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Sample records for brasiliensis pancreatic destruction

  1. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease. PMID:25592226

  2. Noninvasive Radiofrequency Field Destruction of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Xenografts Treated with Targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Evan S.; Zhu, Cihui; Massey, Katheryn L.; Thompson, C. Shea; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Hamir, Amir N.; Curley, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the deadliest cancers with few effective treatments. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are potentially therapeutic because of the safety demonstrated thus far and their physio-chemical characteristics. We utilized the astounding heating rates of AuNPs in nonionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation to investigate human pancreatic xenograft destruction in a murine model. Experimental Design Weekly, Panc-1 and Capan-1 human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in immunocompromised mice were exposed to an RF field 36 hours after treatment (intraperitoneal) with cetuximab or PAM4 antibody conjugated AuNPs, respectively. Tumor sizes were measured weekly while necrosis and cleaved caspase-3 were investigated with H&E staining and immunofluorescence, respectively. In addition, AuNP internalization and cytotoxicity were investigated in vitro with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Results Panc-1 cells demonstrated increased apoptosis with decreased viability after treatment with cetuximab conjugated AuNPs and RF field exposure (p = 0.00005). Differences in xenograft volumes were observed within 2 weeks of initiating therapy. Cetuximab-conjugated and PAM4-conjugated AuNPs demonstrated RF field-induced destruction of Panc-1 and Capan-1 pancreatic carcinoma xenografts after six weeks of weekly treatment (p = 0.004 and p = 0.035, respectively). There was no evidence of injury to murine organs. Cleaved caspase-3 and necrosis were both increased in treated tumors. Conclusions This study demonstrates a potentially novel cancer therapy by non-invasively inducing intracellular hyperthermia with targeted AuNPs in an RF field. While the therapy is dependent on the specificity of the targeting antibody, normal tissues were without toxicity despite systemic therapy and whole body RF field exposure. PMID:21138869

  3. Efficient gene delivery to pancreatic islets with ultrasonic microbubble destruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuyuan; Ding, Jia-Huan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Yang, Bing-Zhi; Shohet, Ralph V.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Hohmeier, Hans E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2006-05-01

    This study describes a method of gene delivery to pancreatic islets of adult, living animals by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). The technique involves incorporation of plasmids into the phospholipid shell of gas-filled microbubbles, which are then infused into rats and destroyed within the pancreatic microcirculation with ultrasound. Specific delivery of genes to islet beta cells by UTMD was achieved by using a plasmid containing a rat insulin 1 promoter (RIP), and reporter gene expression was regulated appropriately by glucose in animals that received a RIP-luciferase plasmid. To demonstrate biological efficacy, we used UTMD to deliver RIP-human insulin and RIP-hexokinase I plasmids to islets of adult rats. Delivery of the former plasmid resulted in clear increases in circulating human C-peptide and decreased blood glucose levels, whereas delivery of the latter plasmid resulted in a clear increase in hexokinase I protein expression in islets, increased insulin levels in blood, and decreased circulating glucose levels. We conclude that UTMD allows relatively noninvasive delivery of genes to pancreatic islets with an efficiency sufficient to modulate beta cell function in adult animals. diabetes | gene therapy | ultrasound

  4. Efficient gene delivery to pancreatic islets with ultrasonic microbubble destruction technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuyuan; Ding, Jia-huan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Yang, Bing-zhi; Shohet, Ralph V.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Hohmeier, Hans E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes a method of gene delivery to pancreatic islets of adult, living animals by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). The technique involves incorporation of plasmids into the phospholipid shell of gas-filled microbubbles, which are then infused into rats and destroyed within the pancreatic microcirculation with ultrasound. Specific delivery of genes to islet beta cells by UTMD was achieved by using a plasmid containing a rat insulin 1 promoter (RIP), and reporter gene expression was regulated appropriately by glucose in animals that received a RIP–luciferase plasmid. To demonstrate biological efficacy, we used UTMD to deliver RIP–human insulin and RIP–hexokinase I plasmids to islets of adult rats. Delivery of the former plasmid resulted in clear increases in circulating human C-peptide and decreased blood glucose levels, whereas delivery of the latter plasmid resulted in a clear increase in hexokinase I protein expression in islets, increased insulin levels in blood, and decreased circulating glucose levels. We conclude that UTMD allows relatively noninvasive delivery of genes to pancreatic islets with an efficiency sufficient to modulate beta cell function in adult animals. PMID:16709667

  5. Orchestrating the Tumor Microenvironment to Improve Survival for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Normalization, Not Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Hanl, Haiyong; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The microenvironment of pancreatic cancer could be one of the “perfect storms” that support the growth of a cancer. Indeed, pancreatic cancer may be the poster child of a problem with the microenvironment. In this article, we review the rationale and attempts to date on modifying or targeting structural proteins in the microenvironment including hyaluronan (HA) (in primary and metastases), collagen, and SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine). Indeed, working in this area has produced a regimen that improves survival for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine). In addition, in initial clinical trials, PEGylated hyaluronidase appears promising. We also review a new approach that is different than targeting/destroying the microenvironment and that is orchestrating, reengineering, reprogramming, or normalizing the microenvironment (including normalizing structural proteins, normalizing an immunologically tumor-friendly environment to a less friendly environment, reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and so on). We believe this will be most effectively done by agents that have global effects on transcription. There is initial evidence that this can be done by agents such as vitamin D derivatives and other new agents. There is no doubt these opportunities can now be tried in the clinic with hopefully beneficial effects. PMID:26222082

  6. [Anatomic-topographical characteristics of the pancreas as the guidelines for the surgical interventions in destructive forms of pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Akramov, E Kh; Vasil'eva, O I; Gabitov, V Kh; Omurbaev, A S

    2008-01-01

    Using polymer techniques (plastination), research was conducted on the corpses of 62 human subjects, both male and female, who died at the age of 40-60 and had no signs of pathology of the abdominal organs and of retroperitoneal space, and on 7 corpses of the subjects who died as a result of a total pancreonecrosis. In total slices 1 mm thick, cut in frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, the profile areas of the pancreas and connective tissue structures, surrounding the organ, were measured, and their correlation was determined. It was demonstrated that the existence of a strongly pronounced cellular tissue space, totally surrounding the pancreas with the minimal thickness of 5 mm, creates topographic-anatomically substantiated possibilities for the development of rational operation accesses and regional sanative methods. An anatomically substantiated method of closed dialysis of a cellular tissue space of the pancreatic region in destructive forms of pancreatitis, was developed, including conducting the drainage tubes to the pancreas area from both sides through the space between retrotransversal and anterenal fascia, as well as drainages through the space between parietal peritoneum and retroperitoneal fascia on 2 levels by three drainage tubes. The method is tested on 32 patients. It is shown that the flowing drainage of the retroperitoneal space according to the close type in patients with pancreonecrosis, prevents the generalization of the process, accelerates the process of detoxication by 2.4 times and decreases the mortality rate of pancreonecrosis to 10%. PMID:18942351

  7. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  8. [Application of direct electric current and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive forms of acute pancreatitis in experiment].

    PubMed

    Zhakiev, B S; Zhumabaeva, A N; Kaliev, A A; Kazbekova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental study which have carried out on 40 outbread dogs were analyzed in this thesis. Modeling of destructive pancreatitis in animals has been achieved via canalicular-hypertensive model by S.A. Shalimov. 4 series of experimental study were made to achieve the targeted goal. The first series 10 dogs without treatment, the second series 10 dogs in which conventional conservative therapy was used for the treatment of acute experimental destructive pancreatitis in animals, the third series 10 dogs that underwent intravenous ozone therapy in the complex together with medication therapy, the forth series the effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous ozone therapy and small doses of direct current in 10 dogs was evaluated. Combined administration of small doses of DC and intravenous ozone therapy in the complex treatment of destructive pancreatitis shows antiphlogistic action, favors accelerated rejection of necrotic tissue, remits inflammatory process as well as encourages regeneration process in pancreas whereby allows to decrease the mortality in experimental animals from 60% to 20%. PMID:24772873

  9. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... open. Balloon dilatation. Some endoscopes have a small balloon that the doctor uses to dilate, or stretch, a narrowed pancreatic or bile duct. A temporary stent may be placed for a few months to ...

  10. Ultrasound-Mediated Microbubble Destruction (UMMD) Facilitates the Delivery of CA19-9 Targeted and Paclitaxel Loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL Nanoparticles in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lingxi; Shi, Qiusheng; Zheng, Kailiang; Shen, Ming; Ma, Jing; Li, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Lizhou; Tu, Wenzhi; Duan, Yourong; Du, Lianfang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies with dismal prognosis, is refractory to existing radio-chemotherapeutic treatment modalities. There is a critical unmet need to develop effective approaches, especially for targeted pancreatic cancer drug delivery. Targeted and drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) combined with ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction (UMMD) have been shown to significantly increase the cellular uptake in vitro and drug retention in vivo, suggesting a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized pancreatic cancer-targeting organic NPs that were modified with anti CA19-9 antibody and encapsulated paclitaxol (PTX). The three-block copolymer methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylacticco-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) constituted the skeleton of the NPs. We speculated that the PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 would circulate long-term in vivo, "actively target" pancreatic cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX while UMMD would "passively target" the irradiated tumor and effectively increase the permeability of cell membrane and capillary gaps. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 with UMMD achieved a low IC50, significant cell cycle arrest, and cell apoptosis in vitro. In mouse pancreatic tumor xenografts, the combined application of PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs with UMMD attained the highest tumor inhibition rate, promoted the pharmacokinetic profile by increasing AUC, t1/2, and mean residence time (MRT), and decreased clearance. Consequently, the survival of the tumor-bearing nude mice was prolonged without obvious toxicity. The dynamic change in cellular uptake, targeted real-time imaging, and the concentration of PTX in the plasma and tumor were all closely associated with the treatment efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs combined with UMMD is a promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446491

  11. Ultrasound-Mediated Microbubble Destruction (UMMD) Facilitates the Delivery of CA19-9 Targeted and Paclitaxel Loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL Nanoparticles in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lingxi; Shi, Qiusheng; Zheng, Kailiang; Shen, Ming; Ma, Jing; Li, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Lizhou; Tu, Wenzhi; Duan, Yourong; Du, Lianfang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies with dismal prognosis, is refractory to existing radio-chemotherapeutic treatment modalities. There is a critical unmet need to develop effective approaches, especially for targeted pancreatic cancer drug delivery. Targeted and drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) combined with ultrasound-mediated microbubble destruction (UMMD) have been shown to significantly increase the cellular uptake in vitro and drug retention in vivo, suggesting a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we synthesized pancreatic cancer-targeting organic NPs that were modified with anti CA19-9 antibody and encapsulated paclitaxol (PTX). The three-block copolymer methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylacticco-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) constituted the skeleton of the NPs. We speculated that the PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 would circulate long-term in vivo, "actively target" pancreatic cancer cells, and sustainably release the loaded PTX while UMMD would "passively target" the irradiated tumor and effectively increase the permeability of cell membrane and capillary gaps. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PTX-NPs-anti CA19-9 with UMMD achieved a low IC50, significant cell cycle arrest, and cell apoptosis in vitro. In mouse pancreatic tumor xenografts, the combined application of PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs with UMMD attained the highest tumor inhibition rate, promoted the pharmacokinetic profile by increasing AUC, t1/2, and mean residence time (MRT), and decreased clearance. Consequently, the survival of the tumor-bearing nude mice was prolonged without obvious toxicity. The dynamic change in cellular uptake, targeted real-time imaging, and the concentration of PTX in the plasma and tumor were all closely associated with the treatment efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that PTX-NP-anti CA19-9 NPs combined with UMMD is a promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446491

  12. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen. In 1 out of 4 childhood cases, a cause is never found. What are the symptoms of pancreatitis? Inflammation of the pancreas is often associated with pain in the upper abdomen and/or the back which may develop slowly, ...

  13. Biospecific haemosorbents based on proteinase inhibitor. II. Efficiency of biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent 'Ovosorb' in complex treatment of experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Platé, N A; Kirkovsky, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Nicolaichik, V V; Valueva, T A; Sinilo, S B; Moin, V M; Lobacheva, G A

    1994-03-01

    The biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent (BAH) 'Ovosorb' containing, in the bulk of polyacryamide gel, the ovomucoid from whites of duck eggs, was used for a complex treatment of the experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs. The efficiency of BAH was manifested in the significant reduction of lethality of the experimental animals, a more rapid liquidation of proteinasaemia, normalization in plasma of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and protein metabolism. Thus, by eliminating proteinases from circulation, Ovosorb contributes to the cessation of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system and is efficient in the therapy of pathological states related to this imbalance. PMID:8031989

  14. Rhinacanthin C ameliorates hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and pancreatic destruction in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, Siti Hajar; Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Sayem, Abu Sadat Md; Arya, Aditya; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Effect of Rhinacanthin C on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes was investigated. In-vitro effect of Rhinacanthin C on glucose uptake was studied in 3T3-L1 cell line. Meanwhile, in-vivo effect of 28-days treatment with 5mg/kg/day or 20mg/kg/day Rhinacanthin C was studied in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats. Following completion of treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, insulin and lipid profile levels were measured by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in pancreas were observed by light microscopy while levels of pancreatic oxidative stress were determined by enzymatic assays. Expression of insulin, TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 in pancreas were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Molecular docking was used to identify interactions between Rhinacathin C with SOD or GPx enzymes. Dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed with increasing doses of Rhinacathin C. Plasma FBG, HbA1c and lipid profile except LDL levels and pancreatic malonaldehyde level were reduced but serum insulin and pancreatic anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) levels were increased in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C treatment. Decreased pancreatic histopathological changes with higher pancreatic insulin and Glut-2 levels but lower TNFα, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were observed in diabetic rats receiving Rhinacanthin C (P<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). In diabetic rats which received Rhinacathin C, changes in the above parameters did not achieve the value in non-diabetic rats. Docking shows Rhinacathin C possesses high degree interactions with SOD and GPx. By possessing these effects, Rhinacanthin C could be used as agent to alleviate pancreatic and other complications in diabetes. PMID:26703866

  15. Dual mode of cancer cell destruction for pancreatic cancer therapy using Hsp90 inhibitor loaded polymeric nano magnetic formulation.

