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Sample records for brasil decifra-me ou

  1. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  2. Bimodal Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarraman, Deepika; Gilliss, Thomas; Leary, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We investigate two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in several interferometric systems, in which each of the two interfering input photons exist in arbitrary linear superpositions of the first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes HG10 and HG01 . We find that if both input photons are in balanced superpositions of the HG10 and HG01 modes, the resulting two-photon interference can be engineered to transform these diagonal Hermite-Gaussian inputs into output modes of the Laguerre Gaussian type, which are entangled with respect to both output path and transverse spatial mode. We show that such two-photon interference effects can occur even if the input photons are prepared with distinguishable transverse spatial states. This work was supported in part by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  3. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  4. Teaching quantum mechanics with the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendáriz, Gustavo; Cravioto-Lagos, Jorge; Velázquez, Victor; Grether, Marcela; López-Moreno, Enrique; Galvez, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer is an optical device which allows us to prove experimentally the quantum nature of light via the quantum amplitude superposition of two indistinguishable photons. We have implemented this experiment as an advanced undergraduate laboratory experience. We were able to overcome well known difficulties with this experiment using recently reported techniques by Thomas et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 80, 036101 (2009), ].

  5. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  6. Electron and hole Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Wahl, C.; Martin, T.

    2012-09-01

    We consider the electronic analog of the quantum optics Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in a realistic condensed matter device based on single electron emission in chiral edge states. For electron-electron collisions we show that the measurement of the zero-frequency current correlations at the output of a quantum point contact produces a dip giving precious information on the electronic wave packets and coherence. As a feature truly unique to Fermi statistics and condensed matter, we show that two-particle interferences between electron and hole in the Fermi sea can produce a positive peak in the current correlations, which we study for realistic experimental parameters.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation. PMID:26365761

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.

  9. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  10. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  11. Characterization and flocculability of a novel proteoglycan produced by Talaromyces trachyspermus OU5.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Shi, Cuicui

    2016-01-01

    A filamentous fungus strain OU5 was isolated from a soil sample for its ability to produce rich exopolymers (EPS), with high flocculation capability towards kaolin suspension and swine wastewater, at low-carbon source conditions. EPS from strain OU5 was extracted and characterized to determine its flocculating behavior and active constituents involved in the flocculation. Strain OU5 was identified as Talaromyces trachyspermus by 18S rDNA-ITS gene sequencing and morphological observation. The extracted EPS was a novel proteoglycan (designated as BF-OU5) composed of 84.6% (w/w) polysaccharides and 15.2% (w/w) proteins. The enzymatic digestion tests revealed that the polysaccharides in BF-OU5, composed of 67% glucose, 16.4% mannose, 8.6% xylose and 8% galactose, contributed to 99.7% of flocculating capacity and were the major active ingredients in the flocculation. By contrast, the proteins in BF-OU5 only had minor roles in the flocculation. The presence of hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups in BF-OU5, and the high molecular weight (1.053 × 10(5)-2.970 × 10(5) Da) as well as the structure of a spherical conformation with inner pores and channels made of cross-linked netted textures contributed to the flocculation. A dosage of 20 mg/l BF-OU5 initiated more than 92.5% of flocculating efficiency towards kaolin suspension without any added coagulants; its flocculability was stable over a wide range of pH (4.0-8.0) and temperature (20°C-100°C). Treatment of swine wastewater using BF-OU5 achieved 52.1% flocculating removal for chemical oxygen demand, 39.7% for Kjeldahl nitrogen, 18.6% for NH4(+)-N, 21.5% for total phosphorus, and 75% for turbidity. PMID:26073312

  12. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  13. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in the context of few-photon scattering.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Cole, Jared H; Busch, Kurt

    2012-05-21

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is studied in the context of two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide with a single scatterer. We numerically investigate the scattering problem within a time-dependent, wave-function-based framework. Depending on the realization of the scatterer and its properties, we calculate the joint probability of finding both photons on either side of the waveguide after scattering. We specifically point out how Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry techniques could be exploited to identify effective photon-photon interactions which are mediated by the scatterer. The Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is discussed in detail for the case of a single two-level atom embedded in the waveguide, and dissipation and dephasing are taken into account by means of a quantum jump approach. PMID:22714220

  14. PHYSICAL MAPS OF 'AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA' AND 'RACHIPLUSIA OU' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS RECOMBINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TN-368 cells were infected simultaneously with the closely related Autographa californica (AcMNPV) and Rachiplusia ou (RoMNPV) nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. Progeny viral isolates were plaque purified, and their DNAs were analyzed with restriction endonucleases. Of 100 randomly c...

  15. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  16. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  17. Spectral correlation measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, T.; Marsili, F.; Verma, V. B.; Shalm, L. K.; Shaw, M.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient tool capable of measuring the spectral correlations between photons emerging from a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. We show that for our spectrally factorizable spontaneous down-conversion source, the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility decreases as the photons' frequency spread is increased to a maximum of 165 nm. Unfiltered, we obtained a visibility of 92.0 %±0.2 %. The maximum visibility was 97 %±0.2 % after applying filtering. We show that the tool can be useful for the study of spectral correlations that impair high-visibility and high-fidelity multisource interference applications. The nature of this tool also allows for arbitrary post-selective spectral filtering and high-rate multiphoton spectral correlation measurements.

  18. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  19. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  20. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  1. Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Peter J.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2010-04-10

    We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.

  2. Interactions and Charge Fractionalization in an Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jérôme; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We consider an electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, where two single electrons travel along opposite chiral edge states and collide at a quantum point contact. Studying the current noise, we show that because of interactions between copropagating edge states, the degree of indistinguishability between the two electron wave packets is dramatically reduced, leading to reduced contrast for the HOM signal. This decoherence phenomenon strongly depends on the energy resolution of the packets. Insofar as interactions cause charge fractionalization, we show that charge and neutral modes interfere with each other, leading to satellite dips or peaks in the current noise. Our calculations explain recent experimental results [E. Bocquillon, et al., Science 339, 1054 (2013)] where an electronic HOM signal with reduced contrast was observed.

  3. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  4. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  5. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625

  6. Hong-Ou-Mandel atom interferometry in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Brian; Kaufman, Adam; Reynolds, Collin; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    We present recent work in which we demonstrate near-complete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms trapped in sub-micron optical tweezers. Utilizing this control for two atoms in two optical tweezers, we implement a massive-particle analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer where atom tunneling plays the role of the photon beamsplitter. The interferometer is used to probe the effect of atomic indistinguishability on the two-atom dynamics for a variety of initial conditions. These experiments demonstrate the viability of the optical tweezer platform for bottom-up generation of low-entropy quantum systems and pave the way toward the direct observation of quantum dynamics in more complex finite-sized systems.

  7. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  9. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  10. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  11. Landslide susceptibility modelling using Fuzzy Logic in the oued Larbaa basin (Oriental Rif, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezere, J. L.; Sadiki, A.; Faleh, A.; Elkoulali, E.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Oliveira, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    Together with flash floods and soil erosion, landslides are relevant natural hazards that affect marly slopes in the oued Larbaa basin, located in the Oriental Rif, Morocco. Landslides have been generated important economic, social and ecological effects, by the destruction of farming lands, and by the collapse and interruption of roads and other human infrastructures (e.g., houses). The reduction of socio-economic losses due to landslide activity needs to be accomplished through the implementation of a comprehensive mitigation landslide risk program. The first task of this program is the definition of landslide susceptible areas based on the study of relationships between spatial distribution of past landslides and the cartographic set of landslide predisposing factors. Therefore, the major aim of this work is to create a landslide susceptibility map for the study area. The oued Larbaa basin, located northwards the Taza city, has an area of 245 km2 and the elevation ranges between 450 m and 1300 m. Morphology is characterized by rounded hills cutting marly formations essentially of Cretaceous age. Land use is dominated by cereal cultures and a few sparse tree plantations. Natural vegetation shows a very high level of degradation and usually appears as shrub tufts. The inventory of instability events has been made for the study area and it includes both rainfall-triggered rotational and shallow translational slides. These landslides were included into a GIS database that comprises also the following landslide predisposing factors: slope angle, aspect and curvature, inverse wetness index, lithology and land use. The susceptibility assessment was carried out for each type of landslide (rotational slides and shallow translational slides) under the assumption that future landslides will occur under the same environmental patterns that generated landslides in the past. The modelling of landslide susceptibility was made using the Fuzzy Logic method (Fuzzy Algebraic

  12. Matter-wave quantum interference in the Hong-Ou-Mandel setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Swan, Robert; Kheruntsyan, Karen

    2014-05-01

    We propose an experiment to realize a matter-wave analog of the optical Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. This is achieved by utilizing a pair of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms to generate a scattering halo of pair-correlated atoms via spontaneous four-wave mixing, analogous to optical parametric down-conversion used in the optical experiment to generate pairs of indistinguishable photons. Coupling the pair-correlated atoms by a π and π / 2 Bragg pulse realises the atom-optics analogs of mirror and beam-splitter elements of the optical HOM interferometer. We use a stochastic (positive- P representation) Bogoliubov approach to simulate the full dynamics of the experiment and by proposing a measurement protocol appropriate for the multimode nature of the scattering halo we predict a HOM-dip visibility of ~ 69 %, indicating strong quantum correlations between the scattered atoms and paves the way for a possible demonstration of a Bell inequality violation with matter-waves in a related Rarity-Tapster setup.

  13. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  14. Integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

    PubMed

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-06-15

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. In parallel, integrated optical systems are being pursued as a platform for photonic quantum information processing using linear optics and Fock states. Here we propose a novel integrated Fock state optical sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and find that this system, which only relies on photon coincidence detection and does not need any spectral resolution, can estimate forces as small as 10(-7) Newtons and can measure one part per million change in refractive index using a very low input power of 10(-10)W. Thus linear optical quantum photonic architectures can achieve comparable sensor performance to semiclassical devices. PMID:26193575

  15. Prise en Charge du Syndrome de Lyell ou Necrolyse Epidermique Toxique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Baite, A.; Bakkali, H.; Atmani, M.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  16. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Atomic Many-Body States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference experiments are a powerful probe for the indistinguishability and underlying quantum statistics of particles. In the classic HOM experiment, a pair of identical photons incident on different input ports of a beamsplitter exits via the same output port. Using the precise control and readout afforded by our quantum gas microscope, we present an implementation of this classic experiment using massive bosons in a doublewell optical potential. Identical states are prepared on each site of the doublewell and by lowering the tunnel coupling between the sites for specific times, we drive a beam splitter operation between the sites. For single-atom Fock input states, we have realized a high fidelity beamsplitter operation and observed an HOM interference contrast of >90%. By generalizing to more complex initial states on the input ports, we have been able to establish HOM experiment protocols as a robust approach towards studying the indistinguishability of many-body states as well as probe interaction-induced effects. These techniques open a path towards the measurement of purity in a quantum system and entanglement entropy in many-body states.

  17. Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2014-02-01

    The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.

  18. Intercomparison of Groundwater Flow Monitoring Technologies at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F; Jantos, J; Pedler, W H; Mandell, W A

    2005-09-20

    This report presents an intercomparison of three groundwater flow monitoring technologies at a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County, California. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) as part of firefighter training from 1962 and 1985. Cont Contamination is believed to be restricted to the unconfined A-aquifer, where water is reached at a depth of approximately 60 to 80 feet below the ground surface; the aquifer is from 15 to 20 feet in thickness, and is bounded below by a dense clay layer, the Salinas Valley Aquitard. Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late 1980s. Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with two additional flow monitoring devices that could be deployed in existing monitoring wells, in an effort to better understand their performance in a nearly ideal, homogeneous sand aquifer, that we expected would exhibit laminar groundwater flow owing to the site's relatively simple hydrogeology. The three flow monitoring tools were the Hydrotechnics{reg_sign} In In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS), the RAS Integrated Subsurface Evaluation Hydrophysical Logging tool (HPL), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Scanning Colloidal Borescope Flow Meter (SCBFM). All three devices produce groundwater flow

  19. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  20. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  1. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. [Hemorrhagic form of dengue fever observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a re-emerging arboviral disease in tropical countries. Haemorrhagic form may be associated with circulatory failure and produce hypovolemic shock, which is often fatal. We report a series of three cases of hemorrhagic dengue observed at the Infectious Diseases Department CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, in order to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and evolutive characteristics. Our study included young females who had an onset age of between 35 years and 45 years, residing in the city of Ouagadougou. Despite multiple concentrated platelets transfusions and symptomatic treatment, we mourned a death. The development of antivirals and of new vaccines is a silver lining to prevent dengue lethality. PMID:27303584

  3. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  4. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  5. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

    PubMed

    Ulanov, Alexander E; Fedorov, Ilya A; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-01-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states. PMID:27324115

  6. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states--entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations--which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  7. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  8. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  9. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  10. Spatial assessment and source identification of trace metal pollution in stream sediments of Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayari, J; Agnan, Y; Charef, A

    2016-07-01

    An extensive spatial survey was conducted on trace metal content in stream sediments from Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia. Our objectives were to evaluate the level of trace metal pollution and associated ecological risk and identify the major sources of metal pollution. A total of 116 stream sediment samples were collected and analysed for total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Zr concentrations. The results showed that concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, and Zr were close to natural levels. In contrast, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn had elevated concentrations and enrichment factors compared to other contaminated regions in northern Tunisia. Ecological risk to aquatic ecosystems was highlighted in most areas. Principal component analysis showed that Cr, Ni, V, and Zr mainly derived from local soil and bedrock weathering, whilst As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originated from mining wastes. Trace metals could be dispersed downstream of tailings, possibly due to surface runoff during the short rainy season. Surprisingly, Cu, and to a lesser extent As, originated from agricultural activities, related to application of Cu-based fungicides in former vineyards and orchards. This study showed that, despite the complete cessation of mining activities several decades ago, metal pollution still impacts the local environment. This large pollution, however, did not mask other additional sources, such as local agricultural applications of fungicides. PMID:27270485

  11. Influence of rainfall space-time variability over the Ouémé basin in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, T.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Quantin, G.; Pellarin, T.; Quatela, V.; Leroux, D.; Galle, S.

    2015-05-01

    In West Africa, the concomitant occurrence of extreme droughts and damaging floods points to the urgent need for linking the climate variability at various time scales (daily to decadal) to its impact in terms of water related risks. While hydrological models are key tools to do so, their use in this part of the world is strongly limited by the scarcity of rainfall data. Satellite precipitation products can be used as rainfall input to models in order to make up for this shortage of appropriate surface data. However, these satellite products have their own weaknesses, both in terms of accuracy and resolution. While the accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates has already received a fair amount of attention, little published work deals with the resolution issue. The study presented here is motivated by this lack of attention to the resolution issue. It makes use of the data produced by a very dense rainfall network covering the Ouémé catchment in Benin (14 600 km2), to study the impact of varying the space-time resolution of input rainfields on the output produced by DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soils and Vegetation Model), thus mimicking the resolution-induced errors associated with using satellite rainfall input for such physically-based models. The major result of this sensitivity analysis is that the model output is much more sensitive to the time resolution than to the space resolution, at least for this region and for the range of resolutions tested.

