    1990-12-01

    The visually evoked potentials in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated eye in rabbit, can be described topographically as follows. While a positive wave (P1) begins forming in the anterior zones and in the V I binocular zone, the N0 wave, at times very large, is produced in a more occipital zone, which corresponds to the visual streak. Immediately afterwards, the positivity, P1, practically invades the whole of the hemisphere. After this, the N1 wave which is produced in the most posterior parts of the V I, begins forming. The whole phenomenon comes to an end when the P2 wave is generated in the most occipital zones. PMID:2099533

  6. [Evoked potentials of the cat inferior colliculus to acoustic stimuli simulating sound source movement with different velocities in opposite directions].

    PubMed

    Bekhterev, N N

    2003-06-01

    Amplitude changes of inferior colliculus evoked potentials (EPs) in anaesthetized adult cats were studied under presentation of acoustic stimuli simulating both azimuth-moving and stationary sound source. The movement was simulated with gradual changes of interaural time delay between binaurally presented click trains. It was shown that the amplitude of EPs elicited by "moving" signals depended on the velocity of movement. Amplitude differences between EPs to "moving" and stationary stimuli were observed under motion velocities up to 320 deg./s. The greatest response amplitudes in different experiments took place under velocities within the range of 67-320 deg./s with most of them recorded under velocities of 170 and 125 deg./s. Amplitude of the responses to lateral-medial movement with any velocity were always greater than those to opposite direction of movement with the same velocity. PMID:12966705

  7. Time courses of attentional modulation in neural amplification and synchronization measured with steady-state visual-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Endogenous attention modulates the amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In efforts to decipher the neural mechanisms of attentional modulation, we compared the time course of attentional modulation of SSVEP amplitude (thought to reflect the magnitude of neural population activity) and phase coherence (thought to reflect neural response synchronization). We presented two stimuli flickering at different frequencies in the left and right visual hemifields and asked observers to shift their attention to either stimulus. Our results demonstrated that attention increased SSVEP phase coherence earlier than it increased SSVEP amplitude, with a positive correlation between the attentional modulations of SSVEP phase coherence and amplitude. Furthermore, the behavioral dynamics of attention shifts were more closely associated with changes in phase coherence than with changes in amplitude. These results are consistent with the possibility that attention increases neural response synchronization, which in turn leads to increased neural population activity. PMID:22360591

  8. Effect of dexmedetomidine-etomidate-fentanyl combined anesthesia on somatosensory- and motor-evoked potentials in patients undergoing spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, SHENG; DAI, NA; CHENG, ZHENGYAN; SHAO, WEI; FU, ZHIJIAN

    2014-01-01

    This aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients undergoing spinal surgery. A total of 36 patients who received spinal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (n=18 per group), group C, the test group and group D, the control group, and these groups were subjected to a matching anesthesia induction. In brief, the anesthesia was administered via injection of etomidate and fentanyl; once the patients were unconscious, a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted, SEPs and MEPs were monitored and the collected data were considered to be basic data. Cisatracurium was subsequently injected and an endotracheal tube (7#) was inserted to replace the LMA. The following procedures were conducted for anesthesia maintenance: Group C, the anesthesia was maintained via target-controlled infusion of etomidate and intermittent injection of fentanyl; and group D, DEX (0.5 ?g/kg) was injected over a duration of 10 min and then pumped at a rate of 0.5 ?g/kg/h. In the two groups, all of the other drugs used were the same and a muscle relaxant was not administered. The bispectral index was maintained between 45 and 55 during surgery, and the SEPs and MEPs were monitored continuously until the surgery was completed. No significant difference in duration and amplitude of the SEPs (P15-N20) was identified between group C and D (P>0.05). Furthermore, the MEPs were monitored in the two groups at specific durations and no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). The SEPs and MEPs were maintained in the patients who were administered with the DEX-etomidate-fentanyl combined anesthesia during spinal surgery. PMID:24940443

  9. Effect of dexmedetomidine-etomidate-fentanyl combined anesthesia on somatosensory- and motor-evoked potentials in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Dai, Na; Cheng, Zhengyan; Shao, Wei; Fu, Zhijian

    2014-05-01

    This aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients undergoing spinal surgery. A total of 36 patients who received spinal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (n=18 per group), group C, the test group and group D, the control group, and these groups were subjected to a matching anesthesia induction. In brief, the anesthesia was administered via injection of etomidate and fentanyl; once the patients were unconscious, a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted, SEPs and MEPs were monitored and the collected data were considered to be basic data. Cisatracurium was subsequently injected and an endotracheal tube (7#) was inserted to replace the LMA. The following procedures were conducted for anesthesia maintenance: Group C, the anesthesia was maintained via target-controlled infusion of etomidate and intermittent injection of fentanyl; and group D, DEX (0.5 ?g/kg) was injected over a duration of 10 min and then pumped at a rate of 0.5 ?g/kg/h. In the two groups, all of the other drugs used were the same and a muscle relaxant was not administered. The bispectral index was maintained between 45 and 55 during surgery, and the SEPs and MEPs were monitored continuously until the surgery was completed. No significant difference in duration and amplitude of the SEPs (P15-N20) was identified between group C and D (P>0.05). Furthermore, the MEPs were monitored in the two groups at specific durations and no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). The SEPs and MEPs were maintained in the patients who were administered with the DEX-etomidate-fentanyl combined anesthesia during spinal surgery. PMID:24940443

  10. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  11. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  12. Linguistic status of timbre influences pitch encoding in the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Smalt, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to assess the effects of the linguistic status of timbre on pitch processing in the brainstem. Brainstem frequency-following responses were evoked by the Mandarin high rising lexical tone superimposed on a native vowel quality ([i]), nonnative vowel quality ([œ]), and iterated rippled noise (non-speech). Results revealed that voice fundamental frequency magnitudes were larger when concomitant with a native vowel quality as compared to either nonnative vowel quality or non-speech timbre. Such experience-dependent effects suggest that subcortical sensory encoding of pitch interacts with timbre in the human brainstem. As a consequence, responses of the perceptual system can be differentially shaped to pitch patterns in relation to the linguistic status of their concomitant timbre. PMID:21934635

  13. Consciousness and the Brainstem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvizi, Josef; Damasio, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a theoretical framework and set of hypotheses aimed at accounting for consciousness in neurobiological terms. Discusses the functional neuroanatomy of nuclei in the brainstem reticular formation. Notes that the views presented are compatible with the idea that the reticular formation modulates the electrophysiological activity of the…

  14. Speech Auditory Brainstem Response through hearing aid stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bellier, Ludovic; Veuillet, Evelyne; Vesson, Jean-François; Bouchet, Patrick; Caclin, Anne; Thai-Van, Hung

    2015-07-01

    Millions of people across the world are hearing impaired, and rely on hearing aids to improve their everyday life. Objective audiometry could optimize hearing aid fitting, and is of particular interest for non-communicative patients. Speech Auditory Brainstem Response (speech ABR), a fine electrophysiological marker of speech encoding, is presently seen as a promising candidate for implementing objective audiometry; yet, unlike lower-frequency auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) such as cortical AEPs or auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), aided-speech ABRs (i.e. speech ABRs through hearing aid stimulation) have almost never been recorded. This may be due to their high-frequency components requesting a high temporal precision of the stimulation. We assess here a new approach to record high-quality and artifact-free speech ABR while stimulating directly through hearing aids. In 4 normal-hearing adults, we recorded speech ABR evoked by a /ba/ syllable binaurally delivered through insert earphones for quality control or through hearing aids. To assess the presence of a potential stimulus artifact, recordings were also done in mute conditions with the exact same potential sources of stimulus artifacts as in the main runs. Hearing aid stimulation led to artifact-free speech ABR in each participant, with the same quality as when using insert earphones, as shown with signal-to-noise (SNR) measurements. Our new approach consisting in directly transmitting speech stimuli through hearing aids allowed for a perfect temporal precision mandatory in speech ABR recordings, and could thus constitute a decisive step in hearing impairment investigation and in hearing aid fitting improvement. PMID:25828076

  15. Functional Imaging of the Human Brainstem during Somatosensory Input and Autonomic Output

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past half a century, many investigations in experimental animal have explored the functional roles of specific regions in the brainstem. Despite the accumulation of a considerable body of knowledge in, primarily, anesthetized preparations, relatively few studies have explored brainstem function in awake humans. It is important that human brainstem function is explored given that many neurological conditions, from obstructive sleep apnea, chronic pain, and hypertension, likely involve significant changes in the processing of information within the brainstem. Recent advances in the collection and processing of magnetic resonance images have resulted in the possibility of exploring brainstem activity changes in awake healthy individuals and in those with various clinical conditions. We and others have begun to explore changes in brainstem activity in humans during a number of challenges, including cutaneous and muscle pain, as well as during maneuvers that evoke increases in sympathetic nerve activity. More recently we have successfully recorded sympathetic nerve activity concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem, which will allow us, for the first time to explore brainstem sites directly responsible for conditions such as hypertension. Since many pathophysiological conditions no doubt involve changes in brainstem function and structure, defining these changes will likely result in a greater ability to develop more effective treatment regimens. PMID:24062670

  16. Modulation of the perforant path-evoked potential in dentate gyrus as a function of intrahippocampal ?-adrenoceptor agonist concentration in urethane-anesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Lethbridge, Rebecca L; Walling, Susan G; Harley, Carolyn W

    2014-01-01

    Background ?-adrenoceptor activation in the hippocampus is sufficient to induce heterosynaptic long-term potentiation of perforant path input to the dentate gyrus. However, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest the plasticity effects of ?-adrenoceptor activation may vary depending on the level of receptor activation. Methods The present experiments use an in vivo model concurrently infusing differing concentrations of the ?-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol (ISO; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?mol/L in aCSF; 1 ?L over 12.5 min) in the dentate gyrus, while monitoring changes in the perforant path-evoked potential at the same site. Results Long-term depression (LTD) of fEPSP slope was elicited by 0.1 ?mol/L ISO. Higher doses did not alter fEPSP slope. Maximal long-term potentiation of the perforant path-evoked population spike (183% >3 h) occurred at 10 ?mol/L ISO. Transient depression of spike amplitude occurred at 0.1 ?mol/L ISO. Conclusions These data demonstrate concentration-dependent effects of ?-adrenoceptor activation on the perforant path-evoked potential. Long-term depression and long-term potentiation of perforant path-evoked responses are variably elicited as a function of the degree of receptor activation. PMID:24653959

  17. Source analysis of short and long latency vestibular-evoked potentials (VsEPs) produced by left vs. right ear air-conducted 500 Hz tone pips.

    PubMed

    Todd, N P M; Paillard, A C; Kluk, K; Whittle, E; Colebatch, J G

    2014-06-01

    Todd et al. (2014) have recently demonstrated the presence of vestibular dependent changes both in the morphology and in the intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) when passing through the vestibular threshold as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In this paper we extend this work by comparing left vs. right ear stimulation and by conducting a source analysis of the resulting evoked potentials of short and long latency. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects were recruited and evoked potentials were recorded to both left- and right-ear sound stimulation, above and below vestibular threshold. Below VEMP threshold, typical AEPs were recorded, consisting of mid-latency (MLR) waves Na and Pa followed by long latency AEPs (LAEPs) N1 and P2. In the supra-threshold condition, the expected changes in morphology were observed, consisting of: (1) short-latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) which have no auditory correlate, i.e. the ocular VEMP (OVEMP) and inion response related potentials; (2) a later deflection, labelled N42/P52, followed by the LAEPs N1 and P2. Statistical analysis of the vestibular dependent responses indicated a contralateral effect for inion related short-latency responses and a left-ear/right-hemisphere advantage for the long-latency responses. Source analysis indicated that the short-latency effects may be mediated by a contralateral projection to left cerebellum, while the long-latency effects were mediated by a contralateral projection to right cingulate cortex. In addition we found evidence of a possible vestibular contribution to the auditory T-complex in radial temporal lobe sources. These last results raise the possibility that acoustic activation of the otolith organs could potentially contribute to auditory processing. PMID:24699384

  18. Contrasting behavior of beta event-related synchronization and somatosensory evoked potential after median nerve stimulation during finger manipulation in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Pfurtscheller; M Woertz; G Müller; S Wriessnegger; K Pfurtscheller

    2002-01-01

    Electrical median nerve stimulation during rest results in two cortical responses: the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP); and the induced beta oscillations (beta event-related synchronization (ERS)). Both types of responses were recorded with electroencephalography and studied during rest and motor behavior in eight normal subjects. During manipulation of a cube with the fingers of the right hand, the beta ERS around

  19. BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION PRODUCED BY PROPOXUR AND DEPRESSION OF THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS IN LONG EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propoxur is a widely used N-methyl carbamate pesticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases (ChE), which may lead to cholinergic toxicity. Flash evoked potentials (FEPs) are a neurophysiological response following stimulation of the visual system with flashes of light. They ar...