    PubMed

    Rochani, Ankit K; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Ravindran Girija, Aswathy; Raveendran, Sreejith; Borah, Ankita; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2016-09-10

    Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) has been extensively explored as a potential drug target for cancer therapies. 17- N-allylamino- 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) was the first Hsp90 inhibitor to enter clinical trials for cancer therapy. However, native drug is being shown to have considerable anticancer efficacy against pancreatic cancer when used in combination therapy regime. Further, magnetic hyperthermia has shown to have promising effects against pancreatic cancer in combination with known cyto-toxic drugs under both target and non-targeted scenarios. Hence, in order to enhance the efficacy of 17AAG against pancreatic cancer, we developed poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated, 17AAG and Fe3O4 loaded magnetic nanoparticle formulations by varying the relative concentration of polymer. We found that polymer concentration affects the magnetic strength and physicochemical properties of formulation. We were also able to see that our aqueous dispensable formulations were able to provide anti-pancreatic cancer activity for MIA PaCa-2 cell line in dose and time dependent manner in comparison to mice fibroblast cell lines (L929). Moreover, the in-vitro magnetic hyperthermia against MIA PaCa-2 provided proof principle that our 2-in-1 particles may work against cancer cell lines effectively. PMID:27469073

  16. The role of the innate immune system in destruction of pancreatic beta cells in NOD mice and humans with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ningwen; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. A combination of genetic and environmental factors eventually leads to the loss of functional β cell mass and hyperglycemia. Both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in the development of T1D. In this review, we have highlighted the most recent findings on the role of innate immunity, especially the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), in disease development. In murine models and human studies, different PRRs, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (or Nod-like) receptors (NLRs), have different roles in the pathogenesis of T1D. These PRRs play a critical role in defending against infection by sensing specific ligands derived from exogenous microorganisms to induce innate immune responses and shape adaptive immunity. Animal studies have shown that TLR7, TLR9, MyD88 and NLPR3 play a disease-predisposing role in T1D, while controversial results have been found with other PRRs, such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and others. Human studies also shown that TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 are expressed in either islet β cells or infiltrated immune cells, indicating the innate immunity plays a role in β cell autoimmunity. Furthermore, some human genetic studies showed a possible association of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or NLRP3 genes, at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, with human T1D. Increasing evidence suggest that the innate immunity modulates β cell autoimmunity. Thus, targeting pathways of innate immunity may provide novel therapeutic strategies to fight this disease. PMID:27021275

  17. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison FS; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel ME; do Valle, Antonio CF; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua d

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease. PMID:25668479

  18. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  19. Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex.  PMID:25081800

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  1. Enterovirus strain and type-specific differences in growth kinetics and virus-induced cell destruction in human pancreatic duct epithelial HPDE cells.

    PubMed

    Smura, Teemu; Natri, Olli; Ylipaasto, Petri; Hellman, Marika; Al-Hello, Haider; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Roivainen, Merja

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus infections have been suspected to be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes. However, the pathogenetic mechanism of enterovirus-induced type 1 diabetes is not known. Pancreatic ductal cells are closely associated with pancreatic islets. Therefore, enterovirus infections in ductal cells may also affect beta-cells and be involved in the induction of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different enterovirus strains to infect, replicate and produce cytopathic effect in human pancreatic ductal cells. Furthermore, the viral factors that affect these capabilities were studied. The pancreatic ductal cells were highly susceptible to enterovirus infections. Both viral growth and cytolysis were detected for several enterovirus serotypes. However, the viral growth and capability to induce cytopathic effect (cpe) did not correlate completely. Some of the virus strains replicated in ductal cells without apparent cpe. Furthermore, there were strain-specific differences in the growth kinetics and the ability to cause cpe within some serotypes. Viral adaptation experiments were carried out to study the potential genetic determinants behind these phenotypic differences. The blind-passage of non-lytic CV-B6-Schmitt strain in HPDE-cells resulted in lytic phenotype and increased progeny production. This was associated with the substitution of a single amino acid (K257E) in the virus capsid protein VP1 and the viral ability to use decay accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor. This study demonstrates considerable plasticity in the cell tropism, receptor usage and cytolytic properties of enteroviruses and underlines the strong effect of single or few amino acid substitutions in cell tropism and lytic capabilities of a given enterovirus. Since ductal cells are anatomically close to pancreatic islets, the capability of enteroviruses to infect and destroy pancreatic ductal cells may also implicate in respect to enterovirus induced type 1

  2. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  3. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  4. Nonenzymatic cryogenic isolation of therapeutic cells: novel approach for enzyme-free isolation of pancreatic islets using in situ cryopreservation of islets and concurrent selective freeze destruction of acinar tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Baicu, Simona C

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies, which all involve processes for procurement and reimplantation of living cells, currently rely upon expensive, inconsistent, and even toxic enzyme digestion processes. A prime example is the preparation of isolated pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by transplantation. To avoid the inherent pitfalls of these enzymatic methods, we have conceptualized an alternative approach based on the hypothesis that cryobiological techniques can be used for differential freeze destruction of the pancreas (Px) to release islets that are selectively cryopreserved in situ. Pancreata were procured from juvenile pigs using approved procedures. The concept of cryoisolation is based on differential processing of the pancreas in five stages: 1) infiltrating islets in situ preferentially with a cryoprotectant (CPA) cocktail via antegrade perfusion of the major arteries; 2) retrograde ductal infusion of water to distend the acinar; 3) freezing the entire Px solid to < -160°C for storage in liquid nitrogen; 4) mechanically crushing and pulverizing the frozen Px into small fragments; 5) thawing the frozen fragments, filtering, and washing to remove the CPA. Finally, the filtered effluent (cryoisolate) was stained with dithizone for identification of intact islets and with Syto 13/PI for fluorescence viability testing and glucose-stimulated insulin release assessment. As predicted, the cryoisolate contained small fragments of residual tissue comprising an amorphous mass of acinar tissue with largely intact and viable (>90%) embedded islets. Islets were typically larger (range 50-500 µm diameter) than their counterparts isolated from juvenile pigs using conventional enzyme digestion techniques. Functionally, the islets from replicate cryoisolates responded to a glucose challenge with a mean stimulation index = 3.3 ± 0.7. An enzyme-free method of islet isolation relying on in situ cryopreservation of islets with simultaneous freeze

  5. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  6. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  7. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  8. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  9. Pancreatic abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Most people with pancreatic abscesses have had pancreatitis. However, the complication often takes 7 or more days to develop. Signs of an abscess can be seen on: CT scan of the abdomen MRI of the abdomen Ultrasound of the abdomen

  10. Pancreatitis - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100149.htm Pancreatitis - series To use the sharing features on this ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pancreatitis A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. Pancreatic pseudocyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may also contain tissue from the pancreas, pancreatic enzymes, and blood. ... located behind the stomach. It produces chemicals (called enzymes) ... Pancreatic pseudocysts most often develop after an episode of ...

  12. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound. PMID:25905590

  13. Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patricia Fagundes; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Amaral, Cristiane Candida; Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2010-01-01

    The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment. In this study, ten isolates were analyzed with respect to antigenic composition, serology, pathogenicity, and molecular aspects. Gp43 is considered to be the molecular basis for the serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis; however, in this study only six of the environmental isolates secreted this molecule (four in great amounts and two in small amounts). Other molecules were also produced. When exoantigens from these isolates were tested using immunodiffusion, only four preparations were positive by ID tests. However, when these exoantigens were tested by ELISA, all of them except one were able to detect anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. In Western blot assays, these exoantigens showed different reactivities. Isolates that secreted gp43 presented positive reactions for this molecule, and isolates that did not secrete gp43 gave positive reactions for other minor molecules. RAPD analysis revealed that there is great genetic variation between these environmental isolates. These isolates were non-pathogenic: no mortality was observed among the inoculated mice during an 18-month follow-up period. PMID:19653119

  14. Pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Wood, Laura D; Itoi, Takao; Takaori, Kyoichi

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease, for which mortality closely parallels incidence. Most patients with pancreatic cancer remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. There is no standard programme for screening patients at high risk of pancreatic cancer (eg, those with a family history of pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis). Most pancreatic cancers arise from microscopic non-invasive epithelial proliferations within the pancreatic ducts, referred to as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias. There are four major driver genes for pancreatic cancer: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4. KRAS mutation and alterations in CDKN2A are early events in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration offer high diagnostic ability for pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection is regarded as the only potentially curative treatment, and adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, is given after surgery. FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, folinic acid [leucovorin], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) are the treatments of choice for patients who are not surgical candidates but have good performance status. PMID:26830752

  15. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  16. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26948434

  17. [Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, M G; Guarneri, A A; Pires, H H; Diotaiuti, L; Lazzari, C R

    2000-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution. PMID:11119321

  18. Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    DiMagno, Matthew J.; DiMagno, Eugene P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis (CP) made in the past year. Recent findings Tropical pancreatitis associates with SPINK1 and/or CFTR gene mutations in approximately 50% of patients, similar to the frequency in idiopathic CP. Corticosteroids increase secretin-stimulated pancreatic bicarbonate concentrations in AIP by restoring mislocalized CFTR protein to the apical ductal membrane. Most patients with asymptomatic hyperenzymemia have pancreatic lesions of unclear significance or no pancreatic lesions. Common pitfalls in the use of diagnostic tests for EPI confound interpretation of findings in IBS and severe renal insufficiency. Further study is needed to improve the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to diagnose CP. Celiac plexus block provides short term pain relief in a subset of patients. Summary Results of this year’s investigations further elucidated the genetic associations of tropical pancreatitis, a reversible mislocalization of ductal CFTR in AIP, the association of asymptomatic pancreatic hyperenzymemia with pancreatic disorders, limitations of diagnostic tests for EPI, diagnosis of CP by EUS and endoscopic pancreatic function testing and treatment of pain. PMID:21844753

  19. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  20. [Hereditary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Nowak, Tomasz; Gil, Jerzy; Adamiec, Cezary; Bobula, Mariusz; Saracyn, Marek

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare, heterogeneous familial disease and should be suspected in any patient who has suffered at least two attacks of acute pancreatitis for which there is no underlying cause and unexplained chronic pancreatitis with a family history in a first- or second degree relative. with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Genetic factors have been implied in cases of familial chronic pancreatitis. The most common are mutations of the PRSS1 gene on the long arm of the chromosome 7, encoding for the cationic trypsinogen. The inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant with an incomplete penetrance (80%). The inflammation results in repeated DNA damage, error-prone repair mechanisms and the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations. Risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a major concern of many patients with hereditary chronic pancreatitis, but the individual risk is poorly defined. Better risk models of pancreatic cancer in individual patients based on etiology of pancreatitis, family history, genetics, smoking, alcohol, diabetes and the patient's age are needed. PMID:27000817

  1. Pancreatic Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Poras; Bhadana, Utsav; Arora, Mohinder P

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare and in most of the cases mimics pancreatic carcinoma. There are a number of case reports on pancreatic tuberculosis with various different presentations, but only a few case series have been published, and most of our knowledge about this disease comes from individual case reports. Patients of pancreatic tuberculosis may remain asymptomatic initially and manifest as an abscess or a mass involving local lymph nodes and usually present with non-specific features. Pancreatic tuberculosis may present with a wide range of imaging findings. It is difficult to diagnose tuberculosis of pancreas on imaging studies as they may present with masses, cystic lesions or abscesses and mass lesions in most of the cases mimic pancreatic carcinoma. As it is a rare entity, it cannot be recommended but suggested that pancreatic tuberculosis should be considered in cases with a large space occupying lesions associated with necrotic peripancreatic lymph nodes and constitutional symptoms. Ultrasonography/computed tomography/endosonography-guided biopsy is the recommended diagnostic technique. Most patients achieve complete cure with standard antituberculous therapy. The aims of this study are to review clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, and management of pancreatic tuberculosis and to present our experience of 5 cases of pancreatic tuberculosis. PMID:26884661

  2. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21620466

  3. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality. PMID:20016434

  4. Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    DiMagno, Matthew J.; DiMagno, Eugene P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis (CP) reported in 2011. Recent findings Smoking increases the risk of non-gallstone acute pancreatitis (AP) and the progression of AP to CP. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for AP. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in CP is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90,000 USP U of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared to endoscopic treatment in patients advanced CP with a dilated main duct +/− pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with CP but ~30% of patients have significant side effects. Summary Patients with non-gallstone related AP or CP of any etiology should cease smoking. Results of this year’s investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in CP, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in CP. PMID:22782018

  5. Ultrastructure of Dimorphic Transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M ⇌ Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M → Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y → M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M → Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y → M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon. Images PMID:5359610

  6. Characterization of the cellular antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form.

    PubMed Central

    Casotto, M

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic components of the yeast extract of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Linder 2511 cultured for 3, 8, 20, 30, and 60 days were examined by the Western blot (immunoblot) technique. The 3-day extract was chosen for characterization of the antigenic components because its stability did not vary with time and it contained all antigens identified by patient sera. Antibodies to cross-reacting antigens of P. brasiliensis extracts were detected in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. The 58-, 57-, 21-, and 16-kilodalton (kDa) antigens were specific for P. brasiliensis, while the 48- and 45-kDa antigens were specific for paracoccidioidomycosis. The Western blot technique is a useful tool for the diagnosis of disease and revealed heterogeneity in the responses of patient sera. The combination of the 58-, 57-, and 45-kDa proteins confirmed a diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (87% of the cases). Images PMID:2380351

  7. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Dahn L; Schneider, Katrina J; Arkfeld, Christopher K; Grode, Jaclyn R; Wells, Mark A; Singh, Shailender

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriate activation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreatic exocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to a severe life-threatening disease. Currently there is no pharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis. One of the more common factors associated with acute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonly associated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unable to cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcohol and its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreas to damage from agents that normally do not cause pancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agents that normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over the last 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work has defined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemical changes in pancreatic cells. Among these changes are: Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy, alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators, and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestive enzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greater understanding has revealed a number of promising targets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped that further investigation of these targets will lead to the development of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treating and preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26909228

  8. Loss of acinar cell IKKα triggers spontaneous pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wu, Xuefeng; Holzer, Ryan G.; Lee, Jun-Hee; Todoric, Jelena; Park, Eek-Joong; Ogata, Hisanobu; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Pizzo, Donald P.; VandenBerg, Scott; Tarin, David; Atay, Çiǧdem; Arkan, Melek C.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria; Dawson, David; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes progressive destruction of pancreatic acinar cells and, ultimately, loss of pancreatic function. We investigated the role of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in pancreatic homeostasis. Pancreas-specific ablation of IKKα (IkkαΔpan) caused spontaneous and progressive acinar cell vacuolization and death, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, and circulatory release of pancreatic enzymes, clinical signs resembling those of human chronic pancreatitis. Loss of pancreatic IKKα causes defective autophagic protein degradation, leading to accumulation of p62-mediated protein aggregates and enhanced oxidative and ER stress in acinar cells, but none of these effects is related to NF-κB. Pancreas-specific p62 ablation prevented ER and oxidative stresses and attenuated pancreatitis in IkkαΔpan mice, suggesting that cellular stress induced by p62 aggregates promotes development of pancreatitis. Importantly, downregulation of IKKα and accumulation of p62 aggregates were also observed in chronic human pancreatitis. Our studies demonstrate that IKKα, which may control autophagic protein degradation through its interaction with ATG16L2, plays a critical role in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, whose dysregulation promotes pancreatitis through p62 aggregate accumulation. PMID:23563314

  9. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Dahn L; Schneider, Katrina J; Arkfeld, Christopher K; Grode, Jaclyn R; Wells, Mark A; Singh, Shailender

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriate activation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreatic exocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to a severe life-threatening disease. Currently there is no pharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis. One of the more common factors associated with acute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonly associated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unable to cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcohol and its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreas to damage from agents that normally do not cause pancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agents that normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over the last 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work has defined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemical changes in pancreatic cells. Among these changes are: Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy, alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators, and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestive enzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greater understanding has revealed a number of promising targets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped that further investigation of these targets will lead to the development of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treating and preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26909228

  10. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure children receive vaccines to protect them against mumps and other childhood illnesses. Treat medical problems that ... Heart failure - overview Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Kawasaki disease Mumps Mycoplasma pneumonia Reye syndrome Patient Instructions Pancreatitis - discharge ...