  12. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment of two independent heralded single photon sources in an optical fiber with birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan; Feng, Zhenming

    2012-11-01

    Single photon sources (SPSs) play important roles in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in optical fibers provides a promising way to realize practical heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), since it is compatible with current techniques of optical communications. In this paper, two independent HSPSs at 1.5μm band are realized in one polarization maintaining dispersion shifted fiber (PM-DSF) utilizing its large birefringence. When pulsed pump light passes through an optical fiber, two kinds of SFWM will take place simultaneously. One is scalar processes, in which two annihilated pump photons and generated photon pair are all polarized along the same fiber polarization axis. The other is vector processes, in which two annihilated pump photons are polarized along different fiber polarization axes, either for the two photons of the generated pair. In the PM-DSF, the large birefringence generates obvious walk-off effect on the two pump polarization components, which leads to an effective suppression of the vector processes. Hence, by proper pump polarization, correlated photon pairs (CPPs) with different polarization directions can be generated independently by the two scalar processes, which can be used to realize two independent HSPSs. The indistinguishability of the heralded photons generated by the two independent sources is demonstrated by an experiment of Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. Using a fiber coupler as the beam splitter, a visibility of HOM dip of 76% is achieved, showing their potential on quantum information.

  13. Laser-cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    In this thesis, I describe the development of and scientific results from a new platform for creating ultracold atoms via single-atom control. We employ Raman-sideband cooling to isolated bosonic 87Rb atoms confined within sub-micron optical tweezers, yielding single particle three- dimensional ground-state fractions of 90%. We create multiple, independent, mobile optical tweezers, which simultaneously allows multi-particle studies with single-atom microscopy and highly tunable length-scales. We employ this toolset in both of the main experiments discussed in this thesis. In one experiment, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two bosonic atoms, each of which is independently prepared in spatially separated optical tweezers. The interference we observe is a direct consequence of the purity of the single particle quantum states produced, and the indistinguishability of the atoms. In a second experiment, we introduce a spin-degree of freedom and exploit spin-exchange dynamics, driven by the quantum-statistics of the particles, to create a spin-entangled pair of spatially separated atoms.

  14. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  15. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  16. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture products to improve streamflow simulations on the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Delphine; Pellarin, Thierry; Vischel, Théo; Gascon, Tania; Kerr, Yann

    2015-04-01

    The Ouémé catchment is located in the central part of Benin in West Africa. Its climate, extremely dry in winter and heavy rains in summer, makes the water cycle a true challenge to model, especially for the water management in the agricultural areas. DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model) is a physically based and distributed hydrological model that solves the energy and water balance at each time step. This model simulates the soil moisture at each soil layer, the snow quantity, the evapotranspiration, the runoff and the streamflow. It was used with an hourly time step at a 1 km resolution. Model parameters have been calibrated using 2005 in situ streamflow measurements along with in situ precipitations. When using satellite precipitation observations, the streamflow simulations are no longer in agreement with in situ measurements. The goal of this work is to assimilate the SMOS soil moisture product into the hydrological model DHSVM using a Kalman filter for a better constraint on the water cycle model when using satellite precipitation observations. First results tend to show an improvement of the simulated streamflow using the SMOS assimilation into DHSVM. SMOS acts on the system by adding or removing some water when satellite observations are either under or overestimating the precipitations. The ESA's SMOS mission was launched in November 2009 and has been providing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity data for the last five years. Soil moisture products are available at a 25 km resolution with a 3-day global coverage (Level 3 data). Besides the choice of the assimilation method, the difference in spatial resolutions is also being taken care of by using an influence circle area. Highlights are mainly put on the impacts of the assimilation on the soil moisture and on the streamflow. Furthermore, DHSVM also models the water table depth and a first attempt to estimate groundwater volume for the entire watershed is presented in this study.

  17. Les considérations éthiques relatives à la désadoption d'aspects inefficaces ou nuisibles des soins de santé.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    La désadoption désigne l'abandon d'une pratique médicale ou d'un service de santé inefficace ou nuisible après une période d'adoption. Tandis que les dépenses croissantes en matière de santé menacent de paralyser les sociétés qui les financent, le fait de faciliter la désadoption peut faire partie intégrante de systèmes de santé durables qui prodiguent des soins de qualité. Le présent article explore des enjeux éthiques qui se rapportent à la désadoption, y compris les principes sous-jacents de bénéficience, de non-maléficience, de justice et d'autonomie. PMID:27576859

  18. Antibody Production, Anaphylactic Signs, and T-Cell Responses Induced by Oral Sensitization With Ovalbumin in BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Tanarro, Alba; López-Expósito, Ivan; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Two mouse strains, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, broadly used in the field of food allergy, were compared for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of ovalbumin (OVA). Methods Sensitization was made by administering 2 different OVA doses (1 and 5 mg), with cholera toxin as Th2-polarizing adjuvant. Antibody levels, severity of anaphylaxis, and Th1 and Th2 responses induced by the allergen were assessed. In addition, because the mice selected had functional toll-like receptor 4, the influence of contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the immunostimulating capacity of OVA on spleen cells was also evaluated. Results Both strains exhibited similar susceptibility to OVA sensitization. The 2 protein doses generated similar OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in both strains, whereas C3H/HeOuJ mice produced significantly more IgG2a. Oral challenge provoked more severe manifestations in C3H/HeOuJ mice as indicated by the drop in body temperature and the severity of the anaphylactic scores. Stimulation of splenocytes with OVA led to significantly higher levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in BALB/c, and these were less affected by protein contamination with LPS. Conclusions The antibody and cytokine levels induced by OVA in BALB/c mice and the observation that BALB/c spleen cell cultures were more resistant than those of C3H/HeOuJ mice to the stimulus of LPS make this strain prone to exhibit Th2-mediated food allergic reactions and very adequate for the study of the features of OVA that make it allergenic. PMID:26922934

  19. Calcification and Silicification: Fossilization Potential of Cyanobacteria from Stromatolites of Niuafo‘ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and Implications for the Early Fossil Record

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo‘ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si‘i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo‘ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains. Key Words: Stromatolites—Cyanobacteria—Calcification—Silicification—Niuafo‘ou (Tonga)—Archean. Astrobiology 12, 535–548. PMID:22794297

  20. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  1. Variable phenotypic expressivity in inbred retinal degeneration mouse lines: A comparative study of C3H/HeOu and FVB/N rd1 mice

    PubMed Central

    van Wyk, Michiel; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in optogenetics and gene therapy have led to promising new treatment strategies for blindness caused by retinal photoreceptor loss. Preclinical studies often rely on the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1 or Pde6brd1) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mouse model. The rd1 founder mutation is present in more than 100 actively used mouse lines. Since secondary genetic traits are well-known to modify the phenotypic progression of photoreceptor degeneration in animal models and human patients with RP, negligence of the genetic background in the rd1 mouse model is unwarranted. Moreover, the success of various potential therapies, including optogenetic gene therapy and prosthetic implants, depends on the progress of retinal degeneration, which might differ between rd1 mice. To examine the prospect of phenotypic expressivity in the rd1 mouse model, we compared the progress of retinal degeneration in two common rd1 lines, C3H/HeOu and FVB/N. Methods We followed retinal degeneration over 24 weeks in FVB/N, C3H/HeOu, and congenic Pde6b+ seeing mouse lines, using a range of experimental techniques including extracellular recordings from retinal ganglion cells, PCR quantification of cone opsin and Pde6b transcripts, in vivo flash electroretinogram (ERG), and behavioral optokinetic reflex (OKR) recordings. Results We demonstrated a substantial difference in the speed of retinal degeneration and accompanying loss of visual function between the two rd1 lines. Photoreceptor degeneration and loss of vision were faster with an earlier onset in the FVB/N mice compared to C3H/HeOu mice, whereas the performance of the Pde6b+ mice did not differ significantly in any of the tests. By postnatal week 4, the FVB/N mice expressed significantly less cone opsin and Pde6b mRNA and had neither ERG nor OKR responses. At 12 weeks of age, the retinal ganglion cells of the FVB/N mice had lost all light responses. In contrast, 4-week-old C3H/HeOu mice still had ERG and OKR responses, and we

  2. Low energy nuclear reactions with RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Mendes, D. R.; Zamora, J. C.; Morais, M. C.; Condori, R. P.; Benjamim, E. A.; Monteiro, D. S.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion beam in Brasil, is a system based on superconducting solenoids which can produce low energy RNB (Radioactive Nuclear Beams) at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Secondary radioactive beams of light particles such as 6He, 7Be and 8Li have been produced and low energy elastic scattering and transfer reaction experiments have been performed. The recent scientific program using this facility includes elastic scattering and transfer reactions of 6He halo nucleus on 9Be, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn targets and 8Li on 9Be, 12C and 51V targets. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Also spectroscopic factors have been obtained from the transfer reactions.

  3. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  4. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

  5. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  6. Nature, origine et évolution des fluides dans le district minier de la caldeira d'oued bélif (nefza, Tunisie septentrionale)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Fouad; Slim-Shimi, Najet; Tlig, Said; Zargouni, Fouad

    1999-02-01

    Fluid inclusion studies were undertaken on quartz, fluorite and calcites in the Oued Bélif caldera ore district in northern Tunisia. Two main groups of inclusions were distinguished: a fluid inclusion group, of magmatic origin, with a temperature higher than 350 °C and salinity higher than 30 wt % NaCl; and a group of mixing between magmatic and meteoric fluids with temperatures and salinities ranging from 150 to 250 °C and from 15 to 25 wt % NaCl, respectively. These two groups result from hydrothermal circulations of respectively, "porphyry copper" and epithermal systems; this is confirmed by the nature of the alteration.

  7. Calcification and silicification: fossilization potential of cyanobacteria from stromatolites of Niuafo'ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and implications for the early fossil record.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Barbara; Kazmierczak, Józef; Lukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo'ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo'ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains. PMID:22794297

  8. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 2,341 110 Tanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 4,887 269 Tanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 12,035 908

  9. Aspects of choosing appropriate concepts for modelling groundwater resources in regional integrated water resources management Examples from the Neckar (Germany) and Ouémé catchment (Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Jagelke, J.; Götzinger, J.; Gaiser, T.; Printz, Andreas

    Two regional groundwater flow models (Neckar catchment, Germany, 14,000 km 2, and Southern Ouémé Basin, Benin, 11,000 km 2) were developed within the framework of the integrated management project ‘RIVERTWIN’ ( www.rivertwin.org). Both models were evaluated with respect to the question if the chosen modelling approaches (multi-layered finite difference numerical flow modelling, steady state and transient) are appropriate in view of the existing management problems in the catchments, the data availability and the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions in the basins. It is shown that neither the model in the well-investigated, data-rich basin in Western Europe with its highly developed water related infrastructure, nor the model in the hydrogeologically less well-known and less developed basin in Western Africa provide results that are fully applicable to the main regional management tasks. In the case of the Ouémé, the groundwater related problems are foremost of local character and therefore cannot be addressed by regional models in a meaningful way. Data scarcity and complex, unfavourable geological conditions (crystalline rocks, discontinuous aquifers) support the conclusion that numerical 3D groundwater flow models are currently not helpful to manage groundwater related management problems in the Ouémé basin. A better understanding of regional hydrological surface and subsurface processes is required first. Methods for a reliable estimation of groundwater recharge and subsequently groundwater availability were identified as the most urgently needed tool for meaningful groundwater management in view of climatic, demographic and land use change. In the Neckar catchment the results of the analysis are less pronounced; here regional groundwater problems could clearly benefit from a physically based 3D model since the hydrogeological system is strictly stratified with several important aquifers in the vertical sequence. As a general conclusion it can

  10. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  11. Determination of heavy metals in suspended waste water collected from Oued El Harrach Algiers River by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2013-12-01

    A preliminary study of the atmospheric pollution in the centre of Algiers is one of the important fields of applications in the environmental science. Nowadays, we need to evaluate the level of the contamination which has an unfavourable effect on physicochemical properties of soils and plants and namely also on human health. In the present work, water samples collected from Oued El-Harrach Algiers River, have been filtered in 0.45 μm Millipore filters to be analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique using 109Cd radioisotope source. Concentrations of the toxic elements like heavy metals are determined and compared with the published ones values by Yoshida [1] and those obtained using PIXE and NAA techniques [6].

