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Sample records for brassica juncea bjcdr15

  1. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  2. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, David M.; Abrahamson, Susan L.; Banuelos, Gary; Ow, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  3. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex.

    PubMed

    Speiser, D M; Abrahamson, S L; Banuelos, G; Ow, D W

    1992-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  4. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics. PMID:26696522

  5. Uptake, Distribution, and Speciation of Chromium in Brassica Juncea

    SciTech Connect

    Bluskov, S.; Arocena, J.M.; Omotoso, O.O.; Young, J.P.

    2008-06-09

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) has been widely used in phytoremediation because of its capacity to accumulate high levels of chromium (Cr) and other metals. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanism(s) involved in Cr binding and sequestration by B. juncea. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in field-moist or air-dried soils, amended with 100 mg kg{sup -1} of Cr (III or VI). The plant concentrated Cr mainly in the roots. B. juncea removed an average of 48 and 58 {micro}g Cr per plant from Cr (III) and Cr (VI)-treated soils, respectively. The uptake of Cr was not affected by the moisture status of the soils. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed only Cr (III) bound predominantly to formate and acetate ligands, in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, respectively. In the plant tissues, Cr (III) was detected, primarily as acetate in the roots and oxalate in the leaves. X-ray microprobe showed the sites of Cr localization, and probably sequestration, in epidermal and cortical cells in the roots and epidermal and spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. juncea to detoxify more toxic Cr (VI), thereby making this plant a potential candidate for phytostabilization.

  6. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    PubMed

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops. PMID:23990700

  7. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  8. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  9. Expression of leaf blight resistance in Brassica leafy greens under field conditions and inheritance of resistance in a Brassica juncea source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica leafy greens are one of the most economically important vegetable commodities grown in the southeastern United States, and more than 28,000 metric tons of these crops are harvested in the U.S. annually. Collards and kale (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.) and turni...

  10. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  11. A preliminary investigation of Giant red mustard (Brassica juncea) as a deterrent of silverleaf whitefly oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different pairs of plants planted in a single pot were tested in the greenhouse for oviposition preference by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]). Treatments consisted of the following in single pots: 2 giant red mustard plants (Brassica juncea ...

  12. Fuel properties of Brassica juncea oil methyl esters blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica juncea is a drought-tolerant member of the Brassicaceae plant family with high oil content and a short growing season that is tolerant of low quality soils. It was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel along with evaluation of subsequent fuel properties, both neat and in b...

  13. A Search for Peppery Leaf Spot Resistance in Brassica Juncea Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southeastern United States leads the country in the production of leafy crucifer greens, including turnip greens (Brassica rapa L.), mustard greens (B. Juncea L.), collard (B. oleracea L.) and kale (B. oleracea). Production of these vegetables is continuous throughout the four seasons in this r...

  14. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci for wild Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Sun, X Q; Yan, Q Q; Guo, J L; Qiang, S; Song, X L; Li, M M

    2013-01-01

    Wild Brassica juncea is a widespread weed in China with increasingly great impact on the yield of many crops. This study aimed to develop microsatellite markers for assessing the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. juncea, and to provide basic information for biological and chemical control of the weed. The compound microsatellite marker technique was used to develop markers for investigating population genetics of wild B. juncea. Twelve loci were obtained, each of which showed high polymorphisms when tested in two populations in Sichuan and Jiangsu Provinces. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 27, with an average of 15.2 alleles per locus. The newly developed microsatellite loci will be informative for further investigations of the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of wild B. juncea. PMID:24301911

  15. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. PMID:27156168

  16. (E)-β-farnesene gene reduces Lipaphis erysimi colonization in transgenic Brassica juncea lines

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shiv Shankar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Jajoo, Anajna

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are the major concern that significantly reduces the yield of crops. (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphids. The results of current research support the direct defense response of (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) against aphid Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach in Brassica juncea. Eβf gene was isolated from Mentha arvensis and transformed into B. juncea, showed direct repellent against aphid colonization. The seasonal mean population (SMP) recorded under field condition showed significantly higher aphid colonization in wild type in comparison to most of the transgenic lines, and shows positive correlation with the repellency of transgenic plant expressing (E)-β-farnesene. The current research investigation provides direct evidence for aphid control in B. juncea using Eβf, a non-toxic mode of action. PMID:26251882

  17. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. PMID:27010411

  18. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  19. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m2) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m2) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses. PMID:21217862

  20. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P

    2009-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m(2)) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m(2)) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses. PMID:21217862

  1. Histone H3 methylation patterns in Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata species.

    PubMed

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Dziurlikowska, Alina; Maluszynska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Core histones are subjected to various post-translational modifications, and one of them, most intensively studied in plants, is the methylation of histone H3. In the majority of analyzed plant species, dimethylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is detected in heterochromatin domains, whereas methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) is detected in euchromatin domains. The distribution of H3K9me2 in the interphase nucleus seems to be correlated with genome size, chromatin organization, but also with tissue specificity. In this paper, we present the analysis of the pattern and level of histone H3 methylation for two allotetraploid and one diploid Brassica species. We have found that the pattern of H3K9me2 in interphase nuclei from root meristematic tissue is comparable within the analyzed species and includes both heterochromatin and euchromatin, but the level of modification differs not only among species but even among nuclei in the same phase of the cell cycle within one species. Moreover, the differences in the level of H3K9me2 are not directly coupled with DNA content in the nuclei and are probably tissue specific. PMID:22195975

  2. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  3. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  4. Ectopic expression of Atleafy in Brassica juncea cv. Geeta for early flowering.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sumit; Ganie, Showkat Hussain; Narula, Alka; Srivastava, Prem Shankar; Singh, Hari Bansh

    2013-07-01

    High temperature stress during pod filling severely affects the yield of Brassica juncea. Early flowering can evade the terminal heat stress and result in early maturity of the crop. In this study, a regeneration and transformation protocol has been standardized for B. juncea cv. Geeta. Hypocotyl from 5-day-old seedlings were used as explants. Of the various combinations of auxins and cytokinins tried along with Murashige and Skoog's (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium, MS + IAA (0.2 mg/l) + BA (3 mg/l) proved best for shoot regeneration with 89.9 % regeneration efficiency. To induce early flowering Leafy gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed using Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. After 12 weeks transgenic plants showed flowering in vitro whereas their untransformed counterpart did not flower even after 16 weeks. The maximum transformation frequency was 4 %. PMID:24431514

  5. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur

    1999-10-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  6. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process. PMID:25765856

  7. Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Prins, Christine N; Hantzis, Laura J; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05-0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions. PMID:21841173

  8. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  9. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  10. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis transgene introgression from Brassica napus to wild mustard B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Stewart, C Neal; Zheng, Min; Guan, Zhengjun; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Transgenic canola (Brassica napus) with a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac gene and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was used in hybridization experiments with wild Brassica juncea. Hybrid F1 and successive five backcross generations were obtained. The pod-set frequency on backcrossed B. juncea plants was over 66%, which suggested relatively high crossing compatibility between the hybrids and wild species. The seed setting in BC1 was the least of all generations tested, and then increased at the BC2 generation for which the thousand-seed weight was the highest of all generations. Seed size in backcrossed generations eventually approached that of the wild parent. The plants in all backcrossed generations were consistent with the expected 1:1 segregation ratio of the transgenes. The Bt Cry1Ac protein concentrations at bolting and flowering stages was higher compared to the 4-5-leaf and pod-formation stages. Nonetheless, the Bt toxin in the fifth backcrossing generation (BC5) was sufficient to kill both polyphagous (Helicoverpa armigera) and oligophagous (Plutella xylostella) Lepidoptera. As a consequence, the subsequent generations harboring the transgene from F1 to BC5 could have selection advantage against insect pests. The result is useful in understanding gene flow from transgenic crops and the followed transgene introgression into wild. PMID:25219305

  11. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of energy than B. napus CM (68.6 vs. 60.3%) likely due to its lower fiber content. Ileal total VFA was lower (P < 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P < 0.001) for acetate and butyrate whereas the propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in feces than in pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P < 0.05) and content of SID Lys was lower (P < 0.05) for B. juncea than B. napus CM. In conclusion, availability of B. juncea CM, a coproduct of a canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation. PMID:23365335

  12. Cloning of dehydrin coding sequences from Brassica juncea and Brassica napus and their low temperature-inducible expression in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kening; Lockhart, Katherine M; Kalanack, Jamey J

    2005-01-01

    A novel subclass of dehydrin genes, homologous to the Raphanus sativus late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) protein (RsLEA2) and the Arabidopsis thaliana dehydrin, was isolated from Brassica juncea and Brassica napus, here designated BjDHN1 and BnDHN1, respectively. The cDNA of BjDHN1 and BnDHN1 genes share 100% nucleotide identity. The encoded protein is predicted to consist of 183 amino acid residues (molecular mass of 19.2 kDa and pI of 7.0). It shares 85.3% and 65.4% amino acid sequence identity with the RsLEA2 and Arabidopsis dehydrin, respectively. This Brassica dehydrin also features a "Y(3)SK(2)" plant dehydrin structure. Expression analysis indicated that the Brassica dehydrin gene is expressed at the late stages of developing siliques, suggesting that the gene expression may be inducible by water-deficit. Analysis of gene expression also indicated that in germinating seeds the gene expression was inducible by low temperature. Seed germination under low temperature was compared between B. juncea and B. napus. The results showed that B. juncea seeds germinated faster than B. napus seeds. Expression of Brassica dehydrin gene was also examined as a function of seed germination under low temperature. PMID:15763669

  13. Strength, Stability, and cis-Motifs of In silico Identified Phloem-Specific Promoters in Brassica juncea (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhatt, Deepa; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jain, Pradeep K.; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Aphids, a hemipteran group of insects pose a serious threat to many of the major crop species including Brassica oilseeds. Transgenic strategies for developing aphid-resistant plant types necessitate phloem-bound expression of the insecticidal genes. A few known phloem-specific promoters, in spite of tissue-specific activity fail to confer high level gene-expression. Here, we identified seven orthologues of phloem-specific promoters in B. juncea (Indian mustard), and experimentally validated their strength of expression in phloem exudates. Significant cis-motifs, globally occurring in phloem-specific promoters showed variable distribution frequencies in these putative phloem-specific promoters of B. juncea. In RT-qPCR based gene-expression study promoter of Glutamine synthetase 3A (GS3A) showed multifold higher activity compared to others, across the different growth stages of B. juncea plants. A statistical method employing four softwares was devised for rapidly analysing stability of the promoter-activities across the plant developmental stages. Different statistical softwares ranked these B. juncea promoters differently in terms of their stability in promoter-activity. Nevertheless, the consensus in output empirically suggested consistency in promoter-activity of the six B. juncea phloem- specific promoters including GS3A. The study identified suitable endogenous promoters for high level and consistent gene-expression in B. juncea phloem exudate. The study also demonstrated a rapid method of assessing species-specific strength and stability in expression of the endogenous promoters. PMID:27148290

  14. Strength, Stability, and cis-Motifs of In silico Identified Phloem-Specific Promoters in Brassica juncea (L.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Bhatt, Deepa; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jain, Pradeep K; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Aphids, a hemipteran group of insects pose a serious threat to many of the major crop species including Brassica oilseeds. Transgenic strategies for developing aphid-resistant plant types necessitate phloem-bound expression of the insecticidal genes. A few known phloem-specific promoters, in spite of tissue-specific activity fail to confer high level gene-expression. Here, we identified seven orthologues of phloem-specific promoters in B. juncea (Indian mustard), and experimentally validated their strength of expression in phloem exudates. Significant cis-motifs, globally occurring in phloem-specific promoters showed variable distribution frequencies in these putative phloem-specific promoters of B. juncea. In RT-qPCR based gene-expression study promoter of Glutamine synthetase 3A (GS3A) showed multifold higher activity compared to others, across the different growth stages of B. juncea plants. A statistical method employing four softwares was devised for rapidly analysing stability of the promoter-activities across the plant developmental stages. Different statistical softwares ranked these B. juncea promoters differently in terms of their stability in promoter-activity. Nevertheless, the consensus in output empirically suggested consistency in promoter-activity of the six B. juncea phloem- specific promoters including GS3A. The study identified suitable endogenous promoters for high level and consistent gene-expression in B. juncea phloem exudate. The study also demonstrated a rapid method of assessing species-specific strength and stability in expression of the endogenous promoters. PMID:27148290

  15. A pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei Min; Chen, Xiao Ya; Xu, Zhi Hong; Xue, Hong Wei

    2002-09-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues from Brassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3 encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities with each other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2 and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 was expressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls. Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' technique using primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven by Bjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein, epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with different expression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family. PMID:12296384

  16. Germination and early growth of Brassica juncea in copper mine tailings amended with technosol and compost.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  17. Changes in the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system in Brassica juncea cotyledons during seedling development.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S K; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2002-02-01

    Optimal defense theory (ODT) predicts that plant defenses will be allocated to plant organs and tissues in proportion to their relative fitness values and susceptibilities to attack. This study was designed to test ODT predictions on the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system in Brassica juncea by examining the relationships between the fitness value of B. juncea cotyledons and the levels and effectiveness of cotyledon defenses. Specifically, we estimated fitness value of cotyledons during plant development by measuring plant growth and seed production after cotyledon damage or removal at successive seedling ages. Cotyledon removal within five days of emergence had a significant impact on growth and seed production, but cotyledon removal at later stages did not. Consistent with ODT, glucosinolate and myrosinase levels in cotyledons also declined with seedling age, as did relative defenses against a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera eridania, as estimated by bioassay. Declines in glucosinolates were as predicted by a passive, allometric dilution model based on cotyledon expansion. Declines in myrosinase activity were significantly more gradual than predicted by allometric dilution, suggesting active retention of myrosinase activity as young cotyledons expand. PMID:11925065

  18. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  19. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for the improvement of lead accumulation by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y X; Zhu, X L; Fan, D D; Ma, P; Liang, L H

    2013-01-01

    Two phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus YC-5a and Enterobacter agglomerans KMC-7 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A. calcoaceticus YC-5a is less well known as a phosphate-solubilizing plant-associated bacterium. The plant growth-promoting properties of the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were characterized in vitro, including their phosphate-solubilizing activities and their capabilities for producing indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating both strains on the growth and Pb uptake of Brassica juncea grown in different concentrations of Pb-contaminated soils. Inoculation with both PSB not only stimulated the growth of B. juncea, but it also influenced the accumulation of Pb in the shoots and roots of the host plant. The present study demonstrates that PSB are a valuable microbial resource that can be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23530360

  20. Recovering a copper mine soil using organic amendments and phytomanagement with Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vila, Alfonso; Covelo, Emma F; Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    A 3-month greenhouse experiment was carried out for evaluating the effect of an amendment mixture and mustards on the chemical characteristics of a mine soil and the metal uptake by plants. A settling pond soil was amended with increasing percentages of a technosol and biochar mixture and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Adding amendments and planting mustards increased the soil pH from 2.83 to 6.18 and the TSC from u.l to 131 g kg(-1) and generally reduced the CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations in the soil. However, the amendments increased the pseudo-total soil concentration of Ni from 9.27 to 31.9 mg kg(-1), Pb from 27.9 to 91.6 mg kg(-1) and Zn from 46.5 to 577 mg kg(-1). The technosol and biochar mixture increased the shoot biomass from 0.74 to 2.95 g and generally reduced the metal concentrations in plants, meaning B. juncea as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of mine soils. PMID:25262389

  1. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present. PMID:25487040

  2. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation. PMID:26081276

  3. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels. PMID:26745003

  4. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  5. The role of phytochelatins and antioxidants in tolerance to Cd accumulation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar Chaturvedi, Pranav; Misra, Virendra

    2008-09-01

    A hydroponics experiment using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations (10-160 microM) of cadmium (Cd) and a fixed concentration (500 microM) of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on Cd accumulation and its toxicity for 14 and 28 days (d). The results showed that Cd alone and Cd+EDTA increased total dry biomass production, photosynthetic pigments and total protein content of B. juncea up to 160 microM with respect to control for 14d (hormesis effect). Further, on treatment with Cd at 160 microM for 28d, dry biomass of root and shoot, total protein content and total chlorophyll decreased up to 73%, 58%, 67% and 53% respectively, while in the case of Cd+EDTA, the decrease in the above parameters was 38%, 50%, 57% and 46% with respect to their control. It was observed that the maximum Cd accumulation after 28d in the root and shoot was 1925 and 977 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, while in the case of Cd+EDTA it was 1013 and 2316 mg kg(-1)dw, respectively. Levels of phytochelatins (PCs), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and glutathione (GSH) were monitored as plants primary and secondary metal detoxifying responses. Glutathione reductase showed three-fold increased activity for Cd and 2.2-fold for Cd+EDTA at 160 microM after 14d followed by decreased activity after 28d with respect to control. Maximum synthesis of PCs was found at 10 microM of Cd exposure followed by a gradual decline after 28d. This may be correlated with reduced level of GSH, probably due to reduced GR activity, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress as also proved by phenotypic changes in plants such as browning of roots and yellowing of leaves. Thus, the capacity of B. juncea to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd, through enhanced level of PCs, GSH, NP-SH and GR suggests its applicability for phytoremediation. PMID:18082263

  6. Abiotic Stresses Downregulate Key Genes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Parul; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and extreme temperatures affect nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of N pathway genes at transcriptional level under abiotic stress conditions in Brassica juncea. In the present work, genes encoding nitrate transporters (NRT), ammonium transporters (AMT), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), asparagines synthetase (ASN) were cloned from Brassica juncea L. var. Varuna. The deduced protein sequences were analyzed to predict their subcellular localization, which confirmed localization of all the proteins in their respective cellular organelles. The protein sequences were also subjected to conserved domain identification, which confirmed presence of characteristic domains in all the proteins, indicating their putative functions. Moreover, expression of these genes was studied after 1h and 24h of salt (150 mM NaCl), osmotic (250 mM Mannitol), cold (4°C) and heat (42°C) stresses. Most of the genes encoding nitrate transporters and enzymes responsible for N assimilation and remobilization were found to be downregulated under abiotic stresses. The expression of BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2, BjGS1.1, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 1hr, while expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT2.1, BjNiR1, BjAMT2, BjGDH1 and BjASN2 was downregulated after 24h of all the stress treatments. However, expression of BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.5 and BjGDH2 was upregulated after 1h of all stress treatments, while no gene was found to be upregulated after 24h of stress treatments, commonly. These observations indicate that expression of most of the genes is adversely affected under abiotic stress conditions, particularly under prolonged stress exposure (24h), which may be one of the reasons of reduction in plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. PMID:26605918

  7. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Stress Transcriptome in a Salinity-Tolerant Variety CS52 of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Mishra, Manjari; Gupta, Brijesh; Parsania, Chirag; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed mustard, Brassica juncea, exhibits high levels of genetic variability for salinity tolerance. To obtain the global view of transcriptome and investigate the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in a salt-tolerant variety CS52 of B. juncea, we performed transcriptome sequencing of control and salt-stressed seedlings. De novo assembly of 184 million high-quality paired-end reads yielded 42,327 unique transcripts longer than 300 bp with RPKM ≥1. When compared with non-redundant proteins, we could annotate 67% unigenes obtained in our study. Based on the mapping to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 52.6% unigenes are novel compared to EST data available for B. juncea and constituent genomes. Differential expression analysis revealed altered expression of 1469 unigenes in response to salinity stress. Of these, 587, mainly associated with ROS detoxification, sulfur assimilation and calcium signaling pathways, are up regulated. Notable of these is RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1) INTERACTING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RITF1) homolog up regulated by >100 folds in response to stress. RITF1, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is a positive regulator of SOS1 and several key genes involved in scavenging of salt stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, we performed comparative expression profiling of key genes implicated in ion homeostasis and sequestration (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1, NHX1), calcium sensing pathway (RITF1) and ROS detoxification in contrasting cultivars for salinity tolerance, B. juncea and B. nigra. The results revealed higher transcript accumulation of most of these genes in B. juncea var. CS52 compared to salt-sensitive cultivar even under normal growth conditions. Together, these findings reveal key pathways and signaling components that contribute to salinity tolerance in B. juncea var. CS52. PMID:25970274

  8. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Stress Transcriptome in a Salinity-Tolerant Variety CS52 of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rita; Mishra, Manjari; Gupta, Brijesh; Parsania, Chirag; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed mustard, Brassica juncea, exhibits high levels of genetic variability for salinity tolerance. To obtain the global view of transcriptome and investigate the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in a salt-tolerant variety CS52 of B. juncea, we performed transcriptome sequencing of control and salt-stressed seedlings. De novo assembly of 184 million high-quality paired-end reads yielded 42,327 unique transcripts longer than 300 bp with RPKM ≥1. When compared with non-redundant proteins, we could annotate 67% unigenes obtained in our study. Based on the mapping to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 52.6% unigenes are novel compared to EST data available for B. juncea and constituent genomes. Differential expression analysis revealed altered expression of 1469 unigenes in response to salinity stress. Of these, 587, mainly associated with ROS detoxification, sulfur assimilation and calcium signaling pathways, are up regulated. Notable of these is RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1) INTERACTING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RITF1) homolog up regulated by >100 folds in response to stress. RITF1, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is a positive regulator of SOS1 and several key genes involved in scavenging of salt stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, we performed comparative expression profiling of key genes implicated in ion homeostasis and sequestration (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1, NHX1), calcium sensing pathway (RITF1) and ROS detoxification in contrasting cultivars for salinity tolerance, B. juncea and B. nigra. The results revealed higher transcript accumulation of most of these genes in B. juncea var. CS52 compared to salt-sensitive cultivar even under normal growth conditions. Together, these findings reveal key pathways and signaling components that contribute to salinity tolerance in B. juncea var. CS52. PMID:25970274

  9. Interaction of epibrassinolide and selenium ameliorates the excess copper in Brassica juncea through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2016-07-01

    24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Selenium (Se) individually confer tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but their interactive effect in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly investigated. This study provides an insight into the effects of EBL (foliar) and/or Se (through sand) on Brassica juncea plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu. The combined effect of EBL and Se on compartmentalization of Cu, oxidative stress markers, photosynthetic machinery and biochemical traits in B. juncea were analyzed. Application of EBL and Se through different mode modulated the compartmentalization of Cu in different parts of plants, enhanced the photosynthetic traits, and activities of various antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation in B. juncea under excess copper levels. These enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline (osmolyte) accumulation triggered by combination of EBL and Se could have conferred tolerance to the B. juncea plants under toxic level of copper and also maintained Cu homeostasis in various parts of plants. This study indicates that combination of EBL and Se through different mode is an operative approach for Cu detoxification in plants and could be exploited for removal of excess copper from polluted soil. PMID:26974871

  10. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot. PMID:26854554

  11. Effect of salicylic acid on salinity-induced changes in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Hasan, Syed Aiman; Ali, Barket; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2008-09-01

    Seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss.) were exposed to 0, 50, 100 and 150 mmol/L NaCl for 8 h and seeds were sown in an earthen pot. These stressed seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 10 micromol/L salicylic acid (SA) at 30 d and were sampled at 60 d to assess the changes in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes. The seedlings raised from the seeds treated with NaCl had significantly reduced growth and the activities of carbonic anhydrase, nitrate reductase and photosynthesis, and the decrease was proportional to the increase in NaCl concentration. However, the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and proline content was enhanced in response to NaCl and/or SA treatment, where their interaction had an additive effect. Moreover, the toxic effects generated by the lower concentration of NaCl (50 mmol/L) were completely overcome by the application of SA. It was, therefore, concluded that SA ameliorated the stress generated by NaCl through the alleviated antioxidant system. PMID:18844778

  12. 24-Epibrassinolide protects against the stress generated by salinity and nickel in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Hayat, S; Fariduddin, Q; Ahmad, A

    2008-07-01

    The plants of Brassica juncea (L) were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or NiCl2 and were sprayed with 1muM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at 15 days after sowing (DAS) and were sampled at 30 DAS. The plants exposed to NaCl and/or NiCl2 exhibited a significant decline in growth, the level of pigments and photosynthetic parameters. However, the follow up treatment with EBL detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or NiCl2 and significantly improved the above parameters. The NaCl and/or NiCl2 increased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content. However, the EBL treatment in absence of the stress improved the MSI and relative water content but could not influence electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The antioxidative enzymes and the level of proline exhibited a significant increase in response to EBL as well as to NaCl and/or NiCl2 stress. PMID:18499221

  13. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  14. Is foliar spray of proline sufficient for mitigation of salt stress in Brassica juncea cultivars?