  11. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate Lab tests that show the release of pancreatic enzymes will be done. These include: Increased blood amylase level Increased serum blood lipase level Increased urine amylase ... include: Abdominal CT scan Abdominal MRI Abdominal ultrasound

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... body Blockage of the tubes (ducts) that drain enzymes from the pancreas Cystic fibrosis High levels of a fat, called ... Limiting caffeine The health care provider may prescribe pancreatic enzymes. You must take these medicines with every meal. ...

  13. Pancreatic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and in front of your spine. It produces juices that help break down food and hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Problems with the pancreas can lead to many health problems. These include Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the ...

  14. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for ... therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  15. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis. PMID:16724848

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Mycobacteria spp., they have the potential for use as reagents in the purification of Nocardia antigens. Images PMID:2405017

  17. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  18. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  19. Autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Omiyale, Ayodeji Oluwarotimi

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  1. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, C; Hofmann, B T; Wolters-Eisfeld, G; Bockhorn, M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that the current standard therapeutic options for pancreatic cancer are not adequate and still do not meet the criteria to cure patients suffering from this lethal disease. Although research over the past decade has shown very interesting and promising new therapeutic options for these patients, only minor clinical success was achieved. Therefore, there is still an urgent need for new approaches that deal with early detection and new therapeutic options in pancreatic cancer. To provide optimal care for patients with pancreatic cancer, we need to understand better its complex molecular biology and thus to identify new target molecules that promote the proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer cells. In spite of significant progress in curing cancers with chemotherapy, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most resistant solid tumour cancers and many studies suggest that drug-resistant cancer cells are the most aggressive with the highest relapse and metastatic rates. In this context, activated Notch signalling is strongly linked with chemoresistance and therefore reflects a rational new target to circumvent resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Here, we have focused our discussion on the latest research, current therapy options and recently identified target molecules such as Notch-2 and the heparin-binding growth factor midkine, which exhibit a wide range of cancer-relevant functions and therefore provide attractive new therapeutic target molecules, in terms of pancreatic cancer and other cancers also. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24024905

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; de Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of domestic rabbits by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially two rabbits were experimentally infected with P. brasiliensis and the humoral immune response was evaluated by ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The two animals showed IgG response against gp43 although no signs of disease were observed. The seroepidemiological study was carried out in 170 rabbits (free range n = 81 and caged n = 89) living in an endemic area for human paracoccidioidomycosis and a positivity of 27% was observed in the ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The free-range rabbits showed a significantly higher positivity (34.6-51.7%) than the caged animals (11.1%). Sentinel rabbits exposed to natural infection with P. brasiliensis were followed up for 6 months and a seroconversion rate of 83.3% was observed. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in rabbits and suggests that this species can be useful sentinels for P. brasiliensis presence in the environment. PMID:24125519

  3. Temporal dynamics of reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  4. ANIMAL MODEL OF NIPPOSTRONGYLUS BRASILIENSIS AND HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal models of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection are powerful tools for the investigation of the basic biology of immune responses and protective immunity. In particular they model the induction and maintenance of Th2 type immune responses and exhibiting all the ...

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  6. 5-Lipoxygenase Activity Increases Susceptibility to Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Moreira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Leukotrienes and lipoxins are lipid mediators produced after 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation that exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of 5-LO enzymatic activity in PCM using an experimental model of P. brasiliensis infection. B6.129 wild-type (B6.129) and 5-LO-deficient (5-LO−/−) mice were intravenously inoculated with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18), and the survival rate of the infected mice was investigated on different days after yeast infection. 5-LO−/− mice exhibited an increased survival rate associated with a decreased number of CFU. The resistance of 5-LO−/− during PCM was associated with augmented nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation of compact granulomas. In addition, the absence of 5-LO was associated with a diminished number of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, higher levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, and increased T-bet (a T-box transcription factor that directs Th1 lineage commitment) mRNA levels in the lungs. Taken together, our results show for the first time that 5-LO enzymatic activity increases susceptibility to P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention during PCM. PMID:23381993

  7. Computed Tomography of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic disease often is asymptomatic until tissue damage and complications occur or until malignancies have reached advanced stages and have metastasized. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing, staging, and treatment planning for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. This article introduces the functional anatomy of the pancreas and common bile duct and the epidemiology, pathobiology, and computed tomography imaging of pancreatitis, calculi, and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26199449

  8. Isolation and molecular characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1-7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production. PMID:25690030

  9. Pancreatic panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahawish, Karim; Iyasere, Isoken T

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian man presenting with polyarthritis, weight loss and multiple tender cutaneous nodules. Abnormal liver function tests prompted imaging of the liver which demonstrated liver metastases. Biopsy of the liver lesions confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:25150233

  10. Pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jorg; Korc, Murray; Apte, Minoti; La Vecchia, Carlo; Johnson, Colin D; Biankin, Andrew V; Neale, Rachel E; Tempero, Margaret; Tuveson, David A; Hruban, Ralph H; Neoptolemos, John P

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, with a dismal overall prognosis that has remained virtually unchanged for many decades. Currently, prevention or early diagnosis at a curable stage is exceedingly difficult; patients rarely exhibit symptoms and tumours do not display sensitive and specific markers to aid detection. Pancreatic cancers also have few prevalent genetic mutations; the most commonly mutated genes are KRAS, CDKN2A (encoding p16), TP53 and SMAD4 - none of which are currently druggable. Indeed, therapeutic options are limited and progress in drug development is impeded because most pancreatic cancers are complex at the genomic, epigenetic and metabolic levels, with multiple activated pathways and crosstalk evident. Furthermore, the multilayered interplay between neoplastic and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment challenges medical treatment. Fewer than 20% of patients have surgically resectable disease; however, neoadjuvant therapies might shift tumours towards resectability. Although newer drug combinations and multimodal regimens in this setting, as well as the adjuvant setting, appreciably extend survival, ∼80% of patients will relapse after surgery and ultimately die of their disease. Thus, consideration of quality of life and overall survival is important. In this Primer, we summarize the current understanding of the salient pathophysiological, molecular, translational and clinical aspects of this disease. In addition, we present an outline of potential future directions for pancreatic cancer research and patient management. PMID:27158978

  11. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic calculi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon; Lee, Dong Ki

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal. PMID:24944986

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...

  13. Pancreaticoureteral Fistula: A Rare Complication of Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiren G.; Cavanagh, Yana; Shaikh, Sohail N.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may result in progressive parenchymal damage and fibrosis which can ultimately lead to destruction of pancreatic tissue. Fistulas to the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and peripancreatic organs may form as a complications of pancreatitis. This case report describes an exceedingly rare complication, pancreaticoureteral fistula (PUF). Only two additional cases of PUF have been reported. However, they evolved following traumatic injury to the ureter or pancreatic duct. No published reports describe PUF as a complication of pancreatitis. Case Report: A 69-year-old Hispanic female with a past medical history of cholecystectomy, pancreatic pseudocyst, and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis presented with severe, sharp, and constant abdominal pain. Upon imaging, a fistulous tract was visualized between the left renal pelvis (at the level of an upper pole calyx) and the pancreatic duct and a ureteral stent was placed to facilitate fistula closure. Following the procedure, the patient attained symptomatic relief and oral intake was resumed. A left retrograde pyelogram was repeated 2 months after the initial stent placement and demonstrating no evidence of a persistent fistulous tract. Conclusion: Due to PUF's unclear etiology and possible variance of presentation, it is important for physicians to keep this rare complication of pancreatitis in mind, especially, when evaluating a patient with recurrent pancreatitis, urinary symptoms and abnormal imaging within the urinary collecting system and pancreas. PMID:27114974

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    PubMed Central

    ARANTES, Thales Domingos; BAGAGLI, Eduardo; NIÑO-VEGA, Gustavo; SAN-BLAS, Gioconda; THEODORO, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  15. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  16. Extracellular Paracoccidioides brasiliensis phospholipase B involvement in alveolar macrophage interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phospholipase B (PLB) has been reported to be one of the virulence factors for human pathogenic fungi and has also been described as necessary for the early events in infection. Based on these data, we investigated the role of PLB in virulence and modulation of the alveolar pulmonary immune response during infection using an in-vitro model of host-pathogen interaction, i.e. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells infecting alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. Results The effect of PLB was analyzed using the specific inhibitor alexidine dihydrochloride (0.25 μM), and pulmonary surfactant (100 μg mL-1), during 6 hours of co-cultivation of P. brasiliensis and MH-S cells. Alexidine dihydrochloride inhibited PLB activity by 66% and significantly decreased the adhesion and internalization of yeast cells by MH-S cells. Genes involved in phagocytosis (trl2, cd14) and the inflammatory response (nfkb, tnf-α, il-1β) were down-regulated in the presence of this PLB inhibitor. In contrast, PLB activity and internalization of yeast cells significantly increased in the presence of pulmonary surfactant; under this condition, genes such as clec2 and the pro-inflammatory inhibitor (nkrf) were up-regulated. Also, the pulmonary surfactant did not alter cytokine production, while alexidine dihydrochloride decreased the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and increased the levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, gene expression analysis of plb1, sod3 and icl1 suggests that P. brasiliensis gene re-programming is effective in facilitating adaptation to this inhospitable environment, which mimics the lung-environment interaction. Conclusion P. brasiliensis PLB activity is involved in the process of adhesion and internalization of yeast cells at the MH-S cell surface and may enhance virulence and subsequent down-regulation of macrophage activation. PMID:20843362

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  18. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness. PMID:9698835

  19. Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyu; Sun, Tao; Kong, Fanyang; Du, Yiqi; Li, Zhaoshen

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal diseases with an incidence rate almost equal to the rate of mortality. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects the pancreas. Epidemiological studies have identified CP to be a major risk factor for PC. Summary A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking CP and PC has identified several common pathways that provide targets for future interventions. This article reviews those components in the CP-PC connection, including the role of macrophages, the maintenance of genome stability, cytokines, and other nodal factors such as nuclear factor kappa B, COX-2 and reactive oxygen species. Key Message The molecular mechanisms that underlie CP and PC provide novel targets for future therapies for PC. Practical Implications The stromal-desmoplastic reaction plays an important role in initiating and sustaining chronic inflammation and tumor progression. Recently, two targeted anti-tumor agents, erlotinib and nab-paclitaxel, have shown promising therapeutic efficacy. Notably, both these agents target components (EGFR and SPARC) within the inflammatory stroma surrounding malignant cells, underscoring the importance of inflammation in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Identifying the common pathways linking CP and PC may help uncover additional novel targets for future therapies. PMID:26674754

  20. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guannan; Cao, Zhe; Yang, Gang; Wu, Wenming; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Pancreatic panniculitis is a very rare complication of pancreatic cancer, most often accompanying rare acinar cell carcinoma. We herein report a case of pancreatic panniculitis that was associated with pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Patient information: A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital for weight loss. A physical examination revealed subcutaneous nodules on his lower extremities. The blood test showed abnormal increases in amylase, lipase, and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 levels. A computed tomography scan detected a hypodense 2 × 1.5 cm solid mass with an unclear margin in the head of the pancreas. The biopsy of subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities was conducted and revealed lobular panniculitis. Pancreatic cancer and pancreatic panniculitis were strongly suspected. After the administration of octreotide acetate and the Whipple procedure, the serous amylase and lipase levels returned to normal, and the pancreatic panniculitis had almost resolved by 4 weeks later. Conclusion: Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare complication of pancreatic cancer. However, in the presence of a pancreatic mass, as in this case, clinicians should be aware that panniculitis may be the sentinel of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27495045

  1. The surgical spectrum of hereditary pancreatitis in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A R; Nagorney, D M; Sarr, M G

    1992-01-01

    The role of operative intervention for hereditary pancreatitis, a rare form of chronic parenchymal destruction, is unclear. To determine whether surgical therapy is safe and provides prolonged symptomatic relief, the authors reviewed the management of 22 adults (11 men, 11 women) with hereditary pancreatitis treated surgically between 1950 and 1989. Hereditary pancreatitis was defined as a family history of two or more relatives with pancreatitis and clinical, biochemical, or radiologic evidence of pancreatitis. The mean ages at onset of symptoms and at operation were 15 years (range, 3 to 52 years) and 31 years (range, 18 to 54 years), respectively. Pain was the primary indication for operation in all patients. Additional symptoms included nausea, vomiting (73%), weight loss (55%), and diarrhea (41%). Ductal dilatation was present in 68%, pancreatic parenchymal calcifications in 73%, pseudocysts in 36%, and splenic vein thrombosis in 18%. Primary operations included ductal drainage in 10 patients, pancreatic resection alone in three, resection with drainage in three, cholecystectomy plus sphincteroplasty in two, cholecystectomy with or without common bile duct exploration in two, pancreatic abscess drainage in one, and pseudocyst drainage in one. There were no perioperative deaths, and the morbidity rate was 14% (intra-abdominal abscess, wound infection, and urinary tract infection). Symptoms recurred in nine patients. Severity prompted reoperation in five. Secondary operations included pancreatic resection in three, pseudocyst excision in one, and pancreaticolithotomy in one. Follow-up to date is complete and extends for a median of 85 months. Eighteen patients (82%) are clinically improved or asymptomatic. Symptoms have persisted in four patients, and two patients have died of pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients died of unrelated causes. Surgical therapy for patients with hereditary pancreatitis selected on the basis of the traditional indications for surgical

  2. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  3. HAZARDOUS WASTE DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper profiles the current status of hazardous waste thermal destruction in the United States, including facilities and wastes typically handled. The results of extensive EPA-sponsored performance tests are presented for incinerators, industrial boilers, and industrial proces...