  12. Le fibromatosis colli ou torticolis congénital: son diagnostic et sa prise en charge à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Pegbessou, Plaodezina Essobozou; Sonhaye, Lantam; Ahouanssou, Patricia Yékpé; Amadou, Abdoulatif; Kolou, Beresa; Kama, Lidi Bessi; Garba, Nouhou Mahamadou; Koussema, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda; N'dakéna, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Le fibromatosis colli (FC) est pseudotumeur rare du muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien (SCM), à l'origine d'un torticolis dit congénital chez le nouveau-né ou le nourrisson. Le mécanisme étio-pathogénique de sa survenue est sujet à controverse. Son diagnostic fait appel à l’échographie qui permet de mettre en évidence un épaississement caractéristique du muscle. Nous rapportons deux cas diagnostiqués par l’échographie avec pour un cas une notion de malposition intra-utérine et pour l'autre cas une absence totale de malposition et de traumatisme obstétrical qui pourtant est évoqué comme élément du mécanisme de survenue du FC. PMID:26834927

  13. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  14. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU UP-1 Wells 299-W19-48, 699-30-66, and 699-36-70B

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-15

    This report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress-level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) UP-1 wells: 299-W19-48 (C4300/Well K), 699-30-66 (C4298/Well R), and 699-36-70B (C4299/Well P). These wells are located within, adjacent to, and to the southeast of the Hanford Site 200-West Area. The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU UP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  15. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W11-43, 299-W15-50, and 299-W18-16

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-21

    The following report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 wells: 299-W11-43 (C4694/Well H), 299-W15-50 (C4302/Well E), and 299-W18-16 (C4303/Well D). These wells are located within south-central region of the Hanford Site 200-West Area (Figure 1.1). The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU ZP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  16. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  17. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. PMID:27236256

  18. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  19. The Rough and the Smooth--Students' Experiences of O.U. Study. Open-Ended Feedback from the Student Opinion Survey. The "Pete Davey Survey." Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robin; Morgan, Alistair

    The Student Opinion Survey was sent to a random sample of 2,600 Open University (OU) students who had gained at least two credits and were studying during 1984. The response rate was 84 percent. Responses to open-ended questions on about one-third of those questionnaires were analyzed to determine the significant phenomena in students' experiences…

  20. Détention provisoire des jeunes femmes accusées d'avortement clandestin ou d'infanticide au Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Pemba, Liliane Flore

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L'activité sexuelle chez les jeunes les expose à un accroissement du risque de contracter des grossesses non désirées. Le recours à l'avortement clandestin avec son corollaire de complications peut entrainer le décès de la jeune femme. Avortement et infanticide sont interdits et sanctionnés par la loi sénégalaise. Comment ces jeunes femmes vivent-elles leur détention? Existe-il des alternatives à la détention pour éviter leur désocialisation? Méthodes Cette étude rétrospective portait sur la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar située à Liberté 6, un quartier de Dakar. Nous avons procédé à des entretiens avec des femmes détenues à la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar et suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement clandestin. Résultats Les femmes de notre échantillon ont une moyenne d’âge inférieure à 25 ans avec parmi elles une fille mineure de 16 ans. Nous avons trouvé 18,51% de femmes suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement. Dans notre étude 50% des femmes sont originaires de la périphérie et de la banlieue de Dakar et presque 44% proviennent des autres régions du pays. La durée moyenne de détention provisoire est de neuf mois. Conclusion Malgré leur qualification distincte dans le code pénal: l'infanticide est un crime et l'avortement un délit, les femmes suspectées d'avoir commis ces actes sont soumises à de longues détentions préventives. PMID:22937189

  1. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  2. Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Chemical Composition in Phyllostachy pubescens Forests at Two Altitudes in Jian-ou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Zhong, Zheke

    2015-01-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens forests play an important role in soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the estimation and mechanism of SOC sequestration by P. pubescens forests remain unclear. In this study, the effect of P. pubescens forest distribution with elevation was investigated at two altitude sites in Jian-ou City, Southeast China. SOC storage was estimated and its chemical composition was obtained via 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical classification, and spectral analysis. Results showed that the SOC contents and stocks were significantly higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site in the entire soil profile (0–60 cm). The C contents of the three combined humus forms exhibited similar responses to the elevation change, and all of these forms were higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site regardless of soil layer. However, the proportions of the three combined humus C showed no significant differences between the two altitudes. The results of 13C-NMR showed that the SOC chemical composition did not significantly vary with elevation as well. This finding was consistent with the E465/E665 of the loosely combined humus. Overall, the results suggested that altitude should be considered during regional SOC estimation and that altitude affected the quantity rather than the quality of the SOC under the same P. pubescens vegetation. PMID:26716688

  3. Coupling of spin and orbital degrees of freedom in tunable Hong-Ou-Mandel interference involving photons in hybrid spin-orbit modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, Cody C.; Lankford, Maggie; Sundarraman, Deepika

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the connection between biphoton states involving photons in product modes of their spin and orbital degrees of freedom and those involving photons in hybrid spin-orbit modes, as mediated by Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We predict that two input photons in balanced superposition states of both their spin and orbital degrees of freedom will exhibit HOMI while undergoing a simultaneous mode conversion from product spin-orbit input modes to hybrid output modes bearing orbital angular momentum. These hybrid outputs contain a spatially varying polarization structure which may be controllably rotated about the photonic beam axis by varying the relative phase between the vertical and horizontal components of each input photon's polarization. Additionally, a type of coupling of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom is exhibited in this system: the transverse spatial profile of the output photons may be continuously manipulated by tuning the polarization parameters of the input photons, in such a way that the HOMI between the photons remains stable. An interesting corollary to this work is the possibility of demonstrating in a simple experimental system that HOMI may occur between distinguishable input modes.

  4. Formes hémorragiques de Dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    La dengue est une arbovirose ré émergente dans les pays tropicaux. Sa forme hémorragique peut s'accompagner d'une défaillance circulatoire pouvant conduire à un choc hypovolémique, souvent fatal. Nous rapportons une série de trois cas de formes hémorragiques de dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou dont l'objectif est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques et évolutives. Les cas étaient des jeunes de sexe féminin dont l’âge variait entre 27 ans et 43 ans, résidant dans la ville de Ouagadougou. Malgré de multiples transfusions de concentrées plaquettaires et un traitement symptomatique, nous déplorons un cas de décès. Le développement d'antiviraux et la mise au point de nouveaux vaccins constituent une lueur d'espoir pour prévenir la létalité due à cette maladie. PMID:27303584

  5. Improvement and Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for the Ouémé River Basin (Bénin), West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GABA, C. O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water resources is still an important issue especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we propose a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action. A first version of a Least Action based model, in its deterministic version has already given very good results on simulating the Bétérou catchment in the Ouémé basin, Benin. The paper presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODYPMA was applied on 22 subcatchments in Africa, in Bénin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia; in Europe, and in the USA. Its performance was compared to two well known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model could be successfully calibrated and validated; it shows a good performance for a range of scales but a limited applicability to catchments smaller than 500 km2 . The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. The parameter uncertainty was analysed using the GLUE methodology. It is concluded that model uncertainty is higher during high flows and that uncertainty analysis should include the uncertainty of the discharge data. Finally, some aspects that further research must address are brought out.

  6. Reducing the basin vulnerability by land management practices under past and future climate: a case study of the Nam Ou River Basin, Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharjan, M.; Babel, M. S.; Maskey, S.

    2014-08-01

    This research evaluates different land management practices for the Nam Ou River Basin in Northern Laos for reducing vulnerability of the basin due to erosion and sediment yield under existing and future climate conditions. We use climate projection data (precipitation and temperature) from three general circulation models (GCMs) for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES), namely B1, A1B and A2 and three future periods, namely 2011-2030, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099. These large resolution GCM data are downscaled using the Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a process based hydrological model, is used to simulate discharge and sediment yield and a threshold value of annual sediment yield is applied to identify vulnerable sub-basins. Results show that the change in the annual precipitation is expected to be between -7.60 to 2.64% in 2011-2030, -8.98 to 11.85% in 2046-2065, and -11.04 to 25.84% in 2080-2099. In the meantime, the changes in mean monthly temperature vary from 0.3 to 1.3 °C in the 2011-2030, 1.3 to 2.9 °C in the 2046-2065 and 1.9 to 4.9 °C in the 2080-2099. Five sub-basins are identified vulnerable (critical) under the current climate. Our results show that terracing is the most effective land management practice to reduce sediment yield in these sub-basins followed by strip-cropping and filter strip. Appropriate land management practices applied under future climate scenarios show significant reduction in sediment yield (i.e. up to the tolerance limit) except for some sub-basins. In these exceptional sub-basins, designing an optimum combination of management practices is essential to reduce the vulnerability of the basin.

  7. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  8. [Effects of saline-alkali stress on electrical impedance spectroscopy parameters and ion contents in shoots of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jia, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2014-11-01

    To study the adaptability to salt-alkaline stress of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut, 'Liaozhen 3' shoots which were treated with three types of stress neutral NaCl, alkaline Na2CO3, and mixed salt-alkali, and the changes in electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) parameters and mineral ion contents were subsequently determined. The correlations between the EIS parameters and mineral ion contents were analyzed. The results showed that with the increasing level of NaCl, specific high- frequency resistance (r), specific low-frequency resistance ( r(l)), specific intracellular resistance (r(i)) and specific extracellular resistance (r(e)) of shoots decreased firstly, then increased, and finally decreased again. However, these parameters increased gradually with the increasing level of Na2CO3, while r(l) and r(e) decreased slowly in the mixed salt-alkali treatments. The Na+ contents of shoots increased significantly under the three salt-alkali stresses with the order of NaCl stress > mixed salt-alkali stress > Na2CO3 stress. Furthermore, Na2CO3 stress resulted in the decreases in the contents of three elements Zn, B and Ca. The significant negative correlation was found between the sum of five cations and four EIS parameters r(l), r(e), relaxation time (τ) , and distribution coefficient of relaxation time (ψ). The shoots of 'Liaozhen 3' might be tolerant of Na2CO3 stress of 200 mmol · L(-1), while they could be resistant to NaCl stress of 100-150 mmol · L(-1). PMID:25898608

  9. Les fractures de jambe à fibula intact: traitement orthopédique ou enclouage centromédullaire? (étude comparative à propos de 60 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Fadili, Assia; Belmoubarik, Amine; EL Andaloussi, Yassir; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La fracture de jambe à fibula intact (FJFI) est caractérisée par un potentiel de déplacement minime ainsi le pronostic semble bon, souvent associées à des difficultés de réduction de consolidation ou de cal vicieux. Notre but est de comparer les résultats du traitement orthopédique et de l'enclouage centromédullaire (ECM). Entre janvier 2006 et janvier 2011, on a traité 60 fractures de jambe à fibula intact. 31 patients ont bénéficié d'un ECM, dont 14 fois était statique, 16 fois dynamique et simple une fois, avec un appui compris entre le 2eme jour (pour la plupart des patients) et la sixième semaine. 29 patients ont bénéficiés d'un traitement orthopédique après réduction par plâtre cruro-pédieux avec libération du genou après 4 semaines avec appui total chez la plupart des patients. La durée de consolidation été de 4 mois en moyenne pour les patients traites par ECM et de 6 mois pour les patients traites orthopédiquement. On a noté 3 cas de pseudarthrose dans notre série d’étude soit 5%: 2 observées chez le groupe de l'ECM soit 6,4% et un cas pour le groupe du traitement orthopédique soit 3,8%. 6 cas de déplacement secondaires ont été note chez les patients traites orhtopédiquement à j15 du traitement, pour 5 patients le déplacement été jugé tolérable et pour un seul patient (trouble angulaire supérieur à 10°) ayant nécessité un ECM. 13 cas soit 54% de cal vicieux angulaire supérieur à 10 dans notre série tous traités orthopédiquement versus aucun cas de cal vicieux chez les patients du groupe du traitement par ECM. Cliniquement: tous les patients traités par ECM ont présenté une mobilité du genou et de la cheville normale. Les patients traités orthopédiquement ont tous bénéficié d'une rééducation du genou libération du genou et confection d'un plâtre type Sarmiento et celle de la cheville après son ablation définitive, ainsi aucun de nos patients n'a gardé une raideur après avoir termin

  10. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  11. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  12. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  13. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  14. Complications du diverticule de Meckel (DM) chez l'adulte: à propos de 11 cas au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouangré, Edgar; Zida, Maurice; Bazongo, Moussa; Sanou, Adama; Bonkoungou, Gilbert Patindé; Doamba, Rodrigue Namékinsba; Sawadogo, Elie Yamba; Ouédraogo, Sidziguin; Zongo, Nayi; Traore, Si Simon

    2015-01-01

    Le diverticule de Meckel (DM) est la persistance partielle du canal omphalomésentérique. Ses complications sont rares. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent per opératoire. L'objectif a été de décrire les complications du diverticule de Meckel chez l'adulte dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive sur 10 ans (janvier 2004-décembre 2013) portant sur les dossiers des patients âgés de plus de 15 ans ayant présenté un DM compliqué. Durant la période d’étude, 11 cas ont été colligés. L'incidence annuelle a été de 11 cas. Nous avons noté une prédominance masculine avec un sex-ratio de 4,5. L’âge moyen des patients était de 29,8 ans. Le diagnostic préopératoire a été dans huit cas une occlusion intestinale aiguë, une appendicite aiguë dans deux cas, une péritonite aiguë généralisée dans un cas. Il a été diagnostiqué en peropératoire une occlusion intestinale dans neuf cas; une diverticulite dans un cas et un cas de perforation du DM. Tous les DM avaient été réséqués dont huit résections segmentaires iléales emportant le DM et trois résections cunéiformes. Tous les DM étaient situés à moins d'un mètre de la jonction iléo-caecale. L'histologie réalisée dans deux cas avait conclu à une diverticulite. Les suites opératoires ont été simples dans neuf cas, compliquées dans deux cas dont une éventration et un décès. Les complications du diverticule de Meckel sont rares. Le diagnostic préopératoire est difficile. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. PMID:26958137

  15. Cas rare de rupture bilatérale des tendons d'Achille sans notion de tendinopathie ou de chirurgie de la cheville chez un jeune sportif: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Belmoubarik, Amine; Abouchane, Merouane; Mahraoui, Mohamed Amine

    2015-01-01

    Les lésions du tendon d'Achille sont plus fréquentes que celles du tendon quadricipital ou patellaire. Les lésions bilatérales sont par contre plus rares et sont souvent associées à une notion de tendinopathie, d'injection de corticoïdes ou de maladies systémiques tels que le lupus érythémateux, l'ostéomalacie ou l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 34 ans victime d'une rupture bilatérale des tendons d'Achille suite à une réception de saut lors de la pratique de gymnastique. Le patient n’était pas suivi pour maladie de système ou mis sous corticothérapie ou fluoroquinolones. Le diagnostic a été suspecté devant une dépression anormalement creusant le relief sous cutané des deux tendons d'Achille avec une impossibilité de flexion dorsale des deux chevilles en association à un signe de Thompson bilatéralement positif. L’échographie a confirmé le diagnostic. Le patient a été traité par laçage et suture tendineuse à ciel ouvert. La rupture bilatérale du tendon d'Achille est rare. La plupart des patients rapportent une notion de maladie systémique ou un antécédent de chirurgie du genou. Nous rapportons le cas d'une lésion rare dans la littérature, une rupture bilatérale des tendons achiléens sans notions de maladies auto-immunes ni de traitement aux corticoïdes. Les lésions bilatérales présentent certaines particularités thérapeutiques et évolutives. En effet, deux difficultés sont à noter la première réside dans l'absence de référence comparative pour régler et apprécier l’équin physiologique lors de la réparation tendineuse. La deuxième difficulté est l'obligation de différer l'appui à 45 jours. Ce qui est contraignant pour le patient. La technique de réparation à ciel ouvert couplée à une immobilisation en équin protégeant la suture nous a donné des résultats satisfaisants. PMID:26140066

  16. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W10-33 and 299-W11-48

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2007-09-30

    Slug-test results obtained from single and multiple, stress-level slug tests conducted during drilling and borehole advancement provide detailed hydraulic conductivity information at two Hanford Site Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 test well locations. The individual test/depth intervals were generally sited to provide hydraulic-property information within the upper ~10 m of the unconfined aquifer (i.e., Ringold Formation, Unit 5). These characterization results complement previous and ongoing drill-and-test characterization programs at surrounding 200-West and -East Area locations (see Figure S.1).