  20. DEPRESSION OF THE PHOTIC AFTER DISCHARGE OF FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS BY PHYSOSTIGMINE, CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO INHIBITION OF BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of N-methyl carbamate pesticides on the photic after discharge (PhAD) of flash evoked potentials (FEPs) and the relationship between inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and the PhAD were evaluated. FEPs were recorded in Long Evans rats treated with physo...

  1. The effect of deep brain stimulation on the frontal N30 component of somatosensory evoked potentials in advanced Parkinson's disease patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pierantozzi; P Mazzone; A Bassi; P. M Rossini; A Peppe; M. G Altibrandi; A Stefani; G Bernardi; P Stanzione

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: In the present study we investigated whether in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients the frontal component of short somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation may be modified by basal ganglia deep brain stimulation (DBS).Methods: We recorded the SEPs in 6 PD patients undergoing bilateral functional neurosurgery in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (4 patients) and in the

  2. Absent median nerve P14 far-field somatosensory evoked potential with persistent tibial nerve P30 component in a patient with ischemic pontine lesion.

    PubMed

    Insola, A; Padua, L; Valeriani, M

    2011-05-01

    In a patient with an ischemic lesion of the right paramedian region of the pons, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recording to median nerve stimulation showed an absent P14 response with still preserved P13 and N18 potentials. The tibial nerve P30 and N33 SEP components were normal. Our results suggest that the median nerve P14 potential, absent in our patient, has a different origin from the tibial nerve P30 response, normal in the present case. PMID:21624710

  3. Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Bullock; Bernd U. Budelmann

    1991-01-01

    Up to five microelectrodes inserted through short hypodermic needles in the cranial cartilage of Sepia officinalis recorded potentials while the cuttlefish moved freely in a small enclosure. Compound field potentials and unit spikes were seen during ongoing, spontaneous activity and after sensory stimulation.

  4. Axon reflexes evoked by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation are mediated by tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated Na+ channels in intestinal afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Morales, M; Ochoa-Cortes, F; Stern, E; Lomax, A E; Vanner, S

    2010-08-01

    Capsaicin-sensitive nerves mediate axon vasodilator reflexes in the intestine, but the ion channels underlying action potential (AP) propagation are poorly understood. To examine the role of voltage-gated Na(+) channels underlying these reflexes, we measured vasomotor and electrophysiological responses elicited by capsaicin in guinea pig and mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, submucosal arterioles, and mesenteric arteries in vitro. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists dilated guinea pig ileal submucosal arterioles and were blocked by capsazepine and ruthenium red. In double-chamber baths, capsaicin-evoked activation of TRPV1 on proximal perivascular nerves in the left chamber evoked dilations of the distal segment of the submucosal arteriole in the right chamber. Dilations were tetrodotoxin (TTX) (1 microM)-resistant, but reducing extracellular Na(+) (10% solution) or applying the Na(v) 1.8 antagonist A-803467 [5-(4-chlorophenyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2-carboxamide] (1 microM) in the proximal chamber blocked capsaicin-evoked dilations in the distal chamber (88%; P = 0.01 and 75% and P < 0.02, respectively). In mouse mesenteric arteries, electrical field stimulation and capsaicin (2 microM) evoked dilations that were also TTX-resistant. In perforated patch-clamp recordings, APs in mouse and guinea pig capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons were TTX-resistant but blocked by 10% extracellular Na(+). When capsaicin-evoked AP conduction was studied in in vitro ileal multiunit afferent nerve preparations, capsaicin responses were elicited in the presence of TTX, whereas distention-evoked responses were almost completely blocked by TTX. Together, these data provide evidence for TTX-resistant AP conduction in extrinsic sensory neurons that innervate guinea pig and mouse intestine and suggest this neural propagation is sufficient to mediate axon reflexes in the intestine. PMID:20439439

  5. The effects of neck flexion on cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in related sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A flexed neck posture leads to non-specific activation of the brain. Sensory evoked cerebral potentials and focal brain blood flow have been used to evaluate the activation of the sensory cortex. We investigated the effects of a flexed neck posture on the cerebral potentials evoked by visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli and focal brain blood flow in the related sensory cortices. Methods Twelve healthy young adults received right visual hemi-field, binaural auditory and left median nerve stimuli while sitting with the neck in a resting and flexed (20° flexion) position. Sensory evoked potentials were recorded from the right occipital region, Cz in accordance with the international 10–20 system, and 2 cm posterior from C4, during visual, auditory and somatosensory stimulations. The oxidative-hemoglobin concentration was measured in the respective sensory cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Latencies of the late component of all sensory evoked potentials significantly shortened, and the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials increased when the neck was in a flexed position. Oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right visual cortices were higher during visual stimulation in the flexed neck position. The left visual cortex is responsible for receiving the visual information. In addition, oxidative-hemoglobin concentrations in the bilateral auditory cortex during auditory stimulation, and in the right somatosensory cortex during somatosensory stimulation, were higher in the flexed neck position. Conclusions Visual, auditory and somatosensory pathways were activated by neck flexion. The sensory cortices were selectively activated, reflecting the modalities in sensory projection to the cerebral cortex and inter-hemispheric connections. PMID:23199306

  6. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Naber, John F.; Ofer Ziv, R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Kaplan, Henry J.; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 ± 7 nC (0.023 ± 0.016 mC cm-2) within the subretinal space and 150 ± 122 nC (0.375 ± 0.306 mC cm-2) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm-2, which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). Supported in part by The Charles D Kelman, MD Postdoctoral Scholar Award 2003 (YY); Boston VA Hospital (V523P-7278); Research to Prevent Blindness, New York City, NY and Kentucky Research Challenge Trust Fund (HJK).

  7. The effects of asymmetric hearing on bilateral brainstem function: findings in children with bimodal (electric and acoustic) hearing.

    PubMed

    Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    As implantation criteria are broadening to include children with asymmetric hearing loss, it is important to determine the degree of residual hearing needed to protect the bilateral auditory pathways for binaural hearing and whether there is a sensitive period in development for implantation in these children. We have been studying these questions in a growing cohort of children. In the present study, auditory brainstem responses were recorded in 21 children who had 2.2 ± 2.2 years of bimodal hearing. Responses were evoked by 11-Hz acoustic clicks presented to the non-implanted ear and with biphasic electric pulses presented to the implanted ear. Twelve of these children also completed a behavioural task in which they were asked to which side of their heads bilaterally presented clicks/pulses that varied in interaural level or timing lateralized. All children experienced a delay in the non-implanted ear that resulted in 2.0 ± 0.35 ms longer peak latencies. These were further prolonged in 7 children as measured by longer interwave latencies from this ear than from the implanted ear. Despite large asymmetries in timing of brainstem activity between the two ears, all children perceived changes in interaural level differences. They were unable to detect differences in interaural timing cues. Symmetric brainstem function suggests bilateral development was preserved in some children. Future work will explore whether these children have better potential for developing binaural hearing using bimodal input. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25998954

  8. Visual Perception and Frontal Lobe in Intellectual Disabilities: A Study with Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Ruata, J.; Caro-Martinez, E.; Perez, L. Martinez; Borja, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Perception disorders are frequently observed in persons with intellectual disability (ID) and their influence on cognition has been discussed. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanisms behind these alterations by analysing the visual event related potentials early component, the N1 wave, which is related to perception…

  9. Phorbol Esters Potentiate Evoked and Spontaneous Release by Different Presynaptic Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Waters; Stephen J Smith

    2000-01-01

    Phorbol esters enhance release from a variety of cell types. The mechanism by which phorbol esters potentiate presynaptic re- lease from central neurons is unclear, although effects of phorbol esters both on the readily releasable pool of vesicles and on presynaptic calcium channels have been shown. Using confocal microscopy and the fluorescent styryl dye FM 1-43, we have examined the

  10. Effects of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional brain activity: a combined event-related TMS and evoked potential study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Thut; G. Northoff; J. R. Ives; Y. Kamitani; A. Pfennig; F. Kampmann; D. L. Schomer; A. Pascual-Leone

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To further evaluate the potential of slew-rate limiting amplifiers to record electrophysiological signals in spite of concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and to explore the effects of single-pulse TMS on electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of functional brain activity.Methods: Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) to checkerboards were recorded in 7 right-handed subjects, while single-pulse TMS was applied to the occipital pole either at

  11. Attention to emotion: auditory-evoked potentials in an emotional choice reaction task and personality traits as assessed by the NEO FFI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena Mittermeier; Gregor Leicht; Susanne Karch; Ulrich Hegerl; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Oliver Pogarell; Christoph Mulert

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that attention to emotional content is related to specific changes in central information processing.\\u000a In particular, event-related potential (ERP) studies focusing on emotion recognition in pictures and faces or word processing\\u000a have pointed toward a distinct component of the visual-evoked potential, the EPN (‘early posterior negativity’), which has\\u000a been shown to be related to attention to emotional

  12. Ryanodine receptors contribute to the induction of nociceptive input-evoked long-term potentiation in the rat spinal cord slice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-Zhen Cheng; Ning Lü; Yu-Qiu Zhang; Zhi-Qi Zhao

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked field potentials by tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the spinal cord in vivo. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a downstream target for NO. The present study further explored the role of RyR in synaptic plasticity of the spinal pain pathway. RESULTS: By means

  13. Localisation of the sensorimotor cortex during surgery for brain tumours: feasibility and waveform patterns of somatosensory evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Romstock, J; Fahlbusch, R; Ganslandt, O; Nimsky, C; Strauss, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Intraoperative localisation of the sensorimotor cortex using the phase reversal of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is an essential tool for surgery in and around the perirolandic gyri, but unsuccessful and perplexing results have been reported. This study examines the effect of tumour masses on the waveform characteristics and feasibility of SEP compared with functional neuronavigation and electrical motor cortex mapping. Methods: In 230 patients with tumours of the sensorimotor region the SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 was recorded from the exposed cortex using a subdural grid or strip electrode. In one subgroup of 80 patients functional neuronavigation was performed with motor and sensory magnetic source imaging and in one subgroup of 40 patients the motor cortex hand area was localised by electrical stimulation mapping. Results: The intraoperative SEP method was successful in 92% of all patients, it could be shown that the success rate rather depended on the location of the lesion than on preoperative neurological deficits. In 13% of the patients with postcentral tumours no N20-P20 phase reversal was recorded but characteristic polyphasic and high amplitude waves at 25 ms and later made the identification of the postcentral gyrus possible nevertheless. Electrical mapping of the motor cortex took up to 30 minutes until a clear result was obtained. It was successful in 37 patients, but failed in three patients with precentral and central lesions. Functional neuronavigation indicating the tumour margins and the motor and sensory evoked fields was possible in all patients. Conclusion: The SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 is a simple and reliable technique, but the success rate is much lower in large central and postcentral tumours. With the use of polyphasic late waveforms the sensorimotor cortex may be localised. By contrast with motor electrical mapping it is less time consuming. Functional neuronavigation is a desirable tool for both preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative use during surgery on perirolandic tumours, but compensation for brain shift, accuracy, and cost effectiveness are still a matter for discussion. PMID:11796773