  4. Waste destruction by plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenot, Didier; Vanrenterghem, Jacques; Labrot, Maxime; Pineau, Didier

    The use of arc plasma for waste destruction is addressed. Types of treatable waste, processes for liquid and solid or pasty wastes, and the present state of these techniques in France are described. The efficiency of arc plasma technology in the destruction of liquid organochlorinated waste compounds in commercial size units, particularly mobile units, is demonstrated. Many trials with solid waste demonstrate that plasmas are a highly efficient solution.

  5. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 micrograms of both sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne per ml. A significant decreases in susceptibility was demonstrated for one isolate obtained from a patient relapsing during sulfonamide therapy. Images PMID:7416744

  6. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. PMID:26526433

  7. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Sala; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Kerwat, Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions. PMID:27274876

  8. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. PMID:25399518

  9. Pancreatic blood flow in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.R.; Millar, A.M.; Taylor, T.V.

    1982-05-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis remain controversial. Recent work has suggested that an early fall in pancreatic blood flow, causing ischemia, may be the initiating factor. Using an established rat model of hemorrhagic pancreatitis and the fractional indicator distribution technique with /sup 86/RbCl, pancreatic blood flow and tissue perfusion have been measured at various times in the condition. Six groups of ten rats were studied: control sham operation and pancreatitis groups were sacrificed at 1, 6, and 24 hr. Pancreatic blood flow (% of cardiac output) and perfusion (blood flow/g tissue) were measured. Blood flow was increased by a maximum of 53% at 1 hr (P less than 0.001) and remained elevated for 24 hr, and perfusion was increased by a maximum of 70% (P less than 0.001) at 1 hr and remained elevated at 6 hr. Pancreatic perfusion declines after 6 hr due to increasing gland edema. The results demonstrate a significant increase in pancreatic blood flow and perfusion in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis, suggesting a primary inflammatory response, and refute the ischemic etiological theory.

  10. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  11. Cryosurgery for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kecheng; Yang, Daming

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of pancreatic cryosurgery is performed with intraoperative or percutaneous approaches. Based on current data and our initial experience, cryoablation appears to be a feasible, potentially safe and promising option in patients with locally advanced and unresectable pancreatic cancer. It is suggested that there are almost no known contraindications to the use of cryosurgery for pancreatic cancer. For most patients with pancreatic cancer, cryosurgery can substitute conventional surgery. PMID:25083453

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  13. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators. PMID:10725590

  14. [Standard and Augmented Secretin Tests in Chronic Pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bordalo, O; Noronha, M; Lamy, J; Dreiling, D

    1976-03-26

    The response of the pancreas to standard (1.0 U/kg) and augmented (4.0-5.0 U/kg) doses of secretin was compared in normal subjects and patients. The results of the investigation showed that for clinical purposes the standard test is sufficient for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases causing gross destruction of the parenchyma. The augmented test is of particular value when the response to 1 U/kg produces equivocal results, since greater stimulation enhances the masked secretory deficiency. The effect of the augmented stimulus in alcoholic patients suggests the hypothesis that the post-secretin response pattern of minimal pancreatic inflammatory disease is hypersecretion. Repeated observation is alcoholic hypersecretors has provided data which can explain the evolution of pancreatic pathology in the terminal stages of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:817172

  15. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Mark A; Douglas, Kory C; Rexroad Iii, Caird E; Jobity, Ann Marie C; Gold, John R

    2009-05-01

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (eight tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide) and three imperfect repeats (two tetranucleotide and one dinucleotide). An additional five microsatellites, isolated originally from two congeneric species (S. cavalla and S. niphonius), were characterized in S. brasiliensis. Serra Spanish mackerel support artisanal fisheries along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America, from Belize to Brazil. PMID:21564761

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  17. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  18. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  19. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body's immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli—like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells—and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. HP often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of HP patients to develop pancreatic cancer. PMID:24600409

  20. Biology of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Poston, G J; Gillespie, J; Guillou, P J

    1991-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from malignant disease in Western society. Apart from the fortunate few patients who present with a resectable small pancreatic adenocarcinoma, conventional treatment offers no hope of cure and has little palliative value. Over the past two decades major steps have been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic growth and neoplasia. This review sets out to explore these advances, firstly in the regulation of normal pancreatic growth, and secondly the mechanism which may be involved in malignant change of the exocrine pancreas. From an understanding of this new biology, new treatment strategies may be possible for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:1855689

  1. Pancreatic Cancer Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Amundadottir, Laufey T.

    2016-01-01

    Although relatively rare, pancreatic tumors are highly lethal [1]. In the United States, an estimated 48,960 individuals will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 40,560 will die from this disease in 2015 [1]. Globally, 337,872 new pancreatic cancer cases and 330,391 deaths were estimated in 2012 [2]. In contrast to most other cancers, mortality rates for pancreatic cancer are not improving; in the US, it is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer related deaths by 2030 [3, 4]. The vast majority of tumors arise in the exocrine pancreas, with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounting for approximately 95% of tumors. Tumors arising in the endocrine pancreas (pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) represent less than 5% of all pancreatic tumors [5]. Smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), obesity and pancreatitis are the most consistent epidemiological risk factors for pancreatic cancer [5]. Family history is also a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer with odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.7-2.3 for first-degree relatives in most studies, indicating that shared genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of this disease [6-9]. This review summarizes the current knowledge of germline pancreatic cancer risk variants with a special emphasis on common susceptibility alleles identified through Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). PMID:26929738

  2. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Brandão-Dias, Pedro Ferreira Pinto; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Alves, Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of the fish Salminus brasiliensis, popularly known as dourado. It is a circular, 17,721 bp long DNA molecule, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding Control Region of 2128 bp, a relatively large molecule when compared to other closely related fishes. All protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand, except for Nd6, and all have ATG as the start codon, except for Cox1 gene which has a GTG start codon. Seven protein-coding genes have incomplete stop codons (Nd2, Cox2, Atp6, Nd4, and Cytb have T- -, and Cox3 and Nd3 have TA-). TAG is the stop codon for Nd6 and AGG is the stop codon for Cox1. PMID:25208163

  4. Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-β-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23579790

  5. Love, psychoanalysis and destruction.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, V

    1999-07-01

    The author presents the available information concerning the eminent Russian psychoanalyst Sabina Spielrein, who originally developed the idea of destruction. A major part of the article, which concerns today's popular following of C. G. Jung and S. Freud, is based on documents in the Russian (Moscow) archives, and touches upon the least known periods and facts of her tragic life and of her creative activity. PMID:10424191

  6. Witnessing Extrasolar Asteroid Destruction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Siyi; Jura, Michael; Su, Kate; Meng, Huan

    2014-11-01

    40 white dwarfs with excess infrared radiation due to a circumstellar dust disk from tidally disrupted asteroids have been identified. Recently, we identified one dusty white dwarf whose infrared fluxes have been increasing since May 2014. Very likely, it is caused by a recent tidal disruption event of extrasolar asteroid. We propose DDT to follow it up in a timely manner because the flare could dissipate very soon. This proposal provides a unique opportunity to study the destruction of an extrasolar asteroid.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 μM strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 μM, while the MLC is around 30 μM. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 μM), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 μM of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 μM exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is

  8. Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goundan, Poorani; Junqueira, Ana; Kelleher-Yassen, Donna; Steenkamp, Devin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature related to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, clinical features and treatment of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD). We review the English-language literature on this topic published between 1956 and 2014. FCPD is a form of diabetes usually associated with chronic calcific pancreatitis. It has been predominantly, though not exclusively, described in lean, young adults living in tropical developing countries. Historically linked to malnutrition, the etiology of this phenotype has not been clearly elucidated, nor has there been a clear consensus on specific diagnostic criteria or clinical features. Affected individuals usually present with a long-standing history of abdominal pain, which may begin as early as childhood. Progressive pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction, consistent with chronic pancreatitis is expected. Common causes of chronic pancreatitis, such as alcohol abuse, are usually absent. Typical radiographic and pathological features include coarse pancreatic calcifications, main pancreatic duct dilation, pancreatic fibrosis and atrophy. Progressive microvascular complications are common, but diabetic ketoacidosis is remarkably unusual. Pancreatic carcinoma is an infrequently described long term complication. FCPD is an uncommon diabetes phenotype characterized by early onset non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency and a striking resistance to ketosis. PMID:26472503

  9. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer ... in pancreatic cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  12. Differential role of Hedgehog signaling in human pancreatic (patho-) physiology: An up to date review.

    PubMed

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Jäger, Tarkan; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2016-05-15

    Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis. In vitro and in situ analysis of Hh in pancreatic cancer revealed that the Hh pathway participates in the development of pancreatic precursor lesions and ductal adenocarcinoma including critical interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The application of specific inhibitors of components of the Hh pathway is currently subject of ongoing clinical trials (phases 1 and 2). Furthermore, a combination of Hh pathway inhibitors and established chemotherapeutic drugs could also represent a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we give a structured survey of the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer as well as an overview of current clinical trials concerning Hh pathway inhibitors and pancreas cancer. PMID:27190692

  13. Differential role of Hedgehog signaling in human pancreatic (patho-) physiology: An up to date review

    PubMed Central

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Jäger, Tarkan; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in drosophila melanogaster, our knowledge of the role of Hh in embryonic development, inflammation, and cancerogenesis in humans has dramatically increased over the last decades. This is the case especially concerning the pancreas, however, real therapeutic breakthroughs are missing until now. In general, Hh signaling is essential for pancreatic organogenesis, development, and tissue maturation. In the case of acute pancreatitis, Hh has a protective role, whereas in chronic pancreatitis, Hh interacts with pancreatic stellate cells, leading to destructive parenchym fibrosis and atrophy, as well as to irregular tissue remodeling with potency of initiating cancerogenesis. In vitro and in situ analysis of Hh in pancreatic cancer revealed that the Hh pathway participates in the development of pancreatic precursor lesions and ductal adenocarcinoma including critical interactions with the tumor microenvironment. The application of specific inhibitors of components of the Hh pathway is currently subject of ongoing clinical trials (phases 1 and 2). Furthermore, a combination of Hh pathway inhibitors and established chemotherapeutic drugs could also represent a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we give a structured survey of the role of the Hh pathway in pancreatic development, pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinogenesis and pancreatic cancer as well as an overview of current clinical trials concerning Hh pathway inhibitors and pancreas cancer. PMID:27190692

  14. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  15. [A DESTRUCTIVE SHOULDER ARTHROPATHY].

    PubMed

    Ouhadi, L; Gaudreault, M; Mottard, S; Gillet, Ph

    2016-02-01

    Charcot arthropathy is a progressive, chronic and degenerative destruction of one or several joints caused by a central or peripheral neurological disorder. Approximately 25 % of the patients with syringomyelia develop this arthropathy located in the upper limb in 80 % of the cases. An early etiological diagnosis is essential to begin the treatment of the underlying neurological disorder. Afterwards, a conservative treatment of the arthropathy is preferred. We report the story of a patient with an arthropathy of the left shoulder due to Arnold-Chiari's malformation of type I with syringomyelia. PMID:27141649

  16. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  19. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH <0.01 mIU/l. Serum anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were absent. Computed tomography scan showed a large abscess in the anterior neck involving the left lobe and isthmus, as well as inhomogeneous changes in the right lobe of the thyroid. The radioisotopic scan showed absent uptake of tracer in keeping with thyroiditis. Although the initial presentation was that of hyperthyroidism, destruction of the gland later resulted in sustained hypothyroidism, necessitating thyroid hormone supplementation. The hyperthyroidism can be explained by the release of presynthesized and stored thyroid hormone into the circulation as a result of inflammation and disruption of the thyroid follicles, and the subsequent hypothyroidism by the fact that much of the gland was destroyed by the abscess and the extensive inflammatory process. This is the first documented case of hyperthyroidism in a patient with acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia. PMID:24847469

  20. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Goess, Ruediger; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Friess, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is an often-underestimated complication following pancreatic surgery. After recent advances in managing acute postoperative complications the focus of current research is now shifting onto the long-term complications following pancreatectomy. Weight loss and steatorrhea as typical symptoms have high influence on the quality of life in the postoperative period. Malnutrition-related symptoms occur late and are often misinterpreted. Enzyme replacement therapy is more or less the only possible treatment option, even though not many controlled trials have been performed in this field. In this review we summarized the pathophysiology, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment options of exocrine insufficiency and focus mainly on patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy (classical Whipple), pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (ppWhipple) or distal pancreatectomy. Incidence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after surgery depends mainly on the initial diagnosis, the preoperative exocrine function and is associated with the extent of parenchyma resection. Diagnosing exocrine failure after surgery can be difficult and specific function tests are commonly not routinely performed. Starting and monitoring of enzyme replacement treatment is more based on clinical symptoms, than on objective markers. To improve the performance status of postsurgical patients it is important to consider pancreatic exocrine function as one aspect of quality of life. Further clinical trials should be initiated to gain more specific knowledge about the influence of the different pancreatic resections on pancreatic exocrine function to initialize proper treatment even before major clinical symptoms occur. PMID:27058237

  1. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Schenkman, S; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1986-01-01

    Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanavalin A column, and elution. The product contained, from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a minor 43,000-molecular-weight (MW) component (gp43), a polydisperse high-MW glycoconjugate, and a diffusely migrating 55,000-MW glycoprotein (gp55). Other components, including a 72,000-MW glycoprotein, were irregularly expressed. The high-MW glycoconjugate complex contained, on the basis of methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, a branched structure of mainly mannopyranosyl units. These were nonreducing ends, 6-O-, 2-O-, and 2,6-di-O-substituted, and the specific rotation of +16 degrees indicated that the glycosidic configurations of the units were alpha and beta in a ratio of ca. 1:1 (concanavalin A binding indicated that nonreducing ends or 2-O-substituted units or both of alpha-D-mannopyranose were present). A small proportion of nonreducing end units of D-galactopyranose were also present in this polysaccharide. gp55 is a glycoprotein containing a complex carbohydrate moiety with fucose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, either as terminal nonreducing units or substituted in positions indicated by methylation data. Both PCM and normal human sera precipitated the high-MW glycoconjugate from 131I-labeled fCon A preparations, whereas gp55 was unreactive with human sera. gp43 was a specific antigenic component of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates which could be isolated in a pure form by gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G150

  2. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution. PMID:26520796

  3. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens in human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we report the standardization of an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis circulating antigens that could be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. For this purpose we studied the reactivities of P. brasiliensis and other mycotic antigens with rabbit polyclonal anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies (immunoglobulin G) in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an IRMA for detecting P. brasiliensis antigens. The results were compared with those obtained by the double immunodiffusion test, the standard technique for the serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. By using the immunoglobulin G fraction of rabbit antisera (900 ng per well), it was possible to detect up to 3.6 ng (0.12 micrograms/ml) of cellular antigen and 360 ng (12 micrograms/ml) of metabolic antigen in contrast to the double immunodiffusion test that could detect only 12 micrograms (1.2 mg/ml) of both antigens. IRMA was shown to be feasible and very sensitive and may therefore help, together with clinical data, in establishing early diagnosis and assessing disease activity. It could also allow the study of relationships between P. brasiliensis circulating antigens and host defense mechanisms during the disease. PMID:1907608

  4. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  5. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  6. [CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS BILIARY ETIOLOGY COURSE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS].