    PubMed

    Wani, A S; Ahmad, A; Hayat, S; Tahir, I

    2016-07-01

    The effects of foliar application of proline (20 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical, and yield parameters were assessed in two Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss cultivars, namely, Varuna and RH-30, at different levels (2.8, 4.2, or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of NaCl in soil. At 29 days after sowing (DAS), plants were sprayed with either 20 mM proline or water in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. The NaCl negatively affected parameters related to growth, photosynthesis, and yield in both varieties but more in RH-30 than in Varuna. Exogenous application of proline counteracted the effects of salt stress in Varuna only, by increasing the antioxidative capacity of the plants. Moreover, proline was not effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of higher salt concentrations on the studied parameters. Proline application to unstressed plants increased growth, photosynthesis, and yield parameters in both varieties; however, the effects were more prominent in Varuna than in RH-30. PMID:27026543

  15. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM) of cadmium (Cd) to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid), gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase), antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content), and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals. PMID:25133178

  16. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2013-04-01

    The present study was carried out to examine salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in two cultivars of Brassica juncea Czern and Coss varieties (Varuna and RH-30). The surface sterilized seeds of these varieties were sown in the soil amended with different levels (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of sodium chloride under a simple randomized block design. The salt treatment significantly decreased growth, net photosynthetic rate and its related attributes, chlorophyll fluorescence, SPAD value of chlorophyll, leaf carbonic anhydrase activity and leaf water potential, whereas electrolyte leakage, proline content, and activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes increased in both the varieties at 30 d stage of growth. The variety Varuna was found more resistant than RH-30 to the salt stress and possessed higher values for growth, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Out of the graded concentrations (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm(-1)) of sodium chloride, 2.8 sm(-1) was least toxic and 5.6 dsm(-1) was most harmful. The variation in the responses of these two varieties to salt stress is attributed to their differential photosynthetic traits, SPAD chlorophyll value and antioxidant capacity, which can be used as potential markers for screening mustard plants for salt tolerance. PMID:23961235

  17. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants. PMID:25475618

  18. Lithium, Vanadium and Chromium Uptake Ability of Brassica juncea from Lithium Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Elektorowicz, M; Keropian, Z

    2015-01-01

    The potential for phytoremediation and phytostabilization of lithium in lieu with vanadium and chromium on a formulated acidic heterogeneous growth media engineered around lithium mine tailings, was investigated in four phases: (1) overall efficiency of the removal of the three metals, (2) bioaccumulation ratios of the three metals, (3) overall relative growth rate, and (4) translocation index of the three metals in the physiology of the hyperaccumulator plant. A pot study was conducted to assess the suitability of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) in a phytoremediation process whereby it was lingered for eighty-six days under homogeneous growth conditions and irrigated bidaily with organic fertilizer amended with LiCl. A post harvest data analysis was achieved through ashing and the implementation of cold digestion procedure in a concentrated hydrochloric acidic matrix. In physiological efficiency parameters, the hyperaccumulator plant was twice as able to phytostabilize chromium and four times was able to phytostabilize vanadium in comparison to lithium. Moreover, it was extremely efficient in translocating and accumulating lithium inside its upper physiological sites, more so than chromium and vanadium, thereby demonstrating Indian mustard, as a hyperaccumulator plant, for phytoextraction and phytostabilization in an acidic heterogeneous rhizosphere, with an extremely low relative growth rate. PMID:25747238

  19. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  20. Physiological and biochemical changes in Brassica juncea plants under Cd-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Dhriti; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM) of cadmium (Cd) to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid), gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate), antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase), antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content), and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals. PMID:25133178

  1. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil. PMID:26208541

  2. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  3. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  4. GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Vinod; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a commonly used pesticide against aphids and accumulates in plant parts, maximum in leaves. Present study was conducted to check the efficiency of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) for reduction of this pesticide in the leaves of Brassica juncea L. plants raised from 24-EBL pre-soaked seeds and grown in soils supplemented with IMI. Leaves were analyzed for IMI residues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content were determined by spectrophotometry. Soil containing 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil resulted in 88.66 μg/g fresh weight (FW) of IMI residue in the leaves, which was maximum decrease to 35.31 μg/g FW (60.17 %), when seeds were pre-soaked in 100 nM 24-EBL. In this treatment (350 mg IMI/kilogram soil + 100 nM 24-EBL), GSH content, GR, POD, and GST activities were increased by 42.30, 34.5, 20.5, and 13.4 %, respectively, as compared to plants grown in soils amended with 350 mg IMI/kilogram soil. PMID:27068909

  5. Salt stress-induced modulations in the shoot proteome of Brassica juncea genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Altaf; Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] is cultivated mainly in the northwestern agroclimatic region of India and suffers huge losses in productivity due to salinization. In an effort to figure out adaptation strategies of Indian mustard to salt stress, we conducted a comparative proteome analysis of shoots of its two genotypes, with contrasting sensitivity to salt stress. Differential expression of 21 proteins was observed during the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The identified salt-stress-responsive proteins were associated with different functional processes including osmoregulation, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, ion homeostasis, protein synthesis and stabilization, energy metabolism, and antioxidant defense system. Salt-tolerant genotype (CS-52) showed a relatively higher expression of proteins involved in turgor regulation, stabilization of photosystems and proteins, and salt compartmentalization, as compared to salt-sensitive genotype (Pusa Varuna). Our results suggest that modulating the expression of salt-responsive proteins can pave the way for developing salt tolerance in the Indian mustard plants. PMID:26416121

  6. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  7. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in two cultivars of Brassica juncea Czern and Coss varieties (Varuna and RH-30). The surface sterilized seeds of these varieties were sown in the soil amended with different levels (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride under a simple randomized block design. The salt treatment significantly decreased growth, net photosynthetic rate and its related attributes, chlorophyll fluorescence, SPAD value of chlorophyll, leaf carbonic anhydrase activity and leaf water potential, whereas electrolyte leakage, proline content, and activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes increased in both the varieties at 30 d stage of growth. The variety Varuna was found more resistant than RH-30 to the salt stress and possessed higher values for growth, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Out of the graded concentrations (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride, 2.8 sm−1 was least toxic and 5.6 dsm−1 was most harmful. The variation in the responses of these two varieties to salt stress is attributed to their differential photosynthetic traits, SPAD chlorophyll value and antioxidant capacity, which can be used as potential markers for screening mustard plants for salt tolerance. PMID:23961235

  8. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  9. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g−1 DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops. PMID:26657321

  10. Biofortification of oilseed Brassica juncea with the anti-cancer compound glucoraphanin by suppressing GSL-ALK gene family.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acids derived secondary metabolites, invariably present in Brassicales, which have huge health and agricultural benefits. Sulphoraphane, the breakdown product of glucosinolate glucoraphanin is known to posses anti-cancer properties. AOP (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) or GSL-ALK enzyme catalyzes the conversion of desirable glucoraphanin to deleterious gluconapin and progoitrin, which are present in very high amounts in most of the cultivable Brassica species including Brassica juncea. In this study we showed that B. juncea encodes four functional homologs of GSL-ALK gene and constitutive silencing of GSL-ALK homologs resulted in accumulation of glucoraphanin up to 43.11 μmoles g(-1) DW in the seeds with a concomitant reduction in the anti-nutritional glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin content was found remarkably high in leaves as well as sprouts of the transgenic lines. Transcript quantification of high glucoraphanin lines confirmed significant down-regulation of GSL-ALK homologs. Growth and other seed quality parameters of the transgenic lines did not show drastic difference, compared to the untransformed control. High glucoraphanin lines also showed higher resistance towards stem rot pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Our results suggest that metabolic engineering of GSL-ALK has huge potential for enriching glucoraphanin content, and improve the oil quality and vegetable value of Brassica crops. PMID:26657321

  11. Elicitation of jasmonate-mediated host defense in Brassica juncea (L.) attenuates population growth of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Kaur, Amandeep; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2014-07-01

    The productivity of Brassica oilseeds is severely affected by its major pest: aphids. Unavailability of resistance source within the crossable germplasms has stalled the breeding efforts to derive aphid resistant cultivars. In this study, jasmonate-mediated host defense in Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was evaluated and compared with regard to its elicitation in response to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and the defense elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJ). Identification of jasmonate-induced unigenes in B. juncea revealed that most are orthologous to aphid-responsive genes, identified in taxonomically diverse plant-aphid interactions. The unigenes largely represented genes related to signal transduction, response to biotic and abiotic stimuli and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in addition to genes related to cellular and metabolic processes involved in cell organization, biogenesis, and development. Gene expression studies revealed induction of the key jasmonate biosynthetic genes (LOX, AOC, 12-OPDR), redox genes (CAT3 and GST6), and other downstream defense genes (PAL, ELI3, MYR, and TPI) by several folds, both in response to MeJ and plant-wounding. However, interestingly aphid infestation even after 24 h did not elicit any activation of these genes. In contrast, when the jasmonate-mediated host defense was elicited by exogenous application of MeJ the treated B. juncea plants showed a strong antibiosis effect on the infesting aphids and reduced the growth of aphid populations. The level of redox enzymes CAT, APX, and SOD, involved in ROS homeostasis in defense signaling, and several defense enzymes viz. POD, PPO, and PAL, remained high in treated plants. We conclude that in B. juncea, the jasmonate activated endogenous-defense, which is not effectively activated in response to mustard aphids, has the potential to reduce population growth of mustard aphids. PMID:24771023

  12. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  13. Identification of genes up-regulated in response to Cd exposure in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Minglin, Lang; Yuxiu, Zhang; Tuanyao, Chai

    2005-12-19

    In this paper, the fluorescent mRNA differential display (DD) technique was applied to analyze transcriptional regulation in response to Cd treatment in a heavy-metal accumulator, Brassica juncea. 154 DD bands were identified, of which fragments corresponding to 15 and 13 cDNAs were successfully cloned from leaves and roots, respectively. Many of the genes were confirmed to have a 2-5 fold increase in expression in both roots and leaves after 48 h Cd exposure (approximately 22.4 ppm). However, several isolated genes, e.g., DD2, DD21, DD22, showed a reversed mRNA expression pattern. Sequencing revealed those Cd-induced up-regulated genes displayed mRNAs corresponding to 19 different genes, 18 of which had a clear identity to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences and a putative function was assigned to 15 of them, including the auxin-responsive GH3, ARF-like small GTPases/ARFs, ARD/ARD', APS reductase, Nop, catalase, zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger), diacylglycerol kinase, and haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase families. Three cDNAs corresponded to predicted membrane proteins (KOG3491) or a ribosome-associated membrane protein RAMP4. One other clone, DD26, did not show significant identities to any translated sequence in the GenBank database, suggesting it may either encode unidentified proteins, or correspond to un-translated, non-conserved regions of mRNA molecules. These Cd-responsive up-regulated genes are mostly also regulated by abiotic or biotic stresses, e.g., dehydration, chilling, high salt, auxin, heat and infection, in other plants. The present study leads to an increased understanding of genes and/or the biochemical pathways involved in heavy-metal resistance and accumulation in plants. PMID:16226851

  14. Effect of chelating agents and solubility of cadmium complexes on uptake from soil by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, Debra L; Sharpe-Pedler, Rachel C; Moorhead, Kevin K

    2007-06-01

    Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, was grown in soil artificially contaminated with either a soluble salt, CdCl(2), at 186mg Cdkg(-1), or alternately an insoluble, basic salt, CdCO(3), at 90mg Cdkg(-1). These experiments study the range of Cd uptake by Indian mustard from conditions of very high Cd concentration in a soluble form to the other extreme with an insoluble Cd salt. After plants were established, four different chelating agents were applied. Chelating agents increased plant uptake of Cd from the CdCl(2) soil but did not significantly increase plant uptake of Cd from the CdCO(3) contaminated soil. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the plant concentration of Cd by almost 10-fold in soils contaminated with CdCl(2), with a concentration of 1283mg Cdkg(-1) in the dried EDTA-treated plants over a concentration of 131mg Cdkg(-1) in plants without added chelate. However, EDTA increased the aqueous solubility of Cd by 36 times over the soil matrix without added chelator, and thereby, increased the possibility of leaching. Other chelators used in both experiments were ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) increasing Cd in plants to 1240, 962, and 437mg Cdkg(-1), respectively. The other chelating agents increased the solubility of Cd in the leachate but not to the extent of EDTA. Comparing all chelating agents studied, DTPA increased plant uptake in terms of Cd in dried plant concentration most relative to the solubility of complexed Cd in runoff water. PMID:17320931

  15. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in the species Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Martina; Schiavon, Michela; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Malagoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As) is recognized as a toxic pollutant in soils of many countries. Since phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) can influence arsenic mobility and bioavailability, as well as the plant tolerance to As, phytoremediation techniques employed to clean-up As-contaminated areas should consider the interaction between As and these two nutrients. In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of arsenate in the species Brassica juncea were compared between soil system and hydroponics in relation to P and S concentration of the growth substrate. In one case, plants were grown in pots filled with soil containing 878 mg As kg(-1). The addition of P to soil resulted in increased As desorption and significantly higher As accumulation in plants, with no effect on growth. The absence of toxic effects on plants was likely due to high S in soil, which could efficiently mitigate metal toxicity. In the hydroponic experiment, plants were grown with different combinations of As (0 or 100 μM) and P (56 or 112 μM). S at 400 μM was also added to the nutrient solution of control (-As) and As-treated plants, either individually or in combination with P. The addition of P reduced As uptake by plants, while high S resulted in higher As accumulation and lower P content. These results suggest that S can influence the interaction between P and As for the uptake by plants. The combined increase of P and S in the nutrient solution did not lead to higher accumulation of As, but enhanced As translocation from the root to the shoot. This aspect is of relevance for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. PMID:24677062

  16. Comparative Ni tolerance and accumulation potentials between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (halophyte) and Brassica juncea: Metal accumulation, nutrient status and photosynthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Amari, Taoufik; Ghnaya, Tahar; Debez, Ahmed; Taamali, Manel; Ben Youssef, Nabil; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly

    2014-11-01

    Saline soils often constitute sites of accumulation of industrial and urban wastes contaminated by heavy metals. Halophytes, i.e. native salt-tolerant species, could be more suitable for heavy metal phytoextraction from saline areas than glycophytes, most frequently used so far. In the framework of this approach, we assess here the Ni phytoextraction potential in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum compared with the model species Brassica juncea. Plants were hydroponically maintained for 21 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100μM NiCl2. Nickel addition significantly restricted the growth activity of both species, and to a higher extent in M. crystallinum, which did not, however, show Ni-related toxicity symptoms on leaves. Interestingly, photosynthesis activity, chlorophyll content and photosystem II integrity assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence were less impacted in Ni-treated M. crystallinum as compared to B. juncea. The plant mineral nutrition was differently affected by NiCl2 exposure depending on the element, the species investigated and even the organ. In both species, roots were the preferential sites of Ni(2+) accumulation, but the fraction translocated to shoots was higher in B. juncea than in M. crystallinum. The relatively good tolerance of M. crystallinum to Ni suggests that this halophyte species could be used in the phytoextraction of moderately polluted saline soils. PMID:25171515

  17. Comprehensive analysis of the Brassica juncea root proteome in response to cadmium exposure by complementary proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sophie; Berla, Bertram M; Sheffield, Jeanne; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Jez, Joseph M; Hicks, Leslie M

    2009-05-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is known to both accumulate and tolerate high levels of heavy metals from polluted soils. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the effect of cadmium (Cd) treatment on B. juncea roots, two quantitative proteomics approaches--fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and multiplexed isobaric tagging technology (iTRAQ)--were implemented. Several proteins involved in sulfur assimilation, redox homeostasis, and xenobiotic detoxification were found to be up-regulated. Multiple proteins involved in protein synthesis and processing were down-regulated. While the two proteomics approaches identified different sets of proteins, the proteins identified in both datasets are involved in similar biological processes. We show that 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ results are complementary, that the data obtained independently using the two techniques validate one another, and that the quality of iTRAQ results depends on both the number of biological replicates and the number of sample injections. This study determined the involvement of enzymes such as peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase and 2-nitropropane dioxygenase in alternatives redox-regulation mechanisms, as well as O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione-conjugate membrane transporter, as essential players in the Cd hyperaccumation and tolerance of B. juncea. PMID:19343712

  18. Effects of chelators on chromium and nickel uptake by Brassica juncea on serpentine-mine tailings for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Kai-Hsun; Kao, Po-Hsu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

    2007-09-01

    This study compares the effect of synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) with natural low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) oxalic acid and citric acid as chelators for enhancing phytoextraction of Cr and Ni by Brassica juncea on serpentine-mine tailings. Chelator treatments were applied at doses of 0.05 and 0.10 mmolkg(-1) dry soils after seedlings were grown in pots for 56 days. Experimental results indicate that EDTA and DTPA were the most efficient chelators of increasing the levels of Cr and Ni in the soil solutions over time. Additionally, the reduction of plant shoot biomass caused by the two synthetic chelators exceeds that caused by the LMWOAs. The total uptake (mass removal from soil) of metals by plants was enhanced via the chelators. Experimental results supported the use of B. juncea for Cr and Ni phytoremediation: B. juncea improved the removal of Cr and Ni from serpentine-mine tailings. However, low plant biomass did not assist phytoextraction by using EDTA and DTPA, both of which carry environmental risk. Therefore, adding LMWOAs during phytoremediation can provide an environmentally compatible alternative, which may decrease the use of synthetic chelators. PMID:17391842

  19. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: impact on the glucosinolate composition

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Koprivova, Anna; De Kok, Luit J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic, aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold higher in B. juncea than in B. rapa, which could solely be attributed to the presence of high levels of sinigrin, which was absent in the latter species. Sulfate deprivation resulted in a strong decrease in the content and an altered composition of the glucosinolates of both species. Despite the differences in patterns in foliarly uptake and metabolism, their exposure hardly affected the glucosinolate composition of the shoot, both at sulfate-sufficient and sulfate-deprived conditions. This indicated that the glucosinolate composition in the shoot was hardly affected by differences in sulfur source (viz., sulfate, sulfite and sulfide). Upon sulfate deprivation, where foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 were the sole sulfur source for growth, the glucosinolate composition of roots differed from sulfate-sufficient B. juncea and B. rapa, notably the fraction of the indolic glucosinolates was lower than that observed in sulfur-sufficient roots. PMID:26579170

  20. Brassica juncea seed meal particle size influences chemistry but not soil biology-based suppression of individual agents inciting apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease is incited by a pathogen complex composed of multiple fungal, oomycete and nematode species. Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 is a significant component of this complex and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to Brassica juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. These mechanisms i...