  14. Slope analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials in spinal cord injury for detecting contusion injury and focal demyelination.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gracee; Sherman, David; Maybhate, Anil; Gorelik, Michael; Kerr, Douglas A; Thakor, Nitish V; All, Angelo H

    2010-09-01

    In spinal cord injury (SCI) research there is a need for reliable measures to determine the extent of injury and assess progress due to natural recovery, drug therapy, surgical intervention or rehabilitation. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) can be used to quantitatively examine the functionality of the ascending sensory pathways in the spinal cord. A reduction of more than 50% in peak amplitude or an increase of more than 10% in latency are threshold indicators of injury. However, in the context of injury, SEP peaks are often obscured by noise. We have developed a new technique to investigate the morphology of the SEP waveform, rather than focusing on a small number of peaks. In this study, we compare SEP signals before and after SCI using two rat models: a contusion injury model and a focal experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Based on mean slope changes over the signal, we were able to effectively differentiate pre-injury and post-injury SEP values with high levels of sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (79.2%). PMID:20538464

  15. Evoked-potential recovery during double click stimulation in a beluga whale: Implications for biosonar gain control.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Popov, Vladimir V

    2015-05-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas using a double-pulse stimulation paradigm, specifically measuring the recovery (release from masking) of the second (test) response as a function of delay after the first (conditioning) pulse at various levels of the conditioning and test stimuli. The conditioning/test stimulus level ratio influenced the recovery time (the higher the ratio, the longer the recovery). This interrelation was used to evaluate the intensity/time trade in release from forward masking. Trade was evaluated as 32.2 dB per time decade. Data were considered as simulating interactions between the transmitted pulse and echo during echolocation, assuming that a transmitted sonar pulse produces forward masking of the echo response. With increased target distance, the attenuation of the echo may be compensated by the release from masking. According to the model, the compensation results in substantial stabilization of the echo response even if the intensity/time trade of release from masking is not precisely equal to the rate of echo attenuation with distance. PMID:25994684

  16. Changes in somatosensory evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes: effect of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Küçükatay, Vural; A?ar, Aysel; Yargiço?lu, Piraye; Gümü?lü, Saadet; Aktekin, Berrin

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on brain antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was investigated in diabetic rats. A total of 40 rats were divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), SO2 + C (SO2), diabetic (D), and SO2 + D (DSO2). Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by i.v. injection of alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm SO2 was administered to the rats in the sulfur dioxide groups (SO2 and DSO2) in an exposure chamber. Exposure occurred 1 hr/day, 7 days/wk, for 6 wk; control rats were exposed to filtered air during the same time periods. Although SO2 exposure markedly increased copper, zinc Superoxide dismutase activity, it significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, compared with the C group. Brain catalase activity was unaltered; however, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in all experimental groups with respect to the C group. SEP components P1, N1, P2, and N2 were significantly increased in all experimental groups, compared with the C group, and these components were also prolonged in the DSO2 group with respect to the other groups. The authors' findings suggest that exposure to SO2, because it increases lipid peroxidation, can change antioxidant enzyme activities and affect SEP components in diabetic rats. PMID:12747514

  17. Auditory evoked potential measurement methodology for odontocetes and a comparison of measured thresholds with those obtained using psychophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, Paul E.; Yuen, Michelle; Mooney, T. Aran; Taylor, Kristen

    2005-04-01

    Most measurements of the hearing capabilities of toothed whales and dolphins have been taken using traditional psychophysical procedures in which the animals have been maintained in laboratory environments and trained to behaviorally report the sensation or difference of acoustic stimuli. Because of the advantage of rapid data collection, increased opportunities, and new methods, Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) have become increasingly used to measure audition. The use of this new procedure calls to question the comparability of the established literature and the new results collected with AEPs. The results of behavioral and AEP methods have been directly compared with basic audiogram measurements and have been shown to produce similar (but not exactly the same) values when the envelope following response procedure has been used and the length of the stimulus is taken into account. The AEP methods allow possible audiometric opportunities beyond those available with conventional psychophysics including: (1) the measurement of stranded dolphins and whales that may never be kept in laboratories, (2) the testing of stranded animals for hearing deficits perhaps caused by overexposure to noise, and (3) passive testing of hearing mechanisms while animals actively echolocate. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research and NOAA-NMFS.

  18. Large vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted sounds in patients with superior canal dehiscence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Löfqvist, Lennart; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is a 'new' vestibular entity. Among these patients, the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to air-conducted sounds are large. In the present study, VEMP in response to bone-conducted sounds were studied in 5 normal subjects, in 3 patients after (unilateral) labyrinthectomy and in 4 patients with (unilateral) superior canal dehiscence syndrome. The bone-conducted sound stimulus was a 250- and a 500- tone burst delivered monaurally on the mastoid using standard bone conductors. Among the normals, bone-conducted sounds delivered monaurally caused VEMP bilaterally. There was, however, a transcranial attenuation for the 500-Hz stimulus, but less so for the 250-Hz stimulus. Among the patients with labyrinthectomy there were VEMP on the healthy side, but not on the lesioned side, irrespective of whether the bone-conducted sounds were presented behind the healthy or the operated ear. Among the patients with superior canal dehiscence syndrome, the VEMP on the affected side were larger than on the healthy side. This suggests that there is also vestibular hypersensitivity for bone-conducted sounds in these patients. PMID:15084822

  19. Properties of binaural vestibular evoked myogenic potentials elicited with air-conducted and bone-conducted tone bursts.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Shaum P

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of monaural and binaural stimulation on unilaterally-measured vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) magnitude and latency. The subjects were eighteen normal-hearing adults with no history of vestibular disease. Monaural VEMPs were acquired with air-conducted (AC) and bone-conducted (BC) 500 Hz tone bursts presented at 95 dB nHL and 70 dB nHL, respectively. These stimuli were simultaneously paired with 95 dB nHL contralateral tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, or 1000 Hz during acquisition of binaural VEMPs. Results indicated that AC-VEMP relative magnitudes decreased in each of the binaural conditions compared to the monaural condition. However, no changes in relative magnitude between conditions occurred for BC-VEMPs. Similar latencies were observed for monaural and binaural VEMPs. Differences in bilateral interaction seen between the AC-VEMP and BC-VEMP conditions are consistent with modification of sound transmission through the ear during presentations of binaural sound. PMID:17062503

  20. Generating Visual Flickers for Eliciting Robust Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials at Flexible Frequencies Using Monitor Refresh Rate

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Yu-Te; Mitsukura, Yasue; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In the study of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), it remains a challenge to present visual flickers at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate. For example, in an SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it is difficult to present a large number of visual flickers simultaneously on a monitor. This study aims to explore whether or how a newly proposed frequency approximation approach changes signal characteristics of SSVEPs. At 10 Hz and 12 Hz, the SSVEPs elicited using two refresh rates (75 Hz and 120 Hz) were measured separately to represent the approximation and constant-period approaches. This study compared amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), phase, latency, scalp distribution, and frequency detection accuracy of SSVEPs elicited using the two approaches. To further prove the efficacy of the approximation approach, this study implemented an eight-target BCI using frequencies from 8–15 Hz. The SSVEPs elicited by the two approaches were found comparable with regard to all parameters except amplitude and SNR of SSVEPs at 12 Hz. The BCI obtained an averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 95.0 bits/min across 10 subjects with a maximum ITR of 120 bits/min on two subjects, the highest ITR reported in the SSVEP-based BCIs. This study clearly showed that the frequency approximation approach can elicit robust SSVEPs at flexible frequencies using monitor refresh rate and thereby can largely facilitate various SSVEP-related studies in neural engineering and visual neuroscience. PMID:24918435

  1. Frequency-doubling technology perimetry and multifocal visual evoked potential in glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and control patients

    PubMed Central

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Mello, Paulo AA; Dorairaj, Syril K; Kanadani, Tereza CM

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The gold standard in functional glaucoma evaluation is standard automated perimetry (SAP). However, SAP depends on the reliability of the patients’ responses and other external factors; therefore, other technologies have been developed for earlier detection of visual field changes in glaucoma patients. The frequency-doubling perimetry (FDT) is believed to detect glaucoma earlier than SAP. The multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) is an objective test for functional evaluation. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of FDT and mfVEP tests in normal, suspect, and glaucomatous eyes and compare the monocular and interocular mfVEP. Methods Ninety-five eyes from 95 individuals (23 controls, 33 glaucoma suspects, 39 glaucomatous) were enrolled. All participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination, followed by SAP, FDT, and mfVEP tests. Results The area under the curve for mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were 0.756 and 0.761, respectively, for FDT, 0.564 and 0.512 for signal and alpha for interocular mfVEP, and 0.568 and 0.538 for signal and alpha for monocular mfVEP. This difference between monocular and interocular mfVEP was not significant. Conclusion The FDT Matrix was superior to mfVEP in glaucoma detection. The difference between monocular and interocular mfVEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma was not significant. PMID:25075173

  2. Clinical Use of Aided Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials as a Measure of Physiological Detection or Physiological Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Curtis J.; Papesh, Melissa A.; Penman, Tina M.; Baltzell, Lucas S.; Gallun, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of aided cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) remains unclear despite several decades of research. One major contributor to this ambiguity is the wide range of variability across published studies and across individuals within a given study; some results demonstrate expected amplification effects, while others demonstrate limited or no amplification effects. Recent evidence indicates that some of the variability in amplification effects may be explained by distinguishing between experiments that focused on physiological detection of a stimulus versus those that differentiate responses to two audible signals, or physiological discrimination. Herein, we ask if either of these approaches is clinically feasible given the inherent challenges with aided CAEPs. N1 and P2 waves were elicited from 12 noise-masked normal-hearing individuals using hearing-aid-processed 1000-Hz pure tones. Stimulus levels were varied to study the effect of hearing-aid-signal/hearing-aid-noise audibility relative to the noise-masked thresholds. Results demonstrate that clinical use of aided CAEPs may be justified when determining whether audible stimuli are physiologically detectable relative to inaudible signals. However, differentiating aided CAEPs elicited from two suprathreshold stimuli (i.e., physiological discrimination) is problematic and should not be used for clinical decision making until a better understanding of the interaction between hearing-aid-processed stimuli and CAEPs can be established. PMID:23093964

  3. Comparison of evoked potentials in the same hand in normal subjects and in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-10-01

    The amplitude of the evoked median and ulnar sensory action potential (SAP) was measured in fifty normal volunteers (4) and median and ulnar SAP in opposite hands were compared. In addition, the amplitude of the median response was compared to the ulnar response. It was found that the lower limit of the range of observations for the median amplitude was 20 muV, the range of observations for the median/median SAP ratio was 50--100%, and that in only 3 observations out of 100 normal hands was the median/ulnar SAP ratio less than 80%. In a series of 60 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 22 had bilateral involvement. The median SAP was obtainable in 62 of these diagnosed cases of CTS. Forty of these 62 cases could be identified by one of the three amplitude criteria: median SAP of less than 20 muV; median/median amplitude percentage of less than 50%; or a median/ulnar amplitude of less than 80%. PMID:736100

  4. Congenital absence of optic chiasm: demonstration of an uncrossed visual pathway using monocular flash visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Brown, Malcolm C; Southern, Caroline L; Anbarasu, Arangasamy; Kaye, Stephen B; Fisher, Anthony C; Hagan, Richard P; Newman, William D

    2006-07-01

    A 35 month old child was referred for electrophysiology testing with pendular nystagmus, corresponding head oscillations and reduced vision. Flash visual evoked potential (VEP) revealed large responses at the right occiput (but not the left occiput) from the right eye and similar large responses at only the left occiput from the left eye, indicating absent/deficient crossover at the chiasm. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan subsequently confirmed absence of the optic chiasm. There was no other evidence of midline brain defects. Her subsequent development to age 11 has been followed. The nystagmus has remained mainly horizontal but a torsional component was noted from age 5 years and described as see-saw at age 6 years. A small right esotropia was noted at 6 years and spectacles prescribed for low hypermetropic refractive error. Bilateral superior rectus recessions at age 7 years produced an improved head posture. Her visual acuity has remained stable at around 6/24 from age 4 years. No binocularity nor stereopsis has been demonstrated over subsequent visits. PMID:16906412

  5. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Potentiates the Production of Nitric Oxide Evoked by lnterleukin-1? in Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie B. Schini; William Durante; Sebastian Catovsky; Paul M. Vanhoutte

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine whether the ?3-unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid affects the production of nitric oxide evoked by interleukin-l? in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Incubation of cultured rat or human aortic smooth muscle cells with interleukin-1? evoked a time- and concentration-dependent release of nitrite, an oxidation product of nitric oxide. The exposure of cells to interleukin-1? in

  6. Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. R.; Grill, W. M.