  17. Un exemple de volcanisme calco-alcalin de type orogénique mis en place en contexte de rifting (Cambrien de l'oued Rhebar, Meseta occidentale, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Simancas Cabrera, Fernando; González Lodeiro, Francisco; Azor Pérez, Antonio; Jesús Martínez Poyatos, David

    2006-03-01

    The Middle Cambrian calc-alkaline Oued Rhebar volcanic complex (western Meseta, Morocco) compares with rocks originated in orogenic contexts. The La/Nb ratios are relatively high (5.2), suggesting a lithospheric mantle origin. The La/Ta ratios, higher than 26, and the negative Nb anomaly indicate a lithospheric source contaminated by the continental crust. These rocks were generated in the Mesetian Mid-Cambrian rift and would have inherited their orogenic signature from the partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  19. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies. PMID:26585750

  1. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  2. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  3. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  4. Pedagogical Research at the UK OU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Ellie

    This lecture describes the organization and kinds of pedagogical research undertaken in the United Kingdom Open University and, through a case study of educational research in the recently introduced Arts Foundation Course (A102), to show how one type of research can contribute to course organization and development. The Institute of Educational…

  5. Assessment of the current and future water balance of the Ouémé catchment (Benin) for an integrated water resource management by using the WEAP water planning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giertz, Simone; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Höllermann, Britta

    2010-05-01

    Today, fresh water has already become a critically scarce resource in many regions of the world. In many developing countries insufficient water supply infrastructure aggravates this problem. With the ongoing global change and population growth water security will become one of the major problems in the 21st century. Regarding the annual water balance the West African Country Benin is not suffering from physical water scarcity. Nevertheless, investigations show that water scarcity occurs at the local scale, especially at the end of the dry season. This is caused by reduced water availability in this period and particularly by the inadequate water supply infrastructure. Facing the impacts of climate and socio-economic change, an assessment of the national water resources is an important step to assure a sustainable water resource management and to satisfy the raising water demand of Benin in the future. In the presented study the WEAP water planning model was used to analyse the current and future water balance of Benin's largest catchment Ouémé. To take into account the possible impacts of climate and socio-economic change, two IPCC scenarios (A1B and B1) and three socio-economic scenarios were simulated for the time period 2002-2025. The results show that the pressure on Benin's water resources will increase, due to population growth and changing socio-economic conditions. This leads to a greater competition for surface water especially during the dry season. Improving the access to groundwater is an alternative; however, financial and institutional constraints hinder such a development. Furthermore, declining catchment inflows and groundwater recharge aggravate the situation and require an adapted groundwater management. Beside the scenario results the presentation will also examine the uncertainties of the modelling process with WEAP. Furthermore, the suitability of the model in supporting a sustainable and integrated water resources management in developing

  6. Sédimentologie et évidence d'une tectonique Tardi-Hercynienne d'âge Permien Inférieur dans le bassin des Ida Ou Ziki; sud-ouest du massif ancien du Haut-Atlas (region d'Argana, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Hafid

    1994-08-01

    The Permian Ida Ou Ziki sequence, approximately 1200 m thick, is detrital in origin. Sedimentological data clearly indicate a fluviatile environment. The palaeocurrents show that during the infilling of the basin, the detrital source region was constantly to the north. From a study of the clay minerals, based on the dominance of illite and not inconsiderable proportions of kaolinite and chlorite, a wet warm and humid climate is indicated. The Ida Ou Ziki basin has been affected by synsedimentary post-Hercynian movement. It suggests an important subsidence phase controlled by the Tirkou fault, and by disturbances affecting the lower part of the succession. Listric faults and small-scale grabens associated with slumping gave an extensional direction approximately to the NW-SE. As part of this extensional phase, the basin was subjected to a post-depositional pre-Upper Triassic northerly regional compression

  7. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  8. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  9. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  10. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  11. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  12. Epidémiologie et prise en charge des infections du per-partum à la maternité du centre hospitalier départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Saizonou, Jacques; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Paraiso, Moussiliou Noël; Ayélo, Paul; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Daraté, René; Traoré, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude avait pour objectif de mesurer l'ampleur des infections du per-partum à la maternité du Centre Hospitalier Départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau d'analyser les conditions de survenue et de prise en charge dans la perspective de l'amélioration des soins et services maternels et néonataux. Méthodes Une étude descriptive et analytique a été conduite de Août 2009 à Février 2010 et a impliqué 110 mères victimes d'infections du per-partum; elles ont été soumises à un questionnaire durant tout leur séjour hospitalier; des observations des pratiques de prise en charge des prestataires de soins ont été menées et des registres et autres supports de données sanitaires ont été exploités. L'analyse des données a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel Epi Info 6.4 dans sa version française. Résultats L'incidence des infections du per-partum était de 5,9 pour 100 accouchements (110/ 1875); les types d'infections les plus incriminés étaient les endométrites (27,3%), les chorioamniotites (18,2%), les infections du site opératoire (12,7%) et les infections urinaires (2,7%). Les examens cliniques ont été relativement acceptables. En revanche, les examens biologiques ont été très insuffisants expliquant l'imprécision importante au niveau des diagnostics. L'antibiothérapie a été instaurée systématiquement. Le taux de mortinaissance était de 25,6% et les enfants de petit poids représentaient 23,2%. Conclusion L'incidence des infections du per-partum dans la présente étude était assez élevée. Des efforts de préventions et de dépistage de ces infections sont nécessaire afin d'améliorer la qualité des soins PMID:25120854

  13. Les manifestations oculaires au cours de la pré-éclampsie sévère ou l’éclampsie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou de Bobo Dioulasso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Méda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Ouattara, Souleymane; Yanogo, Armande; Tougouma, Somnoma Jean Baptiste; Somé, Der; Sanou, Jérôme; Dolo, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    La pré-éclampsie sévère est un problème de santé publique. L'atteinte oculaire est une de ses nombreuses complications. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les atteintes oculaires chez les patientes présentant une pré-éclampsie et/ou éclampsie afin de contribuer à leur meilleure prise en charge. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er novembre 2013 au 31 juillet 2014, chez les patientes ayant souffert de pré-éclampsie sévère/éclampsie. Nous avons inclus 127 patientes dans notre étude. La moyenne d’âge des patientes de notre étude était de 26,37 ans (ET= 6,8 ans), avec des extrêmes de 15 et 40 ans. Les tranches d’âge les plus représentées étaient celles de 26 à 30 ans avec 29,1% des cas et celle des 15 à 20 ans avec 25,2%. Le diagnostic de pré-éclampsie sévère a été retenu dans 69,3% des cas. Les primigestes représentaient 40,9% de la population. Les troubles visuels à type de phosphènes ont été observés chez 33,1% des patientes. Nous avons noté un courant granulaire conjonctival dans 41,7%, des lésions du segment postérieur chez 32,3% des patientes. Ces résultats ont été discutés par rapport à la littérature, et nous notons plus de cas d'atteinte rétinienne. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de lien statistiquement significatif entre la tension artérielle à l'admission et le stade de la rétinopathie hypertensive. Les complications oculaires de la pré-éclampsie sévère sont très fréquentes et souvent ignorées. Les atteintes rétiniennes sont fréquentes mais de bon pronostic. PMID:26405485

  14. Patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus: préfèrent-ils traiter le diabète ou l'hypertension artérielle?

    PubMed Central

    Aassri, Hind El; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Les diabétologues sont confrontés à des diabétiques le plus souvent hypertendus et polypathologiques, les rendant peu observants des différentes thérapeutiques prescrites. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer l'observance au traitement chez les patients diabétiques hypertendus. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective transversale. La population est faite de patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus vus aux urgences, à la consultation ou hospitalisés au service d'Endocrinologie. L’échantillon est non probabiliste. La population est faite de 61 patients, d'un âge moyen de 48,9 ans avec une hypertension (HTA) de type systolique dans 59%, diastolique dans 16% et systolo-diastolique dans 25% des cas. Les patients sont équilibrés sur le plan glycémique dans 65% des cas, alors que l’équilibre tensionnel n'est atteint que dans 41% des cas. En ce qui concerne l'observance thérapeutique, 24% des patients sont observant totalement au traitement prescrit, 33% ne sont pas observant au traitement et 43% ont une observance partielle au traitement dont 73.68% préfèrent le traitement destiné au diabète et 26,32% prennent le traitement anti hypertenseur. Les facteurs altérant l'observance au traitement médicamenteux sont un surcoût du traitement un nombre élevé de médicaments prescrits, un nombre important de prises quotidiennes de médicaments, une intolérance au traitement et une mauvaise information du patient sur la justification du traitement. Enfin, les patients diabétiques hypertendus sont classés comme patients à haut risque cardiovasculaire ce qui impose l'application de stratégies thérapeutiques parfois lourdes. Cette polymédication entrave la qualité de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ayant une pathologie chronique dont la compliance au traitement constitue la pierre angulaire de la prise en charge, et ce pour plusieurs raisons en particulier d'ordre économique. PMID:25396019

  15. Ouateres ou veces? Emprunt ou etymologie? ("Ouateres" or "Veces"? Borrowing or Etymology?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis-Jean

    1989-01-01

    The variety of terms used by different cultures for bathroom facilities not only illustrates the problems language poses for travelers but also opens a discussion of the distinction between linguistic borrowing and etymology. (MSE)

  16. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  17. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  18. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  19. Rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens chez un sujet jeune sans notion de maladies systémiques ou de traitement par les corticostéroïdes: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Berrady, Mohammed Ali; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Oudghiri, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les lésions du tendon rotulien sont moins communes que celles du tendon quadricipital. Les lésions bilatérales sont encore plus rares et sont souvent associées à une notion de tendinopathie, d'injection de corticoïdes ou de maladies systémiques tels que le lupus érythémateux, l'ostéomalacie ou l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 26 ans victime d'une rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien suite à une réception de saut. Le patient n'avait pas d'antécédents de tendinopathie ni de maladies systémiques. Le diagnostic a été suspecté devant une position anormalement haute des deux rotules avec une impossibilité d'extension active des deux jambes. L’échographie a confirmé le diagnostic. Le patient a été traité par la technique de laçage selon Judet protégée par un cadrage. La rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien est rare. La plupart des patients rapportent une notion de maladie systémique ou un antécédents de chirurgie du genou. Nous rapportons le cas d'une lésion rare dans la littérature, une rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens sans notions de maladies auto-immunes ni de traitement avec des corticostéroïdes. Les lésions bilatérales présentent certaines particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. En effet l'objectivation d'une rotule haute peut être rendu difficile par un aspect controlatéral semblable. Concernant le volet thérapeutique, deux difficultés sont à noter la première réside dans l'absence de référence comparative pour la hauteur patellaire. La deuxième difficulté est l'obligation de différer l'appui à 45 jours. Ce qui est contraignant pour le patient. La technique de laçage décrite par judet couplée à un cadrage provisoire protégeant la suture nous a donné des résultats satisfaisants. PMID:25667711

  20. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  1. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  2. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  3. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test used in the successful diagnosis & treatment (with antibiotic, anti-viral agents & oriental herbal medicine) of a patient suffering from pain & weakness of an upper extremity & Barré-Liéou syndrome appearing after whiplash injury. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ayuzawa, S; Yano, H; Enomoto, T; Kobayashi, H; Nose, T

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a whiplash injury suffering from prolonged symptoms, including pain and weakness of the right upper extremity and the symptoms of Barré-Liéou syndrome, was diagnosed and treated with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test as a supplement to standard medical examinations. Radiological findings showed spondylotic canal stenosis with osteophytes and disc protrusions. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test indicated a strong abnormal response around the right side of his neck and right shoulder, including the area of the vertebral artery and at acupuncture point GB 21, where positive resonant responses to Cytomegalovirus and Streptococcus faecalis were detected. Antibiotic and anti-viral agents, as well as Ku-Oketsu-Zai, a type of Oriental herbal medicine for overcoming blood stagnation or stasis, were administered according to the drug compatibility test using the Bi-Digital O-ring Test and the following clinical results were obtained. Infection at the site of the vertebral artery and the peri-arterial sympathetic nerve plexus was considered as a cause of the prolongation of the symptoms including Barré-Liéou syndrome, in this case. In addition we especially noted, in this clinical case, that the patient's impaired grasping force dramatically improved from 8 kg to 52 kg in a very short periods of time when the patient held suitable medicine selected with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test drug compatibility test. We assume that the drug action was transferred electromagnetically, by which the pathological electromagnetic oscillations caused by trauma and following infections were scavenged. This effect might lead to an improvement in the coordination of the neuromuscular system. PMID:9494625

  4. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  5. DIAMOND ALKALI OU2 - PASSAIC RIVER STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) ), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) are conducting a joint st...

  6. Analyse de l'effet des courants induits sur l'impédance d'un système électromagnétique alimenté en tension BF ou HF. Utilisation de la méthode des circuits couplés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maouche, B.; Feliachi, M.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, a study of the interaction between the inductor and the load of an axisymmetrical induction device is proposed. This interaction concerns the effect of the eddy current on both the excitation current and on the system impedance. A half analytical model, based on a numerical discretization of the electromagnetic solution domain, is used. In each cell of the numerical discretization, an analytical calculation using the Moment Method (MM) is considered. In the case of strong skin effect (High Frequency: HF), the formulation makes use of the Impedance Boundary Condition (IBC); in the contrary case (Low Frequency: LF), the interior domain is discretized. Dans cet article nous proposons l'étude de l'influence d'une charge (induit) conductrice sur la répartition du courant inducteur ainsi que sur l'impédance du système. L'inducteur est à géométrie axisymétrique de forme solénoïdale ou pancake destiné au chauffage par induction. Une méthode semi-analytique, basée sur une discrétisation du domaine en mailles élémentaires auxquelles s'applique une formulation intégrale (Méthode des Circuits Couplés : MCC) des grandeurs électromagnétiques, est utilisée. Dans le cas où l'effet de peau est important (Haute Fréquence:HF), la formulation associe la Condition d'Impédance de Surface; dans le cas contraire (Basse Fréquence : BF), un maillage du domaine interne est pratiqué.

  7. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this

  8. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  9. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  10. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  11. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  12. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  13. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program. Task, OU 1-03 and OU 4-10 Track 2 investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Trippet, W.A. II; Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  14. [Consultations in oncological supportive care mono-, multi-, ou interdisciplinary: What should we favour?].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Stéphanie Ranque; Pelletti, Caroline; Quenard, Christelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Lemoine, Patrick; Guastella, Virginie; Rhondali, Wadih

    2015-09-01

    According to the point 7.6 and 7.7 of the Cancer Plan 2014, all cancer patients should have access to supportive care. Indeed, the supportive care consultation in oncology is an important tool for the symptom management of cancer patients at all times of treatment. This consultation can be mono-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary (with different professions: physician, nurse, psychologist, social service assistant…) with or without integration (multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary). There are few studies focusing on the types of consultations (mono- or multidisciplinary) to promote based on their expected outcomes. After describing the different types of consultations (initial, follow-up, unscheduled, discharge) and having highlighted the main issues of these consultations, we will present the possible configurations. Our discussion will concern then the advantages and disadvantages of monodisciplinarity and different types of multidisciplinary highlighting the possible improvements. At the end of this work, after a brief synthesis of the different outcomes associated with each type of consultation, we would like to discuss the type of consultation to choose according to the outcomes. PMID:26031300

  15. Using statistics to determine data adequacy for environmental policy decisions (shootout at the OU-3 corral)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.; Campbell, K.; Michael, D.; Black, P.