  1. Influence of light on the free amino acid content and γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis in Brassica juncea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2013-09-11

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) is an important enzyme in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis. Here we report the influence of light on amino acid accumulation and investigate the molecular mechanism by which light influences GABA biosynthesis at the seedling stage of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars (green-leaf and purple-leaf). Gene expression profiles of four GAD-encoding genes (GAD1, GAD2, GAD4a, and GAD4b) and their impact on GABA biosynthesis were analyzed. Light exerted an obvious influence on amino acid accumulation in mustard seedlings. GAD gene expression was also significantly regulated by light/dark or dark treatment, which differentially regulated GABA biosynthesis in B. juncea seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the seeds of purple cultivars contain a higher amount of free amino acids and GABA than do the seeds of green cultivars. After seed germination, however, the accumulation of free amino acids peaked in dark-treated seedlings on day 9 in both cultivars, whereas GABA synthesis peaked at 9 days under light conditions. This study may provide a foundation for understanding the effect of light on amino acids, particularly GABA biosynthesis in Brassica plants. PMID:23909820

  2. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection. PMID:25022686

  3. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 transcription factor gene directs development of low glucosinolate lines in oilseed Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-09-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), a globally important oilseed crop, contains relatively high amount of seed glucosinolates ranging from 80 to 120 μmol/g dry weight (DW). One of the major breeding objectives in oilseed Brassicas is to improve the seed-meal quality through the development of low-seed-glucosinolate lines (<30 μmol/g DW), as high amounts of certain seed glucosinolates are known to be anti-nutritional and reduce the meal palatability. Here, we report the development of transgenic B. juncea lines having seed glucosinolates as low as 11.26 μmol/g DW, through RNAi-based targeted suppression of BjMYB28, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor family gene involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 homologs provided significant reduction in the anti-nutritional aliphatic glucosinolates fractions, without altering the desirable nonaliphatic glucosinolate pool, both in leaves and seeds of transgenic plants. Molecular characterization of single-copy, low glucosinolate homozygous lines confirmed significant down-regulation of BjMYB28 homologs vis-à-vis enhanced accumulation of BjMYB28-specific siRNA pool. Consequently, these low glucosinolate lines also showed significant suppression of genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. The low glucosinolate trait was stable in subsequent generations of the transgenic lines with no visible off-target effects on plant growth and development. Various seed quality parameters including fatty acid composition, oil content, protein content and seed weight of the low glucosinolate lines also remained unaltered, when tested under containment conditions in the field. Our results indicate that targeted silencing of a key glucosinolate transcriptional regulator MYB28 has huge potential for reducing the glucosinolates content and improving the seed-meal quality of oilseed Brassica crops. PMID:23721233

  4. Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase: localization of mRNA and protein.

    PubMed

    Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2005-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGS; EC 2.3.3.10) synthesizes HMG-CoA, a substrate for mevalonate biosynthesis in the isoprenoid pathway. It catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA (AcAc-CoA) to yield S-HMG-CoA and HS-CoA. In Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), HMGS is encoded by four isogenes (BjHMGS1-BjHMGS4). We have already enzymatically characterized recombinant BjHMGS1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and have identified its residues that are significant in catalysis. To further study HMGS mRNA expression that is developmentally regulated in flowers and seedlings, we have examined its mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed predominant localization of HMGS mRNA in the stigmas and ovules of flower buds and in the piths of seedling hypocotyls. RT-PCR analysis revealed that BjHMGS1 and BjHMGS2 but not BjHMGS3 and BjHMGS4were expressed in floral buds. To investigate the subcellular localization of BjHMGS1, we fused BjHMGS1 translationally in-frame either to the N- or C-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). BjHMGS1-GFP and GFP-BjHMGS1 fusions were used in particle gun bombardment of onion epidermal cells and tobacco BY-2 cells. The GFP-BjHMGS1 construct was also used in agroinfiltration of tobacco leaves. Both GFP-fusion proteins were observed transiently expressed in the cytosol on confocal microscopy of onion epidermal cells, tobacco BY-2 cells, and agroinfiltrated tobacco leaves. Further, subcellular fractionation of total proteins from transgenic plants expressing GFP-BjHMGS1 derived from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation confirmed that BjHMGS1 is a cytosolic enzyme. We suggest that the presence of BjHMGS isoforms is likely related to the specialization of each in different cellular and metabolic processes rather than to a different intracellular compartmentation of the enzyme. PMID:15770484

  5. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the rhizosphere soils of rape (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Yan; Yang, Jin-Yan; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-06-01

    The response of rape (Brassica juncea L.) to different vanadium (V) speciation in rhizosphere soils was investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil containing 147 mg V kg(-1) supplemented with 0-500 mg V kg(-1) of pentavalent V [V(V)] and a mining soil containing 774 mg V kg(-1). Tetravalent V [V(IV)] accounted for 76.1 and 85.9 % of total V in the untreated agricultural soil and mining soil, respectively. The proportion of both V(V) and water-extractable V increased with increasing concentrations of V(V) in the agricultural soil. The growth of rape substantially reduced the concentrations of V(V) but not V(IV) in the rhizosphere soil, suggesting that V(V) was actively involved in the soil-rape interaction of V. Both soil V(V) and water-extractable V were negatively related to the total rape biomass, but were positively correlated with the concentration of root V. No such relationships were found for total V and soil V(IV). Together, these results indicate that soil V(V) and water-extractable V might better reflect the toxicity of V in soils than total V and soil V(IV). Rape accumulated V in the sequence: roots > > stem > leaf > seed. As indicated by the remarkably low root bioconcentration factor of V(V) (0.41-7.24 %), rape had a lower ability to accumulate V than other plants reported in the literature (14.6-298 %). Only a small fraction of V in rape roots was translocated to the aboveground organs (the translocation factor was 3.57-46.9 %). No V was detectable in seeds in the soils at 147 and 197 mg V kg(-1), and no seed was produced in the soils at higher V concentrations. Thus, the risk of V intake by humans via the consumption of rapeseed-based foods under normal conditions is considered to be lower than that of other plants. PMID:25586612

  6. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  7. Biotic elicitors and mechanical damage modulate glucosinolate accumulation by co-ordinated interplay of glucosinolate biosynthesis regulators in polyploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates are nitrogen and sulfur containing secondary metabolites found mainly in the Brassicaceae. They function as plant defense compounds against a broad spectrum of pathogens and pests. Since these molecules form part of the plant defense mechanism, glucosinolate biosynthesis may be modulated by environmental signals leading to activation of a biological stress response. In the current study, we have mimicked such conditions by exogenously applying biotic elicitors such as methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, glucose and mechanical injury in Brassica juncea seedling over a time course experiment. We found that total glucosinolates over-accumulated under these stress conditions with maximum accumulation observed 24h post treatment. Indole glucosinolates like 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl and its precursor indol-3-methyl glucosinolates showed a more significant induction compared to aliphatic glucosinolates thereby suggesting a prominent role of indole glucosinolates during plant defense response in B. juncea seedlings. In contrast, the higher amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates were less regulated by the tested biotic elicitors in B. juncea. Expression profiling of multiple homologs of key transcriptional regulators of glucosinolate biosynthesis further showed that a complex interplay of these regulators exists in polyploid B. juncea where they exert co-ordinated and overlapping effects toward altering glucosinolate accumulation. This study has a significant role toward understanding and augmenting plant defense mechanisms in B. juncea, a globally important oilseed crop of genus Brassica. PMID:26057228

  8. Isolation and expression analysis of partial sequences of heavy metal transporters from Brassica juncea by coupling high throughput cloning with a molecular fingerprinting technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumita; Sen, Monali; Saha, Chinmay; Chakraborty, Debjani; Das, Antara; Banerjee, Manidipa; Seal, Anindita

    2011-07-01

    Heavy metal transporters play a key role in regulating metal accumulation and transport in plants. These are important candidate genes to study in metal tolerant and accumulator plants for their potential use in environmental clean up. We coupled a degenerate primer-based RT-PCR approach with a molecular fingerprinting technique based on amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) to identify novel ESTs corresponding to heavy metal transporters from metal accumulator Brassica juncea. We utilized this technique to clone several family members of natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP) and yellow stripe-like proteins (YSL) in a high throughput manner to distinguish between closely related isoforms and/or allelic variants from the allopolyploid B. juncea. Partial clones of 23 Brassica juncea NRAMPs and 27 YSLs were obtained with similarity to known Arabidopsis thaliana and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens NRAMP and YSL genes. The cloned transporters showed Brassica-specific changes in domains, which can have important functional consequences. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis of chosen members indicated that even closely related isoforms/allelic variants of BjNRAMP and BjYSL have distinct tissue-specific and metal-dependent expressions which might be essential for adaptive fitness and heavy metal tolerance. Consistent to this, BjYSL6.1 and BjYSL5.8 were found to show elevated expressions specifically in cadmium-treated shoots and lead-treated roots of B. juncea, respectively. PMID:21394470

  9. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  10. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Salt, David E

    2007-01-01

    Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point for the development of plants for phytoremediation. Our goal in this study is to determine the transcriptional regulation of MTP1 in order to start to better understanding the physiological role of MTP1 in B. juncea. Results Steady-state mRNA levels of BjMTP1 were found to be enhanced 8.8, 5.9, and 1.6-fold in five-day-old B. juncea seedlings after exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+, respectively. This was also reflected in enhanced GUS activity in B. juncea seedlings transformed with BjMTP1 promoter::GUSPlus after exposure to these metals over a similar range of toxicities from mild to severe. However, no increase in GUS activity was observed after exposure of seedlings to cold or heat stress, NaCl or hydrogen peroxide. GUS expression in Ni2+ treated seedlings was localized in roots, particularly in the root-shoot transition zone. In four- week- old transgenic plants BjMTP1 promoter activity also primarily increased in roots in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ in plants transformed with either GUS or mRFP1 as reporter genes, and expression was localized to the secondary xylem parenchyma. In leaves, BjMTP1 promoter activity in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ spiked after 24 h then decreased. In shoots GUS expression was prominently present in the vasculature of leaves, and floral parts. Conclusion Our studies establish that a 983 bp DNA fragment upstream of the BjMTP1 translational start site is sufficient for the specific activation by Ni2+ and Cd2+ of BjMTP1 expression primarily in roots. Activation of

  11. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  12. Heterosis as Investigated in Terms of Polyploidy and Genetic Diversity Using Designed Brassica juncea Amphiploid and Its Progenitor Diploid Species

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis. PMID:22363404

  13. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S S

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis. PMID:22363404

  14. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought. PMID:24444925

  15. A proteomic analysis of seeds from Bt-transgenic Brassica napus and hybrids with wild B. juncea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongbo; Zhang, Ying-Xue; Song, Song-Quan; Li, Junsheng; Neal Stewart Jr., C.; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Transgene insertions might have unintended side effects on the transgenic host, both crop and hybrids with wild relatives that harbor transgenes. We employed proteomic approaches to assess protein abundance changes in seeds from Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its hybrids with wild mustard (B. juncea). A total of 24, 15 and 34 protein spots matching to 23, 13 and 31 unique genes were identified that changed at least 1.5 fold (p < 0.05, Student’s t-test) in abundance between transgenic (tBN) and non-transgenic (BN) oilseed rape, between hybrids of B. juncea (BJ) × tBN (BJtBN) and BJ × BN (BJBN) and between BJBN and BJ, respectively. Eight proteins had higher abundance in tBN than in BN. None of these proteins was toxic or nutritionally harmful to human health, which is not surprising since the seeds are not known to produce toxic proteins. Protein spots varying in abundance between BJtBN and BJBN seeds were the same or homologous to those in the respective parents. None of the differentially-accumulated proteins between BJtBN and BJBN were identical to those between tBN and BN. Results indicated that unintended effects resulted from transgene flow fell within the range of natural variability of hybridization and those found in the native host proteomes. PMID:26486652

  16. Spread of introgressed insect-resistance genes in wild populations of Brassica juncea: a simulated in-vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Darmency, Henri

    2013-08-01

    Introgression between transgenic, insect-resistant crops and their wild relatives could lead to a progressive increase of the frequency of resistant plants in wild populations. However, few studies help predict the impact on the population dynamics. To simulate the performance of introgressed insect-resistant plants of wild Brassica juncea, independently from the interspecific hybridization cost, healthy plants were cultivated in pure and mixed stands with damaged plants through cutting leaves in field experiments over two field seasons. As expected, resistant (healthy) plants held a competitive advantage when in competition with susceptible (damaged) plants. Individual biomass and seed production of both types of plants decreased as the percentage of resistant plants increased, so that the relative advantage of resistant plants increased. The combined effects of defoliation and competition on the individual performance of B. juncea were additive. Replacement series experiments confirmed this trend but did not show different seed output in pure stand of susceptible versus resistant plots. The total vegetative and reproductive production of mixed populations was not significantly different of that of pure populations. These results suggest that if a transgene for insect-resistance were to colonize wild populations, high herbivory of susceptible plant and low resource availability would facilitate the spread of resistant individuals. However, at the population level, the shift from an insect-susceptible to a predominantly resistant population would not result in exacerbated habitat colonization. PMID:23250587

  17. The Effects of Seed Size on Hybrids Formed between Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) and Wild Brown Mustard (B. juncea)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-bo; Tang, Zhi-xi; Darmency, Henri; Stewart, C. Neal; Di, Kun; Wei, Wei; Ma, Ke-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories. Methodology/Principal Findings Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents. Conclusions Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study. PMID:22745814

  18. A proteomic analysis of seeds from Bt-transgenic Brassica napus and hybrids with wild B. juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Zhang, Ying-Xue; Song, Song-Quan; Li, Junsheng; Neal Stewart, C; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Transgene insertions might have unintended side effects on the transgenic host, both crop and hybrids with wild relatives that harbor transgenes. We employed proteomic approaches to assess protein abundance changes in seeds from Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its hybrids with wild mustard (B. juncea). A total of 24, 15 and 34 protein spots matching to 23, 13 and 31 unique genes were identified that changed at least 1.5 fold (p < 0.05, Student's t-test) in abundance between transgenic (tBN) and non-transgenic (BN) oilseed rape, between hybrids of B. juncea (BJ) × tBN (BJtBN) and BJ × BN (BJBN) and between BJBN and BJ, respectively. Eight proteins had higher abundance in tBN than in BN. None of these proteins was toxic or nutritionally harmful to human health, which is not surprising since the seeds are not known to produce toxic proteins. Protein spots varying in abundance between BJtBN and BJBN seeds were the same or homologous to those in the respective parents. None of the differentially-accumulated proteins between BJtBN and BJBN were identical to those between tBN and BN. Results indicated that unintended effects resulted from transgene flow fell within the range of natural variability of hybridization and those found in the native host proteomes. PMID:26486652

  19. Transcriptomics profiling of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) under arsenate stress identifies key candidate genes and regulatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Srivastava, Ashish K.; Sablok, Gaurav; Deshpande, Tejaswini U.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a non-essential element, a groundwater pollutant, whose uptake by plants produces toxic effects. The use of As-contaminated groundwater for irrigation can affect the crop productivity. Realizing the importance of the Brassica juncea as a crop plant in terms of oil-yield, there is a need to unravel mechanistic details of response to As stress and identify key functional genes and pathways. In this research, we studied time-dependent (4–96 h) transcriptome changes in roots and shoots of B. juncea under arsenate [As(V)] stress using Agilent platform. Among the whole transcriptome profiled genes, a total of 1,285 genes showed significant change in expression pattern upon As(V) exposure. The differentially expressed genes were categorized to various signaling pathways including hormones (jasmonate, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene) and kinases. Significant effects were also noticed on genes related to sulfur, nitrogen, CHO, and lipid metabolisms along with photosynthesis. Biochemical assays were conducted using specific inhibitors of glutathione and jasmonate biosynthesis, and kinases. The inhibitor studies revealed interconnection among sulfur metabolism, jasmonate, and kinase signaling pathways. In addition, various transposons also constituted a part of the altered transcriptome. Lastly, we profiled a set of key functional up- and down-regulated genes using real-time RT-PCR, which could act as an early indicators of the As stress. PMID:26347763

  20. Polyphyletic origin of Brassica juncea with B. rapa and B. nigra (Brassicaceae) participating as cytoplasm donor parents in independent hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Puneet; Banga, Shashi; Kumar, Nitin; Gupta, Shilpa; Akhatar, Javed; Banga, Surinder S

    2014-07-16

    • Premise of the study: Brassica juncea is a major source of edible oil in the Indian subcontinent and northern China. It is also used as a root and leaf vegetable in China and as a condiment in Europe and America. There is a long-standing view that B. juncea originated from multiple hybridization events between B. rapa and B. nigra and that hybridizations were always unidirectional with B. rapa as the cytoplasmic donor. These conclusions were, however, centered primarily on nuclear markers.• Methods: Two hundred forty-six accessions of B. juncea, B. rapa, and B. nigra were genotyped using chloroplast and nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.• Key results: A structure analysis assigned B. juncea germplasm (122) into three major groups based on plasmotype variation. The bulk of Indian B. juncea genotypes were grouped along with Chinese and Australian accessions. This plasmotype was absent in sampled accessions of B. rapa (97), B. nigra (27), and other wild crucifers (10). The second group of B. juncea included East European genotypes and four accessions from India. It showed unambiguous homology with the predominant B. nigra plasmotype. The neighbor joining tree produced seven subgroups, arranged into two broad lineages. The first lineage included Indian, Australian, and Chinese B. juncea genotypes; it was associated with wild species belonging to the "rapa" lineage. Nuclear SSR marker-based analyses were largely supportive of results from chloroplast SSR analyses.• Conclusions: Based on these results, we provide the first report that B. juncea originated several times with both B. rapa and B. nigra as cytoplasmic donors in separate hybridization events. PMID:25030348

  1. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. PMID:26986237

  2. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24491701

  3. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  4. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. PMID:26351151

  5. Study on the correlation between copper oxide nanoparticles induced growth suppression and enhanced lignification in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the morphological, physiological and molecular level effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were studied in an economically important oil seed crop Brassica juncea L. The possible involvement of lignification on shoot-root growth retardation was also studied. The seedlings were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500mg/L of CuONPs in semi-solid half strength Murashige and Skoog medium under controlled growth chamber conditions for 14 days. Exposure to CuONPs resulted in suppression of shoot-growth, reduction in total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents as well modification of root system architecture such as shortening of primary and lateral roots. Significant increases in hydrogen peroxide formation, peroxidase enzyme activity and lignification of shoots and roots were observed. The lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in shoots and roots of B. juncea seedlings. Phloroglucinol-HCl staining revealed enhanced lignification of shoot and roots. Gene expression studies revealed significant activation of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in roots at all concentrations of CuONPs exposure. In shoots significant up-regulation of CuZnSOD gene was observed upon exposure to 100, 200 and 400 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. However no change in the expression levels of MnSOD gene was observed in both stem and roots. The expression of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) genes were also not changed in shoots. However, significant inhibition of CAT and APX genes were observed in roots of B. juncea plants under exposure to 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/L of CuONPs exposure. The SOD enzyme activity significantly increased in roots under exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs and in shoots as a result of exposure to 100-500 mg/L of CuONPs. The APX activity significantly decreased in roots upon exposure to 50-500 mg/L of CuONPs. In shoots, the APX activity significantly decreased upon exposure to 200-500 mg/L of CuONPs. PMID:25528486

  6. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress. PMID:25786350

  7. Implication of organic acids in the long-distance transport and the accumulation of lead in Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Zaier, Hanen; Baioui, Raoudha; Sghaier, Souhir; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2013-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Pb translocation was studied in two species varying in shoot lead accumulation, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea. Citric, fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids were separated and determined by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of the both species grown in nutrient solutions added with 200 and 400 μM of Pb(II). The lead content of the xylem saps was determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that S. portulacastrum is more tolerant to Pb than B. juncea. Lead concentration in xylem sap of the S. portulacastrum was significantly greater than in that of B. juncea. For both species, a positive correlation was established between lead and citrate concentrations in xylem sap. However minor relationship was observed for fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids. In the shoots lead treatment also induced a significant increase in citric acid concentration. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in lead translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum and B. juncea. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could explain its high potential to translocate and accumulate this metal in shoot suggesting their possible use to remediate Pb polluted soils. PMID:23026160

  8. Pot experiment to study the uptake of Cd and Pb by three Indian mustards (Brassica juncea) grown in artificially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Wen; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Most of the metals-contaminated and fallow lands in Taiwan are a result of irrigation with illegal effluent of factories. Phytoextraction methods can be applied to reach the target of fallow-lands reuse and earn more incomes for farmers. In many studies, Indian mustards (Brassica juncea) were planted in the metal-contaminated soils to study their suitability in phytoextraction. However, the total removal of metals by plants was quite different between accessions. In this pot study, three accessions of B. juncea (cv. 182921, cv. 211000, and cv. 426308) were planted in artificially Cd- or Pb-contaminated soils to investigate the differences between them. EDTA was applied to study its effect in increasing the bioavailability of Cd and Pb and their uptake by these Indian mustards. Experimental result showed that three accessions of Indian mustard can accumulate a high concentration of Cd and Pb when growing in the artificially Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Their shoot Cd or Pb concentrations were significantly enhanced, resulting from the application of EDTA. Among the three accessions, B. juncea cv. 211000 accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb in their shoots compared with B. juncea cv. 182921 and cv. 426308, but its total removal was the lowest due to its lower biomass. PMID:18709923

  9. Combined application of Triton X-100 and Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 inoculum for the improvement of lead phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in EDTA amended soil.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Barbafieri, Meri; Lampis, Silvia; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Tassi, Eliana; Vallini, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    The process of EDTA-assisted lead phytoextraction from the Bovisa (Milan, Italy) brownfield soil was optimized in microcosms vegetated with Brassica juncea. An autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002, was isolated from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown on the Pb-contaminated soil in presence of 2 mM EDTA. The strain was augmented (10(8) CFU g(-1) soil) in vegetated microcosms to stimulate B. juncea biomass production and, hence, its phytoextraction potential. Triton X-100 was also added to microcosms at 5 and 10 times the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to increase the permeability of root barriers to the EDTA-Pb complexes. Triton X-100 amendment determined an increase in Pb concentration within plant tissues. However it contextually exerted a phytotoxic effect. Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 augmentation was crucial to plant survival in presence of both bioavailable lead and Triton X-100. The combination of the two treatments produced up to 56% increase in the efficiency of lead phytoextraction by B. juncea. The effects of these treatments on the structure of the soil bacterial community were evaluated by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). PMID:16153689