    2012-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders depends on the identification of appropriate stimulation parameters. Since the mechanisms of action of DBS remain unclear, programming sessions can be time consuming, costly and result in sub-optimal outcomes. Measurement of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS, generated by activated neurons in the vicinity of the stimulating electrode, could offer insight into the type and spatial extent of neural element activation and provide a potential feedback signal for the rational selection of stimulation parameters and closed-loop DBS. However, recording ECAPs presents a significant technical challenge due to the large stimulus artefact, which can saturate recording amplifiers and distort short latency ECAP signals. We developed DBS-ECAP recording instrumentation combining commercial amplifiers and circuit elements in a serial configuration to reduce the stimulus artefact and enable high fidelity recording. We used an electrical circuit equivalent model of the instrumentation to understand better the sources of the stimulus artefact and the mechanisms of artefact reduction by the circuit elements. In vitro testing validated the capability of the instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact and increase gain by a factor of 1000 to 5000 compared to a conventional biopotential amplifier. The distortion of mock ECAP (mECAP) signals was measured across stimulation parameters, and the instrumentation enabled high fidelity recording of mECAPs with latencies of only 0.5 ms for DBS pulse widths of 50 to 100 µs/phase. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to record in vivo ECAPs, without contamination by the stimulus artefact, during thalamic DBS in an anesthetized cat. The characteristics of the physiological ECAP were dependent on stimulation parameters. The novel instrumentation enables high fidelity ECAP recording and advances the potential use of the ECAP as a feedback signal for the tuning of DBS parameters.

  7. Probe-evoked event-related potential techniques for evaluating aspects of attention and information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, John A.

    1988-01-01

    The study of probe event related potentials (probe ERPs) is reviewed. Several recent experiments are described which seem to leave in doubt the usefulness of applying ERP to simulation and field conditions as well as laboratory situations. Relatively minor changes in the experimental paradigm can produce major shifts in ERP findings, for reasons that are not clear. However, task-elicited ERPs might be used on a flight simulator if the experimenter takes time of arrival of the eyes on a particular instrument as one variable of concern and dwell time on the instrument as a second variable. One can then look at ERPs triggered by saccade termination for fixation pauses of specified durations. It may well be that ERP to a momentarily important display will differ from that elicited by routine instrument check.

  8. Effects of DAGO on the rodent hippocampal evoked potentials using different perfusion solutions.

    PubMed

    SanMartín, S; Menéndez, L; Gutiérrez, M; Hidalgo, A; Baamonde, A

    2000-01-01

    Opioid receptor agonists exert excitatory effects in the hippocampus by inhibiting GABA release. We report that the mu-opioid agonist, DAGO, increases the amplitude of the population spikes (PS) measured in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 cell layer in mouse and rat hippocampal slices perfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), but not when perfused in Krebs solution. The GABAA agonist, 3-APS, induces inhibitory responses when perfused in either ACSF or Krebs. Also, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) measured on stratum radiatum do not differ when the slice is perfused with either ACSF or Krebs. The increase in the amplitude of the PS induced by DAGO is not obtained when perfused in a modified. ACSF whose concentration of MgSO4 was lowered to its concentration in the Krebs solution (from 2.4 mM to 1.2 mM). Thus, changes in the concentration of MgSO4 seem to be responsible for the different responses induced by DAGO. PMID:10909174

  9. Cortical-Evoked Potentials Reflect Speech-in-Noise Perception in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samira, Anderson; Bharath, Chandrasekaran; Han-Gyol, Yi; Nina, Kraus

    2010-01-01

    Children are known to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of noise on speech perception, and it is commonly acknowledged that failure of central auditory processes can lead to these difficulties with speech-in-noise (SIN) perception. Still, little is known about the mechanistic relationship between central processes and the perception of speech in noise. Our aims were two-fold: to examine the effects of noise on the central encoding of speech through measurement of cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) and to examine the relationship between cortical processing and behavioral indices of SIN perception. We recorded cortical responses to the speech syllable [da] in quiet and multi-talker babble noise in 32 children with a broad range of SIN perception. Outcomes suggest inordinate effects of noise on auditory function in the bottom SIN perceivers, compared with the top perceivers. The cortical amplitudes in the top SIN group remained stable between conditions, whereas amplitudes increased significantly in the bottom SIN group, suggesting a developmental central processing impairment in the bottom perceivers that may contribute to difficulties encoding and perceiving speech in challenging listening environments. PMID:20950282

  10. Temperature differentially facilitates spontaneous but not evoked glutamate release from cranial visceral primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jessica A; Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Andresen, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is fundamentally important to all biological functions including synaptic glutamate release. Vagal afferents from the solitary tract (ST) synapse on second order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, and glutamate release at this first central synapse controls autonomic reflex function. Expression of the temperature-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 receptor separates ST afferents into C-fibers (TRPV1+) and A-fibers (TRPV1-). Action potential-evoked glutamate release is similar between C- and A-fiber afferents, but TRPV1 expression facilitates a second form of synaptic glutamate release in C-fibers by promoting substantially more spontaneous glutamate release. The influence of temperature on different forms of glutamate release is not well understood. Here we tested how temperature impacts the generation of evoked and spontaneous release of glutamate and its relation to TRPV1 expression. In horizontal brainstem slices of rats, activation of ST primary afferents generated synchronous evoked glutamate release (ST-eEPSCs) at constant latency whose amplitude reflects the probability of evoked glutamate release. The frequency of spontaneous EPSCs in these same neurons measured the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. We measured both forms of glutamate from each neuron during ramp changes in bath temperature of 4-5°C. Spontaneous glutamate release from TRPV1+ closely tracked with these thermal changes indicating changes in the probability of spontaneous glutamate release. In the same neurons, temperature changed axon conduction registered as latency shifts but ST-eEPSC amplitudes were constant and independent of TRPV1 expression. These data indicate that TRPV1-operated glutamate release is independent of action potential-evoked glutamate release in the same neurons. Together, these support the hypothesis that evoked and spontaneous glutamate release originate from two pools of vesicles that are independently modulated and are distinct processes. PMID:25992717

  11. Pinprick-evoked brain potentials: a novel tool to assess central sensitization of nociceptive pathways in humans.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, G D; Baumgärtner, U; Tracey, I; Treede, R D; Magerl, W

    2013-09-01

    Although hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli is a frequent sign in patients with inflammation or neuropathic pain, there is to date no objective electrophysiological measure for its evaluation in the clinical routine. Here we describe a technique for recording the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses elicited by mechanical stimulation with a flat-tip probe (diameter 0.25 mm, force 128 mN). Such probes activate A? nociceptors and are widely used to assess the presence of secondary hyperalgesia, a psychophysical correlate of sensitization in the nociceptive system. The corresponding pinprick-evoked potentials (PEPs) were recorded in 10 subjects during stimulation of the right and left hand dorsum before and after intradermal injection of capsaicin into the right hand and in 1 patient with a selective lesion of the right spinothalamic tract. PEPs in response to stimulation of normal skin were characterized by a vertex negative-positive (NP) complex, with N/P latencies and amplitudes of 111/245 ms and 3.5/11 ?V, respectively. All subjects developed a robust capsaicin-induced increase in the pain elicited by pinprick stimulation of the secondary hyperalgesic area (+91.5%, P < 0.005). Such stimulation also resulted in a significant increase of the N-wave amplitude (+92.9%, P < 0.005), but not of the P wave (+6.6%, P = 0.61). In the patient, PEPs during stimulation of the hypoalgesic side were reduced. These results indicate that PEPs 1) reflect cortical activities triggered by somatosensory input transmitted in A? primary sensory afferents and spinothalamic projection neurons, 2) allow quantification of experimentally induced secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, and 3) have the potential to become a diagnostic tool to substantiate mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with presumed central sensitization. PMID:23678019

  12. High-dose ketamine hydrochloride maintains somatosensory and magnetic motor evoked potentials in primates.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, R F; Ham, J H; Lee, J J

    2001-12-01

    Monitoring the descending neural motor volleys (MEPs), in comparison to muscle action potentials, allows sensitive motor assessment under anesthesia irrespective of the use of muscular blockade and status of skeletal musculature. Ketamine hydrochloride (KH) had preserved muscle MEPs on a pre-established primate model. The present work examines the effect of incremental hypnotic KH dosages thoracic neural on somatosensory (SEP) and MEPs recorded epidurally in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Through a small thoracic T11-T12 laminotomy, an insulated double bipolar electrode was inserted epidurally and cephalad in seven cynomolgus monkeys. Thoracic spinal TMS-MEPs, and SEPs, were tested against graded increase of KH doses (0.01, 0.018, 0.032, 0.056, 0.1, and 0.18 mg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. infusion). The direct (D-) and indirect (I-) epidural MEP peaks were well-defined under sole KH infusion. The waveforms were consistent at various dosages. At the highest cumulative dose (0.18 mg kg(-1) min(-1), total 6.5 mg kg(-1) over 150 min), I5 was host and I3 and I4 latencies were delayed. The scalp and spinal SEP showed no significant change. Recording of both neural D- and I- MEPs and SEPs is feasible under high sole i.v. KH. It is the first agent to maintain up to four later I1 peaks. The reproducibility of both modalities is unquestionable under KH-based deep anesthesia. This reflects the maintenance of state of neural excitability under KH. PMID:11760882

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Physiological Measures of Cochlear and Brainstem Function

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, S.; Abel, R.; Hornickel, J.; Nicol, T.; Skoe, E.; Zhao, W.; Kraus, N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Otoacoustic emissions and the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response are objective indices of peripheral auditory physiology and are used clinically for assessing hearing function. While each measure has been extensively explored, their interdependence and the relationships between them remain relatively unexplored. Methods Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses (sABR) were recorded from 28 normal-hearing adults. Through correlational analyses, DPOAE characteristics were compared to measures of sABR timing and frequency encoding. Data were organized into two DPOAE (Strength and Structure) and five brainstem (Onset, Spectrotemporal, Harmonics, Envelope Boundary, Pitch) composite measures. Results DPOAE Strength shows significant relationships with sABR Spectrotemporal and Harmonics measures. DPOAE Structure shows significant relationships with sABR Envelope Boundary. Neither DPOAE Strength nor Structure is related to sABR Pitch. Conclusions The results of the present study show that certain aspects of the speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses are related to, or covary with, cochlear function as measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Significance These results form a foundation for future work in clinical populations. Analyzing cochlear and brainstem function in parallel in different clinical populations will provide a more sensitive clinical battery for identifying the locus of different disorders (e.g., language based learning impairments, hearing impairment). PMID:19346159

  14. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501). These effects are probably not mediated by changes in cell excitability or in presynaptic glutamate release rates, since antidromically induced population spikes and paired-pulse facilitation failed to show any MMA{sup III} effect. The impairment of the excitatory CA1 synapse is more likely caused by the action of MMA{sup III} on postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors and may be jointly responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive effects in arsenic toxicity.