    PubMed

    Godlevskiy, A I; Savolyuk, S I; Tomashevskiy, Ya V

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of cytopathic hypoxia markers in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) biliary etiology (BE), depending on the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM), which is an independent factor of premorbid severity increase and increase in the degree of operational and anesthetic risk. Markers of cytopathic hypoxia use as methods for early diagnosis of acute liver failure (ALF) and monitoring the effectiveness of its correction promising. In terms of cytopathic hypoxia may be at the stage of laboratory diagnostics to distinguish between destructive and non-destructive forms APBE, and for markers of endothelial dysfunction--destructive forms on the area and depth of destruction of the pancreas. PMID:26591209

  7. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  8. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gabriel Capella; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Arantes, Thales Domingos; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens. PMID:23903981

  9. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research. PMID:27317253

  10. Reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus brasiliensis. I. Body size.

    PubMed

    Halenar, Lauren B

    2011-12-01

    An accurate body size estimate is essential for reconstructing and interpreting many aspects of the paleobiology of an extinct taxon. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to create statistically robust predictive regression equations for body mass, total body length, and head and body length from postcranial elements using a platyrrhine reference sample, data that do not exist elsewhere in the literature; and, second, to apply those regression equations to the "giant" subfossil platyrrhine Protopithecus brasiliensis, a little-studied taxon represented by a nearly complete skeleton. Building on results of previous work with other primate groups, different skeletal elements, subgroups of the reference sample, and regression models lead to different body size estimates with different standard errors and prediction errors. However, relatively tight clusters of estimates around 20 kg, total length of 1,675 mm, and head and body length of 710 mm are obtained, placing the fossil in the size range of a large male baboon. While not quite as large as the original 25 kg body mass estimate for the fossil, this new estimate is still approximately 150% larger than the largest living New World monkey. Confirmation of its place in a large-bodied size class of platyrrhines has a profound effect on reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus and the evolutionary trajectory of the alouattin lineage. PMID:22042663

  11. Hydrophobic allergens from the bottom fraction membrane of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mengumpun, Kesajee; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Hamilton, Robert G; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2008-01-01

    Several proteins of rubber latex have been recognized as allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity in humans. In this study, a bottom fraction membrane (BFM) protein preparation from Hevea brasiliensis trees grown in southern Thailand was used to detect specific IgE in four groups of serum samples. The first group included 170 samples of latex glove factory workers (LGWs); group 2 consisted of the sera of 35 health care workers (HCWs) who were repeatedly exposed to powdered latex gloves; groups 3 and 4 were 31 positive and 22 negative sera, respectively, obtained from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA, tested for IgE to latex allergen. It was found that 56/170 (33%), 5/35 (14%), 11/31 (35.5%) and 1/22 (4.5%) samples of the LGWs, HCWs, CAP+ and CAP- groups had significant IgE to the BFM proteins, respectively. However, of all subjects only one subject of group 1 had experienced allergic morbidity consisting of eczema, conjunctivitis and asthma. The IgE of this subject bound to a 55 kDa component in the rubber latex BFM preparation. Thus, this protein may be regarded as a novel, although minor, latex allergen. Further investigation is needed to characterize the component and to pinpoint its allergenic role. PMID:19054931

  12. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. PMID:26404561

  13. Natural products from Garcinia brasiliensis as Leishmania protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan O; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Maria A; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbieri, Clara L; do Sacramento, Luis V S; Marques, Marcos J; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-06-01

    The infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which cause renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro Leishmania protease inhibition activity of extracts (hexanic, ethyl-acetate, and ethanolic) and fukugetin, a bioflavonoid purified from the ethyl-acetate extract of the pericarp of the fruit of Garcinia brasiliensis, a tree native to Brazilian forests. The isolated compound was characterized by using spectral analyses with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques. The ethyl-acetate extract and the compound fukugetin showed significant activity as inhibitors of Leishmania's proteases, with mean (±SD) IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of protease activity) values of 15.0±1.3 μg/mL and 3.2±0.5 μM/mL, respectively, characterizing a bioguided assay. In addition, this isolated compound showed no activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and mammalian cells. These results suggest that fukugetin is a potent protease inhibitor of L. (L.) amazonensis and does not cause toxicity in mammalian or Leishmania cells in vitro. This study provides new perspectives on the development of novel drugs that have leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products and that target the parasite's proteases. PMID:21554130

  14. New iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of Verbena brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Oishi, Kanna; Abe, Hiroaki; Masuoka, Chikako; Okawa, Masafumi; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, verbenabraside A (1) and verbenabraside B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Verbena brasiliensis VELL., along with six known iridoid glucosides, gelsemiol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (3), verbraside (4), 9-hydroxysemperoside (5), griselinoside (6), aralidioside (7), and 6alpha-hydroxyforsythide dimethyl ester (8), three known phenylethanoid glycosides, 2-phenylethyl O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), acteoside (10), and leucosceptoside A (11), two known lignan glucosides, dihydroxymethyl-bis(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) tetrahydrofuran-9 (or 9')-O-beta-glucopyranoside (12) and (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), a known methyl salicylate glucoside, methyl 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate (14), and two known sterols, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15) and beta-sitosterol (16). Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited stronger scavenging effect on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than that of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17015981

  15. Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbebor, Nicholas Obehi; Adekunle, Adefunke Temitayo; Eghafona, Odeh Nosakhare; Ogboghodo, Abraham Ikponmwosa

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on Rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) Imaz in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg. in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. In vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in Petri plates. In vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using Hypocrea virens and Hypocrea jecorina. Significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day, and the antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus. Hypocrea jecorina was most effective in the control of R. lignosus with percentage inhibition of 86.83 %. Hypocrea virens, H. jecorina, Trichoderma spirale, Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma sp. Pers, and Hypocrea lixii were effective on R. lignosus. Fungal antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus exhibited higher inhibitory efficacies than antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day. In the in vivo evaluation of fungi antagonists on R. lignosus, seedlings in H. jecorina treatment at 60 d and H. virens treatment at 150 d after inoculations respectively had the highest plant heaths (highest length of stem and length of tap rot, lowest plant death, and least foliar symptom) compared to the control. Mortality rate was higher at 60 d after inoculation and decline from the third months onward. Significant differences were observed between the control and R. lignosus treatment in all the parameters evaluated. PMID:25601145

  16. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  17. Preparation of species-specific murine monoclonal antibodies against the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A J; Bartholomew, M A; Harada, T; Fenelon, L; Hay, R J

    1990-01-01

    A panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies showing species specificity for the yeast phase of the pathogenic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was produced by using a modification of the standard monoclonal antibody technology. This involved the use of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune response of test animals to fungi showing cross-reactivity, i.e., to Histoplasma capsulatum. One monoclonal antibody, P4, which had a high titer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was shown to recognize a linear antigenic epitope of P. brasiliensis at a molecular size of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The potential use of these monoclonal antibodies, which are the first species-specific probes to P. brasiliensis that have been produced, in the field of serodiagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:2394802

  18. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. PMID:26787143

  19. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Outstanding problems

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Olga P; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Egorov, Viacheslav I

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment but is only possible for 15%-20% of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. About 40% of patients have locally advanced nonresectable disease. In the past, determination of pancreatic cancer resectability was made at surgical exploration. The development of modern imaging techniques has allowed preoperative staging of patients. Institutions disagree about the criteria used to classify patients. Vascular invasion in pancreatic cancers plays a very important role in determining treatment and prognosis. There is no evidence-based consensus on the optimal preoperative imaging assessment of patients with suspected pancreatic cancer and a unified definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer is also lacking. Thus, there is much room for improvement in all aspects of treatment for pancreatic cancer. Multi-detector computed tomography has been widely accepted as the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing and staging pancreatic cancer. With improved surgical techniques and advanced perioperative management, vascular resection and reconstruction are performed more frequently; patients thought once to be unresectable are undergoing radical surgery. However, when attempting heroic surgery, a realistic approach concerning the patient’s age and health status, probability of recovery after surgery, perioperative morbidity and mortality and life quality after tumor resection is necessary. PMID:22655124

  20. Hyperamylasaemia: pathognomonic to pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Burden, Sam; Poon, Anna Sau Kuk; Masood, Kausar; Didi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, presented with a history of vomiting, abdominal mass and a significantly raised amylase, but no clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans showed an ovarian tumour, and no evidence of pancreatitis-as is often associated with a raised amylase. The patient underwent bilateral ovariectomy and hysterectomy and made a good recovery. PMID:24132440

  1. Pancreatic Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joji Kurian; Kim, Min-Sik; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Raju, Rajesh; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Sakamuri, Sruthi; Tankala, Shantal Gupta; Singal, Mukul; Nair, Bipin; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T S Keshava; Maitra, Anirban; Gowda, Harsha; Hruban, Ralph H; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The etiology of pancreatic cancer is heterogeneous with a wide range of alterations that have already been reported at the level of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The past decade has witnessed a large number of experimental studies using high-throughput technology platforms to identify genes whose expression at the transcript or protein levels is altered in pancreatic cancer. Based on expression studies, a number of molecules have also been proposed as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this deadly cancer. Currently, there are no repositories which provide an integrative view of multiple Omics data sets from published research on pancreatic cancer. Here, we describe the development of a web-based resource, Pancreatic Cancer Database (http://www.pancreaticcancerdatabase.org), as a unified platform for pancreatic cancer research. PCD contains manually curated information pertaining to quantitative alterations in miRNA, mRNA, and proteins obtained from small-scale as well as high-throughput studies of pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We believe that PCD will serve as an integrative platform for scientific community involved in pancreatic cancer research. PMID:24839966

  2. Post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Arata, Shinju; Takada, Tadahiro; Hirata, Koichi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirota, Morihisa; Yokoe, Masamichi; Hirota, Masahiko; Kiriyama, Seiki; Sekimoto, Miho; Amano, Hodaka; Wada, Keita; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi; Takeda, Kazunori; Kataoka, Keisho; Ito, Tetsuhide; Tanaka, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis remains the most common severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Detailed information about the findings of previous studies concerning post-ERCP pancreatitis has not been utilized sufficiently. The purpose of the present article was to present guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and its incidence, risk factors, and prophylactic procedures that are supported by evidence. To achieve this purpose, a critical examination was made of the articles on post-ERCP pancreatitis, based on the data obtained by research studies published up to 2009. At present, there are no standardized diagnostic criteria for post-ERCP pancreatitis. It is appropriate that post-ERCP pancreatitis is defined as acute pancreatitis that has developed following ERCP, and its diagnosis and severity assessment should be made according to the diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The incidence of acute pancreatitis associated with diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP is 0.4-1.5 and 1.6-5.4%, respectively. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation is associated with a high risk of acute pancreatitis compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy. It was made clear that important risk factors include dysfunction of the Oddi sphincter, being of the female sex, past history of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and performance of pancreaticography. Temporary prophylactic placement of pancreatic stents in the high-risk group is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-6.4, number needed to treat (NNT) 10]. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduction in the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.65). Single rectal administration of NSAIDs is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [relative risk (RR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.60, NNT 15] and decreases the

  3. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  4. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, D M; Marmontel, M; Rosas, F W; Santos, F R

    2007-12-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations. PMID:18278348

  5. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase. PMID:11418327

  6. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  7. TLR9 Activation Dampens the Early Inflammatory Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting Host Survival

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Alves, Ana G.; Lobo-Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Saraiva, Ana Laura; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Romani, Luigina; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis and regulation of the immune response. However, the role of TLR9 during the infection by this fungus remains unclear. Methodology/Principal findings We used in vitro and in vivo models of infection by P. brasiliensis, comparing wild type and TLR9 deficient (−/−) mice, to assess the contribution of TLR9 on cytokine induction, phagocytosis and outcome of infection. We show that TLR9 recognizes either the yeast form or DNA from P. brasiliensis by stimulating the expression/production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow derived macrophages, also increasing their phagocytic ability. We further show that TLR9 plays a protective role early after intravenous infection with P. brasiliensis, as infected TLR9−/− mice died at higher rate during the first 48 hours post infection than wild type mice. Moreover, TLR9−/− mice presented tissue damage and increased expression of several cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The increased pattern of cytokine expression was also observed during intraperitoneal infection of TLR9−/− mice, with enhanced recruitment of neutrophils. The phenotype of TLR9−/− hosts observed during the early stages of P. brasiliensis infection was reverted upon a transient, 48 hours post-infection, neutrophil depletion. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that TLR9 activation plays an early protective role against P. brasiliensis, by avoiding a deregulated type of inflammatory response associated to neutrophils that may lead to tissue damage. Thus

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  9. Therapeutic effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2(-)/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  10. Recent Advances and Prospects for Multimodality Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Awalpreet S; Khoo, Allison; Aliru, Maureen L; Arora, Harpreet K; Gunther, Jillian R; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for treatment of pancreatic cancer have not improved dramatically in many decades. However, the recent promising results with combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease increase optimism for future treatments. With greater control of overt or occult metastatic disease, there will likely be an expanding role for local treatment modalities, especially given that nearly a third of pancreatic cancer patients have locally destructive disease without distant metastatic disease at the time of death. Technical advances have allowed for the safe delivery of dose-escalated radiation therapy, which can then be combined with chemotherapy, targeted agents, immunotherapy, and nanoparticulate drug delivery techniques to produce novel and improved synergistic effects. Here we discuss recent advances and future directions for multimodality therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27619253

  11. [Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Spicák, J

    2002-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis develops immediately after the causative impulse, while chronic pancreatitis develops after the long-term action of the noxious agent. A typical representative of acute pancreatitis is biliary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis develops in alcoholism and has a long latency. As alcoholic pancreatitis is manifested at first as a rule by a potent attack, it is classified in this stage as acute pancreatitis. The most frequent etiological factors in our civilization are thus cholelithiasis and alcoholism (both account for 20-50% in different studies). The assumed pathogenetic principles in acute biliary pancreatitis are the common canal of both efferent ducts above the obturated papilla, duodenopancreatic reflux and intrapancreatic hypertension. A detailed interpretation is however lacking. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is more complicated. Among others some part is played by changes in the calcium concentration and fusion of cellular membranes. Idiopathic pancreatitis occurs in up to 10%, part of the are due to undiagnosed alcoholism and cholelithiasis. Other etiologies are exceptional. Similarly as in cholelithiasis pancreatitis develops also during other pathological processes in the area of the papilla of Vater such as dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, ampulloma and juxtapapillary diverticulum, it is however usually mild. The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis is declining. Its lethality is 30% and the diagnosis is difficult. In the pathogenesis changes of the ion concentration are involved, hypoxia and mechanical disorders of the integrity of the gland. Pancreatitis develops in association with other infections--frequently in mumps, rarely in hepatitis, tuberculosis, typhoid and mycoses. Viral pancreatitis is usually mild. In parasitoses pancreatitis develops due to a block of the papilla Vateri. In hyperparathyroidism chronic pancreatitis is more likely to develop, recent data are lacking. As to dyslipoproteinaemias