    1998-12-31

    The discipline of statistics often plays an important role in environmental policy decision-making, when decisions are, if not completely based on, at least informed by environmental data. Statistics provides guidance for the type, quantity, and quality of data required to support the policy decisions, as well as the techniques for assessing the data once it is collected. Environmental policy decisions occur at many levels, national, regional, state, and local. This paper describes the use of statistics to support policy decisions at the local level. Even at the local level, decisions can involve millions and, in some cases, billions of dollars. Additionally, local policy decisions can have ramifications for policy decisions at the state, regional and national levels. The two major regulations that drive environmental restoration are the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (also known as Superfund), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In many areas state water quality standards and other requirements are also important drivers. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has placed the statistician right in the center of the environmental restoration work. It has done this by issuing guidance that recommends that planning for environmental data collection follows the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) Process (USEPA 1994), and evaluation of the data follows the Data Quality Assessment (DQA) Process (USEPA 1996). These processes are based on formal statistical techniques such as hypothesis testing and estimation, and explicitly link data collection to risk management decisions through specification of acceptable levels for statistical decision errors.

  16. Le futur linguistique: temps lineaire ou temps ramifie (The Linguistic Future: Linear or Branching Time)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the problems posed by a semantic analysis of the future tense in French, addressing particularly its double use as a tense and as a mood. The distinction between linear and branching time, or, certainty and possibility, central to this discussion, leads to a comparative analysis of future and conditional. (MES)

  17. Sources semiconductrices de photons uniques ou de photons jumeaux pour l'information quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel

    2003-07-01

    A large number of scientific proposals in recent years are based on transport and manipulation of information using single quantum objects. Although very impressive theoretical perspectives have been envisaged, experimental demonstrations are still limited due to technological difficulties with present state-of-the-art devices. This paper presents various approaches aiming at efficient single or twin photons semiconductor sources. The emergence of these devices will be an important technological breakthrough in the field of quantum information. To cite this article: V. Berger, J.-M. Gérard, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  18. L'exobiologie ou l'origine chimique de la vie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, A.; Halbwachs, J.-L.

    2006-03-01

    By definition, exobiology includes the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe, terrestrial life serving as a reference in our search for extraterrestrial life. On Earth, life emerged in water about 4 billion years ago with organised molecular systems capable of self-reproduction and also capable of evolution. It is generally agreed that its main ingredients were liquid water and organic molecules, i.e. skeletons of carbon atoms flanked by hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus atoms. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or near hydrothermal vents. A large fraction of prebiotic organic molecules might have been brought by extraterrestrial meteoritic and cometary dust grains decelerated by the atmosphere. The possibility that life might have evolved on early Mars, when water existed on the surface, marks it as a prime candidate in the search for microbial life beyond the Earth. Europa has an icy carapace and probably a subsurface region of water which might harbor a basic life form. The atmosphere and surface components of Titan are also of interest to exobiology for the insight into a hydrocarbon-rich, chemically evolving world. Furthermore, the detection of interstellar organic molecules and the discovery of extrasolar planets broaden the field of astrobiology to the whole Universe.

  19. Mercury speciation modeling using site specific chemical and redox data from the TNXOD OU

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-03-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mercury speciation under reducing conditions expected in sediments at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit. These changes in speciation would then be used to infer whether mercury toxicity and mobility would be expected to be significantly altered under reducing conditions. The results from this work suggest that mercury would likely become more strongly retained by the solid phase under reducing conditions than under oxidizing conditions at the TNX Outfall Delta Site. Considering that experimental results indicate that mercury is extremely tightly bound to the solid phase under oxidizing conditions, little mercury mobility would therefore be expected under reducing conditions.

  20. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  1. T-REX OU4 HIRES: the high resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, E.; Baffa, C.; Busoni, L.; Carbonaro, L.; Cresci, G.; Del Vecchio, C.; Esposito, S.; Ferruzzi, D.; Giani, E.; Iuzzolino, M.; Massi, F.; Miglietta, L.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Sanna, N.; Sozzi, M.; Tozzi, A.; Curti, M.; Faggi, S.; Marconi, A.; Bragaglia, A.; Montegriffo, P.; Origlia, L.; Bruno, P.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.; Leone, F.; Genoni, M.; Landoni, M.; Poretti, E.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F.; Carleo, I.; Gratton, R.; Antoniucci, S.; Li Causi, G.; Nisini, B.; Vitali, F.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; D'Odorico, V.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Molaro, P.; Viel, M.

    The goal of this unit was to consolidate the project for the construction of the high resolution spectrometer of the E-ELT (HIRES). The task included the development of scientific cases and tools to predict the instrumental performances. From the technical point of view it included several R&D activities in collaboration with highly specialized Italian companies; it culminated with the detailed design of a highly modular instrument based on well established technologies. From the management point of view it lead to the consolidation of a large international consortium that spans over 12 countries and includes most of the European and ESO-related institutes interested in high resolution spectroscopy. This consortium is led by INAF; its formal creation is awaiting the official call by ESO for the phase-A study for the HIRES instrument of the E-ELT.

  2. Utiliser la Dimension Europeenne Pour Faire Sortir l'Ecole de ses Murs ou "Extra Muros."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champollion, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Five European institutions devoted to principal training developed the Comenius project "Extra Muros" between 1996-99. Its objectives were understanding the importance of educative action outside the school in order to provide equal opportunity to all students, as well as to promote the awareness of Europe among schools. The project facilitates…

  3. Flow Model Development for the Idaho National Laboratory OU 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Thomas Wood

    2005-09-01

    A two-dimensional (2D), steady-state groundwater flow model was developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sitewide groundwater model. A total of 224 wells inside the model domain were used to calibrate the 2D flow model. Three different calibration techniques, zonation approach, pilot point approach and coupled zonation/pilot point approach, were explored and applied during the model development. The pilot point approach allows modelers to model aquifer heterogeneities at various scales, and extract the maximum amount of data from available monitoring data, permitting the best possible representation of flow and transport at the INL.

  4. Professionnalisation ou Deprofessionnalisation: Une Base Conceptuelle pour L'evaluation de La Competence en Psychologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jacques; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Elements of professionalization--systematic body of theory, social recognition, monopoly, and degree of organization--are presented and applied to the development of professional psychology in Quebec. The concept of deprofessionalization is introduced as an alternative basis for evaluating competence in professional psychology. (Author)

  5. Qubit-Photon Entanglement and Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Propagating Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Christopher; Lang, Christian; Fink, Johannes; Govenius, Joonas; Steffen, Lars; Filipp, Stefan; Wallraff, Andreas; Woolley, Matthew; Blais, Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Itinerant microwave photons offer an attractive carrier of quantum information in superconducting circuits. However, until recently it remained challenging to measure photon statistics and coherence properties of microwave fields beyond the Gaussian level - mainly due to the absence of efficient detectors in this frequency range. Here, we present the on-demand generation and efficient characterization of microwave radiation and its entanglement with stationary qubits. Based on novel tomography techniques and low noise parametric amplification we are able to resolve all relevant quantum correlations between the propagating field and the superconducting qubit to demonstrate entanglement with high fidelity. We have also created entangled microwave fields traveling in two spatially separated modes. Making use of the two-photon interference at a microwave beamsplitter we are able to prepare propagating NOON-type states, which we fully characterize by measuring the joint photon statistics of the two modes. The possibility to synthesize, guide and detect entanglement correlations between itinerant microwave photons and stationary qubits put microwave based quantum network experiments within reach.

  6. Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Ouémé basin, Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; Götzinger, J.; Keyzer, M. A.; Pande, S.; Printz, A.; Gaiser, T.

    An integrated assessment of groundwater resources in Benin, West Africa was performed within the framework of the EC-funded research project RIVERTWIN ( www.rivertwin.org). The assessment included a spatial analysis of groundwater relevant parameters taken from more than 4000 wells stored in a countrywide water database (BDI - Banque des Données Intégrée) and an estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge using a modified version of the hydrological model HBV. Additionally, a socio-economic assessment of the impacts of groundwater availability and accessibility on national health issues as well as an assessment of groundwater development costs was carried out. The analysis revealed particularly unfavourable conditions for groundwater use in the northern part of the country where groundwater recharge during the wet season does not lead to the formation of persistent groundwater storage in its shallow, unconfined aquifers. Poor storage capacity and hydraulic properties of the deeper fractured aquifers additionally limit the capacity of individual wells to capture groundwater recharge. Including climate change scenarios forecasting less precipitation (generated from global climate models (GCM) based on IPCC scenarios) indicates that the situation in water scarce regions will worsen, as recharge volumes lessen and occur over a shorter time period. Drilling more wells may be a limited option to capture larger portions of the recharge, since the capture zone and therefore the regional influence of existing wells is rather small. In the south, deeper confined aquifers guarantee better and more reliable yields, yet the lack of long-term monitoring and groundwater age data does not allow an appraisal of the limits of the sustainable use of these aquifers. Finally, it has been shown that access to suitable aquifers and diarrhea prevalence are spatially correlated. Access to groundwater is thereby not only a function of aquifer suitability and groundwater availability but a function of well development (mainly drilling) costs as well. The present study can be seen as a first attempt of an integrated evaluation of the groundwater resources and the development options based on the BDI data set. However, it can clearly be seen that the amount, nature and reliability of the data currently available is not sufficient to come to a clear, spatially explicit description of groundwater resources in the country. Improved monitoring and the use of advanced data collection methods (isotopic analysis, remote sensing, fully coupled models of the hydrological cycle) are required to improve the understanding Benin’s groundwater resources.

  7. Des Ateliers de Philosophie a l'Ecole Elementaire: Idealisme ou Pragmatisme? Un Exemple en France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailleul, Marc

    2003-01-01

    After a brief description of a sequence of philosophical workshops, this article analyzes, first, the request of the teachers who enroll for the training courses offered, and second, the training course itself. This analysis is conducted through a model crossing the two axes: pragmatism/idealism and individualism/social coherence. (SM)

  8. Jeux droles ou droles de jeux. (Funny Games or Strange Games.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Jean-Marc

    1983-01-01

    Role playing differs from the more static teaching technique of simulation in its incorporation of originality and theatricality. From preparation to presentation, it is important to retain the element of play, avoid techniques of or tendencies toward psychodrama, and hold the pedagogical or evaluative purposes in mind. (MSE)

  9. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  10. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

  11. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  12. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  13. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  14. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  15. Formation des adultes ou transformation des structures de l'entreprise (Manpower Development or the Transformation of Industrial Structures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Pierre

    This action research study describes how the Centre Universitaire de Cooperation Economique et Sociale (CUCES) set up an initial instructor training program for senior engineers in a large French cement firm and eventually progressed toward overall organizational change. Beginning with research methodology and some practical problems encountered…

  16. Ordinateurs: Efficaces ou pas? (La Perspective d'une Enseignante) (Computers: Effective or Not? [One Teacher's Perspective]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Micheline

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning among two groups of students enrolled in an intermediate French course. One group of students spent more time each week in a computer laboratory than did a second group of students. Overall, students who spent more time in the laboratory had higher class averages at the end of the…

  17. Structure de l'univers - quand l'observation guide la théorie... ou pas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the building of science is much more complex, with back-and-forth motions between theories and observations, with some intervention of technology and randomness. This complex process is not always correctly understood and assimilated, even amongst scientists. The hero cult, mixed with some revisionism, still exists despite in-depth historical studies. In this context, it may be useful to comparatively examine the reaction to crucial observations, their interpretation and their impact on the contemporaneous theory development. Four examples are presented here, all linked to the question of the 'construction of the heavens' but at different epochs.

  18. La conception de l'expérience scolaire aujourd'hui: Virage ou Évolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordėleau, Louis-Gabriel

    1987-09-01

    The changes characterizing the conception and educational practices in the school environment nowadays are mainly manifest on the following three levels: the learner and his learning, the planning and implementation of school programmes and thirdly, the conception and practice of evaluation. These changes are strongly stimulated by the complex interaction of social, economic and technological transformations which are reshaping our present pluralistic society. The speed with which these social changes have taken place have forced the school to face two major challenges: firstly, to involve itself resolutely in decreasing the distance between school and society and secondly to define its own function in a more precise manner so as to take over its prescribed role of educational leadership in society. On the conceptional level with regard to the learner and the learning process, the author discerns an important tendency leading to a more integral vision. The sterile juxtapositioning of process and content is now being overcome. On the level of planning and implementation of school programmes several tendencies become apparent: the programmes tend to become more prescriptive and the school increases its stock of core subjects. These two tendencies try to integrate themselves in a policy of respect for individual differences. And finally it is recognized that the phase of implementation is of as critical importance if not more so than that of planning. The practices concerning evaluation seem at present to be influenced by recent social pressures demanding that the school provide education of greater quality which responds more adequately to the new challenges effected by a society in a state of tremendous evolution.

  19. Simulation d'un systeme de stockage saisonnier de glace pour la climatisation d'un batiment commercial ou institutionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Raul Alberto

    The principal goal of this study was to evaluate, using numerical simulation, the feasibility of an air conditioning system, supported by a seasonal ice storage system, installed in a commercial or institutional building. In this regard, the effects of changing several elements around the design of two possible scenarios were modeled in TRNSYS using Matlab® as a programming tool. In the first scenario, the air demanded inside the building passes directly through the ice storage system. In a second scenario, a closed loop pipe full of glycol transports the heat between the ice reservoir and an air cooling coil. First of all, the literature review shows some studies and earlier relevant applications, as well as different solving methods for moving boundary problems in a biphasic medium (waterice). Next, the heat load profile for a typical institutional building in Montreal is determined as a reference point using EE4 and three different methods of solving the boundary motion problem are compared for both, ice training and ice melting. Subsequently, the design parameters are presented for each scenario. This is followed by a description of the programming codes in Matlab® and the components that have been implemented in TRNSYS. Finally, the results involving the heat exchanged and the waterice boundary movements, among others, are collected for one year and for three years. The simulations of both scenarios have also included the experimental variation of some parameters such as the construction area for the ice reservoir, the duration of the ice melting period and other related physical variables. A final analysis of results was followed by an economic study, which considered the changes in initial investment and the potential energy savings for each scenario, compared with a traditional air conditioning unit. This showed that, although research is still needed on many improvements in the design of scenarios and whether its application is limited by several macroeconomic factors, a seasonal ice storage system is an appealing option in energy efficiency terms and it could potentially be, technically and ecologically, a good way to obtain energy savings.