  15. Brainstem: Neglected Locus in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Rueb, Udo; Heinsen, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with protein TDP-43 (FTLD–TDP). Neuropathologically, NDs are characterized by abnormal intracellular and extra-cellular protein deposits and by disease-specific neuronal death. Practically all terminal stages of NDs are clinically associated with dementia. Therefore, major attention was directed to protein deposits and neuron loss in supratentorial (telencephalic) brain regions in the course of NDs. This was also true for PD, although the pathological hallmark of PD is degeneration of pigmented neurons of the brainstem’s substantia nigra (SN). However, PD pathophysiology was explained by dopamine depletion in the telencephalic basal ganglia due to insufficiency and degeneration of the projection neurons located in SN. In a similar line of argumentation AD- and FTLD-related clinical deficits were exclusively explained by supratentorial allo- and neo-cortical laminar neuronal necrosis. Recent comprehensive studies in AD and PD early stages found considerable and unexpected involvement of brainstem nuclei, which could have the potential to profoundly change our present concepts on origin, spread, and early clinical diagnosis of these diseases. In contrast with PD and AD, few studies addressed brainstem involvement in the course of the different types of FTLD–TDP. Some of the results, including ours, disclosed a higher and more widespread pathology than anticipated. The present review will focus mainly on the impact of brainstem changes during the course of the most frequent NDs including PD, AD, and FTLD–TDP, with special emphasis on the need for more comprehensive research on FTLDs. PMID:21808630

  16. Detection and measurement of steady-state evoked potentials in real-time using a lock-in amplifier. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Schacham, S E; Pratt, H

    1985-06-01

    A system for recording evoked potentials, in which a lock-in amplifier replaces the averaging computer, is described. With this system, the set-up is much the same as in the conventional apparatus, with the following exceptions: 1) the amplifier gain is set at only a few thousands; 2) analogue-to-digital conversion and computer averaging is replaced by a lock-in amplifier; and 3) the output of the system is an analogue signal representing the amplitude of the recorded steady-state evoked potentials and the phase of baseline crossings. This set-up is much less costly than the conventional apparatus, much easier to operate, and, with its real-time output, may provide an ideal technique for screening and monitoring purposes. PMID:3998849

  17. and Brainstem Aage R. Mller

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Cochlear and Brainstem Implants Editor Aage R. Møller Contents Introduction: Møller A.R. History of Cochlear Implants and Auditory Brainstem Implants: Møller A.R. Cochlear Implants Surgical Aspects of Cochlear Implantation: Mechanisms of Insertional Trauma: Roland P.S.; Wright C.G. Histopathology

  18. Testing Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials with 90dB Clicks Is Effective in the Diagnosis of Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krister Brantberg; Luca Verrecchia

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to 90-dB-nHL clicks were studied in 20 patients (22 ears) with superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Their amplitude was compared to the VEMP from the ‘unaffected’ ears of 113 patients using the same stimulus level. The 113 control subjects were those from a previous study on 1,000 patients who had had large VEMP amplitudes in

  19. Scalp topography of ultralate (C-fibres) evoked potentials following thulium YAG laser stimuli to tiny skin surface areas in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Opsommer; T Weiss; W. H. R Miltner; L Plaghki

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To investigate (1) the scalp topography of ultralate laser evoked potentials (LEPs) related to C-fibre activation, which can directly be obtained by thulium YAG (Tm YAG) laser stimulation of tiny skin surface areas (about 0.23 mm2) and (2) the influence of the performance of a motor task on ultralate LEPs.Methods: Laser stimuli were applied to the dorsum of the

  20. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes peripheral antihyperalgesia via calcineurin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amol M. Patwardhan; Nathaniel A. Jeske; Theodore J. Price; Nikita Gamper; Armen N. Akopian; Kenneth M. Hargreaves

    2006-01-01

    Cannabinoids can evoke antihyperalgesia and antinociception at a peripheral site of action. However, the signaling pathways mediating these effects are not clearly understood. We tested the hypothesis that certain cannabinoids directly inhibit peripheral capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons by dephosphorylating and desensitizing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a calcium calcineurin-dependent mechanism. Application of the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) to cultured

  1. A mixture of oleic, erucic and conjugated linoleic acids modulates cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers and improve somatosensorial evoked potential in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy female carriers.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Petroni, Anna; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Vollono, Catello; De Pasquale, Loredana; Blasevich, Milena; Banni, Sebastiano

    2012-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzo's oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation. PMID:22189598

  2. Comparison of newborn hearing screening by transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response using ALGO-2®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Jo Doyle; Sharon Fujikawa; Paula Rogers; Erin Newman

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare pass rates for two different hearing screening methods in well newborns as a function of age. A previous study by this group compared click evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (ABR) using the ALGO-1® infant hearing screener (Natus Medical, Foster City, CA). Since that study, a new generation automated

  3. Auditory-evoked response morphology in profoundly-involved multi-handicapped children: comparisons with normal infants and children.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, G; Gans, D

    1995-01-01

    The developmental and difference/defect theories have been used to explain auditory development in some multi-handicapped children. If developmental factors influence auditory response behaviors, it might be predicted that evoked potentials measured from the central auditory nervous system would reflect similar developmental influences in multi-handicapped children. The purpose of this study was to compare auditory-evoked-potential waveform morphology between profoundly-involved multi-handicapped children and normal infants and children. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and middle-latency response (MLR) morphology were examined from waveform descriptions, wave detection, latency, amplitude, and spectral energy measures. The majority of handicapped subjects exhibited response morphology unlike that of normal children or infants. ABR/MLR morphology for handicapped children was characterized by depressed responses and substantial waveform variability. The results of this study tended to support the difference/defect theory. PMID:8746507

  4. Brainstem cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Petr, O; Lanzino, G

    2015-09-01

    Of all cavernous malformations (CMs), 4% to 35% are found in the brainstem accounting for 13% of vascular malformations of the posterior fossa. The annual risk of hemorrhage associated with a CM with no history of a previous hemorrhagic episode is very low ranging from 0.6% to 1.1% per year. However, the risk of recurrent hemorrhage after a presenting bleed is significantly higher. There is a correlation between the extent of persistent neurological deficits and the number of recurrent hemorrhages as rehemorrhage increases the rate and severity of neurological deficits. Neurological deficits often improve after a hemorrhagic event spontaneously and sometimes resolve completely. The indication for surgery in patients with brainstem CMs is controversial. Over the years, we have taken a more cautious stance and we often recommend observation in patients after a single symptomatic bleed as most patients return to a good level of functioning after a single bleed. Surgery is recommended for more aggressive lesions usually after a recurrent bleed. In general, given the very low risk of bleeding from truly asymptomatic lesions, surgery should not be considered in these patients. For symptomatic lesions which have presented with hemorrhage, the decision of whether or not to proceed with surgical resection is related to the risk of surgery, patient's disposition and perceived risk of rebleeding. Favorable outcome can be achieved through surgical resection after an appropriate selection of the patients and thorough preoperative surgical planning. PMID:25943871

  5. Accumulation of VDT work-related visual fatigue assessed by visual evoked potential, near point distance and critical flicker fusion.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Araki, S; Yokoyama, K; Yamashita, K; Okumatsu, T; Sakou, S

    1996-01-01

    To confirm daily accumulation of visual fatigue induced by work with visual display terminals (VDT), visual evoked potential (VEP), near point distance (NPD) and critical flicker fusion (CFF) were measured in three VDT workers and three sex- and age-matched controls (non-VDT workers) in the morning, noontime and evening for five consecutive days (Monday to Friday), totally 15 times per subject. The workers had been engaged in wireless handling operation, with VDTs, of an unmanned power shovel (Worker 1), an unmanned 78-ton dump truck (Worker 2) and mobile monitor-cameras (Worker 3), for 10 months. Their working hours were about 6.5 hours per day; but, the Worker 2 could take a 10-minute recess (a period without VDT work) per about 30 minutes during working hours. Significant daily variations in the VEP latency, NPD and CFF were found in the Worker 1 or Worker 3 despite the absence of any significant daily or diurnal variations in the non-VDT workers; the trends in the variations were getting worse from Monday to Friday. The NPD in the VDT workers was significantly longer than that in each of the matched controls; also, the CFF in the Workers 1 and 3 was significantly depressed. The changes in the VEP latency from morning to noontime and in the NPD and CFF from noontime to evening were significantly larger in the VDT worker than in the matched control. These findings suggest that VDT work probably affects visual function assessed by the VEP, NPD and CFF. Visual fatigue due to long-term VDT work may tend to be accumulated day by day. PMID:8857276

  6. Monitoring sedation for bronchoscopy in mechanically ventilated patients by using the Ramsay sedation scale versus auditory-evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate sedation benefits patients by reducing the stress response, but it requires an appropriate method of assessment to adjust the dosage of sedatives. The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the sedation of mechanically ventilated patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FB) monitored by auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) or the Ramsay sedation scale (RSS). Methods In a prospective, randomized, controlled study, all patients who underwent FB with propofol sedation were monitored and their sedation adjusted. During FB, one group was monitored by AEP and another group was monitored by RSS. The propofol dosage was adjusted by the nursing staff during examination to maintain the Alaris AEP index (AAI) value between 25 and 40 in the AEP group and the RSS at 5 or 6 in the RSS group. Before FB and during FB, the AAI, heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded every 5 min. The percentages of time at the sedation target and the propofol dosages were calculated. Results Nineteen patients received AEP monitoring and 18 patients received RSS monitoring. The percentage of time at the sedation target during FB was significantly higher in the AEP monitoring group (51.3%; interquartile range [IQR], 47.0–63.5%) than in the RSS group (15.4%; IQR, 9.5–23.4%), (P < 0.001). During FB, the RSS group had a significantly higher AAI (P = 0.011), HR (P < 0.001), and MAP (P < 0.001) than the AEP group. Conclusions In mechanically ventilated patients undergoing FB, AEP monitoring resulted in less variation in AAI, HR, and MAP, and a higher percentage of time at the sedation target than RSS monitoring. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01448811. PMID:24499010

  7. The role of cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in the follow-up of vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Ivan; Skori?, Magdalena Krbot; Handži?, Jadranka; Baruši?, Anabella Karla; Bach, Ivo; Gabeli?, Tereza; Habek, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the recovery of vestibular nerve function after vestibular neuritis (VN) by vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Twenty-six patients with the diagnosis of VN were included. All patients underwent ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) recordings, at 6 days and 6 months from the onset of the symptoms. Of the 26 patients, 14 showed improvement on oVEMP at month 6 (group 1), and 12 showed no change or worsening on oVEMP at 6 months (group 2). At the same time, there was no change in the amplitudes of the cVEMP on either healthy or affected sides in both groups. Inability to perform the Fukuda test, and chronic white matter supratentorial lesions present on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were more frequent in patients with worse outcome on oVEMP (P = 0.044 and 0.045, respectively). Although involvement of the inferior branch of the vestibular nerve was not associated with oVEMP outcome, oVEMP latencies (N10 and P13) were associated with improvement or worsening in oVEMP amplitudes, showing that prolonged latencies correlate with 6-month improvement in oVEMP amplitudes (Pearson correlation -0.472, P = 0.041 and -0.580, P = 0.009, respectively). This study identified clinical, MRI and neurophysiological predictors of recovery in patients with superior VN, and offers additional insight into, and better understanding of, the role of VEMP in diagnosis and prognosis of patients with VN. Further studies are needed to validate this diagnostic procedure and to assess its clinical usefulness in VN management. PMID:23666957

  8. Transcranial electric stimulation for intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring: dependence of required stimulation current on interstimulus interval value.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, Boban; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Damjanovic, Aleksandra; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    Study Objective?To evaluate the relationship between stimulus intensity by constant current transcranial electric stimulation and interstimulus interval (ISI) for eliciting muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three different hand muscles and the tibialis anterior muscles. Patients/Material and Methods?We tested intraoperatively different monophasic constant current pulses and ISIs in 22 patients with clinically normal motor function. Motor thresholds of contralateral muscle MEPs were determined at 0.5 milliseconds (ms) pulse duration and ISIs of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 ms using a train of 2, 3, and 5 monophasic constant current pulses of 62 to 104?mA before craniotomy and after closure of the dura mater. Results?The lowest stimulation threshold to elicit MEPs in the examined muscles was achieved with a train of 5 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) before craniotomy, which was statistically significant compared with 2 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) as well as 3 pulses (ISIs: 3 and 10 ms). An ISI of 3 ms gave the lowest motor thresholds with statistical significance compared with the ISIs of 4 ms (2 pulses) and of 1 ms (3 pulses). All current intensity (mA) and ISI (ms) relationship graphs had a trend of the exponential function as y?=?a?+?bx?+?c ? (x) , where y is intensity (mA) and x is ISI (ms). The minimum of the function was determined for each patient and each muscle. The difference was statistically significant between 3 and 5 pulses before craniotomy and between 3 and 5 pulses and 2 and 5 pulses after closure of the dura mater. Conclusion?In adult neurosurgical patients with a normal motor status, a train of 5 pulses and an ISI of 3 ms provide the lowest motor thresholds. We provided evidence of the dependence of required stimulation current on ISI. PMID:25594816

  9. [Correlation between the analgesic effect by thalamic relay nucleus stimulation and somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from thalamus].