  10. MutS HOMOLOG1 silencing mediates ORF220 substoichiometric shifting and causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Xinyue; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A.; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has consistently been associated with the expression of mitochondrial open reading frames (ORFs) that arise from genomic rearrangements. Spontaneous fertility reversion in CMS has been observed in several cases, but a clear understanding of fertility reversion controlled by nuclear genetic influences has been lacking. Here, we identified spontaneous fertile revertant lines for Brassica juncea CMS cytoplasm in which the mitochondrial genome has undergone substoichiometric shifting (SSS) to suppress ORF220 copy number. We placed ORF220, with or without a mitochondrial targeting presequence, under the control of the CaMV35S and AP3 promoters in Arabidopsis to confirm that ORF220 causes male sterility when mitochondrially localized. We found that copy number of the ORF220 gene was altered under conditions that suppress MSH1, a nuclear gene that controls illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. MSH1-RNAi lines with increased ORF220 copy number were male sterile compared with wild type. We found that a wide range of genes involved in anther development were up- and down-regulated in revertant and MSH1-RNAi lines, respectively. The system that we have developed offers valuable future insight into the interplay of MSH1 and SSS in CMS induction and fertility reversion as a mediator of nuclear–mitochondrial crosstalk. PMID:26516127

  11. Characterization of a new oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen, Bra j IE: detection of an allergenic epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, R I; Gonzalez de la Peña, M A; Menendez-Arias, L; Lopez-Otin, C; Villalba, M; Rodriguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Bra j IE, a major allergen from oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds, has been isolated and characterized. Its primary structure has been elucidated. This protein is composed of two chains (37 and 92 amino acids) linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence obtained is closely related to that previously determined for Sin a I, an allergen isolated from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). A common epitope has been detected in the large chain of both Bra j IE and Sin a I by means of electroblotting and immunodetection with 2B3, which is a monoclonal antibody raised against the yellow-mustard allergen. A histidine residue of the large chain of both mustard allergens has been found to be essential for the recognition by 2B3 antibody. A synthetic multiantigenic peptide containing this His was recognized by 2B3 as well as by sera of mustard-hypersensitive individuals. Therefore this antigenic determinant must be involved in the allergenicity of these proteins. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7688955

  12. Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Salido, Arthur L; Hasty, Kelly L; Lim, Jae-Min; Butcher, David J

    2003-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8 years would be required to reduce the acid-extractable portion of soil arsenic to safe levels (40 mg/kg). The effect of soil pH on arsenic extraction was also investigated. Results indicate that increasing soil pH may improve arsenic removal. Indian mustard plants (Brassica juncea) were used under greenhouse conditions to phytoextract soil lead. EDTA was applied to soil and was found to improve lead extraction. When the EDTA concentration was 10 mmol EDTA/kg soil in soil containing 338 mg Pb/kg soil, mustard plants extracted approximately 32 mg of lead. In conclusion, phytoremediation would be a suitable alternative to conventional remediation techniques, especially for soils that do not require immediate remediation. PMID:12929493

  13. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  14. Low level of selenium increases the efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide through altered physiological and biochemical traits of Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Naz, Fatima Salva; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to provide an insight into the effect of Se (through soil) induced changes in Brassica juncea plants in the presence and absence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; foliar). The Se treatments showed dual response, 10 μM of Se significantly increased growth, water relations, photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas its higher concentrations proved inhibitory in concentration dependent manner. The follow-up application of EBL to the Se stressed plants improved growth, water relations, photosynthesis and simultaneously enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase with the excess accumulation of proline. In addition to this, 10 μM Se increases the efficacy of 10(-8) M of EBL and both in combination showed maximum increase for the growth and photosynthetic traits of plants. On the other hand, the elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the Se-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis. PMID:25952891

  15. Plant steroid hormones produced under Ni stress are involved in the regulation of metal uptake and oxidative stress in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Priya; Chowdhary, Sikandar Pal; Sharma, Priyanka; Kumar, Subodh

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are involved in the amelioration of various biotic and abiotic stresses. With an aim to explore the role of BRs under heavy metal stress, plants of Brassica juncea L. were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to various concentrations of Nickel metal (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mM) and harvested on 60th day in order to observe the expression of these hormones. The isolated BRs from the leaves of Brassica plants characterized by GC-MS include 24-Epibrassinolide (24-EBL), Castasterone, Dolicholide and Typhasterole. The effect of isolated 24-EBL was studied on Ni metal uptake and antioxidative defense system in 60 d old plants of Brassica. It was observed that 24-EBL significantly increased the activities of stress ameliorating enzymes and lowered the metal uptake in plants. This is the first report in B. juncea L. plants showing the expression of BRs under metal treatments and effect of the isolated 24-EBL on metal uptake and in oxidative stress management. PMID:21959144

  16. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-11-01

    Glucosinolates are Capparales-specific secondary metabolites that have immense potential in human health and agriculture. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about glucosinolate regulators in the Brassica crops is sparse. In the current study, four MYB28 homologues were identified (BjuMYB28-1,-2,-3,-4) from the polyploid Brassica juncea, and the effects of allopolyploidization on the divergence of gene sequence, structure, function, and expression were assessed. The deduced protein sequences of the four BjuMYB28 genes showed 76.1-83.1% identity with the Arabidopsis MYB28. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four BjuMYB28 proteins have evolved via the hybridization and duplication processes forming the B. juncea genome (AABB) from B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), while retaining high levels of sequence conservation. Mutant complementation and over-expression studies in A. thaliana showed that all four BjuMYB28 genes encode functional MYB28 proteins and resulted in similar aliphatic glucosinolate composition and content. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays and promoter-GUS lines revealed that the BjuMYB28 genes have both tissue- and cell-specific expression partitioning in B. juncea. The two B-genome origin BjuMYB28 genes had more abundant transcripts during the early stages of plant development than the A-genome origin genes. However, with the onset of the reproductive phase, expression levels of all four BjuMYB28 increased significantly, which may be necessary for producing and maintaining high amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates during the later stages of plant development. Taken together, our results suggest that the four MYB28 genes are differentially expressed and regulated in B. juncea to play discrete though overlapping roles in controlling aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:24043856

  17. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the

  18. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities along with the aforesaid physiological and biochemical parameters in order of ELE > ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P < 0.05) increase in percent contents of C and N in leaves as per said order. These findings suggested that improved performance of C-N metabolism could be a possible approach for CO2 assimilation and adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios. PMID:25246072

  19. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K.

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  20. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    PubMed

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22382070

  1. Expression of an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma virens confers enhanced tolerance to Alternaria blight in transgenic Brassica juncea (L.) czern and coss lines.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Suchita; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Eapen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    An endochitinase gene 'ech42' from the biocontrol fungus 'Trichoderma virens' was introduced to Brassica juncea (L). Czern and Coss via Agrobaterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation method. Integration and expression of the 'ech42' gene in transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Transgenic lines (T1) showed expected 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio when segregation analysis for inheritance of transgene 'hpt' was carried out. Fluorimetric analysis of transgenic lines (T0 and T1) showed 7 fold higher endochitinase activity than the non-transformed plant. Fluorimetric zymogram showed presence of endochitinase (42 kDa) in crude protein extract of transgenic lines. In detached leaf bioassay with fungi Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola, transgenic lines (T0 and T1) showed delayed onset of lesions as well as 30-73 % reduction in infected leaf area compared to non-transformed plant. PMID:27186020

  2. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  3. RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage of cold responsive S-nitrosylated targets in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Abat, Jasmeet K.; Deswal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Although in the last few years good number of S-nitrosylated proteins are identified but information on endogenous targets is still limiting. Therefore, an attempt is made to decipher NO signaling in cold treated Brassica juncea seedlings. Treatment of seedlings with substrate, cofactor and inhibitor of Nitric-oxide synthase and nitrate reductase (NR), indicated NR mediated NO biosynthesis in cold. Analysis of the in vivo thiols showed depletion of low molecular weight thiols and enhancement of available protein thiols, suggesting redox changes. To have a detailed view, S-nitrosylation analysis was done using biotin switch technique (BST) and avidin-affinity chromatography. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is S-nitrosylated and therefore, is identified as target repeatedly due to its abundance. It also competes out low abundant proteins which are important NO signaling components. Therefore, RuBisCO was removed (over 80%) using immunoaffinity purification. Purified S-nitrosylated RuBisCO depleted proteins were resolved on 2-D gel as 110 spots, including 13 new, which were absent in the crude S-nitrosoproteome. These were identified by nLC-MS/MS as thioredoxin, fructose biphosphate aldolase class I, myrosinase, salt responsive proteins, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and malate dehydrogenase. Cold showed differential S-nitrosylation of 15 spots, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (via S-nitrosylation) and promoted the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Increased S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sedoheptulose-biphosphatase, and fructose biphosphate aldolase, indicated regulation of Calvin cycle by S-nitrosylation. The results showed that RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage and provided clues for NO signaling in cold. PMID:24032038

  4. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  5. Light- and temperature-regulated BjAPY2 may have a role in stem expansion of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Liu, Bin; Li, Junxing; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-11-01

    Tuber mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee) is an important vegetable crop with a characteristic of expanded stem that is edible. The underlying molecular mechanism of the stem expansion is not well understood. Here, we reported that a total of 51 differentially expressed fragments (DEFs) with three expression patterns during stem expansion of tuber mustard were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis. Among the DEFs, DEF11 with high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase 2 (AtAPY2) that encodes an enzyme with ATPase and ADPase activity was development- and tissue-specific. DEF11 was thus renamed as BjAPY2. The expression levels of BjAPY2 increased with the stem expression and were the highest at stage IV, a developmental stage at which the stem expanded most rapidly. In contrast, the BjAPY2 expression levels in leaves were much lower and remained unchanged during leaf development and expansion, suggesting that BjAPY2 was closely associated with the expansion of stems but not of leaves in the tuber mustard. Interestingly, the expression of BjAPY2 was higher in the mustard under short-day (SD) photoperiod (8 h/16 h) than that under long-day (LD) photoperiod (16 h/8 h); similarly, the transcript levels of BjAPY2 were higher in the mustard grown at low temperature (14 °C/12 °C) than that at high temperature (26 °C /24 °C). The SD photoperiod and low temperature were two environmental conditions that favored the mustard stem expansion. Further cloning and analysis of the promoter region of BjAPY2 revealed that there were indeed several types of motifs in the promoter region, including the light and temperature responsive elements. These results suggested that BjAPY2 might play an important role during the stem expansion of the tuber mustard. PMID:26277720

  6. Thiourea modulates the expression and activity profile of mtATPase under salinity stress in seeds of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A. K.; Ramaswamy, N. K.; Mukopadhyaya, R.; Jincy, M. G. Chiramal; D'Souza, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Large areas of the globe are becoming saline due to evapotranspiration and poor irrigation practices, and sustainability of agriculture is being seriously affected. Thiourea (TU) has been identified as an effective bioregulator imparting stress tolerance to crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in the TU-mediated response are considered in this study. Methods Differential display was performed in order to identify TU-modulated transcripts in Brassica juncea seeds exposed to various treatments (distilled water; 1 m NaCl; 1 m NaCl + 500 p.p.m. TU). The differential regulation of these transcripts was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Key Results Thiourea treatment maintained the viability of seeds exposed to NaCl for 6 h. Expression analysis showed that the transcript level of alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits of mitochondrial ATPase (mtATPase) varied in seeds subjected to the different treatments for 1 h: expression level was significantly altered by 1 m NaCl relative to controls; however, in the NaCl + TU treatment it reverted back in an integrated manner. Similar results were obtained from time-kinetics studies of beta and delta subunits in roots of 8-d-old seedlings. These observations were also confirmed by the mtATPase activity from isolated mitochondria. The reversal in the expression and activity profile of mtATPase through the application of a bioregulator such as TU is a novel finding for any plant system. Conclusions The results suggest that TU treatment maintains the integrity and functioning of mitochondria in seeds as well as seedlings exposed to salinity. Thus, TU has the potential to be used as an effective bioregulator to impart salinity tolerance under field conditions, and might prove to be of high economic importance by opening new avenues for both basic and applied research. PMID:19033283

  7. Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. PMID:20974011

  8. Nitrilotriacetate- and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Quartacci, M F; Baker, A J M; Navari-Izzo, F

    2005-06-01

    In a pot experiment the effects of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid applications on Cd extractibility from soil as well as on its uptake and accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were investigated. Plants were grown in a sandy soil with added CdS at four levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. After 30 days of growth, pots were amended with NTA or citric acid at 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1). Control pots were not treated with chelates. Harvest of plants was performed immediately before and one week after chelate addition. Soil water-, NH(4)NO(3)- and EDTA-extractable Cd fractions increased constantly with both increasing soil metal application and chelate concentration. Shoot dry weights did not suffer significant reductions with increasing Cd addition to the soil except for both NTA treatments in which at 200 mg Cd kg(-1) a 30% decrease in dry matter was observed. Generally, following NTA and citric acid amendments, Cd concentration in shoots increased with soil Cd level. However, due to Cd toxicity, at the highest metal application rate both NTA treatments lowered Cd concentration in the above-ground parts. Compared to the control, at 10 mmol kg(-1) citric acid did not change Cd concentration in shoots, whereas NTA-treated plants showed an about 2-fold increase. The addition of chelates at 20 mmol kg(-1) further enhanced Cd concentration in shoots up to 718 and 560 microg g(-1) dry weight in the NTA and citrate treatments, respectively. PMID:15857636

  9. Dynamics of pesticide residues in nectar and pollen of mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) grown in Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amit; Sharma, D C

    2008-09-01

    Residues dynamics of Endosulfan (525.00 g a.i. ha(-1)), Imidacloprid seed treatment (21 g a.i. kg(-1)), Lambdacyhalothrin (75.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) and Spiromesifen (225.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) in nectar and pollen of mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. grown in Himachal Pradesh (India) were determined through bioassay (using Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as test organism) and GC (Gas chromatographic) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatographic) methods. In general chromatographic methods were more sensitive for the determination of above given pesticides compared to bioassay method. Average recoveries in nectar samples varied between 82.85 and 88.90% by bioassay and 91.20 and 93.55% by chromatographic techniques. In pollen samples, recoveries varied between 81.44 and 86.44% by bioassay and 88.50 and 91.30% by chromatographic methods. Imidacloprid residues were neither found in nectar nor in pollen samples at the time of sampling i.e. 50% of flowering. The order of average half life of residues was: Lambdacyhalothrin (12.45 h) < Spiromesifen (19.99 h) < Endosulfan (27.49 h) for nectar and Spiromesifen (9.69 h) < Lambdacyhalothrin (12.44 h) < Endosulfan (17.84 h) for pollen samples. It was found that Imidcloprid seed treatment was practically harmless to honey bees, whereas a waiting period of 5 days must be observed on crops sprayed with these chemicals during blooms to avoid any accidental hazards to honey bees. PMID:17952621

  10. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  11. RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage of cold responsive S-nitrosylated targets in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Abat, Jasmeet K; Deswal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Although in the last few years good number of S-nitrosylated proteins are identified but information on endogenous targets is still limiting. Therefore, an attempt is made to decipher NO signaling in cold treated Brassica juncea seedlings. Treatment of seedlings with substrate, cofactor and inhibitor of Nitric-oxide synthase and nitrate reductase (NR), indicated NR mediated NO biosynthesis in cold. Analysis of the in vivo thiols showed depletion of low molecular weight thiols and enhancement of available protein thiols, suggesting redox changes. To have a detailed view, S-nitrosylation analysis was done using biotin switch technique (BST) and avidin-affinity chromatography. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is S-nitrosylated and therefore, is identified as target repeatedly due to its abundance. It also competes out low abundant proteins which are important NO signaling components. Therefore, RuBisCO was removed (over 80%) using immunoaffinity purification. Purified S-nitrosylated RuBisCO depleted proteins were resolved on 2-D gel as 110 spots, including 13 new, which were absent in the crude S-nitrosoproteome. These were identified by nLC-MS/MS as thioredoxin, fructose biphosphate aldolase class I, myrosinase, salt responsive proteins, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and malate dehydrogenase. Cold showed differential S-nitrosylation of 15 spots, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (via S-nitrosylation) and promoted the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Increased S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sedoheptulose-biphosphatase, and fructose biphosphate aldolase, indicated regulation of Calvin cycle by S-nitrosylation. The results showed that RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage and provided clues for NO signaling in cold. PMID:24032038

  12. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (< 0.1 pH units) in alkaline soils. Furthermore, the DOC concentration increased by 17-156 mg/L in the rhizosphere regardless of soil type and the extent of contamination, demonstrating the exudation of DOC from root. Ion chromatographic determination showed a marked increase in the total dissolved organic acids (OAs) in rhizosphere. While root exudates were observed in all soils, the amount of DOC and OAs in soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase. PMID:20397393

  13. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  14. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26503637

  15. Assessment of the root system of Brassica juncea (L.) czern. and Bidens pilosa L. exposed to lead polluted soils using rhizobox systems.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Natalia Soledad; Salazar, María Julieta; Pignata, María Luisa; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior of the root system of one of the most frequently cited species in phytoremediation Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and a representative perennial herb (Bidens pilosa L.) native of Argentina, for different concentrations of lead in soils through chemical and visualization techniques of the rhizosphere. Lead polluted soils from the vicinity of a lead recycling plant in the locality of Bouwer, were used in juxtaposed rhizobox systems planted with seedlings of B. juncea and B. pilosa with homogeneous and heterogeneous soil treatments. Root development, pH changes in the rhizosphere, dry weight biomass, lead content of root and aerial parts and potential extraction of lead by rhizosphere exudates were determined. In both species lead was mainly accumulated in roots. However, although B. juncea accumulated more lead than B. pilosa at elevated concentrations in soils, the latter achieved greater root and aerial development. No changes in the pH of the rhizosphere associated to lead were observed, despite different extractive potentials of lead in the exudates of the species analyzed. Our results indicated that Indian mustard did not behave as a hyperaccumulator in the conditions of the present study. PMID:26292209

  16. Biochemical characterization of laccase from hairy root culture of Brassica juncea L. and role of redox mediators to enhance its potential for the decolorization of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Desai, Neetin S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-12-01

    In vitro transgenic hairy root cultures provide a rapid system for physiological, biochemical studies and screening of plants for their phytoremediation potential. The hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L. showed 92% decolorization of Methyl orange within 4 days. Out of the different redox mediators that were used to achieve enhanced decolorization, 2, 2'-Azinobis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) was found to be the most efficient. Laccase activity of 4.5 U mg(-1) of protein was observed in hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L., after the decolorization of Methyl orange. Intracellular laccase produced by B. juncea root cultures grown in MS basal medium was purified up to 2.0 fold with 6.62 U mg(-1) specific activity using anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 148 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme efficiently oxidized ABTS which was also required for oxidation of the other tested substrates. The pH and temperature optimum for laccase activity were 4.0 and 40°C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable up to 50°C and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Laccase activity was strongly inhibited by sodium azide, EDTA, dithiothreitol and L: -cysteine. The purified enzyme decolorized various textile dyes in the presence of ABTS as an efficient redox mediator. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the enzymatic process involved in phytoremediation of textile dyes by using hairy roots. PMID:21735196

  17. Evidence from genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers for a polyphyletic origin and secondary centers of genetic diversity of Brassica juncea in China and India.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wan, Zhenjie; Nelson, Matthew N; Chauhan, Jitendra S; Redden, Robert; Burton, Wayne A; Lin, Ping; Salisbury, Phillip A; Fu, Tingdong; Cowling, Wallace A

    2013-01-01

    The oilseed Brassica juncea is an important crop with a long history of cultivation in India and China. Previous studies have suggested a polyphyletic origin of B. juncea and more than one migration from the primary to secondary centers of diversity. We investigated molecular genetic diversity based on 99 simple sequence repeat markers in 119 oilseed B. juncea varieties from China, India, Europe, and Australia to test whether molecular differentiation follows Vavilov's proposal of secondary centers of diversity in India and China. Two distinct groups were identified by markers in the A genome, and the same two groups were confirmed by markers in the B genome. Group 1 included accessions from central and western India, in addition to those from eastern China. Group 2 included accessions from central and western China, as well as those from northern and eastern India. European and Australian accessions were found only in Group 2. Chinese accessions had higher allelic diversity per accession (Group 1) and more private alleles per accession (Groups 1 and 2) than those from India. The marker data and geographic distribution of Groups 1 and 2 were consistent with two independent migrations of B. juncea from its center of origin in the Middle East and neighboring regions along trade routes to western China and northern India, followed by regional adaptation. Group 1 migrated further south and west in India, and further east in China, than Group 2. Group 2 showed diverse agroecological adaptation, with yellow-seeded spring-sown types in central and western China and brown-seeded autumn-sown types in India. PMID:23519868

  18. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea. PMID:23546828

  19. A genome-wide perspective of miRNAome in response to high temperature, salinity and drought stresses in Brassica juncea (Czern) L.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur R; Joshi, Gopal; Pandey, Ritu; Kukreja, Bharti; Goel, Shailendra; Jagannath, Arun; Kumar, Amar; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Agarwal, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diverse biological processes including adaptive response towards abiotic stresses. To unravel small RNAs and more specifically miRNAs that can potentially regulate determinants of abiotic stress tolerance, next generation sequencing of B. juncea seedlings subjected to high temperature, high salt and drought conditions was carried out. With the help of UEA sRNA workbench software package, 51 conserved miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families were identified. As there was limited genomic information available for B. juncea, we generated and assembled its genome sequence at a low coverage. Using the generated sequence and other publically available Brassica genomic/transcriptomic resources as mapping reference, 126 novel (not reported in any plant species) were discovered for the first time in B. juncea. Further analysis also revealed existence of 32 and 37 star sequences for conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. The expression of selected conserved and novel miRNAs under conditions of different abiotic stresses was revalidated through universal TaqMan based real time PCR. Putative targets of identified conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted in B. rapa to gain insights into functional roles manifested by B. juncea miRNAs. Furthermore, SPL2-like, ARF17-like and a NAC domain containing protein were experimentally validated as targets of miR156, miR160 and miR164 respectively. Investigation of gene ontologies linked with targets of known and novel miRNAs forecasted their involvement in various biological functions. PMID:24671003