  20. Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving? = Les enfants du Canada: Se developpent-ils bien ou vivotent-ils simplement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Donna, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly journal issue (in English and French versions) includes the following articles: (1) "Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving?" (McCloskey, Donna), an overview of the latest research on the well-being of Canada's children; (2) "The Fence at the Edge of the Cliff: Approaching Family Policy in Canada" (Mirabelli, Alan), which…

  1. Biopuces pour le traitement de cellules vivantes : micromanipulation des cellules par voie électrique ou microfluidique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pioufle, Bruno; Frénéa, Marie; Tixier, Agnès

    2004-06-01

    After a brief overview of the state of the art in the domain of cell biochips, and more particularly, the usual methods for cell placement and characterization on a chip, our research on highly parallelized cell placement on a chip is presented. Single cell arraying methods, using dielectrophoresis effects, or microfluidic effects produced by bulk micromachined sub-micrometric capillaries are compared. Target applications of such cell biochips cover the domain of gene transfer on a large population of cells, parallelized cell sorting, or drug high-throughput screening on living cells. To cite this article: B. Le Pioufle et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  2. Perles et saphirs ou comment parer votre expression francaise (Pearls and Sapphires or How to Embellish Your French Expression).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geno, Thomas H.

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the pitfalls of French grammar and syntax by reproducing a student's composition, which mangles the language. Draws from similarly frustrating experiences and from a "New York Times" article entitled "The Fumble-rules of Grammar" to compile a list of "General Principles for the Improvement of Oral and Written French Expression." (MES)

  3. Colleges and Rural and Remote Communities: Challenge and Opportunity = Les colleges de collectivites rurales ou eloignees: Les defis et les perspectives d'avenir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolmson, Lorna, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of College Canada looks at the challenges confronting Canada's rural community colleges. Topics addressed in the issue include information technology and community colleges, public policy for rural community colleges, and educational partnerships. Articles include: (1) "Gather 'Round, Let's Talk... Anchoring the Community College in…

  4. Assimilation of SMOS soil moisture into a distributed hydrological model and impacts on the water cycle variables over the Ouémé catchment in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Delphine J.; Pellarin, Thierry; Vischel, Théo; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Gascon, Tania; Gibon, François; Mialon, Arnaud; Galle, Sylvie; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation forcing is usually the main source of uncertainty in hydrology. It is of crucial importance to use accurate forcing in order to obtain a good distribution of the water throughout the basin. For real-time applications, satellite observations allow quasi-real-time precipitation monitoring like the products PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) or CMORPH (CPC (Climate Prediction Center) MORPHing). However, especially in West Africa, these precipitation satellite products are highly inaccurate and the water amount can vary by a factor of 2. A post-adjusted version of these products exists but is available with a 2 to 3 month delay, which is not suitable for real-time hydrologic applications. The purpose of this work is to show the possible synergy between quasi-real-time satellite precipitation and soil moisture by assimilating the latter into a hydrological model. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture is assimilated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) model. By adjusting the soil water content, water table depth and streamflow simulations are much improved compared to real-time precipitation without assimilation: soil moisture bias is decreased even at deeper soil layers, correlation of the water table depth is improved from 0.09-0.70 to 0.82-0.87, and the Nash coefficients of the streamflow go from negative to positive. Overall, the statistics tend to get closer to those from the reanalyzed precipitation. Soil moisture assimilation represents a fair alternative to reanalyzed rainfall products, which can take several months before being available, which could lead to a better management of available water resources and extreme events.

  5. What Feynman Could Not yet Use: The Generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel Experiment to Improve the QED Explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in "QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter" and improve it by discussing with students…

  6. Heterologous expression of glutamyl-tRNA reductase gene in Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 to enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Gökhan; Alparslan, Ümmühan

    2014-01-01

    The pathways for synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) use either succinyl-CoA and glycine (C-4 pathway), or glutamate (C-5 pathway). Although Rhodobacter sphaeroides synthesizes 5-ALA through the C-4 pathway, it also has the genes coding for the enzymes of the C-5 pathway, except for glutamyl-tRNA reductase. The glutamyl-tRNA reductase gene was cloned from Rhodospirillum rubrum and expressed in R. sphaeroides; thus, the C-5 pathway was enabled to function upon assembling all the required genes. Consequently, a new and unique bacterial strain producing more 5-ALA was developed. Biohydrogen was also produced in the same bioprocess within a biorefinery approach using sugar beet molasses as substrate. The amount of 5-ALA produced by the modified strain was 25.9 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), whereas the wild-type strain produced 12.4 mg/g DCW. In addition, the amount of H2 generated by the modified and wild-type cells, respectively, was 0.92 L/L culture and 1.05 L/L culture. PMID:26740781

  7. Les notions floves en droit ou l'economie de l'imprecision (Fuzzy Notions in Law or the Economy of Imprecision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackaay, Ejan

    1979-01-01

    Proposes the theory that the "semantic fluidity" of legal terminology, far from being an obstacle to the carrying out of the law, is essential to the functioning of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches in a cost-effective manner. (AM)

  8. Aspects épidémiologique, clinique et anatomopathologique du mélanome CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Zongo, Nayi; Ouangré, Edgar; Tapsoba, Patrice; Ouédraogo, Muriel Sidnomam; Ilboudo, Léopold; Bassolet, Alban; Sanou, Maryam; Djimtibaye, Djounitana; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Niamba, Pascal; Traoré, Adama

    2015-01-01

    Le mélanome est une tumeur maligne développée aux dépens des mélanocytes. Ses caractéristiques épidémiologiques restent peu étudiées dans les populations africaines. D'où le but de cette étude. Il s'est agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012 et prospective en 2013. Pour la partie rétrospective, nous avons inclus tous les patients atteints de mélanome confirmé par l'examen histopathologique et ayant un dossier clinique exploitable. Pour la partie prospective, nous avons inclus tous les cas de mélanomes recensés en 2013. Les variables étudiées étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, anatomocliniques et thérapeutiques. Au total 19 patients étaient inclus, avec un âge médian de 53,42 ans et 10 patients de sexe féminin. La durée moyenne d’évolution de la maladie était de 3,7 ans. Les lésions étaient surtout ulcero-bourgeonnantes (13), hyperpigmentées (15), et siégeaient sur les plantes (14). Le type et acro-lentigineux était le plus fréquent (13). L'indice de Clarck a été mesuré dans 3 cas, l'indice de Breslow dans aucun cas. Les métastases étaient présentes chez 10 patients. Le traitement était surtout chirurgical. Les 11 patients inclus de manière retrospective étaient ont été perdus de vue. Un décès était noté parmi les 8 patients inclus de manière prospective. Le retard à la consultation semblait être le principal facteur de mauvais pronostic dans notre contexte. Une sensibilisation de la population et du personnel de santé sur les signes précoces de la maladie, permettrait probablement de réduire la morbidité. PMID:26113951

  9. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. PMID:22459605

  10. La musique du mot et du concept, ou certains problemes de traduction poetique (The Music of Word and Concept, or Certain Problems in Poetic Translation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisonneuve, Roland

    1978-01-01

    The whole universe enters the poet's being to be eventually transformed by him/her into musical language. It is this music that the translator must reproduce. Excerpts from the poems of Patmore, Auden, Donne, Joyce and Sloate illustrate the discussion. Translation of mystical and religious poetry is given special attention. (Text is in French.)…

  11. Parlons musique et sons, ou notes a la portee...de tous (Let's Talk about Songs and Sounds, or Notes within Reach...Of Everyone).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Genevieve

    1984-01-01

    The language teacher is encouraged to begin use of song in the classroom by first learning himself to appreciate the musical qualities and the lyrics of the music he wants to teach and also the conditions under which music is produced and recorded. (MSE)

  12. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  13. Pour Savoir ou vous en etes. Evaluez vous-meme vos connaissances (Knowing Where You Are. Evaluate Your Knowledge by Yourself).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Angelo; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A form is presented for language teacher self-evaluation concerning attitudes and knowledge about learning theories, general linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, teaching methodology, the communicative approach, class activities, class management, instructional support, and evaluation. (MSE)

  14. Pseudo-HELLP syndrome par carence en folates et/ou en vitamine B12: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Mechaal; Bouassida, Mahdi; Dhouib, Firas; Bouzeidi, Kaled

    2014-01-01

    Plusieurs pathologies médicales peuvent interférer avec la grossesse et mimer le tableau biologique de HELLP syndrome. L’évolution naturelle de ce syndrome est d'une particulière gravité pour la mère et le fœtus, il convient d’éliminer rapidement les autres diagnostics afin d’éviter une extraction fœtale prématurée injustifiée. Nous rapportons le cas d'une parturiente qui s'est présentée avec un tableau évocateur d'un HELLP syndrome, rapporté finalement à une carence en folates et en vitamine B12. PMID:25404961

  15. Trali ou œdème pulmonaire lésionnel aigu post-transfusionnel: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Nader, Youssef; Qamouss, Youssef; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui, Jaafar Salim; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    L’œdème pulmonaire lésionnel aigue transfusionnel est une complication classique de la transfusion de produits sanguins labiles, responsable de 17% des décès liés à la transfusion. Il s'agit d'un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë post-transfusionnel qui se présente comme un œdème pulmonaire aigu non cardiogénique survenant dans les six heures suivant la mise en oeuvre d'une transfusion sanguine. Le mot Trali utilisé pour désigner cet œdème est l'acronyme de l'anglais « transfusion-related acute lung injury »; l'incidence des TRALI déclarés en France reste faible à cause de leurs méconnaissances, faute d'une définition précise tant au plan clinique qu'au plan étiologique. La sensibilisation des médecins à l'identification des TRALI et à la déclaration, notamment en réanimation, doit être poursuivie. Des données récentes ont souligné sa relative fréquence et des études cliniques et biologiques plus attentives ont contribué à une meilleure compréhension de ses mécanismes dont deux sont bien défini: un conflit immunologique d'une part, une activation des polynucléaires neutrophiles par des facteurs lipidiquesd'autre part. Il est également admis que le Trali ne se déclenche que dans un contexte favorisant dont le substratum commun pourrait essentiellement être une leucostase préalable. Le traitement du Trali est celui des œdèmes pulmonaires lésionnels, oxygénothérapie et assistance respiratoire. Nous rapportons un cas de Trali survenu à la suite de la transfusion de 08 concentrés de globules rouges chez un jeune homme de 26 ans. PMID:26379812

  16. De la creativite a la creation ou des mythes a l'experience (From Creativity to Creation or From Myths to Experience).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeau, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the concept of creativity has been used in an imprecise manner in education. Reviews theories of creativity in humanistic psychology, experimental psychology, and the cognitive psychological works of Piaget and Vygotsky. Argues that educators have not always distinguished between these differing views of creativity. (41 citations)…

  17. "Le Petit Prince" ou la bonne pedagogie: Une analyse semiotique des structures didactiques ("The Little Prince" or Good Teaching: A Semiotic Analysis of Didactic Structures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskas, Jurate

    1983-01-01

    Saint-Exupery's story, "The Little Prince," is analyzed from the point of view of the structures through which the author wishes to inspire and instruct the reader. The use of disguised didactic discourse and the manipulation of words toward this end are examined. (MSE)

  18. Une reevaluation de l'evaluation ou "Le coucou dans le nid" (A Critical Look at Evaluation Methods or "The Cuckoo in the Nest").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the fundamental principles of evaluation to show that the conventional approaches to testing have led to a situation where procedure requirements overshadow the objectives of the learning process. Advocates instruments that address realistic communication goals and states criteria based on the learner's need for continous, constructive…

  19. Mise en situation analogique, ou de la video a un niveau avance (Real Life Situations, or the Use of Visuals at the Advanced Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Ingrid

    1982-01-01

    Cognitive theories normally applied to listening comprehension are applied to the use of visuals with mass media broadcasts for second language instruction: the visual image as advance organizer, as reinforcement of concrete information, and as an association with abstract information. A related study in Germany is cited and illustrated. (MSE)

  20. Performances comparées des machines à aimants et à réluctance variable. Maximisation du couple massique ou volumique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, D.; Llibre, J. F.

    1995-10-01

    The subject of this article is to compare the performances of electrical machines using three different principles of functioning which are recently exploited. We consider possibilities to realise actuators with high torque and power per unit of mass for direct drive applications. The three different machines involved in the comparison are: (i) the classical synchronous structure with permanent magnets in the inductor, (ii) the vernier reluctance structure, (iii) the vernier reluctance structure with permanent magnets. To allow a good comparison, the architecture of those three motors has to be identical, particularly the shape of the main elements. L'objet de cet article est de comparer directement, pour la première fois à notre connaissance, les performances de machines électriques mettant en oeuvre trois principes de fonctionnement différents, très récemment exploités. Nous examinons les possibilités de réalisation d'actionneurs à fort couple et puissance massique élevée, pour des applications d'entraînement direct, conçus à partir soit d'une structure synchrone classique utilisant des aimants pour l'inducteur, soit d'une structure à réluctance variable vernier soit, enfin, d'un dispositif combinant l'effet de réluctance variable à l'utilisation d'aimants. Pour permettre une comparaison réellement directe, l'architecture des trois moteurs exploitant les concepts évoqués, ainsi que la forme de leurs principales pièces, seront pratiquement identiques.

  1. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  2. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  3. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  4. Does offshore crustal taper control an onshore topographic displacement gradient in SE Brasil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn

    2015-04-01

    The SE Brasilian Serras da Mantiqueira and do Mar topographic envelopes exhibit coast-parallel displacement gradients typical of linked normal faults in extending terrain. Between southern Curitiba and Cabo Frio, coast-perpendicular profiles show the distance from the maximum escarpment elevation to the likely location of the extended margin's flexural/rheological coupling point (Taper Break, or TB) is inversely correlative to the height of the escarpment. The correlation is similar to previously-published scaling relationships derived from Scandinavian and global datasets. Although Precambrian ductile shear zones guided brittle phase faulting during Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic margin uplift, the primary control governing fault reactivation and source-to-sink evolution of the SE Brasilian rifted margin seems rooted in crustal thinning. We see two lines of interest for petroleum exploration: Preferential reactivation of high angle faults at sharply-tapered margin sectors is expected to guide onshore to offshore sediment routing along margin-parallel corridors, and (should the TB-escarpment correlation be better validated with proposed analyses of high-quality marine geophysical datasets) a partial constraint upon architectural end member interpretations of deep crustal structure may be contemplated.