  12. Pleuropulmonary complications of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Michael D.

    1968-01-01

    Pancreatitis, in common with many other upper abdominal diseases, often leads to pleuropulmonary complications. Radiological evidence of pleuropulmonary abnormality was found in 55% of 58 cases examined retrospectively. The majority of such abnormalities are not specific for pancreatitis; but a particular category of pleural effusions, rich in pancreatic enzymes, is a notable exception. A patient with this type of effusion, complicated by a spontaneous bronchopleural fistula and then by an empyema, is reported. The literature relating to pancreatic enzyme-rich pleural effusions (pathognomonic of pancreatitis) is reviewed. Of several possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, transdiaphragmatic lymphatic transfer of pancreatic enzymes, intrapleural rupture of mediastinal extensions of pseudocysts, and diaphragmatic perforation are the most important. The measurement of pleural fluid amylase, at present little employed in this country, has considerable diagnostic value. Enzyme-rich effusions are more commonly left-sided, are often blood-stained, are frequently associated with pancreatic pseudocysts, and—if long standing—may be complicated by a bronchopleural fistula. Images PMID:4872925

  13. Acute Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Werlin, Steven L.

    2001-10-01

    There are no drugs that cure or abate pancreatitis. The treatment of patients with mild and moderate episodes of pancreatitis (85%) is supportive and expectant. Central issues include the removal of the initiating process (if possible), relief of pain, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be required for stone extraction in patients with biliary pancreatitis. Surgery is rarely required. The aims of treatment for patients with severe disease includes treatment of local, systemic, and septic complications in addition to those for mild and moderate disease. Homeostasis is maintained by the correction of hypocalcemia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxemia. A large number of medications have been used unsuccessfully in an attempt to halt the progression of the autodigestive process within the pancreas and to reduce pancreatic secretions. Nutritional support with either enteral or parenteral feeding is given. Intravenous antibiotics or selective bowel decontamination decrease mortality in patients with severe episodes of pancreatitis. The treatment for these individuals is often prolonged. Surgical treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with ductal rupture includes repair or resection. At times, simple drainage is performed and definitive surgery is deferred until later. Surgical treatment of severe pancreatitis includes debridement of necrotic and infected tissue. The emerging consensus appears to be that necrosectomy and local lavage or open management with planned re-exploration offers better survival than the conventional therapy of resection plus drainage alone. PMID:11560787

  14. Production of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigens for immunodiffusion tests.

    PubMed Central

    De Camargo, Z; Unterkircher, C; Campoy, S P; Travassos, L R

    1988-01-01

    Growth curves of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis B-339 based on total and viable cell counts were determined. Crude culture filtrate antigens were obtained after 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days of incubation. Different patterns of proteins were obtained by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-immunoglobulin G complex made with immunoglobulin G from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, with subsequent analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning densitometry. Three major proteins were excreted during the time course of a 30-day culture: a doublet at 20 to 21 kilodaltons (kDa) and molecules of 43 and 52 kDa. The 43-kDa antigen was present throughout the growth period, and its level reached a peak on days 15 to 20 and then decreased considerably toward day 30. The antigenic preparations collected on days 7, 10, 15, and 20 gave better reactions in immunodiffusion tests than those collected on days 25 and 30. The 7-day exoantigen gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 100% on immunodiffusion. The main line of precipitation had a very high intensity, showing a total identity with that of a previously purified glycoprotein of 43 kDa. A 7-day crude exoantigen displayed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, being reproducible from batch to batch and retaining its activity for years when kept lyophilized. A protocol is recommended for the production of a stable diagnostic antigen to be used in immunodiffusion tests for paracoccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:3141460

  15. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  16. Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer Can pancreatic cancer be found early? Pancreatic cancer is hard to ... Testing: What You Need to Know . Testing for pancreatic cancer in people at high risk For people in ...

  17. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Daniel; Friess, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease resulting in permanent structural damage of the pancreas. It is mainly characterized by recurring epigastric pain and pancreatic insufficiency. In addition, progression of the disease might lead to additional complications, such as pseudocyst formation or development of pancreatic cancer. The medical and surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis has changed significantly in the past decades. With regard to surgical management, pancreatic head resection has been shown to be a mainstay in the treatment of severe chronic pancreatitis because the pancreatic head mass is known to trigger the chronic inflammatory process. Over the years, organ-preserving procedures, such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection and the pylorus-preserving Whipple, have become the surgical standard and have led to major improvements in pain relief, preservation of pancreatic function, and quality of life of patients. PMID:26681935

  18. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the treatment of symptoms and complications, mainly pain and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune pancreatitis. The multimodal dynamic endoscopic ultrasound-guided secretin-stimulated evaluation of the pancreas provides relevant morphological and functional information for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at early stages. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with calcifying pancreatitis and endoscopic pancreatic stent placement are effective alternatives for pain therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significantly increase of mortality rate. Despite that, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is not prescribed in the majority of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or it is prescribed at a low dose. The newly developed and commercialized needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy are effective in retrieving appropriate tissue samples for the histological diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Maintenance therapy with azathioprine is effective and safe to prevent relapses in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. PMID:26520201

  19. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A A C; Petroni, T F; Fedatto, P F; Bianchini, R R; Venancio, E J; Itano, E N; Ono, M A

    2009-04-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  20. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; Silva, Julhiany de Fátima ds; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  2. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  3. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  4. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    PubMed

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27328827

  5. A Morphological and Cytochemical Study of the Interaction between Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda R. G.; Filgueira, Absalom L.; de Souza, Wanderley

    2004-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P. brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together, these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular P. brasiliensis.

  6. Initial development of the endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand (Anacardiaceae): with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, João M S; Mariath, Jorge E A

    2015-09-01

    Investigation into the initial developmental stages of a given structure is fundamental for precise characterization as well as for comparative analysis in relation to other taxa when homologies are established. For the Anacardiaceae family, investigations of the initial development of the pericarp or its basic histological sites, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, are relevant since these regions are of taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. The initial stages of endocarp development in Lithraea brasiliensis were studied using light microscopy. In L. brasiliensis, the fruits are of the drupe type. The endocarp originates exclusively in the epidermis of the locular cavity and is composed of only three strata. The crystalliferous layer, typical in fruits of the Anacardiaceae family, originates in the carpelar mesophyll and runs adjacent to the outermost layer of the endocarp. The endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis is of the Anacardium type. The results of the present study are important for the identification of the Lithraea species that occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In L. molleoides, the crystalliferous layer was shown to originate from the locular epidermis and this developmental aspect enables it to be differentiated from L. brasiliensis and demonstrates that there is variability of endocarp development in Lithraea. PMID:26221992

  7. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  8. Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment - Field observations while host searching

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Silvia; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Diotaiuti, Lileia

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensis selected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensis body surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05). The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensis foraging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines. PMID:26517659

  9. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  10. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Terçarioli, Gisela Ramos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Reis, Gabriela Martins; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bosco, Sandra De Moraes Gimenes; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al) in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al. PMID:17953742

  11. 27 CFR 19.691 - Voluntary destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., State, and local environmental laws and regulations. (e) Record of destruction. The proprietor shall... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary destruction. 19... Voluntary Destruction Voluntary Destruction § 19.691 Voluntary destruction. (a) General. Spirits,...

  12. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  13. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the abdomen. The surgeon can look at the pancreas and other organs for tumors and take biopsy ... pancreatic cancers appear to be confined to the pancreas at the time they are found. Even then, ...

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... age at the time of diagnosis is 71. Gender Men are slightly more likely to develop pancreatic ... of these syndromes can be found by genetic testing. For more information on genetic testing, see Can ...

  15. [Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Beiderwellen, K; Sabet, A; Lauenstein, T C; Lahner, H; Poeppel, T D

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. PMID:27003413

  16. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... very important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas. They have distinct risk factors and causes, have ... are by far the most common type of pancreas cancer. If you are told you have pancreatic cancer, ...

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  18. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the symptoms of pancreatitis? Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. However, not every patient with ... help the pancreas to recover. Patients who have abdominal pain can be treated with pain medications. Some patients ...

  19. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... allo-transplantation?" For each pancreatic islet allo-transplant infusion, researchers use specialized enzymes to remove islets from ... in a lab. Transplant patients typically receive two infusions with an average of 400,000 to 500, ...

  20. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of immunosuppressive medications?" [ Top ] Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry Data In its 2010 annual report, 1 the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry presented data on 571 patients who received pancreatic islet allo- ...

  1. Inflammation-mediated dysfunction and apoptosis in pancreatic islet transplantation: implications for intrahepatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Barshes, Neal R; Wyllie, Samuel; Goss, John A

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in clinical protocols have improved the outcomes of pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT), yet PIT recipients typically require pancreatic islet grafts derived from multiple donors to achieve insulin independence. This along with experimental models of syngeneic PIT, showing that up to 60% of pancreatic islet tissue undergoes apoptosis within the first several days post-transplantation, strongly suggest the involvement of nonalloantigen-specific, inflammatory events in partial destruction of the graft following PIT. Interleukin-1beta appears to be among the most important inflammatory mediators, causing pancreatic islet dysfunction and apoptosis through the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Kupffer cells secrete many molecules, including cytokines, NO, and free radicals, which are known to be directly toxic to the pancreatic islets, and depletion or inhibition of Kupffer cells improves outcomes following experimental PIT. Immediately after transplantation, the pancreatic islets are perfused only by portal vein blood until the process of angiogenesis restores arterial blood flow some 7-10 days later. This delayed vascularization may have implications for the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, the effects of free radicals, and the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Finally, in the immediate post-transplant period, hepatocytes may contribute to pancreatic islet injury through the production of NO. This paper reviews literature regarding the inflammatory events that follow PIT as well as the pathogenesis of diabetes and the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and their relation to the survival and function of intrahepatic pancreatic islet grafts. PMID:15728243

  2. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-01-01

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans. PMID:26345830

  3. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  4. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L; Campos, Claudia B L; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25°C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions. PMID:26241825

  5. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S.; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L.; Kriese, Stephen; Burroughs, Andrew K.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used to describe cases of pancreatitis with narrowing of the pancreatic duct, enlargement of the pancreas, hyper-γ-globulinaemia, and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity serologically. The main differential diagnosis, is pancreatic cancer, which can be ruled out through radiological, serological, and histological investigations. The targets of ANA in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis do not appear to be similar to those found in other rheumatological diseases, as dsDNA, SS-A, and SS-B are not frequently recognized by AIP-related ANA. Other disease-specific autoantibodies, such as, antimitochondrial, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies or diabetes-specific autoantibodies are virtually absent. Further studies have focused on the identification of pancreas-specific autoantigens and reported significant reactivity to lactoferrin, carbonic anhydrase, pancreas secretory trypsin inhibitor, amylase-alpha, heat-shock protein, and plasminogen-binding protein. This paper discusses the findings of these investigations and their relevance to the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis. PMID:22844291

  6. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kara L; Willingham, Field F

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life) and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. PMID:27555793

  7. Tropical chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Barman, K; Premalatha, G; Mohan, V

    2003-01-01

    Tropical chronic pancreatitis (TCP) is a juvenile form of chronic calcific non-alcoholic pancreatitis, seen almost exclusively in the developing countries of the tropical world. The classical triad of TCP consists of abdominal pain, steatorrhoea, and diabetes. When diabetes is present, the condition is called fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) which is thus a later stage of TCP. Some of the distinctive features of TCP are younger age at onset, presence of large intraductal calculi, more aggressive course of the disease, and a high susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic calculi are the hallmark for the diagnosis of TCP and in non-calcific cases ductal dilation on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, computed tomography, or ultrasound helps to identify the disease. Diabetes is usually quite severe and of the insulin requiring type, but ketosis is rare. Microvascular complications of diabetes occur as frequently as in type 2 diabetes but macrovascular complications are uncommon. Pancreatic enzyme supplements are used for relief of abdominal pain and reducing the symptoms related to steatorrhoea. Early diagnosis and better control of the endocrine and exocrine dysfunction could help to ensure better survival and improve the prognosis and quality of life of TCP patients. PMID:14654569

  8. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Kara L; Willingham, Field F

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life) and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. PMID:27555793

  9. Nutrition in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Beglinger, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The pancreas plays a major role in nutrient digestion. Therefore, in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop, impairing digestive and absorptive processes. These changes can lead to malnutrition over time. In parallel to these changes, decreased caloric intake and increased metabolic activity are often present. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. In severe acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition with a naso-jejunal feeding tube and a low molecular diet displays clear advantages compared to parenteral nutrition. Infectious complications, length of hospital stay and the need for surgery are reduced. Furthermore, enteral nutrition is less costly than parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who do not tolerate enteral nutrition. Abstinence from alcohol, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation is sufficient in over 80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. In addition, oral supplements are helpful. Enteral nutrition can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:16782526

  10. Flameless thermal destruction of VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1997-04-01

    A new technology controls volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions with high destruction efficiencies. This article describes the technology developed by Thermatrix, Inc. of San Jose, CA. The field proven flameless thermal oxidation (FTO) is capable of destroying over 99.99 percent of a wide range of organic air pollution. Topics covered include FTO technology, high destruction efficiencies, VOCs in wastewater from chemical manufacturing; refinery fugitive emissions.