  20. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. PMID:22959315

  1. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. ‘a’. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  2. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  3. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  4. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  5. Functional characterization of BjCET3 and BjCET4, two new cation-efflux transporters from Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Minglin; Hao, Mengyu; Fan, Qiangwang; Wang, Wei; Mo, Shaojing; Zhao, Weicheng; Zhou, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Brassica juncea is promising for metal phytoremediation, but little is known about the functional role of most metal transporters in this plant. The functional characterization of two B. juncea cation-efflux family proteins BjCET3 and BjCET4 is reported here. The two proteins are closely related to each other in amino acid sequence, and are members of Group III of the cation-efflux transporters. Heterologous expression of BjCET3 and BjCET4 in yeast confirmed their functions in exporting Zn, and possibly Cd, Co, and Ni. Yeast transformed with BjCET4 showed higher metal resistance than did BjCET3 transformed. The two BjCET–GFP fusion proteins were localized to the plasma membrane in the roots when expressed in tobacco, and significantly enhanced the plants’ Cd tolerance ability. Under Cd stress, tobacco plants transformed with BjCET3 accumulated significant amounts of Cd in shoots, while maintaining similar shoot biomass production with vector-control subjects. Transformed BjCET4 tobacco plants showed significantly enhanced shoot biomass production with markedly decreased shoot Cd content. The two transporter genes have a lower basal transcript expression in B. juncea seedling tissues when grown in normal conditions than under metal-stress, however, their transcripts levels could be substantially increased by Zn, Cd, NaCl or PEG, suggesting that BjCET3 and BjCET4 may play roles in several stress conditions, roles which appear to be different from those of previous characterized cation-efflux transporters, for example, AtMTP1, BjCET2, and BjMTP1. PMID:21652531

  6. Effect of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide on growth and photosynthetic parameters of Brassica juncea L. in imidacloprid soil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anket; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides are widely used to protect crop plants from various insect pests. However, application of pesticides causes phytotoxicity to plants which results in their impaired growth and development. Brassinosteroids are well known to protect plants under abiotic stress conditions. The purpose of the present study was to access the ameliorative role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) in Brassica juncea L. under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. B. juncea plants were raised from seeds soaked in 0.1, 1 and 100nM of EBR, and grown in soils amended with 250, 300 and 350mgkg(-1) IMI pesticide, and observed for growth, pigments and photosynthetic parameters after 30, 60 and 90 days of seed sowing. The plants grown in soil treated with IMI exhibited a significant reduction in shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic parameters like photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, inter-cellular CO2 and transpiration rate, when compared with their respective controls. However, pigments which act as antioxidants such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and xanthophylls were increased with IMI stress. Pre-sowing seed treatment with EBR decreased the toxic effects of IMI and increased the growth, pigment biosynthesis and photosynthetic parameters of the plants grown in IMI amended soil. Maximum increase in all the growth and photosynthetic parameters was noticed in plants raised from seeds treated with 100nM EBR and grown in IMI amended soil. PMID:27454204

  7. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcóllar (Spain): the effect of soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2005-11-01

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH < 5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 microg g(-1), respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. PMID:15894412

  8. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn Analysis of Anthocyanins, Flavonol Glycosides, and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Red Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea Coss Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Harnly, James

    2013-01-01

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens (Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of the parent flavonoid glycosides with reference compounds. The putative identifications were obtained from tandem mass data analysis and confirmed by the retention time, elution order, and UV–vis and high-resolution mass spectra. Further identifications were made by comparing the UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn data with those of reference compounds in the polyphenol database and in the literature. Twenty-seven acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 24 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5- glucosides, 3 acylated cyanidin triglucoside-5-glucosides, 37 flavonol glycosides, and 10 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected for the first time in brassica vegetables. At least 50 of them are reported for the first time in any plant materials. PMID:21970730

  9. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Alyemeni, Mohammed N.; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  10. Nitric oxide (NO) counteracts cadmium induced cytotoxic processes mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Brassica juncea: cross-talk between ROS, NO and antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kusum; Mehta, S K; Shekhawat, G S

    2013-04-01

    Research on NO in plants has achieved huge attention in recent years mainly due to its function in plant growth and development under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we investigated Cd induced NO generation and its relationship to ROS and antioxidant regulation in Brassica juncea. Cd accumulated rapidly in roots and caused oxidative stress as indicated by increased level of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 thus, inhibiting the overall plant growth. It significantly decreased the root length, leaf water content and photosynthetic pigments. A rapid induction in intracellular NO was observed at initial exposures and low concentrations of Cd. A 2.74-fold increase in intracellular NO was recorded in roots treated with 25 μM Cd than control. NO effects on Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and on antioxidant system was investigated by using sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor and a scavenger, [2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] (cPTIO). Roots pretreated with 5 mM SNP for 6 h when exposed to 25 μM Cd for 24 h reduced the level of proline, non-protein thiols, SOD, APX and CAT in comparison to only Cd treatments. However, this effect was almost blocked by 100 μM cPTIO pretreatment to roots for 1 h. This ameliorating effect of NO was specific because cPTIO completely reversed the effect in the presence of Cd. Thus, the present study report that NO strongly counteracts Cd induced ROS mediated cytotoxicity in B. juncea by controlling antioxidant metabolism as the related studies are not well reported in this species. PMID:23322177

  11. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, A A; Alyemeni, Mohammed N; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  12. TinII intron, an enhancer to affect the function of the cytoplasmic male sterility related gene T in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jin, ZhuPing; Wu, LingLing; Cao, JiaShu; Chen, ZhuJun; Pei, YanXi

    2013-12-01

    The T gene, which was cloned from the mitochondria of tumorous stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida), is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-related gene that can produce two transcripts, T1170 and T1243. The latter is transcribed with the uncleaved intron TinII. In our previous study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing the T1243 transcript (OE-T1243) showed a severe male-sterile phenotype, whereas OE-T1170 plants did not. However, the functional mechanism of the T gene in B. Juncea remained unknown. In this study, microscopic analyses of paraffin sections of anthers confirmed that OE-T1243 plants did not produce normal pollen, whereas OE-T1170 plants did. We analyzed the transcription of 15 anther development-related genes and found that transcript levels of nozzle/sporocyteless and barely any meristem 1 and 2 were markedly lower in OE-T1243 plants than those in wild type, while the transcript levels of these genes in OE-T1170 plants were unchanged. To investigate the potential roles of TinII, we inserted the TinII sequence upstream of a minimal region (-60) of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter fused to the 5' end of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of the transgenic plants suggested that TinII acted as an enhancer to significantly increase GUS expression. The potential action mechanism is that the TinII intron acts as an enhancer to affect the function of the CMS-related gene T. PMID:24302291

  13. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues. PMID:16421878

  14. Role of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (var. Vaibhav) in the phytoextraction of Ni from soil amended with fly ash: selection of extractant for metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2006-08-21

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the potential of the plant of Brassica juncea for the phytoextraction of metal from fly ash amended soil and to study correlation between different pool of metals (total, DTPA, CaCl(2) and NH(4)NO(3)) and metal accumulated in the plant in order to assess better extractant for plant available metals. The results of total metal analysis in the soil revealed the presence of Cr, which was found below detection limit (BDL) in the plants. The fly ash (FA) amendments and soil samples were extracted with different extractants and the level of metal vary from one extractant to another. The regression analysis between total and extractable metals showed better regression for all the tested metals except Mn (R(2)=0.001) in DTPA extraction. Correlation coefficient between metal accumulation by the plant tissues and different pool of metals showed better correlation with DTPA in case of Fe, Zn and Ni, whereas, Cu was significantly correlated with NH(4)NO(3) and other metals (Pb, Mn) with CaCl(2). The soil analysis results revealed that the mobility and plant availability of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni) within the profiles of amended soils was influenced by the change in pH, however, Pb and Cu was not affected. The metal accumulation in total plant tissues was found in the order of Fe>Ni>Zn>Mn>Cu>Pb and its translocation was found more in upper part. The plants grown on soil amended with 25%FA have shown significant increase in plant biomass, shoot and plant height, whereas, no significant effect was observed in root length. The cluster analysis showed 10%FA behave differently on the basis of physico-chemical properties and metal behavior. Thus, it may be concluded that B. juncea can be used for phytoextraction of metals, especially Ni in fly ash amendment soil. PMID:16434138

  15. Assessment of single extraction methods for the prediction of bioavailability of metals to Brassica juncea L. Czern. (var. Vaibhav) grown on tannery waste contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2007-10-01

    Various single extractant (DTPA, EDTA, NH(4)NO(3), CaCl(2), and NaNO(3)) was used to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals from tannery wastewater contaminated soil and translocation of metals to the plant of Brassica juncea L. Czern. (var. Vaibhav). The extraction capacity of the metals was found in the order: EDTA>DTPA>NH(4)NO(3)>CaCl(2)>NaNO(3). Cluster analysis between different extractants showed close relationship between DTPA, CaCl(2), NH(4)NO(3) except EDTA and NaNO(3), which showed dispersed relationship. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to metals extracted with EDTA showed different grouping of metals (i) Na, Co, Pb, Ni and (ii) K, Mn, Zn, Cr, in the loading plot which showed similar availability from contaminated soil. PCA applied on metals accumulation data in the plants also exhibited different grouping of variables (i) Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and (ii) Mn, Zn, Pb, Fe showed almost similar accumulation pattern in the plants. The data displayed positive loading for Mn and negative loading for Cr with PC(2). Cd and Zn have shown high loadings in PC(1) and PC(2), respectively. The translocation of most of the tested metals (Pb, Mn, Cd, Ni, Fe) in the shoot of the plant was found better except Cr, Cu, Co and K. The correlation analysis between different extractable metals and metal accumulation in the shoot of the plant showed significant positive correlation with Pb and Cr. Overall, extraction capacity and cluster analysis augmented that EDTA was found suitable extractant for tannery wastewater contaminated soil to B. juncea. PMID:17475401

  16. Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-10-01

    The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45-53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species. PMID:27314514

  17. Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Chandana; Khan, Ehasanullah; Panthri, Medha; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Gupta, Meetu

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 μM As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration. Application of Si modulated the effect of As by improving morphological traits of root along with the development of both primary and lateral roots. Changes observed in root traits showed positive correlation with As induced cell death, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular superoxide radicals (O2(-)). Addition of 1.5 mM Si during As stress increased accumulation of As in roots. Mineral nutrient analysis was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique and positively correlated with increased cysteine, proline, MDA, H2O2 and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX). The results obtained from the above biochemical approaches support the protective and active role of Si in the regulation of As stress through the changes in root developmental process. PMID:27038600

  18. Transgenic indica rice lines, expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1), exhibit enhanced resistance to major pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Kalambur, Muralidharan; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-07-10

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into commercial indica rice varieties by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic rice plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in various transgenic rice lines. Transgenes NPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing BjNPR1 protein displayed enhanced resistance to rice blast, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight diseases. Rice transformants with higher levels of NPR1 revealed notable increases in plant height, panicle length, flag-leaf length, number of seeds/panicle and seed yield/plant as compared to the untransformed plants. The overall results amply demonstrate the profound impact of BjNPR1 in imparting resistance against major pathogens of rice. The multipotent BjNPR1, as such, seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants with durable resistance against various pathogens. PMID:23664883

  19. Significance of Bacillus subtilis strain SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel accumulation in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sabina; Usmani, Saima; Singh, Braj Raj; Musarrat, Javed

    2006-08-01

    In this study, a nickel (Ni)-tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain SJ-101 was characterized based on the 16SrDNA homology and phylogenetic analysis. The role of this strain ascertained in facilitating Ni accumulation in the Indian mustard plant (Brassica juncea [L]. Czern and Coss) var. Pusa Bold (DIR-50), to elucidate the potential of Ni phytoremediation in combination with metal-tolerant rhizobacteria. The data revealed that the plants exposed to NiCl2 (1750 mg kg(-1)) in soil bioaugmented with strain SJ-101 have accumulated 0.147% Ni vis-à-vis 0.094% accumulation in dry biomass of the plants grown in uninoculated soil. The strain SJ-101 has also exhibited the capability of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) (55 microg ml(-1)), and solubilizing inorganic phosphate (90 microg ml(-1)) in specific culture media. The pot culture experiments clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of bioinoculant strain SJ-101 with significant increase (p<0.05) in the plant growth attributes in untreated control soil. Furthermore, the protective effect of the strain SJ-101 against Ni phytotoxicity was evident in plants grown in soil treated with NiCl2 in concentration range of 250-1750 mg kg(-1). Thus, it is suggested that the strain SJ-101 owing to its intrinsic abilities of plant growth promotion, and attenuation of soil Ni by biosorption and bioaccumulation, could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoaccumulation of this toxic heavy metal from contaminated sites. PMID:16487570

  20. Cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial glyoxalase II from Brassica juncea that is upregulated by NaCl, Zn, and ABA

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Mukesh; Bisht, Rekha; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Sopory, S.K.; Bhalla-Sarin, Neera . E-mail: neerasarin@rediffmail.com

    2005-10-28

    A cDNA (1061 bp) Bj glyII was cloned from a mannitol induced library of Brassica juncea. It encoded a protein of 335 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.52 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the clone showed 92% and 56% identity with Pennisetum and rice glyoxalase II, respectively, and 30% identity was observed with the human glyoxalase II. Search for the identical residues revealed the presence of highly conserved THHHXDH domain which is involved in zinc binding. p-NN and pSORT analysis of this sequence revealed a N-terminal mitochondrial target peptide. The cDNA was cloned in pMAL and a fusion protein with MBP (78 kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified approximately sixfold by affinity purification on amylose column and showed its pH optima at 7.0. The K {sub m} was determined to be 120 {mu}M using S-D-lactoylglutathione as substrate. The expression of Bj glyII under various abiotic stress conditions showed that it is upregulated by salinity, heavy metal stress, and ABA.

  1. Bacteria-zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg(-1) Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  2. Bacteria–zinc co-localization implicates enhanced synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides in zinc detoxification when Brassica juncea is inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are enigmatic in enhancing plant growth in the face of increased metal accumulation in plants. Since most PGPB colonize the plant root epidermis, we hypothesized that PGPB confer tolerance to metals through changes in speciation at the root epidermis. We employed a novel combination of fluorophore-based confocal laser scanning microscopic imaging and synchrotron based microscopic X-ray fluorescence mapping with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize bacterial localization, zinc (Zn) distribution and speciation in the roots of Brassica juncea grown in Zn contaminated media (400 mg kg−1 Zn) with the endophytic Pseudomonas brassicacearum and rhizospheric Rhizobium leguminosarum. PGPB enhanced epidermal Zn sequestration relative to PGBP-free controls while the extent of endophytic accumulation depended on the colonization mode of each PGBP. Increased root accumulation of Zn and increased tolerance to Zn was associated predominantly with R. leguminosarum and was likely due to the coordination of Zn with cysteine-rich peptides in the root endodermis, suggesting enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins or glutathione. Our mechanistic model of enhanced Zn accumulation and detoxification in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum has particular relevance to PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated through mining and oxidation of sulphur-bearing Zn minerals or engineered nanomaterials such as ZnS. PMID:26263508

  3. The ability of Helianthus annuus L. and Brassica juncea to uptake and translocate natural uranium and 226Ra under different milieu conditions.

    PubMed

    Vera Tomé, F; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Lozano, J C

    2009-01-01

    Seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. (HA) and Brassica juncea (BJ) were used to test the effect of the pH, the presence of phosphates, and the addition of ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citrate on the uptake and the translocation of uranium isotopes ((238)U, (235)U, and (234)U) and (226)Ra. The results indicated that the presence of phosphates generally reduces the uptake and transfer of uranium from the roots to the shoots of HA. In the case of BJ, while phosphate enhanced the retention of uranium by roots, the translocation was poorer. Likewise, for (226)Ra, the best translocation was in the absence of phosphates for both species. The addition of citrate increased the translocation of uranium for both species, but had no clear effect on the transfer of (226)Ra. The effect of EDTA was much more moderate both for uranium and for (226)Ra, and for both plant species. Only noticeable was a slightly better uptake of (226)Ra by BJ at neutral pH, although the translocation was lower. PMID:18848715

  4. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

  5. Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings revealed by dual-color GISH in trigenomic hybrids of Brassica juncea and B. carinata with B. maurorum.

    PubMed

    Yao, X C; Du, X Z; Ge, X H; Chen, J P; Li, Z Y

    2010-01-01

    From dual-color genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis of three trigenomic hybrids, Brassica maurorum (MM, 2n = 16) x B. juncea (AABB, 2n = 36) (M.AB), B. maurorum x B. carinata (BBCC, 2n = 34) (M.BC), and B. carinata x B. maurorum (BC.M), the three genomes of each hybrid were distinguished and autosyndesis and allosyndesis were evaluated. In M.AB, up to two autosyndetic bivalents occurred among the chromosomes of each genome; a maximum of three allosyndetic bivalents appeared between A-B, A-M, and B-M genomes. The similar pairings in M.BC and BC.M suggested that the cytoplasm of B. maurorum or B. carinata had no obvious effect on chromosome pairing. In M.BC and BC.M, a maximum of one autosyndetic bivalent was found for B and M genomes, but two were found for the C genome; from 0 to 2 allosyndetic bivalents were observed between B-C, B-M, and C-M genomes. The B-M allosyndesis frequency was higher than the A-M or C-M allosyndesis frequency in these hybrids, revealing the closer relationship of B and M genomes. The allosyndesis frequency was higher than the autosyndesis frequency among A, B, and C genomes in these combinations, suggesting that intergenomic homoeology was higher than intragenomic homoeology. The implications for genome evolution and crop breeding are discussed. PMID:20130745

  6. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding for long-chain saturated acyl-ACP thioesterases from the developing seeds of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saheli Sinha; Jha, Jyoti K; Chattopadhyaya, Banani; Basu, Asitava; Sen, Soumitra K; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2010-06-01

    Four types of cDNAs corresponding to the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (Fat) enzyme were isolated from the developing seeds of Brassica juncea, a widely cultivated species amongst the oil-seed crops. The mature polypeptides deduced from the cDNAs showed sequence identity with the FatB class of plant thioesterases. Southern hybridization revealed the presence of at least four copies of BjFatB gene in the genome of this amphidiploid species. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the BjFatB class thioesterase is expressed poorly in flowers and leaves, but significantly in seeds at the mid-maturation stage. The enzymatic activities of different BjFatB isoforms were established upon heterologous expression of the four BjFatB CDSs in Escherichia coli K27fadD88, a mutant strain of fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. The substrate specificity of each BjFatB isoform was determined in vivo by fatty acid profile analyses of the culture supernatant and membrane lipid of the recombinant K27fadD88 and E. coli DH10B (fadD(+)) clones, respectively. The BjFatB1 and BjFatB3 were predominantly active on C18:0-ACP substrate, whereas BjFatB2 and BjFatB4 were specific towards C18:0-ACP as well as C16:0-ACP. These novel FatB genes may find potential application in metabolic engineering of crop plants through their over-expression in seed tissues to generate stearate-rich vegetable fats/oils of commercial importance. PMID:20356753

  7. Effect of Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr Natural Isotopes on Foliar Structure and Plant Spectral Reflectance of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

    SciTech Connect

    Maruthi Sridhar, Y.S.B.B.; Han, F.X.; Monts, D.L.; Diehl, S.V.

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this study are: 1.) evaluate the capacity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for uptake and accumulation of Cs and Sr natural isotopes; 2.) identify foliar structural and other physiological changes (biomass, relative water content, etc.) resulting from the accumulation of these two elements; and 3.) monitor Cs and Sr uptake and bioaccumulation process by spectral reflectance. Potted Indian mustard plants were exposed to different concentrations of Cs (50 and 600 ppm) and Sr (50 and 300 ppm) natural isotopes in solution form for 23 days. Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr was found in the order of leaves > stems > roots for both Cs- and Sr-treated plants. The highest leaf Sr accumulation is observed to be 2708 mg kg{sup -1}, and the highest leaf Cs accumulation is 12251 mg kg{sup -1}. High translocation efficiency for both elements is documented by shoot/root concentration ratios greater than one. Relative water content (RWC) of the plants showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Cs-treated plants. Cs accumulation also affected the pigment concentration and internal structure of the leaf and the spectral characteristics of plants. Within the applied concentration range, Sr accumulation resulted in no significant changes in RWC, structural and spectral characteristics of mustard plants. Cs shoot concentration showed significant negative correlation with relative water content RWC (r = -0.88) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (r = -0.68) of plant shoots. The canopy spectral reflectance and NDVI analysis clearly revealed (p < 0.05) the stress caused by Cs accumulation. (authors)

  8. Chemical extractability of As and Pb from soils across long-term abandoned metallic mine sites in Korea and their phytoavailability assessed by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Han, Junho; Kim, Juhee; Kim, Minhee; Moon, Deok Hyun; Sung, Jung-Suk; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-01-01

    The chemical extractability of As and Pb (by 5 mM CaCl2, 0.1 M HCl, 0.05 M NH4 (H2PO4), and aqua regia) from soils and their phytoavailability (by Brassica juncea) were assessed using 16 soil samples collected as a function of distance from mine pits across three long-term abandoned metallic mine sites. The total concentrations of As and Pb (17-41,000 and 27-10,047 mg kg(-1), respectively) decreased with increasing separation distance from the mine pits along a declining slope. However, the percentage of chemically leachable As and Pb mass (e.g., by 5 mM CaCl2, 0.1 M HCl, or 0.05 M NH4(H2PO4)) relative to total mass (e.g., by aqua regia) tended to increase exponentially with distance, indicating more chemically labile fractions present in less contaminated downgradient soils. Among soil components, extractable As concentrations were best described by coupling DCB-Al with other Al and Fe oxides. For Pb concentration, pH coupled to DCB-Al or Ox-Al provided a good predictive relationship. The inhibitory growth and uptake by plants were best correlated with the extractable concentrations by 5 mM CaCl2 and 0.1 M HCl. In conclusion, the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of As and Pb are highly influenced by the relative labile fraction in abandoned mine soils, and its distribution in soils is essentially correlated with sampling distance from mine pits. PMID:25138557

  9. Development of selectable marker free, insect resistant, transgenic mustard (Brassica juncea) plants using Cre/lox mediated recombination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic/ herbicide resistant marker genes have been proven to be very useful in plant transformation for the initial selection of desired transgenic events. However, presence of these genes in the genetically modified crops may render the crop less acceptable to the consumers. Among several different approaches, the effectiveness of Cre/lox mediated recombination strategy for selectable marker gene (SMG) elimination has previously been demonstrated by different groups in several plants including Brassica. In the present study exploiting Cre/lox mediated recombination strategy, attempt has been made for selectable marker gene elimination from Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) expressing Brassica plants with hemipteran insect resistant phenotype. Results Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) linked with lox flanked hygromycin resistant (hpt) gene was introduced in mustard. Cre recombinase gene cassette was also integrated in separate event. A Cre/lox mediated recombination using crossing strategy was adopted to remove the hpt gene from the subsequent generation of selected hybrid events. Reciprocal crosses were made between T1ASAL-lox-hpt-lox and cre-bar plants. Marker gene elimination was confirmed in the resulting F1 hybrid progenies by PCR analysis, using hpt, cre and ASAL specific primers followed by Southern hybridization. In marker free plants, expression of ASAL was also confirmed by western blotting and ELISA analysis. Retention of functionality of expressed ASAL was investigated by agglutination assay using rabbit erythrocytes. Expressed ASAL was also found to be thermo-sensitive. In planta insect bioassay on F1 hybrid progenies exhibited detrimental effect on the performance of devastating target pest, Lipaphis erysimi. The F1 hybrid hpt negative, ASAL positive plants were allowed to self- fertilize to obtain F2 progeny plants. In some of these plants cre gene was found to be segregated out of the ASAL gene by genetic segregation yielding

  10. Impact of fermentation on phenolic compounds in leaves of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) and Chinese leaf mustard (Brassica juncea coss).