  5. [Socioeconomic and geographic constraints to access mammography in Brasil, 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Praates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effect of population characteristics and geographic location of residences and services on the odds of receiving a mammography in 2003 and 2008. Patterns of mammography use were analyzed using data from the Health Supplements of the National Household Sample Survey for women aged over 25, using prevalence ratios, and for women over 40 using multivariate logistic regression, correcting for complex sample design effects. In 2003, 54.6% of women of 50-69 years of age reported having had a mammography, in 2008, 71.5%. The odds are higher for those 50 to 69 years old, and increase with family income, education, being married, having consulted a doctor and having health insurance. Living in a metropolitan area trebles the chance of mammography. Compared to the Northern region, residents in all other regions have greater odds, greater distances decrease the odds. Coverage increased in the age range targeted by national policy, and inequalities due to income and education on access to mammography were reduced but regional convergence was not marked. Increased access seems to relate more to policies of income distribution and social inclusion, and to the availability of the examination in the Unified Health System, than to an increasing number of mammography units. PMID:21987309

  6. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access. PMID:22317575

  7. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  8. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  9. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  10. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  11. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  12. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  13. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  14. 06-1464 - Deltakeeper Chapter of Baykeeper et al v. Brasil and Sons Dairy, Inc. et al

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2007-06-27

    ... Stipulated Dismissal and Settlement; Order 1 Case. No. CV 06-01464 OWW (DLB) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Layne Friedrich (Bar No. 195431) layne@lawyersforcleanwater.com Drevet Hunt (Bar No. 240487) Lawyers For Clean Water, Inc. 1004A O’Reilly Avenue San Francisco, California 94129 Telephone:...

  15. Rationale and design of the Patient Related OuTcomes with Endeavor versus Cypher stenting Trial (PROTECT): randomized controlled trial comparing the incidence of stent thrombosis and clinical events after sirolimus or zotarolimus drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Camenzind, Edoardo; Wijns, William; Mauri, Laura; Boersma, Eric; Parikh, Keyur; Kurowski, Volkhard; Gao, Runlin; Bode, Christoph; Greenwood, John P; Gershlick, Anthony; O'Neill, William; Serruys, Patrick W; Jorissen, Brenda; Steg, P Gabriel

    2009-12-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce restenosis rates compared to bare-metal stents. Most trials using DES enrolled selected patient and lesion subtypes, and primary endpoint focused on angiographic metrics or relatively short-term outcomes. When DES are used in broader types of lesions and patients, important differences may emerge in long-term outcomes between stent types, particularly the incidence of late stent thrombosis. PROTECT is a randomized, open-label trial comparing the long-term safety of the zotarolimus-eluting stent and the sirolimus-eluting stent. The trial has enrolled 8,800 patients representative of those seen in routine clinical practice, undergoing elective, unplanned, or emergency procedures in native coronary arteries in 196 centers in 36 countries. Indications for the procedure and selection of target vessel and lesion characteristics were at the operator's discretion. Procedures could be staged, but no more than 4 target lesions could be treated per patient. Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy was prespecified to achieve similar lengths of treatment in both study arms. The shortest predefined duration was 3 months, as per the manufacturer's instructions. The primary outcome measure is the composite rate of definite and probable stent thrombosis at 3 years, centrally adjudicated using Academic Research Consortium definitions. The main secondary end points are 3-year all-cause mortality, cardiac death, large nonfatal myocardial infarction, and all myocardial infarctions. This large, international, randomized, controlled trial will provide important information on comparative rates of stent thrombosis between 2 different DES systems and safety as assessed by patient-relevant long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:19958855

  16. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer du poumon par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Young, Sheila-Mae; Vella, Emily T.; Ash, Marla; Bansal, Praveen; Robinson, Andrew; Skrastins, Roland; Ung, Yee; Zeldin, Robert; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Les présentes lignes directrices visent à aider les médecins de famille et autres généralistes à reconnaître les manifestations cliniques devant éveiller les soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer du poumon chez les patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les leaders régionaux en soins primaires du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer d’Action Cancer Ontario et parmi les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer du poumon d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Les présentes lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique des données probantes, d’une synthèse des données et d’un examen externe formel effectué par des intervenants canadiens qui ont validé la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Ces lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été formulées pour améliorer la prise en charge en contexte canadien des patients qui présentent des manifestations cliniques du cancer du poumon. Conclusion Le dépistage et l’aiguillage précoces des patients atteints de cancer du poumon pourraient en fin de compte aider à réduire les morbidités et mortalités liées au cancer. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi s’avérer utiles dans la mise sur pied de programmes de diagnostic du cancer du poumon et pour aider les décideurs à veiller à ce que les ressources appropriées soient en place.

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (O.U. 4-12 and 4-03), Idaho Falls, ID, September 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Central Facilities Area (CFA) Landfills I, II, and III located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Due to the uncertainty associated with the landfill contents and the need for containment of the landfill contents, a remedial action of containment is waranted for the site, even though the risk assessment indicates that the CFA landfills do not currently present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment. Implementation of the remedial action selected in this ROD will provide for containment of the waste with a native soil cover, institutional controls, and monitoring.

  18. News and Views: Space technology in the oil industry; OU to play role in next stage of Mars exploration; Viking revisited; Wish you were here? GOCE gets going again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    The troubles flowing from BP's Macondo oil well in Gulf of Mexico have focused attention on the technological demands of safe deep-water drilling. European Space Agency research presented in a Space and Energy Seminar in August offers spin-off technologies that could support oil exploration and production in extreme environments, from corrosion control to better robotics. NASA and the European Space Agency have embarked on a joint programme to study the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Mars from 2016. They have just announced the providers of five scientific instruments for the first mission, including two consortia in which the Open University has a major role.

  19. La Carriere: Chance ou Planification? = Career: Chance or Planning? = Cariera: Sansa sau Planificare? Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (Brasov, Romania, September 22-24, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujba, Andrei, Ed.; Westfried, Stefan, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings consist of 62 presentations (21 written in French, 19 in English, 21 in Romanian, 1 in Spanish). The foreword appears in French, English, and Romanian. Papers written in English include the following:"Vocational Guidance and Change of Career: The New Demands" (Graciela Canessa); "Intervention Strategies. Youth…

  20. Les Sciences Physiques À L'école Maternelle: Un Cadre Sociocognitif Pour La Construction Des Connaissances ET/OU LE Développement Des Activités Didactiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2005-05-01

    NATURAL SCIENCES IN KINDERGARTEN: A SOCIO-COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING - The present study presents a socio-cognitive framework for the construction of the scientific knowledge of natural phenomena among pre-school children and for the development of science activities at kindergarten. It involves elements from theories of social interaction; social psychology of development and cognitive functioning; and research in natural-science teaching methods which acknowledge the importance and fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognitive operations and learning. The study also presents some of the more significant results of the research carried out on different aspects of this topic. The discussion unfolded here supports the hypothesis that the construction of natural-scientific knowledge at the pre-school age and corresponding scholastic activities are necessary and effective.

  1. Repertoire de didacticiels de francais langue seconde ou etrangere publies entre 1980 et 1988 (List of Courseware for French as a Second or Foreign Language Published between 1980 and 1988). Publication K-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H.-Lemonnier, France; And Others

    A listing of 97 items of courseware includes programs in seven categories, pertaining to: (1) vocabulary; (2) grammar; (3) verb conjugation; (4) syntax and/or morphosyntax; (5) reading and/or writing; (6) oral language; and (7) other areas of French second language instruction. Each citation includes the title, program type (e.g. drill, game),…

  2. Mise en évidence, synthèse et caractérisation de nouveaux composés : les chlorures doubles d'ammonium et de calcium anhydres ou hydratés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenu, R.; Berthet, J.; Etoh, M. A.; Counioux, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The study of materials with phase change, often indicated PCM, has been developed because of their storage capacity of calorific or refrigerating energy. Their applications relate to the habitat, the transport, the protection of the electronic circuits exposed to strong variations in temperature or to the conservation of deep-frozen foods. A systematic study of the ternary system H2O-NH4Cl-CaCl2 was then undertaken at various temperatures by using different techniques like Isoplethic Thermal Analysis (I.T.A.), T.G.A., D.T.A. and X Ray diffraction. Five invariant transformations and three new ternary compounds are observed within the temperature range -20 / 70 °C. Finally, it appears that the calcium and ammonium chlorides form a rich family of anhydrous and hydrated double salts.

  3. Non-contact laser speckle sensor for measuring one- and two-dimensional angular displacement Capteur non-contact de laser speckle pour mesurer le déplacement angulaire à une ou deux dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Bjarke; Imam, Husain; Hanson, Steen G.

    1998-06-01

    A novel method for measurement of angular displacement in one or two dimensions for arbitrarily shaped objects is presented. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field from a single laser beam that illuminates the target. The angular distribution of the light field at the target is linearly mapped onto an array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring this displacement facilitates the determination of the angular displacement. It is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the angular displacement sensor is insensitive to object shape, target distance and any longitudinal or transverse movement of the target, if the image sensor is placed in the Fourier plane. A straightforward procedure to place the image sensor in the Fourier plane is presented here. Theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the method has a resolution of 0.3 mdeg for small angular displacements, and methods for further improvement in resolution are discussed. No special surface treatment is required for surfaces having irregularities of the order of or larger than the wavelength of the incident light. It is shown that this is the case for most surfaces of practical interest. Furthermore, it is shown that robust, non-contact optical systems for industrial applications can be produced.

  4. Enseigner aux eleves ayant des troubles emotionnels et (ou) des psychopathologies. Elabore pour les eleves ayant des besoins speciaux (Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses. Elaborated for Eligible Special Needs Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This resource manual, in French, is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia…

  5. The autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ODV-E56 envelope protein is required for oral infectivity and can be functionally substituted by rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ODV-E56

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) odv-e56 gene encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, ODV-E56. In a previous analysis, the odv-e56 gene was found to be under positive selection pressure, suggesting that it may be a determinant of viral ho...

  6. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer colorectal par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Vella, Emily T.; Hey, Amanda; Simunovic, Marko; Harris, William; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Ces lignes directrices ont pour but d’aider les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels des soins primaires à reconnaître les caractéristiques qui devraient susciter leurs soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer colorectal (CCR) chez leurs patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les dirigeants régionaux des soins primaires au sein du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer, les membres du Comité consultatif sur le dépistage du cancer colorectal de l’Ontario et les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer gastrointestinal, d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Ces lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique et d’une synthèse des données probantes, ainsi que d’un examen formel par des intervenants canadiens pour valider la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Des lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été élaborées pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients qui présentent des caractéristiques cliniques d’un CCR et ce, dans le contexte canadien. Conclusion Un équilibre judicieux entre une suspicion de CCR et le niveau de risque d’un tel cancer devrait favoriser une demande de consultation en temps opportun par les médecins de famille et les professionnels des soins primaires. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi orienter les décisions de demander une consultation à des programmes d’évaluation diagnostique du CCR.

  7. Modalités de prise de décision chez les filles et les garçons en la présence ou en l'absence de l'enseignant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghibi, Makram; Sahli, Hajer; Jabri, Mohamed; Ouelhezi, Samira; Guelmemi, Noomen; Wallian, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    How girls and boys take decisions in the presence and absence of a teacher - This work is part of an innovative approach to physical and sports education in Tunisia, and team sports in particular. It uses language studies carried out within the framework of this teaching both to generate a reflective attitude on the part of students, and to identify the effect of gender as a variable in the ways in which they make decisions. Discourse analysis highlights the importance of language output by girls and boys in football teaching when a teacher is present or absent. The teacher is an institutional authority who imposes specific uses of language, and when he/she is absent, emotional tensions predominate and may reflect the repression of ideas that occurs when the teacher is present. Although girls appear to take part in the discussion, their utterances are fewer in number, and their analytical statements less effective than those of boys. Girls never gain the upper hand over boys. The study also suggests a redefinition of social role divisions on the basis of gender - masculinity and femininity.

  8. Fiches pratiques: Modalites logiques; De l'image au recit; Trois lettres; Ou est la Provence (Practical Ideas: Logical Modalities; From Picture to Words; Three Letters; Where Is Provence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Rachel Beatrice; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four ideas for classroom French instruction are described, including a lesson in the use of indicative and subjunctive moods; creative writing exercises; a comparison of the text styles of letters with different purposes; and a beginning French geography lesson. (MSE)

  9. L'enseignement d'une langue (non-maternelle ou maternelle) aux apprenants en difficulté et aux enfants issus de milieux socialement défavorisés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambach, Michel

    1986-06-01

    Official statistics reveal a high percentage of school failure at primary-school level in Belgium, notably among children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, be they francophone or foreign. Furthermore, the percentage of adult illiteracy is rising. These situations share a common root: the methodology of the mother tongue at school and the approach to the written language in particular. After defining the psychological objective of a language course the present study proposes a methodology, a synthesis of up-to-date psycho-pedagogical, linguistic and (neuro) biological trends. The data from this research make it possible to verify the working hypotheses which have been elaborated and revised over the last twenty years. Within the recommended methodology, the libération de la parole (`liberation of speech') occupies an important place. This initial stage increases and reinforces the creative dispositions in the child and prepares for real language activities. These help the child to communicate and enable a functional learning of the language. The methodology of reading takes into account research conducted on the operation of the memory and the selective activity of the brain. A first evaluation of the methodology has verified the working hypotheses. Moreover, the pupils in the experimental classes obtained markedly higher grades in tests such as reading comprehension, elaborating texts and in those tests calling for imagination and creativity.

  10. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  11. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  12. Comparison between symbolic and spectral analyses of short-term heart rate variability in a subsample of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; da Silva, Valdo José Dias; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Kemp, Andrew H; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Sérgio L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-10-01

    Linear and nonlinear analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) have been largely used to evaluate the autonomic balance directed to the cardiovascular system. However, comparative studies evaluating the agreement between methods are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to examine the relationship between spectral (SPA; linear) and symbolic analyses (SYA; nonlinear) indexes. A subsample of 683 participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health was investigated. Linear and nonlinear analyses were obtained from 10 min ECG recording at rest. Reliability and agreement between methods were evaluated by kappa-statistic and proportion of agreement. According to SYA, the most frequent pattern was P1V (sympathovagal balance, without sympathetic or vagal predominance) comprising 62.7% of the sample, followed by P2V (vagal predominance) with 33.2%, and finally P0V pattern (sympathetic predominance) with 4.1%. Overall proportion of agreement between SYA and SPA was 39.68% (95% CI 0.360-0.433), with expected agreement by chance of 30.8%. Kappa value was 0.128 indicating a slight agreement between methods. Proportion of agreement was 7.93% (95% CI 0.032-0.126) for predominant sympathetic modulation, 10.39% (95% CI 0.075-0.132) for sympathovagal modulation, and 40.29% (95% CI 0.361-0.444) for parasympathetic modulation. Our data provide evidence for important differences between SPA and SYA on HRV analysis. More studies are needed to clarify the causes of disagreement between two methods designed to evaluate the autonomic modulation of heart beats. PMID:26333658

  13. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  14. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

  15. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  16. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lúcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL. PMID:26910157

  17. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  18. The Archean–Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  19. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment. PMID:26617112

  20. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lemos, Sara P; Passos, Valéria Maria A; Brant, Luisa C C; Bensenor, Isabela J M; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association.We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (β = 0.05, P = 0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors.We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable. PMID:26287431

  1. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  2. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  3. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  4. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  5. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  6. [The therapeutic community for recuperation from addiction to alcohol and other drugs in Brasil: in line with or running counter to psychiatric reform?].