  11. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

  12. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  13. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Krishna, S.V.S.; Lakhtakia, Sandeep; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency. Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologies accounting for 60%-75% cases. Other important causes include postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure, abdominal trauma, drug toxicity, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown (idiopathic pancreatitis). Metabolic conditions giving rise to pancreatitis are less common, accounting for 5%-10% cases. The causes include hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, and Wilson's disease. The episodes of pancreatitis tend to be more severe. In cases of metabolic pancreatitis, over and above the standard routine management of pancreatitis, careful management of the underlying metabolic abnormalities is of paramount importance. If not treated properly, it leads to recurrent life-threatening bouts of acute pancreatitis. We hereby review the pathogenesis and management of various causes of metabolic pancreatitis. PMID:24083160

  15. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Enolase Is a Surface Protein That Binds Plasminogen and Mediates Interaction of Yeast Forms with Host Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Mundodi, Vasanth; Abi-Chacra, Erika A.; Winters, Michael S.; Alderete, John F.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is a disseminated, systemic disorder that involves the lungs and other organs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host components, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, is essential to further colonization, invasion, and growth. Previously, enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) was characterized as a fibronectin binding protein in P. brasiliensis. Interaction of surface-bound enolase with plasminogen has been incriminated in tissue invasion for pathogenesis in several pathogens. In this paper, enolase was expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (recombinant P. brasiliensis enolase [rPbEno]). The P. brasiliensis native enolase (PbEno) was detected at the fungus surface and cytoplasm by immunofluorescence with an anti-rPbEno antibody. Immobilized purified rPbEno bound plasminogen in a specific, concentration-dependent fashion. Both native enolase and rPbEno activated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin through tissue plasminogen activator. The association between PbEno and plasminogen was lysine dependent. In competition experiments, purified rPbEno, in its soluble form, inhibited plasminogen binding to fixed P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this interaction required surface-localized PbEno. Plasminogen-coated P. brasiliensis yeast cells were capable of degrading purified fibronectin, providing in vitro evidence for the generation of active plasmin on the fungus surface. Exposure of epithelial cells and phagocytes to enolase was associated with an increased expression of surface sites of adhesion. In fact, the association of P. brasiliensis with epithelial cells and phagocytes was increased in the presence of rPbEno. The expression of PbEno was upregulated in yeast cells derived from mouse-infected tissues. These data indicate that surface-associated PbEno may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. brasiliensis. PMID

  16. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  17. Hypovolemic shock, pancreatic blood flow, and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Robert, J H; Toledano, A E; Toth, L S; Premus, G; Dreiling, D A

    1988-05-01

    Electromagnetic blood flow determinations were carried out on the superior pancreatic duodena (SPDA), the splenic (SA) and the superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries and compared to cardiac output (CO, thermodilution technique) in 12 anesthetized dogs submitted to hypovolemic shock of various duration: 5 dogs underwent a one-hour and 7 a three-hour period of shock. A 50 mm Hg level of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained throughout hypovolemia. Dogs were then reinfused. Control preshock values were 4.12 l/min for CO, 38.0 ml/min for SPDA, 405.9 ml/min for SA, and 963.6 ml/min for SMA. SPDA, SA and SMA flows expressed as % of CO amounted to 0.9, 9.8 and 23.4% respectively. No significant changes in SPDA and SMA flows were noted within the first hour of shock. However, from the end of the second hour on, both flows differed significantly (P less than 0.01), SMA increasing from -75.6% of its control value at the end of bleeding to -61.0%, and SPDA decreasing from -75.6 to -86.9%. Similar observations were made when respective flows were considered as % of CO. The SA behaved somewhat in an intermediate fashion. This relative spoliation in pancreatic blood supply as hypovolemia proceeds supports an ischemic etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), which could account for some of the so-called idiopathic cases of AP. PMID:3385221

  18. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in an area where the fungus was recently isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Martinez, R; Camargo, Z P; Malta, M H; Maffei, C M; Chadu, J B

    2000-06-01

    Natural infection of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Northern Brazil was reported in 1986, raising great interest in the understanding of the role of this mammal in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus. Recently, P. brasiliensis was isolated from the soil of Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Armadillos captured in this area were evaluated for the presence of P. brasiliensis in the viscera and infection was detected in 4/16 animals (25%). Fungal yeast phase cells were observed in three of the four infected armadillos by direct microscopic examination and by the indirect immunofluorescence test carried out on homogenized tissues. P. brasiliensis was isolated from three armadillos whose homogenized viscera had been injected into Swiss mice. The new strains (Ibiá-T1, Ibiá-T2 and Ibiá-T3) were identified as P. brasiliensis on the basis of macro- and micromorphology, thermodimorphism, production and serologic activity of exoantigens, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detection of the gp43 gene. The lethality and lesions caused to the mice from which the strains were recovered confirmed the virulence of the isolates. We conclude that P. brasiliensis infects armadillos in locations with different geoclimatic characteristics and vegetation cover. The direct observation of yeast cells in tissues and the multiple visceral involvement, including the lungs, suggests the occurrence of paracoccidioidomycosis disease in these mammals and supports their role as wild hosts in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus. PMID:10892986

  19. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  20. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  1. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection. PMID:26360774

  2. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  3. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  4. Tests of pancreatic exocrine function - clinical significance in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Aghdassi, Ali Alexander; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia V; Layer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The pancreas functions as the main factory for digestive enzymes and therefore enables food utilisation. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, partial or complete loss of digestive enzyme synthesis, occurs primarily in disorders directly affecting pancreatic tissue integrity. However, other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, such as coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or gastric resection can either mimic or cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The overt clinical symptoms of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency are steatorrhoea and maldigestion, which frequently become apparent in advanced stages. Several direct and indirect function tests are available for assessment of pancreatic function but until today diagnosis of excretory insufficiency is difficult as in mild impairment clinically available function tests show limitations of diagnostic accuracy. This review focuses on diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in pancreatic and non-pancreatic disorders. PMID:19505669

  5. Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Béchade, Dominique; Desjardin, Marie; Salmon, Emma; Désolneux, Grégoire; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge; Fonck, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Here we report two cases of ACC and describe their clinical features, the therapies used to treat them, and their prognosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old woman who had an abdominal CT scan for a urinary infection. Fortuitously, a rounded and well-delimited corporeal pancreatic tumor was discovered. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration revealed an ACC. During the puncture, a hypoechoic cavity appeared inside the lesion, corresponding to a probable necrotic area. Treatment consisted of a distal splenopancreatectomy. The second patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT scan showed a cephalic pancreatic lesion and two hepatic metastases. An EUS-guided fine needle aspiration showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which enabled an objective response after 6 cycles.

  6. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hackert, Thilo; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W

    2016-06-01

    Surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy remains the only treatment option for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with the chance of long-term survival. If a radical tumor resection is possible, 5-year survival rates of 20-25% can be achieved. Pancreatic surgery has significantly changed during the past years and resection approaches have been extended beyond standard procedures, including vascular and multivisceral resections. Consequently, borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (BR-PDAC), which has recently been defined by the International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), has become a controversial issue with regard to its management in terms of upfront resection vs. neoadjuvant treatment and sequential resection. Preoperative diagnostic accuracy to define resectability of PDAC is a keypoint in this context as well as the surgical and interdisciplinary expertise to perform advanced pancreatic surgery and manage complications. The present mini-review summarizes the current state of definition, management and outcome of BR-PDAC. Furthermore, the topic of ongoing and future studies on neoadjuvant treatment which is closely related to borderline resectability in PDAC is discussed. PMID:26970276

  7. Pharmacogenetics in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tourkantonis, Ioannis S; Peponi, Evangelia; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor overall survival rate. Given advances in pharmacogenomics, numerous gene mutations have been identified that could be potential targets for drug development. Therefore, future research strategies may identify prognostic and predictive markers aiming to improve outcome by maximizing efficacy whilst lowering toxicity. In this commentary, we summarize several interesting results regarding pancreatic cancer pharmacogenetics that have been presented in the 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. In particular, we focus on Abstract #4124, which investigated the potential predictive role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer, on Abstract #4125, which examined the tolerability of a modified FOLFORINOX study based on UGT1A1*28 genotype guided dosing of IRI in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and on Abstract #4130, which confirmed the predictive role of circulating tumor and invasive cells (CTICs) from patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in second-line chemotherapy treatment setting. PMID:25076337

  8. Genetic aspects of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are complex inflammatory disorders of the pancreas with unpredictable severity, complications, and clinical courses. Growing evidence for genetic risk and modifying factors, plus strong evidence that only a minority of patients with these disorders are heavy alcohol drinkers, has revolutionized our concept of these diseases. Once considered a self-inflicted injury, pancreatitis is now recognized as a complex inflammatory condition like inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic linkage and candidate gene studies have identified six pancreas-targeting factors that are associated with changes in susceptibility to acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, including cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Patients with mutations in these genes are at increased risk of pancreatitis caused by a variety of stresses including hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Multiple studies are reporting new polymorphisms, as well as complex gene x gene and gene x environmental interactions. PMID:20059346

  9. Current and Evolving Therapies for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: Are We Stuck With Cytotoxic Chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Varadhachary, Gauri R; Wolff, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    At present, front-line therapy for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is combination chemotherapy, most commonly FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) or gemcitabine and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Despite a better understanding of the genomic landscape and the importance of the tumor microenvironment, we have not made a seismic shift in the overall survival for this disease. Given our growing understanding of the biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the question remains whether novel, noncytotoxic agents will augment or even replace conventional chemotherapy. The thrust of ongoing efforts can be divided into broad categories, including exploiting the DNA damage repair phenotype, stroma and specific pathway-targeting agents, and enhancing immune destruction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In this article, we review the current and evolving therapeutic landscape of metastatic pancreatic cancer. PMID:27621332

  10. Pancreatitis activates pancreatic apelin-APJ axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song; Englander, Ella W.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Aronson, Judith F.; Rastellini, Cristiana; Garofalo, R. P.; Kolli, Deepthi; Quertermous, Thomas; Kundu, Ramendra

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatitis is classified into acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Apelin, a small regulatory peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor. Apelin and APJ are expressed in the pancreas. The aims of this study were to examine whether apelin influences the inflammatory and fibrosis responses to pancreatitis in mice and to identify mechanisms behind apelin's activities. Supramaximal cerulein induction of AP or CP caused significant (P < 0.05) elevations in pancreatic apelin and APJ expression. Levels declined during the recovery phases. In apelin gene-knockout mice with pancreatitis, pancreatic neutrophil invasion and myeloperoxidase activity were enhanced significantly, and apelin treatment suppressed both. Apelin exposure reduced CP-induced elevations of extracellular matrix-associated proteins. Apelin inhibited PDGF-simulated connective tissue growth factor production and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte cytokine levels were higher in apelin gene-knockout than wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Apelin reduced AP- and CP-induced elevations in pancreatic NF-κB activation. Together, these findings imply that the pancreatic apelin-APJ system functions to curb the inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis. Furthermore, findings suggest that apelin reduces inflammation and fibrosis by reducing neutrophil recruitment and PSC activity. Inhibition of neutrophil invasion may be mediated by reduced keratinocyte cytokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secretion. Apelin-induced reductions in PSC proliferation and connective tissue growth factor production are putative mechanisms underlying apelin's inhibition of extracellular matrix production. The apelin-associated changes in NF-κB binding may be linked to apelin's regulation of pancreatic inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis. PMID:23681476

  11. Pancreatitis activates pancreatic apelin-APJ axis in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Englander, Ella W; Gomez, Guillermo A; Aronson, Judith F; Rastellini, Cristiana; Garofalo, R P; Kolli, Deepthi; Quertermous, Thomas; Kundu, Ramendra; Greeley, George H

    2013-07-15

    Pancreatitis is classified into acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Apelin, a small regulatory peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor. Apelin and APJ are expressed in the pancreas. The aims of this study were to examine whether apelin influences the inflammatory and fibrosis responses to pancreatitis in mice and to identify mechanisms behind apelin's activities. Supramaximal cerulein induction of AP or CP caused significant (P < 0.05) elevations in pancreatic apelin and APJ expression. Levels declined during the recovery phases. In apelin gene-knockout mice with pancreatitis, pancreatic neutrophil invasion and myeloperoxidase activity were enhanced significantly, and apelin treatment suppressed both. Apelin exposure reduced CP-induced elevations of extracellular matrix-associated proteins. Apelin inhibited PDGF-simulated connective tissue growth factor production and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte cytokine levels were higher in apelin gene-knockout than wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Apelin reduced AP- and CP-induced elevations in pancreatic NF-κB activation. Together, these findings imply that the pancreatic apelin-APJ system functions to curb the inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis. Furthermore, findings suggest that apelin reduces inflammation and fibrosis by reducing neutrophil recruitment and PSC activity. Inhibition of neutrophil invasion may be mediated by reduced keratinocyte cytokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secretion. Apelin-induced reductions in PSC proliferation and connective tissue growth factor production are putative mechanisms underlying apelin's inhibition of extracellular matrix production. The apelin-associated changes in NF-κB binding may be linked to apelin's regulation of pancreatic inflammatory and fibrosis responses during pancreatitis. PMID:23681476

  12. Drug-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Maertin, Sandrina; Scheiber, Jonas; Ritter, Christoph A; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2012-04-01

    Drugs are thought to be a rare cause for acute pancreatitis; however 525 different drugs are listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) database suspected to cause acute pancreatitis as a side effect. Many of them are widely used to treat highly prevalent diseases. The true incidence is not entirely clear since only few systematic population based studies exist. The majority of the available data are derived from case reports or case control studies. Furthermore, the causality for many of these drugs remains elusive and for only 31 of these 525 dugs a definite causality was established. Definite proof for causality is defined by the WHO classification if symptoms reoccur upon rechallenge.In the actual algorithm the diagnosis is confirmed if no other cause of acute pancreatitis can be detected, and the patient is taking one of the suspected drugs. PMID:22314811

  13. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770

  14. A self-destruction game.

    PubMed

    Raczynski, Stanislaw

    2006-10-01

    A simple model of a self-destructing society is presented. It can be interpreted as a game with two players: the society and its sub-set which tends to destroy the whole society, as well as itself. The main factor taken into account in the model is the progress of science and technology which provides the destruction tools (new weapons and killing techniques), as well as tools the society can use to defend itself. The modeling and simulation tool is discrete-event and can be treated as agent-oriented, though the agent capabilities are rather simple. The simulation experiments show that, in the near future, this progress will become extremely dangerous, and it may result in the total destruction of mankind. For the longer time period, however, the conclusion is not so pessimistic. If the society survives during a certain time interval, then the probability of survival becomes greater for a longer time span. PMID:16884653

  15. Endotherapy in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tandan, Manu; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disease with irreversible changes in the pancreas. Patients commonly present with pain and with exocrine or endocrine insufficiency. All therapeutic efforts in CP are directed towards relief of pain as well as the management of associated complications. Endoscopic therapy offers many advantages in patients with CP who present with ductal calculi, strictures, ductal leaks, pseudocyst or associated biliary strictures. Endotherapy offers a high rate of success with low morbidity in properly selected patients. The procedure can be repeated and failed endotherapy is not a hindrance to subsequent surgery. Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy is helpful in patients with CP with minimal ductal changes while minor papilla sphincterotomy provides relief in patients with pancreas divisum and chronic pancreatitis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the standard of care in patients with large pancreatic ductal calculi. Long term follow up has shown pain relief in over 60% of patients. A transpapillary stent placed across the disruption provides relief in over 90% of patients with ductal leaks. Pancreatic ductal strictures are managed by single large bore stents. Multiple stents are placed for refractory strictures. CP associated benign biliary strictures (BBS) are best treated with multiple plastic stents, as the response to a single plastic stent is poor. Covered self expanding metal stents are increasingly being used in the management of BBS though further long term studies are needed. Pseudocysts are best drained endoscopically with a success rate of 80%-95% at most centers. Endosonography (EUS) has added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the management of patients with CP. Drainage of pseudcysts, cannulation of inaccessible pancreatic ducts and celiac ganglion block in patients with intractable pain are all performed using EUS. Endotherapy should be offered as the first line of therapy in properly selected patients with CP