    PubMed

    Kuroki, A; Itagaki, S; Saito, S; Nakai, O

    1992-05-01

    Electric stimulation of the thalamic sensory relay nucleus (Vc) has an analgesic effect on deafferentation pain, however, the analgesic effect differs from patient to patient. Electrode position and state of the substrate stimulated are considered important factors influencing the analgesic effect. In order to determine the best position for the stimulating electrodes, we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from stimulating electrodes implanted in the Vc and compared thalamic SEPs with the analgesic effect of Vc stimulation. The subjects were thirteen patients with deafferentation pain, four patients with thalamic lesions, seven patients with suprathalamic lesions and two patients with infrathalamic lesions. We inserted the electrode array into the Vc stereotactically, and fixed it so that stimulation-induced paresthesia would cover the painful frea. The electrode array consisted of the four contact points of four electrodes spaced at 2 mm intervals within 10 mm from the tip. Using bipolar combinations of the four electrodes (twelve combinations in all), we stimulated the Vc for about half an hour with each combination. We then rated the degree (%) of analgesia as 100% when pain disappeared and 0% when there was no change. Thalamic SEPs elicited after stimulation of the contralateral median nerve were recorded from all four contact points simultaneously. The latencies, amplitudes and recorded positions of large early positive components (P1) followed by large negative components (N1) with latencies between 10 and 20 msec were then analyzed and compared with the best electrode combination for optimal pain relief and with the degree of analgesia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1520564

  10. Least-squares (LS) deconvolution of a series of overlapping cortical auditory evoked potentials: a simulation and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardy, Fabrice; Van Dun, Bram; Dillon, Harvey; Cowan, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Objective. To evaluate the viability of disentangling a series of overlapping ‘cortical auditory evoked potentials’ (CAEPs) elicited by different stimuli using least-squares (LS) deconvolution, and to assess the adaptation of CAEPs for different stimulus onset-asynchronies (SOAs). Approach. Optimal aperiodic stimulus sequences were designed by controlling the condition number of matrices associated with the LS deconvolution technique. First, theoretical considerations of LS deconvolution were assessed in simulations in which multiple artificial overlapping responses were recovered. Second, biological CAEPs were recorded in response to continuously repeated stimulus trains containing six different tone-bursts with frequencies 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 kHz separated by SOAs jittered around 150 (120-185), 250 (220-285) and 650 (620-685) ms. The control condition had a fixed SOA of 1175 ms. In a second condition, using the same SOAs, trains of six stimuli were separated by a silence gap of 1600 ms. Twenty-four adults with normal hearing (<20 dB HL) were assessed. Main results. Results showed disentangling of a series of overlapping responses using LS deconvolution on simulated waveforms as well as on real EEG data. The use of rapid presentation and LS deconvolution did not however, allow the recovered CAEPs to have a higher signal-to-noise ratio than for slowly presented stimuli. The LS deconvolution technique enables the analysis of a series of overlapping responses in EEG. Significance. LS deconvolution is a useful technique for the study of adaptation mechanisms of CAEPs for closely spaced stimuli whose characteristics change from stimulus to stimulus. High-rate presentation is necessary to develop an understanding of how the auditory system encodes natural speech or other intrinsically high-rate stimuli.

  11. Enhancement of bilateral cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to intact forelimb stimulation following thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bazley, Faith A; Maybhate, Anil; Tan, Chuen Seng; Thakor, Nitish V; Kerr, Candace; All, Angelo H

    2014-09-01

    The adult central nervous system is capable of significant reorganization and adaptation following neurotrauma. After a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) neuropathways that innervate the cord below the epicenter of injury are damaged, with minimal prospects for functional recovery. In contrast, pathways above the site of injury remain intact and may undergo adaptive changes in response to injury. We used cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to evaluate changes in intact forelimb pathways. Rats received a midline contusion SCI, unilateral contusion SCI, or laminectomy with no contusion at the T8 level and were monitored for 28 days post-injury. In the midline injury group, SSEPs recorded from the contralateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex were 59.7% (CI 34.7%, 84.8%; c(2) = 21.9; dof = 1; p = 2.9 ×10(-6)) greater than the laminectomy group; SSEPs from the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex were 47.6% (CI 18.3%, 77%; c(2) = 10.1; dof = 1; p = 0.001) greater. Activation of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex was further supported by BOLD-fMRI, which showed increased oxygenation at the ipsilateral hemisphere at day seven post-injury. In the unilateral injury group, ipsilesional side was compared to the contralesional side. SSEPs on day 14 (148%; CI 111%, 185%) and day 21 (137%; CI 110%, 163%) for ipsilesional forelimb stimulation were significantly increased over baseline (100%). SSEPs recorded from the hindlimb sensory cortex upon ipsilesional stimulation were 33.9% (CI 14.3%, 53.4%; c(2) = 11.6; dof = 1; p = 0.0007) greater than contralesional stimulation. Therefore, these results demonstrate the ability of SSEPs to detect significant enhancements in the activation of forelimb sensory pathways following both midline and unilateral contusive SCI at T8. Reorganization of forelimb pathways may occur after thoracic SCI, which SSEPs can monitor to aid the development of future therapies. PMID:24801738

  12. Age-related alterations in antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxide levels, and somatosensory-evoked potentials: effect of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yargiço?lu, P; A?ar, A; Gümü?lü, S; Bilmen, S; O?uz, Y

    1999-11-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in young (3 months), middle-age (12 months), and old (24 months) Swiss male albino rats. Ten ppm SO(2) was administrated to the animals of SO(2) groups in an exposure chamber for 1 h/day x 7 days/week x 6 while control groups were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. SO(2) exposure caused increased levels of brain Cu,Zn-SOD activity and decreased levels of brain GSH-Px activity in all experimental groups with respect to their corresponding control groups. Brain CAT activities were unaltered. Brain TBARS levels of all SO(2)-exposed groups were significantly increased in comparison with their respective control groups. The mean latencies of P(1), P(2), and N(2) components in the older group were either significantly different from the young or from the middle-age groups. The mean latency of the N(1) component in the older group and that of P(1) and N(1) in the middle-age group were significantly increased compared with the young group. SO(2) exposure caused the prolongation of all components in the young group, whereas it affected only the P(2) component in the middle-age group, but it did not result in any latency change in the older group in comparison with their corresponding control groups.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p554.html

  13. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential recovery following opening of the fourth ventricle during posterior fossa decompression in Chiari malformation: case report.

    PubMed

    Grossauer, Stefan; Koeck, Katharina; Vince, Giles H

    2015-03-01

    The most appropriate surgical technique for posterior fossa decompression in Chiari malformation (CM) remains a matter of debate. Intraoperative electrophysiological studies during posterior fossa decompression of Type I CM (CM-I) aim to shed light on the entity's pathomechanism as well as on the ideal extent of decompression. The existing reports on this issue state that significant improvement in conduction occurs after craniotomy in all cases, but additional durotomy contributes a further improvement in only a minority of cases. This implies that craniotomy alone might suffice for clinical improvement without the need of duraplasty or even subarachnoid manipulation at the level of the craniocervical junction. In contrast to published data, the authors describe the case of a 32-year-old woman who underwent surgery for CM associated with extensive cervicothoracic syringomyelia and whose intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) did not notably improve after craniotomy or following durotomy; rather, they only improved after opening of the fourth ventricle and restoration of CSF flow through the foramen of Magendie. Postoperatively, the patient recovered completely from her preoperative neurological deficits. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of significant SSEP recovery after opening the fourth ventricle in the decompression of a CM-I. The electrophysiological and operative techniques are described in detail and the findings are discussed in the light of available literature. The authors conclude that there might be a subset of CM-I patients who require subarachnoid dissection at the level of the craniocervical junction to benefit clinically. Prospective studies with detailed electrophysiological analyses seem warranted to answer the question regarding the best surgical approach in CM-I decompression. PMID:25526275

  14. Neural sensitivity to novel sounds in the rat's dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus as revealed by evoked local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Redhead, Carmela; Cervi, Andrea L; Zhang, Huiming

    2012-04-01

    Evoked local field potentials in response to contralaterally presented tone bursts were recorded from the rat's dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus (ICd). An oddball stimulus paradigm was used to study the sensitivity of ensembles of neurons in the ICd to novel sounds. Our recordings indicate that neuron ensembles in the ICd display stimulus-specific adaptation when a large contrast in both frequency and probability of occurrence exists between the two tone bursts used for generating an oddball paradigm. A local field potential evoked by a tone burst presented as a deviant stimulus has a larger amplitude than that evoked by the same sound presented as a standard stimulus. The difference between the two responses occurs after the initial rising phases of their predominant deflections. The degree of stimulus-specific adaptation increases with the rate of sound presentation up to 8/s, the highest rate used in this study. A comparison between our results and those from previous studies suggests that differences exist between responses to oddball paradigms in the ICd and those in the primary auditory cortex, a major source of projection to the ICd. These differences suggest that local mechanisms exist in the ICd for suppressing neural responses to frequently presented sounds and enhancing responses to rarely presented sounds. Thus, the ICd may serve as an important component of an integrative circuit in the brain for detecting novel sounds in the acoustic environment. PMID:22406035

  15. Sedation and anesthesia of hatchling leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for auditory evoked potential measurement in air and in water.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Piniak, Wendy E D; Eckert, Scott A; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    Sedation or anesthesia of hatchling leatherback sea turtles was employed to acquire auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements in air and in water to assess their hearing sensitivity in relation to potential consequences from anthropogenic noise. To reduce artifacts in AEP collection caused by muscle movement, hatchlings were sedated with midazolam 2 or 3 mg/kg i.v. for in-air (n = 7) or in-water (n = 11) AEP measurements; hatchlings (n = 5) were anesthetized with ketamine 6 mg/kg and dexmedetomidine 30 microg/kg i.v. reversed with atipamezole 300 microg/kg, half i.m. and half i.v. for in-air AEP measurements. Midazolam-sedated turtles were also physically restrained with a light elastic wrap. For in-water AEP measurements, sedated turtles were brought to the surface every 45-60 sec, or whenever they showed intention signs for breathing, and not submerged again until they took a breath. Postprocedure temperature-corrected venous blood pH, pCO2, pO2, and HCO3- did not differ among groups, although for the midazolam-sedated in-water group, pCO2 trended lower, and in the ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthetized group there was one turtle considered clinically acidotic (temperature-corrected pH = 7.117). Venous blood lactate was greater for hatchlings recently emerged from the nest than for turtles sedated with midazolam in air, with the other two groups falling intermediate between, but not differing significantly from the high and low lactate groups. Disruptive movements were less frequent with anesthesia than with sedation in the in-air group. Both sedation with midazolam and anesthesia with ketamine-dexmedetomidine were successful for allowing AEP measurements in hatchling leatherback sea turtles. Sedation allowed the turtle to protect its airway voluntarily while limiting flipper movement. Midazolam or ketamine-dexmedetomidine (and reversal with atipamezole) would be useful for other procedures requiring minor or major restraint in leatherback sea turtle hatchlings and other sea turtles, although variable susceptibilities may require dose adjustments. PMID:24712166