    PubMed

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Four different cultivars of Chinese Brassica vegetables (two pak choi cultivars and two Chinese leaf mustard cultivars) were fermented according to a traditional Chinese method called pickling. The plant material was investigated before and after the fermentation procedure to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in its polyphenols. A detailed description of the identified phenolic compounds of leaf mustard by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) is presented here for the first time, including hydroxycinnamic acid mono- and diglycosides (gentiobioses) and flavonoid tetraglycosides. Flavonoid derivatives with a lower molecular mass (di- and triglycosides) and aglycones of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected in fermented cabbages compared to the main compounds detected in nonfermented cabbages (tri- and tetraglycosides of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of malic acid, glycoside, and quinic acid). During the fermentation process, contents of flavonoid derivatives and some hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found to decrease. Some marginal losses of polyphenols were observed even in the kneading step of the plant material prior to the fermentation procedure. The antioxidative potential of fermented cabbages was much higher compared to that of nonfermented cabbages in the TEAC assay, but not observable in the DPPH assay. The increase of the antioxidative potential detected in the TEAC assay was attributed to the qualitative changes of polyphenols as well as other reductones potentially present. PMID:18078315

  11. Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. Results The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea – a naturally occurring allotetraploid species – grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. Conclusions A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least

  12. Oil Seed Brassica's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed Brassicas, also known by the trade name of rapeseed-mustard, comprise Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata and three ecotypes of B. rapa. Their current global production exceeds 54 million tons, making them the second-most valuable source of vegetable oil in the world. Besides its pre-emin...

  13. Identification of miRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis in cytoplasmic male-sterile and its maintainer fertile lines of brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulatory network of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence is still largely unknown in plants, although numerous researches have been attempted to isolate genes involved in CMS. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis to identify microRNAs and their targets using high-throughput sequencing in CMS and its maintainer fertile (MF) lines of Brassica juncea. Results We identified 197 known and 78 new candidate microRNAs during reproductive development of B. juncea. A total of 47 differentially expressed microRNAs between CMS and its MF lines were discovered, according to their sequencing reads number. Different expression levels of selected microRNAs were confirmed by using real-time quantitative PCR between CMS and MF lines. Furthermore, we observed that the transcriptional patterns of these microRNAs could be mimicked by artificially inhibiting mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase activity and its function in MF line by using treatment with oligomycin. Targeted genes of the microRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing and degradome approaches, including auxin response factor, NAC (No Apical Meristem) domain transcription factor, GRAS family transcription factor, MYB transcription factor, squamosa promoter binding protein, AP2-type transcription factor, homeobox/homeobox-leucine zipper family and TCP family transcription factors, which were observed to be differentially expressed between CMS and MF. Conclusion Taken together, from these findings we suggested microRNA might participate in the regulatory network of CMS by tuning fork in gene expressions in CMS B. juncea. The differential expression of miRNAs observed between CMS and MF lines suggested that biogenesis of miRNAs could be influenced in the CMS. PMID:23324572

  14. Effects of wild-type and α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic Brassica juncea on the components of xenobiotic metabolism, antioxidant status, and oxidative stress in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manju; Kumar, Deepak; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Sardar, Meryam; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-08-01

    Alpha (α)-tocopherol is the most biologically active and preferentially retained form of vitamin E in the human body and is known for its antioxidant and gene regulatory functions. Its increased intake is implicated in protection against diseases that involve an oxidative stress component. We have evaluated the chemopreventive potential of a diet supplemented with natural α-tocopherol-enriched transgenic (TR) Brassica juncea seeds. The modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic metabolism and of antioxidative enzymes was compared in the livers of mice fed on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with 2, 4, and 6 % (w/w) of wild-type (WT) or TR seeds. A dose-dependent increase in the specific activities of these enzymes was observed in those animals fed on diet supplemented with TR seeds. In comparison, an increase in the specific activities of antioxidative enzymes was substantial only at higher doses of WT seeds. Consequently, oxidative stress measured in terms of lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase activity was found to be lower in the case of mice fed with the supplemented diet. However, the chemopreventive potential of TR seeds was more pronounced than that of WT seeds. This study demonstrates the feasibility of fortifying diets with natural α-tocopherol for chemopreventive benefits by means of transgenic manipulation of a commonly used oilseed crop. PMID:23378163

  15. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  16. Development of molecular markers specific to petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yapei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Zhenning; Chen, Zhujun; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-02-01

    To establish a simple and rapid method for isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Brassica vegetables, the effects of different factors on mtDNA extraction were investigated firstly. A new protocol includes five steps: organelle isolation, deoxyribonuclease treatment, lysis, RNase treatment, and deproteinization. Results indicate that a 15 min-lysis time can achieve higher mtDNA yields from etiolated seedlings. Moreover, it is found that the inflorescence of the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is unfit for the isolation of mtDNA. The mtDNA isolated using this method is intact and pure, and can be used for further molecular analysis. Subsequently, the genomic and transcriptional differences of atps and coxs genes on the mitochondria between the petaloid-type CMS line and its maintainer line have been identified. RFLP analysis revealed that out of the five atps and three coxs genes, except of atp4 and cox3, the others mtDNA protein coding genes exhibited polymorphisms, respectively. This results suggest that atps and coxs genes are located in a long mtDNA fragment, and the mtDNA evolves rapidly in structure between the CMS line and its maintainer line in tuber muster. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression level of these genes in flower bud is higher than that of leaf and flower, and that, alternative splicing have been found among the atp6, atp8 and cox3 genes, respectively. Our results modified a efficient protocol for isolating the mtDNA, and provided some novel molecular markers indicating the CMS trait in tuber mustard. The comparative analysis presented in this study allows a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism on CMS in Brassica crops. PMID:24385295

  17. Two plastid DNA lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--within the tribe Brassiceae can be best explained by reciprocal crosses at hexaploidy: evidence from divergence times of the plastid genomes and R-block genes of the A and B genomes of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarita; Padmaja, K Lakshmi; Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K; Pental, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle--B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)--originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages--Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra--that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages. PMID:24691069

  18. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. PMID:22639957

  19. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  20. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants. PMID:14570264

  1. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  2. Accumulation of Gold Nanoparticles in Brassic Juncea

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.T.; Haverkamp, R.G.; Davies, C.E.; Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Agterveld, D.van

    2009-06-03

    Enzymatic digestion is proposed as a method for concentrating gold nanoparticles produced in plants. The mild conditions of digestion are used in order to avoid an increase in the gold particle size, which would occur with a high-temperature process, so that material suitable for catalysis may be produced. Gold nanoparticles of a 5-50-nm diameter, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), at concentrations 760 and 1120 ppm Au, were produced within Brassica juncea grown on soil with 22-48 mg Au kg{sup -1}. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveals that the plant contained approximately equal quantities of Au in the metallic (Au{sup 0}) and oxidized (Au{sup +1}) states. Enzymatic digestion dissolved 55-60 wt% of the plant matter. Due to the loss of the soluble gold fraction, no significant increase in the total concentration of gold in the samples was observed. However, it is likely that the concentration of the gold nanoparticles increased by a factor of two. To obtain a gold concentration suitable for catalytic reactions, around 95 wt% of the starting dry biomass would need to be solubilized or removed, which has not yet been achieved.

  3. Phytoextraction of zinc, copper, nickel and lead from a contaminated soil by different species of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Purakayastha, T J; Viswanath, Thulasi; Bhadraray, S; Chhonkar, P K; Adhikari, P P; Suribabu, K

    2008-01-01

    In a pot culture experiment, five different species of Brassica (Brassica juncea, Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus, and Brassica nigra) were grown for screening possible accumulators of heavy metals, viz. Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb. The plants were grown to maturity in a soil irrigated with sewage effluents for more than two decades in West Delhi, India. The soil analysis showed enhanced accumulation of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb in this sewage-irrigated soil. Among all species, B. carinata showed the highest concentration (mg kg(-1)) as well as uptake (microg pot(-1)) of Ni and Pb at maturity. Although B. campestris showed a higher concentration of Zn in its shoots (stem plus leaf), B. carinata extracted the largest amount of this metal due to greater biomass production. However, B. juncea phytoextracted the largest amount of Cu from the soil. In general, the highest concentration and uptake of metal was observed in shoots compared to roots or seeds of the different species. Among the Brassica spp., B. carinata cv. DLSC1 emerged as the most promising, showing greater uptake of Zn, Ni, and Pb, while B. juncea cv. Pusa Bold showed the highest uptake of Cu. The B. napus also showed promise, as it ranked second with respect to total uptake of Pb, Zn, and Ni, and third for Cu. Total uptake of metals by Brassica spp. correlated negatively with available as well as the total soil metal concentrations. Among the root parameters, root length emerged as the powerful parameter to dictate the uptake of metals by Brassica spp. Probably for the first time, B. carinata was reported as a promising phytoextractor for Zn, Ni, and Pb, which performed better than B. juncea. PMID:18709932

  4. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  6. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  7. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  8. Polymorphic minisatellites in the mitochondrial DNAs of Oryza and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yujiro; Yoshida, Yu; Terachi, Toru; Toriyama, Kinya; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphic analyses of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are rare in comparison with chloroplast DNA, because few target sequences in angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are known. Minisatellites, a tandem array of repeated sequences with a repeat unit of 10 to ~100 bp, are popular target sequences of animal mitochondria, but Beta vulgaris is the only known angiosperm species for which such an analysis has been conducted. From this lack of information, it was uncertain as to whether polymorphic minisatellites existed in other angiosperm species. Ten plant mitochondrial DNAs were found to contain minisatellite-like repeated sequences, most of which were located in intergenic regions but a few occurred in gene coding and intronic regions. Oryza and Brassica accessions were selected as models for the investigation of minisatellite polymorphism because substantial systematic information existed. PCR analysis of 42 Oryza accessions revealed length polymorphisms in four of the five minisatellites. The mitochondrial haplotypes of the 16 Oryza accessions with chromosomal complement (genome) types of CC, BBCC and CCDD were identical but were clearly distinguished from BB-genome accessions, a result consistent with the notion that the cytoplasmic donor parent of the amphidiploid species might be the CC-genome species. Twenty-nine accessions of six major cultivated species of Brassica were classified into five mitochondrial haplotypes based on two polymorphic minisatellites out of six loci. The haplotypes of Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata accessions were identical to Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra accessions, respectively. The haplotypes of Brassica napus accessions were heterogeneous and unique, results that were consistent with previous studies. PMID:21562713

  9. Molybdenum Sequestration in Brassica Species. A Role for Anthocyanins?1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Kerry L.; McGrath, Steve P.; Lombi, Enzo; Stack, Stephen M.; Terry, Norman; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa (“fast plants”) was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex. PMID:11500539

  10. Molybdenum sequestration in Brassica species. A role for anthocyanins?

    PubMed

    Hale, K L; McGrath, S P; Lombi, E; Stack, S M; Terry, N; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Pilon-Smits, E A

    2001-08-01

    To elucidate plant mechanisms involved in molybdenum (Mo) sequestration and tolerance, Brassica spp. seedlings were supplied with molybdate, and the effects on plant physiology, morphology, and biochemistry were analyzed. When supplied with (colorless) molybdate Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) seedlings accumulated water-soluble blue crystals in their peripheral cell layers. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Mo accumulated predominantly in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. Therefore, the blue crystals are likely to be a Mo compound. The x-ray absorption spectrum of the plant-accumulated Mo was different than that for molybdate, indicating complexation with a plant molecule. Because the blue compound was water soluble and showed a pH-dependent color change, possible involvement of anthocyanins was investigated. An anthocyanin-less mutant of Brassica rapa ("fast plants") was compared with varieties containing normal or high anthocyanin levels. The anthocyanin-less mutant did not show accumulation of a blue compound when supplied with molybdate. In the anthocyanin-containing varieties, the blue compound colocalized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers. Mo accumulation by the three B. rapa varieties was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. Addition of molybdate to purified B. rapa anthocyanin resulted in an in vitro color change from pink to blue. Therefore, Mo appears to be sequestered in vacuoles of the peripheral cell layers of Brassica spp. as a blue compound, probably a Mo-anthocyanin complex. PMID:11500539

  11. 'Alperujo' compost amendment of contaminated calcareous and acidic soils: effects on growth and trace element uptake by five Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Belda, Rosa M; Abad, Manuel

    2009-09-01

    The effects of 'alperujo' compost on trace element availability and on microbial activity of two contaminated soils, a calcareous soil (S1) with high contents of Pb and Zn, and an acidic soil (S2) with a substantial amount of Al, As, Pb and Zn, were assessed. Additionally, the growth and capacity for contaminant phytoextraction of five Brassica species were studied. Compost amendment did not affect S1, but in S2 it increased soil pH, thus reducing Al and Zn bioavailability and toxicity. Compost application also increased microbial population and bioactivity in both soils. Brassica plants did not survive in S2, yet they thrived in S1. When compost was applied to S2, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea grew adequately. Considering both the capacity to accumulate trace elements in the shoot and the ability to grow in the contaminated soils tested, the most efficient phytoextractors were Brassica juncea in S1 (particularly for Zn) and Brassica oleracea in S2 (for Al, As, Pb and Zn). PMID:19369067

  12. Different fertility and meiotic regularity in allohexaploids derived from trigenomic hybrids between three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids and B. maurorum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xingcheng; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-04-01

    The wild species Brassica maurorum Durieu (MM, 2n = 16) is useful for the improvement of Brassica crops. Herein, interspecific reciprocal crosses between B. maurorum and three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids were carried out with the aid of embryo rescue. Trigenomic hybrids with Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n = 34) were produced from reciprocal crosses, but the hybrids with Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n = 36) were obtained only when B. maurorum was used as female. All the hybrids were morphologically intermediate between their parents, and were male and female sterile. By in vitro chromosome doubling of the trigenomic hybrids, the allohexaploids (AACC.MM/MM.AACC, 2n = 54; BBCC.MM, 2n = 50; MM.AABB, 2n = 52) were established and characterized for their phenotype and cytology. The fertilities of three allohexaploids were different, for AACC.MM and MM.AACC failed to produce seeds by selfing, but BBCC.MM showed low seed-set and MM.AABB had good seed-set. They also expressed variable extents of male meiotic regularity as to chromosome pairing and segregation, with MM.AABB > BBCC.MM > AACC.MM/MM.AACC, the same order as their fertility. So their meiotic behavior contributed to the fertility. Finally, the potential of these allohexaploids as a bridge for genetic improvement of Brassica crops was discussed. PMID:22147137

  13. Characterization of Brassica nigra collections using simple sequence repeat markers reveals distinct groups associated with geographical location, and frequent mislabelling of species identity.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aneeta; Nelson, Matthew N; Plummer, Julie A; Cowling, Wallace A; Yan, Guijun

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 180 Brassica nigra (L.) Kochgenotypes from 60 different accessions was evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat markers with known locations on the Brassica A, B, and C genomes. Two lines each from Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Brassica carinata Braunwere also included as comparator species. A total of 218 high quality alleles were used to generate a genetic distance matrix, and clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses were used to investigate genetic relationships among the accessions. Accessions from the same country of origin tended to cluster together. Surprisingly, 13 accessions declared to be B. nigra had A- and B-genome alleles and morphology consistent with them being B. juncea, which was supported by their positioning near B. juncea in the cluster analysis. Two B. nigra accessions possessed alleles associated more closely with the A genome than the B genome, and these may be Brassica rapa L. accessions. One B. nigra accession had B- and C-genome alleles and morphology consistent with it being B. carinata. The remaining 44 accessions (73%) appeared to be truly B. nigra and formed morphologically and genetically distinct groups associated with country or region of origin, notably Ethiopia, Israel, India, and Europe. Most B. nigra accessions were highly heterozygous, consistent with their obligate outcrossing habit. This study demonstrated the value of using molecular markers with known genome locations (in this case, in the Brassica A, B, and C genomes) to confirm species identity in families such as Brassicaceae where species identification based solely on morphological characters is difficult. PMID:21217806

  14. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification. PMID:26276216

  15. Different genome-specific chromosome stabilities in synthetic Brassica allohexaploids revealed by wide crosses with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xian-Hong; Wang, Jing; Li, Zai-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In sexual hybrids between cultivated Brassica species and another crucifer, Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), parental genome separation during mitosis and meiosis is under genetic control but this phenomenon varies depending upon the Brassica species. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in parental genome separation, complex hybrids between synthetic Brassica allohexaploids (2n = 54, AABBCC) from three sources and O. violaceus were obtained and characterized. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to explore chromosomal/genomic components and rRNA gene expression of the complex hybrids and their progenies. Key Results Complex hybrids with variable fertility exhibited phenotypes that were different from the female allohexaploids and expressed some traits from O. violaceus. These hybrids were mixoploids (2n = 34–46) and retained partial complements of allohexaploids, including whole chromosomes of the A and B genomes and some of the C genome but no intact O. violaceus chromosomes; AFLP bands specific for O. violaceus, novel for two parents and absent in hexaploids were detected. The complex hybrids produced progenies with chromosomes/genomic complements biased to B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB) and novel B. juncea lines with two genomes of different origins. The expression of rRNA genes from B. nigra was revealed in all allohexaploids and complex hybrids, showing that the hierarchy of nucleolar dominance (B. nigra, BB > B. rapa, AA > B. oleracea, CC) in Brassica allotetraploids was still valid in these plants. Conclusions The chromosomes of three genomes in these synthetic Brassica allohexaploids showed different genome-specific stabilities (B > A > C) under induction of alien chromosome elimination in crosses with O. violaceus, which was possibly affected by nucleolar dominance. PMID:19403626

  16. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures. PMID:21718044

  17. Hypersensitivity to pollen of four different species of Brassica: a clinico-immunologic evaluation in patients of respiratory allergy in India

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shipra; Katiyar, Raj Kishore; Gaur, Shailendra; Jain, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in India. Several species of Brassica are grown in different parts of country for its oilseeds. Objective The objective was to investigate allergenicity to antigenic extracts of pollen of 4 species of Brassica. Methods Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, and Brassica napus were selected for the detailed investigation. Pollen samples from each of the four species were collected from the polliniferous materials. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of these extracts were evaluated by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Skin prick test, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Western blot on atopic individuals. Results Out of the 159 atopic subjects tested, 21.38% were positive to at least one or other species of Brassica pollen, with highest skin positivity (13.20%) to B. campestris extract. Raised IgE with significant linear correlation with intensity of skin reactions was obtained. Protein fractions of 20, 25, 32, 37, 56, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. campestris and B. juncea whereas 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. nigra and B. napus as major IgE binding protein fractions. The patients also showed positivity to other inhalant pollen allergens tested. Conclusion IgE mediated hypersensitivity varied from 4.40% to 13.20% in Indian atopic subjects to pollen of one or the other species of Brassica. Protein fractions of 47, 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were identified as IgE binding by all the four species, however individual heterogeneity exists. Thus a local species may be more pertinent for immunotherapy. The major allergen needs to be further characterized. PMID:25379479

  18. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  19. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    PubMed

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. PMID:26685787

  20. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism. PMID:18469930

  1. Behavioural roles and task partitioning in the primitively eusocial wasp: Belonogaster juncea juncea (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Tindo, M; Dejean, A

    1997-11-01

    This study, conducted to examine the phenomenon of task partitioning in primitively eusocial insects, permitted us to record 39 behavioural items in colonies of the polistine wasp Belonogaster juncea juncea. Of these, 18 and 21 items were quantified using the instantaneous scanning technique in pre-emergence and post-emergence phase colonies, respectively. A principal components analysis showed that among these items, `absence from nest' (Afn), `cell inspection' (Is), `receive prey' (Rp), `malaxate prey' (Mp) for pre-emergence colonies, and `cell inspection' (Is), `self-grooming' (Sg), `egg-laying' (E1), `cell initiation' (CI), `move nesting material' (Mn), `receive prey' (Rp), `absence from nest' (Afn) for post-emergence colonies, are useful for describing the individual variability in a given colony. Nevertheless, a hierarchical cluster analysis based on all behavioural items quantified showed that five main behavioural roles could be defined viz: Foraging, building, feeding, inactivity and reproduction. The items, `land with prey' and `feed larva' were not correlated, showing that there is a slight task partitioning in regard to prey handling. In both pre- and post-emergence colonies, the same functions are performed but, the growing number of individuals and the greater availability of nesting material in old cells modified the composition of the items associated with reproductive behaviour at the post-emergence stage. PMID:24896676

  2. Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: Implications for phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V.