  16. Pathogenic Microorganisms and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunsaier; Li, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. No effective screening methods exist, and available treatment modalities do not effectively treat the disease. Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Accumulating reports have demonstrated that there is an association between pathogenic microorganisms and pancreatic cancer. Summary A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that microbiota are likely to influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. This review summarizes the literature on studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer. Key Message Helicobacter pylori infection may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer; chronic hepatitis virus and oral microbiota may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Practical Implications Considering the worldwide burden of the disease, the association between microbiota and pancreatic cancer in this review may provide new ideas to prevent and treat pancreatic cancer more efficiently. Further studies in this direction are urgently needed. PMID:26673459

  17. Enzymatic Debridement in Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Vatansev, Husamettin; Kartal, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ failure and pancreatic necrosis are the factors that determine prognosis in acute pancreatitis attacks. We investigated the effects of collagenase on the debridement of experimental pancreatic necrosis. The study covered 4 groups; each group had 10 rats. Group I was the necrotizing pancreatitis group. Group II was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge by isotonic irrigation following necrotizing pancreatitis. Group III was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge following necrotizing pancreatitis. Group IV was the intraperitoneal collagenase group following necrotizing pancreatitis. The progress of the groups was compared hematologically and histopathologically. There was no difference among the groups regarding the levels of leukocyte, hemogram, and urea. The differences in AST levels between Group I and II; and differences in glucose, calcium, LDH, AST, and amylase between Group II and III; between Group II and IV; between Group I and III; and between Group I and IV were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences between Group II and III, and Group II and IV regarding edema, acinar necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and fat necrosis (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the collagenase preparation used in this experimental pancreatitis model was found to be effective in the debridement of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:26011212

  18. Pancreatic disorders in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Filippo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Angelelli, Lucia; Macarri, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    An increased incidence of pancreatic disorders either acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis has been recorded in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to the general population. Although most of the pancreatitis in patients with IBD seem to be related to biliary lithiasis or drug induced, in some cases pancreatitis were defined as idiopathic, suggesting a direct pancreatic damage in IBD. Pancreatitis and IBD may have similar presentation therefore a pancreatic disease could not be recognized in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. This review will discuss the most common pancreatic diseases seen in patients with IBD. PMID:27574565

  19. Pancreatic disorders in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Filippo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Angelelli, Lucia; Macarri, Giampiero

    2016-08-15

    An increased incidence of pancreatic disorders either acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis has been recorded in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to the general population. Although most of the pancreatitis in patients with IBD seem to be related to biliary lithiasis or drug induced, in some cases pancreatitis were defined as idiopathic, suggesting a direct pancreatic damage in IBD. Pancreatitis and IBD may have similar presentation therefore a pancreatic disease could not be recognized in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This review will discuss the most common pancreatic diseases seen in patients with IBD. PMID:27574565

  20. Hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: molecular characterization and mechanism of enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hasslacher, M; Kratky, C; Griengl, H; Schwab, H; Kohlwein, S D

    1997-03-01

    (S)-Hydroxynitrile lyase (Hnl) from the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is a 29 kDa single chain protein that catalyses the breakdown or formation of a C--C bond by reversible addition of hydrocyanic acid to aldehydes or ketones. The primary sequence of Hnl has no significant homology to known proteins. Detailed homology investigations employing PROFILESEARCH and secondary structure prediction algorithms suggest that Hnl is a member of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold protein family and contains a catalytic triad as functional residues for catalysis. The significance of predicted catalytic residues was tested and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and expression of mutant and wild-type proteins in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on these data we suggest a mechanistic model for the (S)-cyanohydrin synthesis catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. PMID:9094745

  1. THE POWER OF THE SMALL: THE EXAMPLE OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CONIDIA

    PubMed Central

    RESTREPO, Angela; CANO, Luz Elena; GONZALEZ, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensis interactions. PMID:26465363

  2. Mutants of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9 affected in dimorphism.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, F; San-Blas, G

    1992-01-01

    Morphological mutants were isolated after nitrosoguanidine treatment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9. Two of these mutants, Pb257 and Pb258, developed a typical mycelia at 23 degrees C, however, the yeast cells which developed at 37 degrees C were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. A third mutant, strain Pb267, was thermosensitive, grew as yeast-like cells at 23 degrees C, but was unable to survive at 37 degrees C. Morphological observations as well as serological and segregation tests confirmed that the mutant strains originated from P. brasiliensis. Cell wall chemical analyses of the mutant strains grown at 23 degrees C indicated the presence of alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble polysaccharides absent in the parental wild-type strain Pb9 grown under the same conditions. The phenotypes shown by the mutant strains may be related to deficiencies in the proper synthesis of cell wall components of the mycelial phase of this fungus. PMID:1573521

  3. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  4. Disseminated Sporothrix brasiliensis Infection with Endocardial and Ocular Involvement in an HIV-Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Silva, Patricia Ferreira; Abdalla, Michel Reis; Sgarbieri, Ricardo Nilsson; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; dos Santos, Keila Cristina; Barata, Cristina Hueb; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated sporotrichosis occurs in individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as in cases of neoplasia, transplantation, diabetes, and especially, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This report presents a 32-year-old Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who developed a protracted condition of disseminated sporotrichosis with endocarditis, bilateral endophthalmitis, and lymphatic involvement. He needed cardiac surgery to replace the mitral valve. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates were recovered from cultures of subcutaneous nodules and mitral valve fragments. Species identification was based on classical and molecular methods. The patient received amphotericin B for 52 days and subsequently, oral itraconazole. He remains asymptomatic, and he is on maintenance therapy with itraconazole. Despite his positive clinical outcome, he developed bilateral blindness. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of endocarditis and endophthalmitis caused by S. brasiliensis. PMID:22403321

  5. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  6. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results. Images PMID:1612736

  7. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  8. Immunological Basis for the Gender Differences in Murine Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Casabona-Fortunato, Anália Sulamita; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved in the gender distinct incidence of paracoccidioidomycosis (pcm), an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, which is at least 10 times more frequent in men than in women. Then, we compared the immune response of male and female mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection, as well as the influence in the gender differences exerted by paracoccin, a P. brasiliensis component with carbohydrate recognition property. High production of Th1 cytokines and T-bet expression have been detected in the paracoccin stimulated cultures of spleen cells from infected female mice. In contrast, in similar experimental conditions, cells from infected males produced higher levels of the Th2 cytokines and expressed GATA-3. Macrophages from male and female mice when stimulated with paracoccin displayed similar phagocytic capability, while fungicidal activity was two times more efficiently performed by macrophages from female mice, a fact that was associated with 50% higher levels of nitric oxide production. In order to evaluate the role of sexual hormones in the observed gender distinction, we have utilized mice that have been submitted to gonadectomy followed by inverse hormonal reconstitution. Spleen cells derived from castrated males reconstituted with estradiol have produced higher levels of IFN-γ (1291±15 pg/mL) and lower levels of IL-10 (494±38 pg/mL), than normal male in response to paracoccin stimulus. In contrast, spleen cells from castrated female mice that had been treated with testosterone produced more IL-10 (1284±36 pg/mL) and less IFN-γ (587±14 pg/mL) than cells from normal female. In conclusion, our results reveal that the sexual hormones had a profound effect on the biology of immune cells, and estradiol favours protective responses to P. brasiliensis infection. In addition, fungal components, such as paracoccin, may provide additional support to the gender dimorphic immunity that marks P

  9. Morphological studies on the infraciliature of a planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shengfang; Song, Weibo; Xu, Dapeng; Chiang, Kuoping

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  10. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  11. Time course and cellular source of pancreatic regeneration following acute pancreatitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, H.P.A.; Adler, G.; Kern, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the different cell types in the rat exocrine pancreas has been studied in a model of hormone-induced acute pancreatitis in which pancreatic edema, inflammation, and acinar cell destruction were induced within 12 h of infusion of supramaximal concentrations of cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/h). A sequential biochemical and structural analysis of the pancreas in daily intervals was combined with the autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices of five cell populations following /sup 3/H-thymidine injection at days 1-7 after induction of pancreatitis. Desquamation of acinar cell apical cytoplasm and release of cytoplasmic segments into the acinar lumen on the first day following induction of pancreatitis led to formation of duct-like tubular complexes. Enzyme content in the pancreas decreased progressively following the formation of the edema to levels 15-20% of controls and remained reduced during the initial 5 days. Thymidine incorporation into total DNA showed a biphasic pattern with a distinct peak at day 1 and a second broader peak between days 4 and 7. Autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices demonstrated the exclusive incorporation into intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells during the initial 24 h, while the second peak was predominantly due to labeling of acinar cells. Larger interlobular ducts and islets did not show changes in labeling index. In vivo labeling with /sup 3/H-thymidine during the first day and analysis of labeling indices 14 days later showed the persistence of label in intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells and argued against the stem cell hypothesis and against transformation of duct cells into acinar cells.

  12. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  13. Response of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01 to stressor agents and cell wall osmoregulators.

    PubMed

    Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Castro, Nadya da Silva; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2011-01-01

    In its attempt to survive, the fungal cell can change the cell wall composition and/or structure in response to environmental stress. The molecules involved in these compensatory mechanisms are a possible target for the development of effective antifungal agents. In the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01, the main polymers that compose the cell wall are chitin and glucans. These polymers form a primary barrier that is responsible for the structural integrity and formation of the cell wall. In this study the behaviour of P. brasiliensis was evaluated under incubation with cell wall stressor agents such as Calcofluor White (CFW), Congo Red (CR), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), NaCl, KCl, and Sorbitol. Use of concentrations at which the fungus is visually sensitive to those agents helped to explain some of the adaptive mechanisms used by P. brasiliensis in response to cell wall stress. Our results show that 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (PbGFA1) and β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3)as well as 1,3-β-D-glucan and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues in the cell wall are involved in compensatory mechanisms against cell wall damage. PMID:21215956

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  15. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  16. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  17. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  18. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification. PMID:26712719

  19. Lack of Galectin-3 Drives Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis toward a Th2-Biased Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Fermino, Marise Lopes; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Chammas, Roger; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2009-01-01

    There is recent evidence that galectin-3 participates in immunity to infections, mostly by tuning cytokine production. We studied the balance of Th1/Th2 responses to P. brasiliensis experimental infection in the absence of galectin-3. The intermediate resistance to the fungal infection presented by C57BL/6 mice, associated with the development of a mixed type of immunity, was replaced with susceptibility to infection and a Th2-polarized immune response, in galectin-3-deficient (gal3−/−) mice. Such a response was associated with defective inflammatory and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, high IL-4 and GATA-3 expression and low nitric oxide production in the organs of infected animals. Gal3−/− macrophages exhibited higher TLR2 transcript levels and IL-10 production compared to wild-type macrophages after stimulation with P. brasiliensis antigens. We hypothesize that, during an in vivo P. brasiliensis infection, galectin-3 exerts its tuning role on immunity by interfering with the generation of regulatory macrophages, thus hindering the consequent Th2-polarized type of response. PMID:19229338

  20. Participation of dectin-1 receptor on NETs release against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Role on extracellular killing.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; Dias-Melicio, Luciane Alarcão; Fernandes, Reginaldo Keller; de Almeida Balderramas, Helanderson; Rodrigues, Daniela Ramos; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; de Campos Soares, Ângela Maria Victoriano

    2016-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus from the Paracoccidioides genus, which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a chronic, subacute or acute mycosis, with visceral and cutaneous involvement. This disease that is acquired through inhalation primarily attacks the lungs but, can spread to other organs. Phagocytic cells as neutrophils play an important role during innate immune response against this fungus, but studies on antifungal activities of these cells are scarce. In addition to their ability to eliminate pathogens by phagocytosis and antimicrobial secretions, neutrophils can trap and kill microorganisms by release of extracellular structures composed by DNA and antimicrobial proteins, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, we provide evidence that P. brasiliensis virulent strain (P. brasiliensis 18) induces NETs release. These structures were well evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, and specific NETs compounds such as histone, elastase and DNA were shown by confocal microscopy. In addition, we have shown that dectin-1 receptor is the main PRR to which fungus binds to induce NETS release. Fungi were ensnared by NETs, denoting the role of these structures in confining the fungus, avoiding dissemination. NETs were also shown to be involved in fungus killing, since fungicidal activity detected before and mainly after neutrophils activation with TNF-α, IFN-γ and GM-CSF was significantly inhibited by cocultures treatment with DNAse. PMID:26416210

  1. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. PMID:27329621

  2. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  5. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  6. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  7. Hyperamylasaemia: pathognomonic to pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Sam; Poon, Anna Sau Kuk; Masood, Kausar; Didi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, presented with a history of vomiting, abdominal mass and a significantly raised amylase, but no clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans showed an ovarian tumour, and no evidence of pancreatitis—as is often associated with a raised amylase. The patient underwent bilateral ovariectomy and hysterectomy and made a good recovery. PMID:24132440

  8. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... fewer than 10 grams of fat. About 20 potato chips contain 10 grams of fat, so it takes discipline to make sure to stay within this range. Patients who have lost the ability to digest food will be prescribed pills containing pancreatic enzymes to help with digestion. They may also be ...

  9. Laparoscopic pancreatic resection.

    PubMed

    Harrell, K N; Kooby, D A

    2015-10-01

    Though initially slow to gain acceptance, the minimally invasive approach to pancreatic resection grew during the last decade and pancreatic operations such as the distal pancreatectomy and pancreatic enucleation are frequently performed laparoscopically. More complex operations such as the pancreaticoduodenectomy may also confer benefits with a minimally invasive approach but are less widely utilized. Though most research to date comparing open and laparoscopic pancreatectomy is retrospective, the current data suggest that compared with open, a laparoscopic procedure may afford postoperative benefits such as less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and fewer wound complications. Regarding oncologic considerations, despite initial concerns, laparoscopic resection appears to be non-inferior to an open procedure in terms of lymph node retrieval, negative margin rates, and long-term survival. New technologies, such as robotics, are also gaining acceptance. Data show that while the laparoscopic approach incurs higher cost in the operating room, the resulting shorter hospital stay appears to be associated with an equivalent or lower overall cost. The minimally invasive approach to pancreatic resection can be safe and appropriate with significant patient benefits and oncologic non-inferiority based on existing data. PMID:26199025

  10. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yabar, Cinthya S; Winter, Jordan M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes. PMID:27546841