    PubMed

    Perrone, Pablo Andrés Kurlander

    2014-02-01

    In the second half of the last century a revolutionary movement began in the world mental health scenario, namely Psychiatric Reform. At the same juncture, the concept was also put forward for Therapeutic Communities, which would later become the tried and tested model for treatment of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. However, due to the alarming increase of this problem in Brazil, as well as the absence of public policies to address the problem, there was an indiscriminate proliferation of chemical dependency internment locations that, despite calling themselves Therapeutic Communities, in no way resembled the initial model proposed. These places featured inhuman and iatrogenic practices, very similar to those criticized by the Psychiatric Reform movement, which consequently discredited the Therapeutic Community model. This article seeks to demonstrate, through bibliographic research, how the conceptual and methodological bases of Psychiatric Reform closely resemble the Therapeutic Communities movement, having appeared at the same time and for the same reason, and how the lack of control and regulation of chemical dependency internment locations in Brazil has contributed to the current disrepute of this model. PMID:24863833

  7. Les mammiferes aquatiques: lexique anglais-francais des mammiferes marins actuels ou recemment disparus, y compris les especes d'eau douce des groupes surtout marins (Aquatic Mammals: English-French Glossary of Livinq or Recently Extinct Marine Mammals, Including the Fresh Water Species of Prevalently Marine Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekrassoff, Vladimir N.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces a new glossary of aquatic mammals representing recent taxonomic revisions. Describes its design, which consists of the glossary proper, listing the scientific name of each entry followed by its English and French equivalents, and of two indexes, listing other common names for the same entries referred back to the scientific term. (MES)

  8. L'observation populaire de la chute des météorites (Deux enquêtes publiques sur des chutes de météorites ou La population face à des phénomènes célestes).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsch, A.

    The fall of meteorites are among the most impressive celestial events for the general public. Two inquiries were hold at Strasbourg in 1955 and 1977 about two falls in order to determine the physical properties of the corresponding meteorites. The author gives some informations about the responses in function of diverse parameters like age, sexe etc. and gives copies of some typical letters. The fact that questionnaires were proposed in the newspapers makes the responses less spontaneous.

  9. "Les Gosses, Ca Se Leve Tot Le Matin": L'Interpretation Generique du Syntagme Nominal Disloque au Moyen de Ce ou Ca (The Kids, Who Rise So Early in the Morning: The Generic Interpretation of the Dislocation of Noun Syntax by Means of the Pronouns "This" or "That").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the grammatical effect of inserting the pronouns, "ce" and "ca" in the position originally occupied by the subject noun. Suggests that this insertion can alter the interpretation of the syntax of the subject noun and explains this problem by discussing the inherent properties of pronouns and the properties resulting from their insertion…

  10. L'identite ethnolinguistique et les eleves 16 ans ou plus qui frequentent les ecoles secondaires de langue francaise de l'Ontario. Rapport de recherche (The Ethno-Linguistic Identity of Students Aged 16 Years or Older Attending French-Language Secondary Schools in Ontario. Research Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Georges

    The report, written in French, presents the results of a study on the ethno-linguistic identity of students aged 16 years or older attending French language secondary schools in Ontario. Goals of the questionnaire study included the following: (1) gathering demographics on students about to graduate from high school, regarding their gender,…

  11. Elaboration d'une typologie des activities de simulation d'echanges interpersonnels en pedagogie des langues secondes ou etrangeres (Elaboration of a Typology of Interpersonal Interaction Simulation Activities for Second or Foreign Language Instruction). Tomes 1 and 2. Publications B-210 and B-211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Marcel

    A typology of role-playing and simulation exercises based on interpersonal interactions, used in second language instruction, is presented. Ten dimensions of such simulations were identified, which can then be used as criteria for classifying the exercises. The dimensions include: the starting point of the simulation; complexity of the…

  12. Reply to Comment on "The Jurassic-Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of the Oued El-Abid syncline (High Atlas, Morocco): Physical volcanology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications" by André Michard et al. (2013) [J. Afr. Earth Sci. 88 (December) (2013) 101-105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Mata, João; Madeira, José; Martins, Línia; Font, Eric; Medina, Fida; Marzoli, Andrea; Hachimi, Hind El; Bertrand, Hervé; Bellieni, Giuliano; Doblas, Miguel; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Beraâouz, El Hassane; Miranda, Rui; Verati, Chrystèle; Min, Angelo De; Abbou, Mohamed Ben; Zayane, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    We welcome the comment by Michard et al. (2013) as it gives us the opportunity to better discuss the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism of the High Atlas (Morocco). In their comment, Michard et al. (2013) focus on three main points which are: (i) the age of the basalts from Naour, (ii) the structural history of the Central High Atlas and (iii) the geodynamic significance of the related Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism. We will address these questions in the following sections.

  13. Evaluation du potentiel radiosensibilisateur ou radioprotecteur/antioxydant de quelques composes selectionnes par dosimetrie par gel de polyacrylamide et dosimetre de Fricke, et utilisation de la filamentation par impulsion laser infrarouge fenitoseconde comme un nouveau et puissant faisceau pour la radiotherapie du cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesat, Ridthee

    In radiation treatment, a sufficiently high radiation dose must be delivered to the tissue volumes containing the tumor cells while the lowest possible dose should be deposited in surrounding healthy tissue. We developed an original approach that is fast and easy to implement for the early assessment of the efficiency of radiation sensitizers and protectors. In addition, we characterized a new femtosecond laser pulse irradiation technique. We are able to deposit a considerable dose with a very high dose rate inside a well-controlled macroscopic volume without deposition of energy in front or behind the target volume. The radioprotective efficiency was measured by irradiation of the Fricke solution incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding production of ferric ions G(Fe3+). The production of ferric ions is most sensitive to the radical species produced in the radiolysis of water. We studied experimentally and simulated with a full Monte-Carlo computer code the radiation-induced chemistry of Fricke/cystamine solutions. Results clearly indicate that the protective effect of cystamine originates from its radical-capturing ability, which allows this compound to compete with the ferrous ions for the various free radicals - especially ·OH radicals and H· atoms - formed during irradiation of the surrounding water. The sensitizing capacity of radiation sensitizers was measured by irradiation of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding increase in the gradient between spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and absorbed dose. We measured an irradiation energy-dependent increase in R 2-dose sensitivity for halogenated compounds or a decrease for radioprotectors. Finally, we studied a novel laser irradiation method called "filamentation". We showed that this phenomenon results in an unprecedented deposition of energy and the dose rate thus achieved exceeds by orders of magnitude values previously reported for the most intense clinical radiotherapy systems. Moreover, the length of the dose-free entrance region was adjusted by selecting the duration of femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, we provided evidence that the biological damage caused by this irradiation was similar to other ionizing radiation sources. Keywords: Radiotherapy, radiosensitization, radioprotection, laser, filamentation, dosimetry.

  14. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  15. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  16. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  17. Something for Everyone? The Different Approaches of Academic Disciplines to Open Educational Resources and the Effect on Widening Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Tony; Perryman, Leigh-Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between academic disciplines' representation in the United Kingdom Open University's (OU) OpenLearn open educational resources (OER) repository and in the OU's fee-paying curriculum. Becher's (1989) typology was used to subdivide the OpenLearn and OU fee-paying curriculum content into four disciplinary…

  18. The Legacy and Impact of Open University Women's/Gender Studies: 30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 1983, the UK Open University (OU) offered its first women's/gender studies (WGS) course. Although a late entrant to the area, OU WGS courses were influential nationally and internationally for many feminists and WGS teachers and scholars. Not only did OU WGS courses have the largest WGS student cohort of any UK institution with over 8000…

  19. Online Library Accessibility Support: A Case Study within the Open University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Wendy; Clough, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Open University (OU) is the UK's largest distance education provider and has a large and growing disabled student population. Disabled user support presents particular challenges for an online library service in the distance learning environment. The OU introduced guidelines for working with non-OU--authored content (external content) in 2011…

  20. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de

  1. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry. PMID:24962279

  2. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conteúdos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino Médio, as propostas curriculares do Paraná e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conteúdo Gravitação Universal, na primeira série do Ensino Médio, já a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequência que é proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em questão, porém, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, não há um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conteúdos. O detalhamento facilita a prática pedagógica, pois, conteúdos simples como as Estações do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer são citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado é que os conteúdos de um modo geral não trazem uma sequência e não primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedagógico, pois, por ser uma região com características culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais próximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transferências dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conteúdos, clareza, sequência dos conteúdos e propostas de trabalho é proposto uma sequência de conteúdos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), é necessário fornecer além da informação, do conteúdo, o como fazer. Tal proposta não visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua prática pedagógica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. Análise de conteúdo. Tradução Luís Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. São Paulo: Edições 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educação formal, informal, não-formal e divulgação científica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, v. 31, n

  3. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Faria Lima, 2170- Putim-12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55...

  4. The effects of acute versus chronic training status on pacing strategies of older men in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    Chia, Eevon; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2015-10-01

    The combined effects of age and training on the regulation of exercise performance may be confounded by the additional challenge of thermoregulation. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the pacing strategy of older men who have recently completed 12 weeks of exercise training (acute) to men who have been regularly (>3 times/week) training for at least 6 months (chronic) in a hot, humid environment and to observe disparity, if any, between acute and chronic exercise training on thermoregulation. Eleven chronically trained men (OT) completed a familiarisation trial before returning after 7-10 days to repeat the protocol. Similarly, eight untrained men (OU-PRE) were familiarised and repeated the protocol before completing 12 weeks of exercise training. Post-training, the eight acutely trained men (OU-POST) returned to the laboratory for a third trial. All trials were conducted on a cycle ergometer at the same time of the day in a climate controlled chamber with a mean dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of 32.0°C and 68%, respectively. OT consumed more water than OU-POST and OU-PRE (P<0.01) whilst no differences were observed in the OU with training. Voluntary activation of the knee extensors decreased by 11.3% (P<0.05) in the OU-PRE after the cycling time trial. However, the decrease in voluntary activation observed in the OU-POST and OT after the cycling time trial were not significant. The OT maintained a higher power output compared with the OU-POST and OU-PRE except for the last sprint, whilst no significant differences in power output were observed between the OU-PRE and OU-POST. The rate of rise in core temperature was significantly higher in the OT compared with OU-POST (P<0.001) and OU-PRE (P<0.001). With more experience in training, the OT used an alternative hydration strategy compared with the OU-POST and OU-PRE to mitigate the effects of possible exercise hyperthermia, ultimately attaining a higher, but non-critical core temperature

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Williams Air Force Base, Operable Unit 5, Chandler, AZ, October 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    Williams Air Force Base (AFB) is located in Maricopa County, Mesa, Arizona. The following sites constitute Operable Unit (OU) 5: Airfield Underground Storage Tanks (UST) (ST-25); Paint Ship Leach Field (WP-27); Sewage Sludge Trenches (DP-28); Prime Beef Yard (SS-29); Golf Course Maintenance Area (SS-31); Building 1070 (SS-32); Munitions Incinerator (Facility 1119, SS-34); Concrete Hardfill Drum Removal Area (LF-26); Sewage Sludge Stockpile Area (Area 28); Facilities 1020 and 1051 (Site SS-21); Aboveground Storage Tanks (AST) 556 and 557 (Site ST-22); Building 1069 (Site SS-23); Building 1010 (Site SS-24); Concrete Hardfill Area (Site LF-26); Facility 1004 (Area 14). OU-5 addresses soil contamination actions at the nine sites listed in Section 1.1. OU-6 addresses soil and potential groundwater contamination at the Old Pesticide/Paint-Ship (Facility 724, Site SS-17). The USAF, EPA, and state of Arizona have approved ROD`s implementing cleanup remedies for OU-1, OU-2, and OU-3 sites. The deep soils at ST-12 (unsaturated soils below 25 feet) were included in an amendment to the OU-2 ROD. Investigations and feasibility study (FS) have been completed for OU-4 sites. Investigations, RI Report, Proposed Plan, and ROD are to be completed at OU-6. OU-5 is the subject of this ROD. This ROD recommends no action because previous removal actions resulting from the OU-5 action memorandum have either lowered the contamination levels below Arizona HBGL or EPA Region IX residential PRGs or the risk associated with the remaining contamination concentration will not pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Mythology in the Making: Is the Open University Really Cost-Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1978-01-01

    An alternative technique, cost-effectiveness analysis, is proposed as a more appropriate way of evaluating the Open University. A rudimentary application of the technique to the cost structure of OU indicates that it could result in a substantial reduction in OU's costs. (Author/LBH)

  7. Radiations cosmiques : danger dans l'Espace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Dzitko, H.

    2000-06-01

    Au sol, l'atmosphere nous protege plus ou moins bien. Mais dans l'espace ou a bord des avions de ligne, l'homme est directement expose aux rayonnements cosmiques qui peuvent etre mortels. Un veritable frein a la presence humaine prolongee dans l'espace. Une menace que les agences spatiales prennent tres au serieux.

  8. The Role of the Open and Distance Learning Subject Specialists in Promoting Self-Directed and Independent Learning: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castolo, Carmencita L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tries to assess the roles of the Open and Distance learning subject specialists in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Open University (PUP OU) in promoting self-directed and independent learning as perceived by themselves. Results of analysis showed that PUP OU subject specialists were also active teachers with an accredited…

  9. PROGRESS REPORT. ADVANCED HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC IMAGING, MATERIAL PROPERTIES ESTIMATION AND FULL WAVEFIELD INVERSION FOR THE SHALLOW SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July and August 2000, we conducted 3-D reflection, tomography, and downhole seismic studies at Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) in Ogden, Utah. OU2 has been the subject of ongoing remediation efforts to remove dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) that con...

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): North Bronson Industrial Area, Operable Unit 1, city of Bronson, Branch County, MI, June 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for the North Bronson Industrial Area Superfund site, Operable Unit 1 (OU 1). OU 1 is an interim action that addresses the eastern and western sludge lagoons, groundwater impacted by the sludge lagoons, exposure to area-wide groundwater contamination, and County Drain No. 30 (CD No. 30).