    1997-05-01

    The toxicity of Zn and Cu in three species from the genus Brassica was examined to determine if these plants showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate a site contaminated with these two heavy metals. Hydroponically grown 12-d-old plants of Brassica juncea, B. rapa, and B. napus were grown for an additional 14 d in the presence of either elevated Zn (6.5 mg L{sup {minus}1}), Cu (0.32 mg L{sup {minus}1}), or Zn+Cu to quantify the toxic effects of these metals on several different growth parameters. With few exceptions, both root and shoot dry weight for all three species decreased significantly in the presence of heavy metals. Cu inhibited lateral root elongation in B. rapa, B. napus, and, to a lesser extent, B. juncea, while Zn tended to decrease only lateral root diameter. Both metals reduced shoot Fe and Mn concentrations in all three Brassica spp. to levels associated with Fe and Mn deficiencies. These deficiencies, however, did not correlate with observed patterns of leaf chlorosis. Nonetheless, heavy metal-induced inhibition of Fe and Mn accumulation may have been a significant factor in reducing plant growth. In terms of heavy metal removal, the Brassica spp, were more effective at removing Zn from the nutrient solution than Cu. The extent of Zn and Cu removal was reduced in the presence of both metals, as compared to the single heavy metal treatments. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Genome structure affects the rate of autosyndesis and allosyndesis in AABC, BBAC and CCAB Brassica interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Coriton, Olivier; Yan, Guijun; Nelson, Matthew N; Cowling, Wallace A; Chèvre, Anne-Marie

    2010-09-01

    Gene introgression into allopolyploid crop species from diploid or polyploid ancestors can be accomplished through homologous or homoeologous chromosome pairing during meiosis. We produced trigenomic Brassica interspecific hybrids (genome complements AABC, BBAC and CCAB) from the amphidiploid species Brassica napus (AACC), Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) in order to test whether the structure of each genome affects frequencies of homologous and homoeologous (both allosyndetic and autosyndetic) pairing during meiosis. AABC hybrids produced from three genotypes of B. napus were included to assess the genetic control of homoeologous pairing. Multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridisation was used to quantify homologous pairing (e.g. A-genome bivalents in AABC), allosyndetic associations (e.g. B-C in AABC) and autosyndetic associations (e.g. B-B in AABC) at meiosis. A high percentage of homologous chromosomes formed pairs (97.5-99.3%), although many pairs were also involved in autosyndetic and allosyndetic associations. Allosyndesis was observed most frequently as A-C genome associations (mean 4.0 per cell) and less frequently as A-B genome associations (0.8 per cell) and B-C genome associations (0.3 per cell). Autosyndesis occurred most frequently in the haploid A genome (0.75 A-A per cell) and least frequently in the haploid B genome (0.13 B-B per cell). The frequency of C-C autosyndesis was greater in BBAC hybrids (0.75 per cell) than in any other hybrid. The frequency of A-B, A-C and B-C allosyndesis was affected by the genomic structure of the trigenomic hybrids. Frequency of allosyndesis was also influenced by the genotype of the B. napus paternal parent for the three AABC (B. juncea × B. napus) hybrid types. Homoeologous pairing between the Brassica A, B and C genomes in interspecific hybrids may be influenced by complex interactions between genome structure and allelic composition. PMID:20571876

  4. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  5. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation. PMID:25036598

  6. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  7. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. PMID:23987810

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  9. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    PubMed

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds. PMID:24697626

  10. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes. PMID:24558262

  11. Real-time analysis of sulfur-containing volatiles in Brassica plants infested with root-feeding Delia radicum larvae using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Nicole M.; Samudrala, Devasena; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Plants damaged by herbivores emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a sensitive detection method for online analysis of herbivore-induced VOCs. Previously, it was found that Brassica nigra plants emit several sulfur-containing VOCs when attacked by cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) larvae with m/z 60 as a marker for the formation of allylisothiocyanate from the glucosinolate sinigrin. We tested the hypothesis that m/z 60 emission occurs only in plants with sinigrin in their roots. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide are only emitted after larval infestation. Methodology Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to track sulfur-containing VOCs from six different species of Brassica over time. The roots were either artificially damaged or infested with cabbage root fly larvae. Glucosinolate profiles of the roots were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography and compared with VOC emissions. Principal results Brassica nigra, B. juncea and B. napus primarily emitted m/z 60 directly after artificial damage or root fly infestation. Sulfide and methanethiol emissions from B. nigra and B. juncea also increased after larval damage but much later (6–12 h after damage). Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. carinata principally emitted methanethiol after artificial and after larval damage. Brassica oleracea and B. carinata showed some increase in m/z 60 emission after larval damage. Comparison with root glucosinolate profiles revealed that sinigrin cannot be the only precursor for m/z 60. Conclusions The principal compound emitted after root damage is determined by the plant species, and not by damage type or root glucosinolate composition. Once determined, the principal compounds may be used as markers for identifying damaged or infested plants. Further analyses of plant enzymes involved in the

  12. Cloning of TTG1 gene and PCR identification of genomes A, B and C in Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingli; Liu, Xianjun; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Lili; Xiang, Jianhua; Lu, Ying; Liu, Zhongsong

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) genes were cloned from three diploid Brassica species (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) and two amphidiploids species (B. juncea and B. carinata) by homology cloning. TTG1 homologues identified in all the accessions of the investigated species had a coding sequence of 1,014 bp. One copy was obtained from each diploid species and two copies from each amphidiploid species. Combined analysis of the TTG1 sequences cloned in this study with those obtained from public databases demonstrated that three, forty-five and seven nucleotides were specific variations in TTG1 genes from genomes A, B and C, respectively. Primers designed with genome-specific nucleotide variations were able to distinguish among TTG1 genes originating from genomes A, B and C in Brassica. Therefore, the TTG1 gene could serve as a candidate marker gene to detect the pollen flow of Brassica and provide an alternative method for the detection of pollen drift and risk assessment of gene flow in Brassica species. PMID:24752509

  13. BRASSICAS AND MUSTARDS”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica and mustard cover crops are known for their rapid fall growth, great biomass production and nutrient scavenging ability. However, they are attracting renewed interest primarily because of their pest management characteristics. Most Brassica species release chemical compounds that may be tox...

  14. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  15. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-ting; Lu, Ping

    2002-04-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in Plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively. The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate. PMID:12046290

  16. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Suma, A.; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A. K.; Radhamani, J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa. PMID:24489504

  17. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  18. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea. At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na+ extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchangers; (ii) better root K+ retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H+-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  19. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  20. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  1. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  2. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  3. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  4. Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Kaneko, Yukio; Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic herbicide-resistant varieties of Brassica napus, or oilseed rape, from which canola oil is obtained, are imported into Japan, where this plant is not commercially cultivated to a large extent. This study aimed to examine the distribution of herbicide-resistant B. napus and transgene flow to escaped populations of its closely related species, B. rapa and B. juncea. Samples were collected from 12 areas near major ports through which oilseed rape imports into Japan passed--Kashima, Chiba, Yokohama, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Sakai-Senboku, Kobe, Uno, Mizushima, Kita-Kyushu, and Hakata--and the presence of glyphosate- and/or glufosinate-resistant B. napus was confirmed in all areas except Yokohama, Sakai-Senboku, Uno, and Kita-Kyushu. The Yokkaichi area was the focus because several herbicide-resistant B. napus plants were detected not only on the roadside where oilseed rape spilled during transportation but also on the riverbanks, where escaped populations of B. rapa and B. juncea grew. Samples of B. napus that were tolerant to both herbicides were detected in four continuous years (2005-2008) in this area, suggesting the possibility of intraspecific transgene flow within the escaped B. napus populations. Moreover, in 2008, seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-tolerant B. napus (2n = 38) and B. rapa (2n = 20) were detected; some seedlings derived from the seeds collected at a Yokkaichi site showed glyphosate resistance and had 2n = 29 chromosomes. This observation strongly suggests the occurrence of hybridization between herbicide-resistant B. napus and escaped B. rapa and the probability of introgression of a herbicide-resistance gene into related escaped species. PMID:22179196

  5. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006–2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  6. Correlated expression of gfp and Bt cry1Ac gene facilitates quantification of transgenic hybridization between Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Shen, B-C; Stewart, C N; Zhang, M-Q; Le, Y-T; Tang, Z-X; Mi, X-C; Wei, W; Ma, K-P

    2006-09-01

    Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (BRASSICA NAPUS) might not be avoidable, thus, it is important to detect and quantify hybridization events with its relatives in real time. Data are presented showing the correlation between genetically linked green fluorescent protein (GFP) with BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (Bt) CRY1AC gene expression in hybrids formed between transgenic B. NAPUS "Westar" and a wild Chinese accession of wild mustard (B. JUNCEA) and hybridization between transgenic B. NAPUS and a conspecific Chinese landrace oilseed rape. Hybrids were obtained either by spontaneous hybridization in the field or by hand-crossing in a greenhouse. In all cases, transgenic hybrids were selected by GFP fluorescence among seedlings originating from seeds harvested from B. JUNCEA and the Chinese oilseed rape plants. Transgenicity was confirmed by PCR detection of transgenes. GFP fluorescence was easily and rapidly detected in the hybrids under greenhouse and field conditions. Results showed that both GFP fluorescence and Bt protein synthesis decreased as either plant or leaf aged, and GFP fluorescence intensity was closely correlated with Bt protein concentration during the entire vegetative lifetime in hybrids. These findings allow the use of GFP fluorescence as an accurate tool to detect gene-flow in time in the field and to conveniently estimate BT CRY1AC expression in hybrids on-the-plant. PMID:16883477

  7. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  8. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  9. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  10. Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and susceptibility of donkeys to Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa poisoning were determined at high and low doses. Seeds of C. juncea conaining 0.074% of dehyrdropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) were administered to three donkeys at 0.3, 0.6 and 1 g/kg body weight daily for 365 day...

  11. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  12. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  13. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29-6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  14. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers' sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  15. Heritability and Reversibility of DNA Methylation Induced by in vitro Grafting between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Li, Junxing; Qi, Zhenyu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Grafting between tuber mustard and red cabbage produced a chimeric shoot apical meristem (SAM) of TTC, consisting of Layers I and II from Tuber mustard and Layer III from red Cabbage. Phenotypic variations, which mainly showed in leaf shape and SAM, were observed in selfed progenies GSn (GS = grafting-selfing, n = generations) of TTC. Here the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with DNA methylation changes in GSn were investigated. Variation in leaf shape was found to be stably inherited to GS5, but SAM variation reverted over generations. Subsequent measurement of DNA methylation in GS1 revealed 5.29–6.59% methylation changes compared with tuber mustard (TTT), and 31.58% of these changes were stably transmitted to GS5, but the remainder reverted to the original status over generations, suggesting grafting-induced DNA methylation changes could be both heritable and reversible. Sequence analysis of differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) revealed methylation mainly changed within transposons and exon regions, which further affected the expression of genes, including flowering time- and gibberellin response-related genes. Interestingly, DMFs could match differentially expressed siRNA of GS1, GS3 and GS5, indicating that grafting-induced DNA methylation could be directed by siRNA changes. These results suggest grafting-induced DNA methylation may contribute to phenotypic variations induced by grafting. PMID:27257143

  16. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  17. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  18. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  19. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids. PMID:26583027

  20. Genome-specific differential gene expressions in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids from pair-wise crosses of three cultivated diploids revealed by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Cui, Cheng; Tan, Chen; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. Herein, the transcriptomes detected by RNA-seq in resynthesized Brassica allotetraploids (Brassica juncea, AABB; B. napus, AACC; B. carinata, BBCC) from the pair-wise crosses of the same three diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC) were compared to reveal the patterns of gene expressions from progenitor genomes and the effects of different types of genome combinations and cytoplasm, upon the genome merger and duplication. From transcriptomic analyses for leaves and silique walls, extensive expression alterations were revealed in these resynthesized allotetraploids relative to their diploid progenitors, as well as during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, for differential and transgressive gene expressions were variable in numbers and functions. Genes involved in glucosinolates and DNA methylation were transgressively up-regulated among most samples, suggesting that gene expression regulation was immediately established after allopolyploidization. The expression of ribosomal protein genes was also tissue-specific and showed a similar expression hierarchy of rRNA genes. The balance between the co-up and co-down regulation was observed between reciprocal B. napus with different types of the cytoplasm. Our results suggested that gene expression changes occurred after initial genome merger and such profound alterations might enhance the growth vigor and adaptability of Brassica allotetraploids. PMID:26583027

  1. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  2. Cytoplasmic and genomic effects on meiotic pairing in Brassica hybrids and allotetraploids from pair crosses of three cultivated diploids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-07-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  3. Phenotypic characterization of sixteen accessions of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous cover crop that provides benefits to a cropping system including nitrogen accumulation, weed suppression and soil stability. Adoption of sunn hemp as a cover crop is limited primarily due to the availability of seed sources, leading to high seed cost...

  4. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on germination of vegetables and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that could be an important summer cover crop in the Southeastern U.S., but it has the potential for suppressing both crops and weeds. Allelopathic effects of sunnhemp on weeds, vegetable crops, and cover crops were evaluated in growth chamber an...

  5. Earliness, morphological, and reproductive variation among 16 sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accessions in Griffin, GA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous species used for cover cropping in subtropical and tropical countries. It has great potential as a new crop in the southeastern U.S. because of its ability to supply follow-up crops with adequate nitrogen levels for rotated crop sustenance. However, l...

  6. Identification of expressed genes during infection of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan F; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen-host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed in the infection of Arabidopsis plants, indicating that these genes play an important role in P. brassicae infection. PMID:21518080

  7. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): An apomictic invader on three continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive populations using molecular markers provides insights into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) is an apomictic perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, Argentina, Canada and the USA. Invasive biotypes...

  8. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  9. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  10. High-resolution molecular karyotyping uncovers pairing between ancestrally related Brassica chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Batley, Jacqueline; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Hayward, Alice; Cowling, Wallace A; Nelson, Matthew N

    2014-05-01

    How do chromosomal regions with differing degrees of homology and homeology interact at meiosis? We provide a novel analytical method based on simple genetics principles which can help to answer this important question. This method interrogates high-throughput molecular marker data in order to infer chromosome behavior at meiosis in interspecific hybrids. We validated this method using high-resolution molecular marker karyotyping in two experimental Brassica populations derived from interspecific crosses among B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata, using a single nucleotide polymorphism chip. This method of analysis successfully identified meiotic interactions between chromosomes sharing different degrees of similarity: full-length homologs; full-length homeologs; large sections of primary homeologs; and small sections of secondary homeologs. This analytical method can be applied to any allopolyploid species or fertile interspecific hybrid in order to detect meiotic associations. This genetic information can then be used to identify which genomic regions share functional homeology (i.e., retain enough similarity to allow pairing and segregation at meiosis). When applied to interspecific hybrids for which reference genome sequences are available, the question of how differing degrees of homology and homeology affect meiotic interactions may finally be resolved. PMID:24471809

  11. Brassica oleracea and B. napus.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Penny A C Hundleby Née; Irwin, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    With the accelerating advances in genetics and genomics research in Arabidopsis and Brassica, transformation technologies are now routinely being exploited to elucidate gene function as well as contributing to the development of novel enhanced crops. When a researcher's desired goal is simply to modify or introduce candidate genes into a Brassica, the availability of easy-to-follow protocols and knowledge of readily transformable genotypes becomes a valuable resource. In this chapter we outline a basic A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation method, using 4-day-old cotyledonary explants, that has been successfully applied to a range of different B. oleracea and B. napus genotypes. For demonstration purposes, we focus primarily on the diploid species B. oleracea using a model doubled haploid genotype, AG DH1012. After only 3-4 weeks on kanamycin selection the first transgenic shoots can be isolated. Transformation efficiencies are typically in the region of 15-25 % (based on 15-25 PCR-positive independent shoots from 100 inoculated explants). Most explants will produce multiple shoots (1-3+ per explant) and so the total number of transgenic shoots produced will exceed 15-25 per 100 explant experiment. The protocol is also applicable to B. napus and modifications specific to this species are highlighted accordingly. For researchers wishing to use their own plant genotype, tissue culture phenotypes that are conducive to efficient transformation are also highlighted within this chapter. PMID:25300849

  12. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae. PMID:25526218

  13. Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Wen; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3-5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77%) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1%) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22%) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77%) were polymorphic, 111 (22%) were not polymorphic and 5 (1%) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90% amplified a PCR product; 132 (25%) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8%) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa. PMID:22972202

  14. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea. PMID:24973261

  15. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. Findings We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. Conclusions BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a

  16. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. PMID:25645061

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata. PMID:25767903

  18. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  19. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with A. thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from A. thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in B. rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved non-coding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each “cookbook style” analysis includes a step-by-step walk-through with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process. PMID:22866056

  20. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions’ (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5M, 1.5M and 2M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals’ tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals. PMID:26010144

  1. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) Oocytes through Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Yen, Wish; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-01-01

    Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT) mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS) cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea) oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS) effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals. PMID:26010144

  2. Principal component analysis for morphological, seed reproductive, and phenology traits in 16 sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume grown for fiber, cover cropping, and as a green manure crop with potential to contribute to sustainability. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions were grown in the southeast U.S. from 2008 to 2009 and characterized for horticultural traits including biomas...

  3. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  4. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. PMID:25442524

  5. Targeted metabolite analysis and biological activity of Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Noites, Alexandra; Valentão, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, José A; Vale-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-01-28

    For the first time, an insect-plant system, Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa, was tested for its biological capacity, namely, antioxidant (DPPH*, *NO, and O(2)*- radicals) and antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) activities. Samples from the insect's life cycle (larvae, excrements, exuviae, and butterfly) were always found to be more efficient than the host plant. Also, P. brassicae materials, as well as its host plant, were screened for phenolics and organic acids. The host plant revealed higher amounts of both compounds. Two phenolic acids, ferulic and sinapic, as well as kaempferol 3-Osophoroside, were common to insect (larvae and excrements) and plant materials, with excrements being considerably richer. Detection of sulfated compounds in excrements, absent in host plant, revealed that metabolic processes in this species involved sulfation. Additionally, deacylation and deglycosilation were observed. All matrices presented the same organic acids qualitative profile, with the exception of excrements. PMID:19115952

  6. Selenium distribution and speciation in plant parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from a seleniferous area of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Eiche, E; Bardelli, F; Nothstein, A K; Charlet, L; Göttlicher, J; Steininger, R; Dhillon, K S; Sadana, U S

    2015-02-01

    The concentration, distribution, and speciation of selenium in different parts of wheat and Indian mustard, grown in a seleniferous area in Punjab, were investigated using synchrotron based (XAS) and classical acid digestion and extraction methods. The analyses revealed a high Se enrichment in all investigated plant parts, with Se levels in the range of 133-931 mg/kg (dry weight, dw). Such high Se enrichment is mainly due to the considerable amounts of easily available Se detected in the soil, which are renewed on a yearly basis to some extent via irrigation. Speciation analysis in soil and plants indicated selenate and organic Se as major Se species taken up by plants, with a minor presence of selenite. The analyses also revealed that the highest Se enrichment occurs in the upper plant parts, in agreement with the high uptake rate and mobility of selenate within plants. In both wheat and mustard, highest Se enrichments were found in leaves (387 mg/kg·dw in wheat and 931 mg/kg·dw in mustard). Organic species (dimethylselenide and methylselenocysteine) were found in different parts of both plants, indicating that an active detoxification response to the high Se uptake is taking place through methylation and/or volatilization. The high proportion of selenate in wheat and mustard leaves (47% and 70%, respectively) is the result of the inability of the plant metabolism to completely transform selenate to non-toxic organic forms, if oversupplied. Methylselenocysteine, a common Se species in accumulating plants, was detected in wheat, suggesting that, in the presence of high Se concentration, this plant develops similar response mechanisms to accumulator plants. PMID:25461096

  7. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn analysis of anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in red mustard green (Brassica juncea (L) Coss variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the polyphenols in red mustard greens and identified 209 phenolic compounds: 67 anthocyanin, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned ...

  8. Evaluation of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) for potential risks of food allergy using bioinformatics and literature searches.

    PubMed

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Gupta, Vibha; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database. Initial comparisons in 2012 were performed with version 12 by methods recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India. Searches were repeated with version 15 in 2015. A literature search was performed using PubMed to identify reports of allergy associated with the sources of the three transgenes. Potential open reading frames at the DNA insertion site were evaluated for matches to allergens. No significant sequence identity matches were identified with Bar, Barnase or Barstar proteins or potential fusion peptides at the genomic-insert junctions compared to known allergens. No references were identified that associated the sources of the genes with allergy. Based on these results we conclude that the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins are unlikely to present any significant risk of food allergy to consumers. PMID:26079618

  9. Molecular characterization of a Phi-class mustard (Brassica juncea) glutathione S-transferase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana by 5'-deletion analysis of its promoter.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Hu, Wen-Wei; Jiao, Yuxia; Pua, Eng-Chong

    2005-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are regulated by various stimuli at the transcriptional level. In this study, a 2,640-bp promoter sequence of a mustard GST gene, BjGSTF2, was cloned. Several truncated BjGSTF2 promoters were generated by 5'-deletion, fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding sequence and the chimeric genes expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgene expression in GST2623::GUS plants carrying the longest promoter varied considerably. GUS activity was high in the roots, cotyledons, anthers and both ends of the silique, but it was low or barely detectable in the leaves, seeds, petals and stamens. Analysis of transgenic plants expressing the GUS gene under the control of different truncated BjGSTF2 promoters revealed several regions that possessed cis-acting elements required for the basal and induced expression by H(2)O(2), salicylic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and down-regulation by spermidine. The results also showed that the GUS activity of GST2623::GUS coincided well with the H(2)O(2) accumulation pattern in cultured leaf-disc explants during the regeneration process. PMID:15926064

  10. Evaluating a 'biotic ligand model' applied to chloride-enhanced Cd uptake by Brassica juncea from nutrient solution at constant Cd2+ activity.