  16. Analysis of electrical potentials evoked in the cerebellar anterior lobe by stimulation of hindlimb and forelimb nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Eccles; L. Provini; P. Strata; H. Tábo?íková

    1968-01-01

    Summary  Responses were evoked in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum by volleys in group I and II fibers of forelimb and hindlimb nerves — cutaneous, muscular, joint and fascial. These responses have been observed along microelectrode tracks that traverse the whole depth of the anterior lobe. These tracks have been identified in histological sections, and the recording sites along these

  17. Investigation of Abnormal Left Temporal Functioning in Dyslexia through rCBF, Auditory Evoked Potentials, and Positron Emission Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the proposed left hemisphere dysfunction in dyslexia by reviewing four studies using regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) and combined auditory evoked responses with positron emission tomography. Emphasizes methodological issues. Finds that dyslexics showed a positive correlation between Heschl's gyrus activation and phonemic…

  18. Detecting single-trial EEG evoked potential using a wavelet domain linear mixed model: application to error potentials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinnato, J.; Roubaud, M.-C.; Burle, B.; Torrésani, B.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The main goal of this work is to develop a model for multisensor signals, such as magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography (EEG) signals that account for inter-trial variability, suitable for corresponding binary classification problems. An important constraint is that the model be simple enough to handle small size and unbalanced datasets, as often encountered in BCI-type experiments. Approach. The method involves the linear mixed effects statistical model, wavelet transform, and spatial filtering, and aims at the characterization of localized discriminant features in multisensor signals. After discrete wavelet transform and spatial filtering, a projection onto the relevant wavelet and spatial channels subspaces is used for dimension reduction. The projected signals are then decomposed as the sum of a signal of interest (i.e., discriminant) and background noise, using a very simple Gaussian linear mixed model. Main results. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the corresponding parameter estimation problem is simplified. Robust estimates of class-covariance matrices are obtained from small sample sizes and an effective Bayes plug-in classifier is derived. The approach is applied to the detection of error potentials in multichannel EEG data in a very unbalanced situation (detection of rare events). Classification results prove the relevance of the proposed approach in such a context. Significance. The combination of the linear mixed model, wavelet transform and spatial filtering for EEG classification is, to the best of our knowledge, an original approach, which is proven to be effective. This paper improves upon earlier results on similar problems, and the three main ingredients all play an important role.

  19. The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) as a predictor of the response to escitalopram in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Min Park; Do-Won Kim; Sangrae Kim; Chang-Hwan Im; Seung-Hwan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) has been proposed as a potential biological marker of central\\u000a serotonergic activity. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the LDAEP can be used to predict the response to escitalopram\\u000a in patients with GAD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Twenty-five patients with GAD were recruited. Scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Clinical Global

  20. Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

  1. Selective potentiation of (?4)3(?2)2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors augments amplitudes of prefrontal acetylcholine- and nicotine-evoked glutamatergic transients in rats

    PubMed Central

    Grupe, Morten; Paolone, Giovanna; Jensen, Anders A.; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Sarter, Martin; Grunnet, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal glutamate release evoked through activation of ?4?2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) situated on thalamic glutamatergic afferents mediates cue detection processes and thus contributes to attentional performance. However, little is known about the respective contributions of the high sensitivity and low sensitivity (LS) stoichiometries of the ?4?2 nAChR, (?4)2(?2)3 and (?4)3(?2)2, to these processes. In the present study we employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and the (?4)3(?2)2-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) NS9283 to investigate the importance of the LS ?4?2 nAChR for glutamate release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Firstly, the signaling evoked by physiologically relevant ACh concentrations through the (?4)3(?2)2 nAChR in HEK293 cells was potentiated by NS9283, consistent with the classification of NS9238 as a PAM. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intra-prefrontal pressure ejections of NS9283 evoked glutamatergic transients. Importantly, this glutamate release was attenuated by removal of cholinergic projections to the recording area. This finding indicates that the effects of NS9283 depend on endogenous ACh, again consistent with effects of a PAM. We then conducted microdialysis to demonstrate the presence of extracellular ACh in urethane-anesthetized control rats. While detectable, those levels were significantly lower than in awake rats. Finally, the amplitudes of glutamatergic transients evoked by local pressure ejections of a low concentration of nicotine were significantly augmented following systemic administration of NS9283 (3.0 mg/kg). In conclusion, our results indicate that a LS ?4?2 nAChR PAMs such as NS9283 may enhance the cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex, thereby perhaps alleviating the attentional impairments common to a range of brain disorders. PMID:24051136

  2. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on ? oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 ?g/kg vs placebo) on both ? oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital ? power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced ? power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of ? oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. PMID:23785166

  3. Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G

    2015-01-01

    Auditory processing can be disrupted by brainstem lesions. It is estimated that approximately 57% of brainstem lesions are associated with auditory disorders. However diseases of the brainstem usually involve many structures, producing a plethora of other neurologic deficits, often relegating "auditory symptoms in the background." Lesions below or within the cochlear nuclei result in ipsilateral auditory-processing abnormalities detected in routine testing; disorders rostral to the cochlear nuclei may result in bilateral abnormalities or may be silent. Lesions in the superior olivary complex and trapezoid body show a mixture of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral abnormalities, whereas lesions of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body do not affect peripheral auditory processing and result in predominantly subtle contralateral abnormalities that may be missed by routine auditory testing. In these cases psychophysical methods developed for the evaluation of central auditory function should be employed (e.g., dichotic listening, interaural time perception, sound localization). The extensive connections of the auditory brainstem nuclei not only are responsible for binaural interaction but also assure redundancy in the system. This redundancy may explain why small brainstem lesions are sometimes clinically silent. Any disorder of the brainstem (e.g., neoplasms, vascular disorders, infections, trauma, demyelinating disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, malformations) that involves the auditory pathways and/or centers may produce hearing abnormalities. PMID:25726288

  4. Prognostic significance of multimodality evoked response testing in high-risk newborns.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, A; Rosenblatt, B; Riley, P S

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to hypoxic-ischemic events in fetal or neonatal life may lead to permanent brain damage and subsequent neurodevelopmental deficits. Clinical and diagnostic tools have been somewhat helpful in identifying an at-risk group, particularly those patients sustaining significant neurologic sequelae. In this prospective study, the prognostic significance of multimodality evoked responses in high-risk newborns was examined. A group of 44 high-risk newborns, as well as 14 healthy newborns, were tested during the newborn period with auditory brainstem responses and somatosensory evoked responses; these tests were repeated at 2 and 6 months corrected age. A neonatal neurologic examination, the Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale, was also conducted. At 1 year corrected age, both groups were assessed in a blind fashion by a pediatric neurologist and a psychologist to determine neurodevelopmental outcome. Results indicated that somatosensory evoked response abnormalities in particular predict an abnormal neurologic status at 1 year of age. Abnormalities that persisted or worsened correlated with severe neurologic impairment, whereas an abnormal somatosensory evoked response that improved or normalized in infancy was associated with mild to moderate neurologic sequelae. Increased brainstem conduction in the auditory brainstem responses was also associated with neurologic sequelae. Normal findings from auditory brainstem responses and somatosensory evoked responses predicted normal developmental scores in all areas, as well as a normal neurologic outcome at 1 year with negative predictive powers ranging from 85-100%. Evoked response testing appears to be an important adjunct to the neurologic investigation of high-risk newborns. PMID:2073299

  5. Transient and reproducible loss of motor-evoked potential signals after intravenous levetiracetam in a child undergoing craniotomy for resection of astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Janik, Luke S; Hsu, Grace; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Heuer, Gregory G; Warrington, Andrew P; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2015-01-15

    Transcranial electrical motor-evoked potential (tceMEP) monitoring is used in complex intracranial and spinal surgeries to detect and prevent neurological injury. We present a case of transient, reproducible loss of tceMEPs after an infusion of levetiracetam during craniotomy and tumor resection in a child. Cessation of the infusion resulted in restoration of baseline tceMEPs. When the infusion was resumed at the end of the procedure, a similar decrease in tceMEPs was seen as before, after the infusion was stopped. The surgery and postoperative course proceeded without incident, and the patient experienced a full recovery. PMID:25611003

  6. Association between surgical steps and intraoperative auditory brainstem response and electrocochleography waveforms during hearing preservation vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Gouveris, Haralampos; Mann, Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of the auditory pathway by means of either electrocochleography or auditory brainstem response audiometry is valuable during hearing preservation vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. A more than 75% intraoperative reduction of the amplitude of these evoked auditory potentials was thought to be related with clear hearing compromise of hearing. We identified 22 patients who satisfied this intraoperative criterion in a cohort of 86 consecutive patients who had attempted hearing preservation VS surgery. The surgical step that temporally coincided with the above event was considered to be the most critical step for hearing monitoring during this kind of surgery. Most frequently, drilling of the internal auditory canal and direct tumor resection were associated with the aforementioned changes, but also drilling of the cortical temporal bone at the very beginning of surgery or the opening of the dura could be implicated. This profound intraoperative amplitude decrease was associated with a profound postoperative hearing impairment in 84% of the cases. PMID:18553092

  7. Diazepam inhibits the induction and maintenance of LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Dong; Ge, Yu-Xing; Hu, Neng-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Li-Jun; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wen-Ming; Han, Yi-Fan; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2006-02-01

    The benzodiazepine diazepam impairs memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Here, we investigate the effect of diazepam on LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, which is relevant to pathological pain. LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials was recorded in the superficial layers of spinal dorsal horn in urethane-anesthetized Sprague--Dawley rats. Diazepam was applied locally at the recording spinal segments before and after LTP induction by tetanic stimulation. We found (1) Diazepam completely blocked LTP induction. (2) Diazepam and midazolam reversed spinal LTP, when applied at 30 min after LTP induction and depressed but could not reverse spinal LTP, when applied at 3 h after LTP induction. (3) Pretreatment with benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil or GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline completely blocked the inhibitory effects of diazepam on spinal LTP. In contrast, when the inhibitory effect of diazepam was fully established, neither of these antagonists was capable of reversing the inhibition by diazepam. (4) Spinal application of the GABA(A) receptor agonist 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid (3-APSA) at a dose of 50 microg, produced a transient inhibition of spinal LTP. These results suggest that diazepam might prevent and depress spinal plastic change produced by noxious stimulation via activation of the GABA(A) -benzodiazepine receptor complex. PMID:16324725

  8. [Effect of the novel dipeptide nootropic agent noopept and its metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine on the transcallosal evoked potential in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Molodavkin, G M; Borlikova, G G; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The effect of new nootropic dipeptides--noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, GVS-111) and its metabolite (cyclo-L-prolylglycine)--and a standard nootrope piracetam on the transcallosal evoked potential (TEP) in rat brain was studied. In the dose range from 150 to 300 mg/kg, piracetam increased the TEP amplitude, which exhibited a maximum after 1.5-2 h and then gradually decreased. Both noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine also increased the TEP amplitude, which attained a plateau and retained this level over the entire observation time (above 3.5 h). All the nootropes studied increased both components of the evoked potential. Piracetam and cyclo-L-prolylglycine led to an approximately equal increase in both waves, while noopept induced a somewhat greater increase in the negative TEP wave amplitude. It is suggested that the positive effect of noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine upon the interhemispheric signal transfer (indicated by the improved transcallosal response) can be considered as a potential neurophysiological basis for a positive drug influence on the behavioral level. PMID:12109288

  9. Auditory brainstem responses to clicks and tone bursts in C57 BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Scimemi, P; Santarelli, R; Selmo, A; Mammano, F

    2014-08-01

    In auditory research, hearing function of mouse mutants is assessed in vivo by evoked potential recording. Evaluation of the response parameters should be performed with reference to the evoked responses recorded from wild-type mice. This study reports normative data calculated on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) obtained from 20 wild-type C57 BL/6J mice at a postnatal age between 21 and 45 days. Acoustic stimuli consisted tone bursts at 8, 14, 20, 26, 32 kHz, and clicks. Each stimulus was delivered in free field at stimulation intensity starting from a maximum of 100 dB peak equivalent SPL (dB peSPL) at decreasing steps of 10 dB with a repetition rate of 13/sec. Evoked responses were recorded by needle electrodes inserted subcutaneously. At high intensity stimulation, five response waveforms, each consisting of a positive peak and a subsequent negative valley, were identified within 7 msec, and were labelled with sequential capital Roman numerals from I to V. Peak IV was the most robust and stable at low intensities for both tone burst and click stimuli, and was therefore utilized to estimate hearing thresholds. Both latencies and amplitudes of ABR peaks showed good reproducibility with acceptable standard deviations. Mean wave IV thresholds measured across all animals ranged from a maximum of 23 dB peSPL for clicks to a minimum of 7 dB peSPL for 20 kHz-tone burst stimuli. Statistical analysis of the distribution of latencies and amplitudes of peaks from I to V performed for each stimulus type yielded a normative data set which was utilised to obtain the most consistent fitting-curve model. This could serve as a reference for further studies on murine models of hearing loss. PMID:25210221

  10. Brainstem swelling and noncommunicating hydrocephalus caused by hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Nuri; Emin, Lale; Ada, Emel

    2013-12-01

    Hypertensive encephalopathy is a life-threatening medical condition manifested by headache, confusion, seizures, and visual disturbance, and, if treatment is delayed, it may progress to coma and death [1, 2] (Chester et al., Neurology 28:928-939, 1978; Vaughan and Delanty, Lancet 356:411-417, 2000). Involvement of the brainstem with or without supratentorial lesions has been reported and is termed hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy (HBE). Cases of HBE involving supratentorial deep gray and white matter are rare and extensive hyperintensity was predominantly seen in brainstem regions on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. We present radiologic findings of a patient with HBE involving deep supratentorial gray and white matter, causing tonsillar herniation and noncommunicating hydrocephalus by mass effect. PMID:23835809

  11. Responses evoked from man by acoustic stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.; Hecox, K.; Picton, T.

    1974-01-01

    Clicks and other acoustic stimuli evoke time-locked responses from the brain of man. The properties of the waves recordable within the interval from 1 to 10 msec after the stimuli strike the eardrum are discussed along with factors influencing the waves in the 100 to 500 msec epoch. So-called brainstem responses from a normal young adult are considered. No waves were observed for clicks to weak to be heard. With increasing stimulus strength the waves become larger in amplitude and their latency shortens.

  12. Towards neural correlates of auditory stimulus processing: A simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance study using an odd-ball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Rafa?; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Ganc, Ma?gorzata; Pi?tkowska-Janko, Ewa; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Skar?y?ski, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background The neural underpinnings of auditory information processing have often been investigated using the odd-ball paradigm, in which infrequent sounds (deviants) are presented within a regular train of frequent stimuli (standards). Traditionally, this paradigm has been applied using either high temporal resolution (EEG) or high spatial resolution (fMRI, PET). However, used separately, these techniques cannot provide information on both the location and time course of particular neural processes. The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of auditory processes with a fine spatio-temporal resolution. A simultaneous auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique (AEP-fMRI), together with an odd-ball paradigm, were used. Material/Methods Six healthy volunteers, aged 20–35 years, participated in an odd-ball simultaneous AEP-fMRI experiment. AEP in response to acoustic stimuli were used to model bioelectric intracerebral generators, and electrophysiological results were integrated with fMRI data. Results fMRI activation evoked by standard stimuli was found to occur mainly in the primary auditory cortex. Activity in these regions overlapped with intracerebral bioelectric sources (dipoles) of the N1 component. Dipoles of the N1/P2 complex in response to standard stimuli were also found in the auditory pathway between the thalamus and the auditory cortex. Deviant stimuli induced fMRI activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, and parietal lobes. Conclusions The present study showed that neural processes evoked by standard stimuli occur predominantly in subcortical and cortical structures of the auditory pathway. Deviants activate areas non-specific for auditory information processing. PMID:24413019

  13. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) coexists with activated neurons by skeletal muscle contraction in the brainstem of cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Li

    2002-01-01

    Contraction of skeletal muscle evokes increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Some regions of the brainstem have been implicated for expression of the cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction. Previous studies have reported that static muscle contraction induced c-Fos protein in the nucleus of tractus solitarii (NTS), lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), lateral tegmental field (FTL), subretrofacial nucleus (SRF), A1

  14. [Comparative studies of hearing in children by recording reflex reactions and long-latency auditory evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Ryndina, A M; Grachev, K V; Slesarenko, N P; Utianova, T A; Tsvyleva, I D

    1990-01-01

    Hearing thresholds at speech frequencies in children with neurosensory hypoacusis were measured by three methods: orientation reflex (OR), wink reflex (WR) and brain acoustic evoked responses (BERA). Hearing thresholds measured by recording OR and WR were compared in 115 children (232 comparisons) and were found to coincide in about 92% of cases. Hearing thresholds at speech frequencies were measured by recording OR, WR and BERA in 55 children (103 comparisons) and were found to coincide in about 70% of cases. The discrepancy in the thresholds, especially when measured by means of BERA and WR, was seen mainly in the children who suffered from neurosensory hypoacusis and other CNS disorders (oligophrenia, residual manifestations of birth cerebral palsy with mental retardation, symptoms of sensory alalia). It is concluded that the method of recording WR allows a sufficiently accurate measurement of hearing thresholds. However, a comprehensive examination should be performed using all three methods to reveal concomitant diseases. PMID:2360301

  15. Vestibular neuritis in a child with otitis media with effusion; clinical application of vestibular evoked myogenic potential by bone-conducted sound.

    PubMed

    Monobe, Hiroko; Murofushi, Toshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has been applied for patients with vestibulo-cochlear disorders. The impairment of the sound transmission due to middle ear pathology affects VEMP results. In children, otitis media with effusion (OME) is well documented and it is difficult to apply conventional VEMP in such cases. To overcome the attenuation of stimulation due to middle ear pathology, VEMP by bone-conducted sound has been developed. We report a 3-year-old girl with vestibular neuritis and OME as a representative case of clinical application of VEMP by bone-conducted sound. VEMP by bone-conducted sound can be an alternative method to elicit vestibular-dependent potential. PMID:15488981

  16. A Pilot Study on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Children: Aided CAEPs Reflect Improved High-Frequency Audibility with Frequency Compression Hearing Aid Technology

    PubMed Central

    Glista, Danielle; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W.; Scollie, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study investigated whether cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) could reliably be recorded and interpreted using clinical testing equipment, to assess the effects of hearing aid technology on the CAEP. Methods. Fifteen normal hearing (NH) and five hearing impaired (HI) children were included in the study. NH children were tested unaided; HI children were tested while wearing hearing aids. CAEPs were evoked with tone bursts presented at a suprathreshold level. Presence/absence of CAEPs was established based on agreement between two independent raters. Results. Present waveforms were interpreted for most NH listeners and all HI listeners, when stimuli were measured to be at an audible level. The younger NH children were found to have significantly different waveform morphology, compared to the older children, with grand averaged waveforms differing in the later part of the time window (the N2 response). Results suggest that in some children, frequency compression hearing aid processing improved audibility of specific frequencies, leading to increased rates of detectable cortical responses in HI children. Conclusions. These findings provide support for the use of CAEPs in measuring hearing aid benefit. Further research is needed to validate aided results across a larger group of HI participants and with speech-based stimuli. PMID:23197983

  17. The relationship between the visually evoked P300 event-related potential and gamma band oscillation in the human medial and basal temporal lobes: an electrocorticographic study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Hirai, N; Maehara, T; Kawai, K; Shimizu, H; Miwakeichi, F; Uchida, S

    2002-12-01

    We have recorded electrocorticographic activities (ECoG) from subdural electrodes on the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) and basal temporal lobe (BTL) in epileptic patients during cognitive visual tasks designed to evoke the P300 event related potential (ERP). From those recordings we examined the event related gamma band oscillation (ERGBO) and P300 ERP. While P300 was predominantly observed in the MTL, ERGBO was observed in both MTL and BTL. Resembling to P300, ERGBO responses were more often observed following rare stimuli than frequent stimuli. In average responses the ERGBO to rare stimuli followed P300, beginning at 440.5 ms and continuing for about 100 ms. Past studies suggest P300 ERP component reflects a role in cognitive function. Since ERGBO in the present study appeared in different regions and at a different latency from P300, ERGBO may reflect a different physiological role in the cognitive process. PMID:12445629

  18. Asymptomatic small fiber neuropathy in diabetes mellitus: investigations with intraepidermal nerve fiber density, quantitative sensory testing and laser-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ragé, Michael; Van Acker, Nathalie; Knaapen, Michiel W M; Timmers, Maarten; Streffer, Johannes; Hermans, Michel P; Sindic, Christian; Meert, Theo; Plaghki, Léon

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls (n = 18) and patients with overt DNP (n = 5). Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFd) was measured with PGP9.5 immunostaining on punch skin biopsies performed at the distal leg. Functional tests consisted of quantitative sensory testing (QST) for light-touch, cool, warm and heat pain detection thresholds and brain-evoked potentials with electrical (SEPs) and CO(2) laser stimulation [laser-evoked potentials (LEPs)] of hand dorsum and distal leg using small (0.8 mm(2)) and large (20 mm(2)) beam sizes. Results confirmed a state of asymptomatic DNP in DM, but only at the distal leg. Defining a critical small fiber loss as a reduction of IENFd ?-2 z scores of healthy controls, this state prevailed in type 2 (30%) over type 1 DM (10%) patients despite similar disease duration and current glycemic control. LEPs with the small laser beam performed best in terms of sensitivity (91%), specificity (83%) and area-under-the ROC curve (0.924). Although this performance was not statically different from that of warm and cold detection threshold, LEPs offer an advantage over QST given that they bypass the subjective report and are therefore unbiased by perceptual factors. PMID:21472496

  19. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Harrold, Jon B.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neurons in the DLS responded to both directions of movement. The latency and magnitude of these neuronal responses displayed very little variation with changes in the rate (2, 5, or 8 Hz) of whisker stimulation. Simultaneous recordings in SI barrel cortex and the DLS revealed important distinctions in the neuronal responses of these serially connected brain regions. In contrast to DLS neurons, SI neurons were activated by the initial deflection of the whiskers but did not respond when the whiskers moved back to their original position. As the rate of whisker stimulation increased, SI responsiveness declined, and the latencies of the responses increased. In fact, when whiskers were deflected at 5 or 8 Hz, many neurons in the DLS responded before the SI neurons. These results and earlier anatomic findings suggest that a component of the sensory-induced response in the DLS is mediated by inputs from the thalamus. Furthermore, the lack of sensory adaptation in the DLS may represent a critical part of the neural mechanism by which the DLS encodes stimulus-response associations that trigger motor habits and other stimulus-evoked behaviors that are not contingent on rewarded outcomes. PMID:21389309

  20. Changes in visual evoked potentials as a function of long-term familiarity in monkeys and humans JJ Peissig MI Sanderson J Singer J Tanaka T Curran DL Sheinberg

    E-print Network

    Peissig, Jessie J.

    Changes in visual evoked potentials as a function of long-term familiarity in monkeys and humans JJ in monkeys in the perirhinal cortex. They found more neural activity for familiar objects than for novel). Can we detect changes in physiological response as a result of familiarity in monkeys and humans