    PubMed

    López-Chuken, Ulrico J; Young, Scott D; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge L

    2010-03-01

    Evidence of chloride-enhanced cadmium uptake by plants in soil experiments has been reported. However, it is still unclear whether this finding is due to increased rates of Cd2+ diffusion to plant roots or the direct uptake of complexes such as CdC1+. A controlled hydroponic experiment was undertaken to distinguish and quantify the uptake rates of free and inorganic-complexed cadmium and to model the uptake of cadmium by Indian mustard plants with a 'biotic ligand model'. Plants were treated with NaCl (0 to 200 mM) including equivalent Na2SO4 treatments. Cadmium speciation in solution was calculated using the WHAM-VI model. Results of the current trials showed that higher Cl-concentrations in solution generally resulted in greater cadmium accumulation by plants than predicted by the Cd2+ activity. Activities of Cd-chloro complexes showed the best correlations with the cadmium concentrations in the plants compared with the activity of Cd2+. The biotic ligand model showed a reasonable good fit for the plants when assuming competition by Cd2+ and CdCl+ for sorption sites at root level. The relative values of the two reaction constants suggest that root affinity for Cd2+ is 3.4 times greater than for CdCl+. Nevertheless this clearly indicates a substantial role for chloro-complexed cadmium accumulation. PMID:20426272

  11. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  12. In vitro anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea for its biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P; Selvi, S Senthamil; Govindaraju, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea (J. juncea) against biofilm forming pathogenic strains. Methods Gorgonians were extracted with methanol and analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by Congo red agar supplemented with sucrose. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to monitor in vitro biofilm reduction by microtitre plate assay. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic gorgonian extract (MGE) was carried out by disc diffusion method followed by calculating the percentage of increase with crude methanol (CM). Results The presence of active functional group was exemplified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry, black, crystalline colonies confirm the production of extracellular polymeric substances responsible for biofilm formation in Congo red agar. MGE exhibited potential anti-biofilm activity against all tested bacterial strains. The anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract was comparably higher in Salmonella typhii followed by Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. The overall percentage of increase was higher by 50.2% to CM. Conclusions To conclude, anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial efficacy of J. juncea is impressive over biofilm producing pathogens and are good source for novel anti-bacterial compounds. PMID:23593571

  13. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  14. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42). It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE), B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org. PMID:21995777

  15. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of

  16. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development. PMID:26711633

  17. Genotyping the clonal structure of a gorgonian coral, Junceella juncea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), using microsatellite loci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Dai, Chang-Feng

    2005-11-01

    The identification of different clones is fundamental to the study of population structure among organisms with mixed reproductive modes such as cnidarians. However, due to the low genetic variation of coral mtDNA and contamination by zooxanthellate DNA, very few molecular markers are available for studying the clonal structure of cnidarians. Herein we used four polymorphic loci of microsatellite DNA isolated from a zooxanthellae-free octocoral, Junceella juncea, to study its clonal structure in seven populations collected from three localities in Taiwan. In total, 40 multilocus genotypes were found among 152 colonies, and the number of genotypes (clones) identified in the seven populations ranged from 2 to 16. Each of the 40 multilocus genotypes was restricted to a single population, even where adjacent populations were only 100 m distant. The ratio of observed to expected genotypic diversity (Go:Ge) ranged from 0.217 to 0.650, and Go showed a significant departure from Ge ( p<0.05) at each site indicating that asexual fragmentation may play a major role in the maintenance of established populations. Mean relatedness ( R) values showed that genotypes within reefs were more closely related than those between regions. The results indicate that microsatellites are useful for discerning the clonal structures among and within populations at different spatial scales.

  18. Construction of Near Isogenic Lines in Brassica oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The single species Brassica oleracea encompasses a remarkable diversity of morphotypes, including cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, marrowstem kale, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts as well as rapid-flowering morphologically simple genotypes reminiscent of Arabidopsis. To dissect the molecular basis of ...

  19. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  20. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  1. Oil body biogenesis during Brassica napus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qing; Wu, Yan

    2009-08-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to turn green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast. PMID:19686376

  2. Multiple shoot regeneration and alkaloid cerpegin accumulation in callus culture of Ceropegia juncea Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nikam, T D; Savant, R S

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of in vitro propagation and alkaloid accumulation in callus cultures of Ceropegia juncea Roxb. a source of "Soma" drug in Ayurvedic medicine. Multiple shoots and callus induction was optimized by studying the influence of auxins [IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (2-Naphthalene acetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.)] and cytokinins [BA (6-benzyladenine) and Kin (Kinetin)] alone and in combinations. The best response for multiple shoot induction was obtained in nodal explants on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM Kin (8.5 ± 3 shoots per explants). The shoots were rooted on half strength MS (Murashige and Skoog's) medium fortified with either IAA or NAA (0.5-2.0 μM). The plantlets were transferred directly to the field with 100 % success rate. Supplementation of MS medium with auxins and cytokinins enhanced the growth of callus but inhibited the shoot regeneration in nodal explants. Best callus induction and proliferation observed on MS + 1 μM 2,4-D+5 μM BA. However the maximum cerpegin content (470 μg/g dry weight) was recorded in dried callus derived on MS+10 μM IAA+5 μM BA. Quantitative TLC (Thin layer chromatography) studies of the callus revealed a phytochemical profile similar to that of naturally grown plants. The calli were maintained by subculturing at 4 weeks interval on fresh parent medium over a period of 34 months. The optimized in vitro propagation and callus culture protocol offers the possibilities of using organ/callus culture technique for vegetative propagation and production of cerpegin alkaloid. PMID:23572914

  3. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  4. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  5. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  6. Potential for using Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) as a source of Biomass and N for the Piedmont and coastal plain regions of the southeastUSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), a tropical legume, could be a good cover/green manure crop for vegetable producers in the Southeast USA because of its rapid growth and N2 fixing ability. Limited information is available about planting date effects on biomass and N production when sunn hemp is gro...

  7. A Novel Formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis for the Control of Brassica Leaf Beetle, Phaedon brassicae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunseong; Jeoung, Sujin; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kunwoo; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-12-01

    Cabbage is a major vegetable crop over the world. Various insect pests can affect cabbage production. Excessive spray of chemical insecticides can lead to the development of insecticide resistance with various adverse effects on the environment and humans. Brassica leaf beetle, Phaedon brassicae Baly, is a coleopteran pest. Both larvae and adults cause damages to cabbage. The objective of this study was to develop an effective microbial insecticide against P. brassicae by adding an immunosuppressive agent to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The immunosuppressive agent was chosen from bacterial cultured broth of Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Ptt). Reverse phase HPLC revealed that Ptt-cultured broth possessed at least two eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (oxindole and indole) in its hexane extract. The bacterial cultured broth exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity against P. brassicae. Based on toxicity results, B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis (BtT) was selected from four strains of Bts. When Ptt-cultured broth was added to spore-producing BtT cells, the insecticidal activities of BtT against both larvae and adults of P. brassicae were significantly increased. This bacterial mixture applied to develop a "Bt-Plus," which was formulated by mixing BtT cells (10(11) spores per ml) and 48-h Ptt-cultured broth along with additives (surfactant and preservative). When Bt-Plus was sprayed to cabbage infested by P. brassicae at 1,000-fold dilution, the mixture exhibited much higher control efficacy than BtT treatment alone, suggesting it could be used as a novel Bt insecticide for the control of P. brassicae. PMID:26470390

  8. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers. PMID:23653472

  9. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with

  10. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well. PMID:24818510

  11. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. Results In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. Conclusions The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes. PMID:24195484

  12. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions. PMID:26948011

  13. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  14. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  15. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  16. BRASSICA ROTATIONS FOR MANAGING SOILBORNE POTATO DISEASES IN THE NORTHEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous soilborne diseases are persistent, recurrent problems in potato production, resulting in reduced plant growth and vigor, and reduced tuber yield and quality. In a series of field experiments conducted on commercial and research farms in the Northeastern U.S., a variety of Brassica crops are...

  17. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  18. THE BRASSICA RAPA ELONGATED INTERNODE (EIN) GENE ENCODES PHYTOCHROME B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongated internode (ein) mutation of Brassica rapa leads to a deficiency in immunochemically detectable phytochrome B. Molecular analysis of the PHYB gene from ein indicates a deletion in the flanking DNA 5' of the ATG start codon, which could interfere either with PHYB transcription or process...

  19. Managing Soilborne Potato Diseases In The Northeast With Brassica Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne pathogens are persistent problems in potato production systems in the northeastern U.S. Previous research has reported significant decreases in multiple soilborne diseases when Brassica crops are included in the rotation cycle. The objectives of this project are to evaluate the efficacy ...

  20. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  1. Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in

  2. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. PMID:24029080

  3. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR. PMID:27462338

  4. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  5. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics. PMID:22309095

  6. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the "candidate genes" and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  7. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant–pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR. PMID:27462338

  8. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  9. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  10. Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

    Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in

  11. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  12. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids. PMID:24584845

  13. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with

  14. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  15. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  16. Particle size affects Brassica seed meal-induced pathogen suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. solani AG-5 is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease, and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to B. juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) functions in suppression of this pathogen during the initial 24 h period post-seed meal a...

  17. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. PMID:25132374

  18. The high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs profiling in wide hybridisation and allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Muhammad Awais; Li, Junxing; Rao, Linli; Raza, Muhammad Ammar; Cao, Liwen; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome reconstruction and stability in the plant. However, little is known regarding the role of small RNAs during the process of wide hybridisation and chromosome doubling. Therefore, the changes in the small RNAs were assessed during the formation of an allodiploid (genome: AB) and its allotetraploid (genome: AABB) between Brassica rapa (♀) and Brassica nigra (♂) in the present study. Here, the experimental methods described in details, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE61872) and analysis published by Ghani et al. [1]. The study showed that small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome stability, and regulate gene expression which induces the phenotype variation in the formation of an allotetraploid. This may play an important role in the occurrence of heterosis in the allotetraploid. PMID:26484138

  19. Development of a NIRS method to measure quality characteristics in Brassica germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels from plant oils have been commercially demonstrated as an alternative to petroleum jet fuels, but full scale production has not occurred because of concerns over cost and competition with food production. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), along with Brassica carinata,...

  20. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  1. Anthocyanidins and polyphenols in five brassica species microgreens: analysis by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds associated with human health. A comprehensive profiling of polyphenols from five Brassica species microgreens was conducted using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography photo diode array high-resolu...

  2. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  3. Management of Rhizoctonia Damping-off of Brassica Oilseed Crops in the PNW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause pre and post-emergence damping off of Brassica oilseed species with adverse effects on stand establishment. In greenhouse experiments, we have examined resistance to two groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani among various Brassica species and varieties. R. solani AG 2-1 is ...

  4. Purification and biochemical characterization of an alkaline pectin lyase from Fusarium decemcellulare MTCC 2079 suitable for Crotalaria juncea fiber retting.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Dubey, Amit Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Reetesh; Yadav, Dinesh

    2014-07-01

    An extracellular pectin lyase secreted by Fusarium decemcellulare MTCC 2079 under solid state fermentation condition has been purified to electrophoretic homogeniety by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration (Sephadex G-100) column chromatographies. The purified enzyme showed single protein band corresponding to molecular mass 45 ± 01 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had maximum activity at pH 9.0 and showed maximum stability in the pH range of 9.0-12.0. The optimum temperature of the purified enzyme was 50 °C and it showed maximum stability upto 40 °C. The energy of activation for the thermal denaturation (Ea ) was 59.06 kJ mol(-1)  K(-1). The Km and kcat values using citrus pectin as the substrate were 0.125 mg ml(-1) and 72.9 s(-1) in 100 mM sodium carbonate buffer pH 9.0 at 50 °C. The biophysical studies on pectin lyase showed that its secondary structure belongs to α + β class of protein with comparatively less of β-sheets. Purified pectin lyase showed efficient retting of Crotolaria juncea fibers. PMID:25088294

  5. Microspore culture preferentially selects unreduced (2n) gametes from an interspecific hybrid of Brassica napus L. x Brassica carinata Braun.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Mason, Annaliese S; Castello, Marie-Claire; Thomson, Linda; Yan, Guijun; Cowling, Wallace A

    2009-08-01

    We analysed the products of male meiosis in microspore-derived progeny from a Brassica napus (AAC(n)C(n)) x Brassica carinata (BBC(c)C(c)) interspecific hybrid (ABC(n)C(c)). Genotyping at 102 microsatellite marker loci and nuclear DNA contents provided strong evidence that 26 of the 28 progeny (93%) were derived from unreduced (2n) gametes. The high level of C(n)C(c) marker heterozygosity, and parallel spindles at Anaphase II in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid, indicated that unreduced gametes were formed by first division restitution. The frequency of dyads at the tetrad stage of pollen development (2.6%) suggested that unreduced gametes were preferentially selected in microspore culture. Segregation of marker alleles in the microspore-derived progeny was consistent with homologous recombination between C(n) and C(c) chromosomes and homoeologous recombination involving A-, B- and C-genome chromosomes during meiosis in the ABC(n)C(c) hybrid. We discuss the potential for using microspore culture of unreduced gametes in interspecific hybrids to map Brassica centromeres through half-tetrad analysis. PMID:19436985

  6. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kristal, Alan R; Lampe, Johanna W

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results on the associations of diet with prostate cancer. We review evidence that Brassica vegetables are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, cabbage, mustard and collard greens, and bok choy, contain glucosinolates, the metabolic breakdown products of which are potent modulators of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that protect DNA from damage. Twelve published studies give some information about Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk; six of these studies can be clearly interpreted. Of these, three reported statistically significant reduced risks (P < 0.05) and one reported a borderline significant reduced risk (P = 0.06) with high Brassica vegetable consumption. The epidemiological literature provides modest support for the hypothesis that high intakes of Brassica vegetables reduce prostate cancer risk. PMID:12235639

  7. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health.

    PubMed

    Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Kopeć, Aneta; Piatkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Leszczyńska, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The products of plant origin are a rich source of biologically active substances, both nutritive and referred as anti-nutritive. A large group of these compounds are substances with antioxidant activity that fights against free radicals. In the family of Brassicaceae vegetables, Brassica, is the largest and most widely consumed a group of plants in Europe and all over the world. They are characterized by different levels of nutrients. However because of their large and frequent consumption, they may become a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in the daily diet. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health have been somewhat linked to phytochemicals. They prevent oxidative stress, induce detoxification enzymes, stimulate immune system, decrease the risk of cancers, inhibit malignant transformation and carcinogenic mutations, as well as, reduce proliferation of cancer cells. Brassica vegetables contain a lot of valuable metabolites, which are effective in chemoprevention of cancer, what has been already documented by numerous studies. Due to the presence of vitamins C and E, carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase, these vegetables are considerable source ofantioxidants, and due to the presence of polyphenols and the sulfur-organic compounds exert also antimutagenic action. Moreover, these vegetables are also rich in glucosinolates, which are unstable compounds and undergo degradation into biologically active indoles and isothiocyanates under the influence of enzyme presented in plant tissues- myrosynase. These substances through the induction of enzymatic systems I and II phase of xenobiotics metabolism may affect the elimination or neutralization of carcinogenic and mutagenic factors, and consequently inhibit DNA methylation and cancer development. Despite many healthy benefits upon eating of cruciferous vegetables, it has been also seen a negative impact of their certain

  8. Floral Structure, Breeding System and Fruit‐set in the Threatened Sub‐shrub Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae)

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, C. L.; BARTIER, F. V.; MULLIGAN, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) has undergone a range contraction of approx. 50 km in the last 100 years and is now listed as a vulnerable sub‐shrub restricted to the central and north coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. There are approx. 250 populations in a 110 km north–south distribution and populations are usually small with fewer than 50 plants/clumps. The reproductive ecology of the species was studied to determine why seed‐set is reportedly rare. Flowers are bisexual, odourless and nectarless. Flowers are presented dependentally and there are eight stamens recurved around the pistil. Anthers are poricidal, contain viable pollen and basally contain a deep‐red tapetal fluid that is slightly oily. Thus flowers are presented for buzz pollinators, although none were observed at flowers during our study. The species was found to be facultatively xenogamous with only one in 50 glasshouse flowers setting seed autogamously, i.e. without pollinator assistance. Field studies revealed fertile fruit in 24 populations but production varied significantly across sites from exceedingly low (0·6 fruits per plant clump) to low (17 fruits per plant clump). Fruit‐set ranged from 0 to 65 %, suggesting that pollen vectors exist or that autogamy levels in the field are variable and higher than glasshouse results. Fruit production did not vary with population size, although in three of the five populations in the south‐west region more than twice as much fruit was produced as in populations elsewhere. A moderately strong relationship between foliage volume and fruit : flower ratios suggests that bigger plants may be more attractive than smaller plants to pollinators. A review of Tetratheca pollination ecology revealed that several species are poorly fecund and pollinators are rare. The habitat requirements for Tetratheca, a genus of many rare and threatened species, is discussed. PMID:14534202

  9. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the Brassica

  10. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. PMID:26031705

  11. Genome affinity and meiotic behaviour in trigenomic hybrids and their doubled allohexaploids between three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids and Brassica fruticulosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Ge, X H; Yao, X C; Li, Z Y

    2012-02-01

    The wild species Brassica fruticulosa Cyr. (FF, 2n = 16) is closely related to the cultivated Brassica species.Through interspecific reciprocal crosses between B. fruticulosa and three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids (AABB, AACC,and BBCC where A = 10, B = 8, and C = 9), four trigenomic hybrids (F.AC, 2n = 27; F.AB, 2n = 26; F.BC, 2n = 25;BC.F, 2n = 25) were produced. By chromosome doubling of respective hybrids, three allohexaploids (FF.AACC, 2n = 54;FF.AABB, 2n = 52; BBCC.FF, 2n = 50) were synthesized. In pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the trigenomic hybrids, 1–2 autosyndetic bivalents were detected within A, B, and C genomes but only one within F genome; 1–3 allosyndetic bivalents between any two genomes were observed, and a closer relationship of F and B genomes than F and A genomes or F and C genomes was revealed. The all ohexaploids showed a generally low but different pollen fertilities. The chromosomes in PMCs were predominantly paired as bivalents but some univalents and multivalents at variable frequencies were observed.The bivalents of homologous pairing for each genome prevailed, but all osyndetic quadrivalents and hexavalents involving any two genomes were observed, together with autosyndetic quadrivalents for A, B, and C genomes but not the F genome.The nondiploidized cytological behaviour of these allohexaploids contributed to their low fertility. The relationships between the genome affinity and meiotic behavior in these allohexaploids were discussed. PMID:22324367

  12. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Till A.; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  13. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  14. Genetic analysis of interspecific incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, H; Ishimaru, Y; Li, F; Sato, Y; Kitashiba, H; Nishio, T

    2010-08-01

    In interspecific pollination of Brassica rapa stigmas with Brassica oleracea pollen grains, pollen tubes cannot penetrate stigma tissues. This trait, called interspecific incompatibility, is similar to self-incompatibility in pollen tube behaviors of rejected pollen grains. Since some B. rapa lines have no interspecific incompatibility, genetic analysis of interspecific incompatibility was performed using two F(2) populations. Analysis with an F(2) population between an interspecific-incompatible line and a self-compatible cultivar 'Yellow sarson' having non-functional alleles of S-locus genes and MLPK, the stigmas of which are compatible with B. oleracea pollen grains, revealed no involvement of the S locus and MLPK in the difference of their interspecific incompatibility phenotypes. In QTL analysis of the strength of interspecific incompatibility, three peaks of LOD scores were found, but their LOD scores were as high as the threshold value, and the variance explained by each QTL was small. QTL analysis using another F(2) population derived from selected parents having the highest and lowest levels of interspecific incompatibility revealed five QTLs with high LOD scores, which did not correspond to those found in the former population. The QTL having the highest LOD score was found in linkage group A02. The effect of this QTL on interspecific incompatibility was confirmed by analyzing backcrossed progeny. Based on synteny of this QTL region with Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5, a possible candidate gene, which might be involved in interspecific incompatibility, is discussed. PMID:20414635

  15. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlan; Gao, Yi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination), respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants. PMID:23189193

  16. Identification of Antioxidant Capacity -Related QTLs in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, Tamara; Cartea, María Elena; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables possess high levels of antioxidant metabolites associated with beneficial health effects including vitamins, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and phenolics. Until now, no reports have been documented on the genetic basis of the antioxidant activity (AA) in Brassicas and the content of metabolites with AA like phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. For this reason, this study aimed to: (1) study the relationship among different electron transfer (ET) methods for measuring AA, (2) study the relationship between these methods and phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, and (3) find QTLs of AA measured with ET assays and for phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flower buds in a DH population of B. oleracea as an early step in order to identify genes related to these traits. Low correlation coefficients among different methods for measuring AA suggest that it is necessary to employ more than one method at the same time. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for all traits. For AA methods, seven QTLs were found in leaves and six QTLs were found in flower buds. Meanwhile, for the content of metabolites with AA, two QTLs were found in leaves and four QTLs were found in flower buds. AA of the mapping population is related to phenolic compounds but also to carotenoid content. Three genomic regions determined variation for more than one ET method measuring AA. After the syntenic analysis with A. thaliana, several candidate genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis are proposed for the QTLs found. PMID:25198771

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  18. QTL architecture of reproductive fitness characters in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproductive output is critical to both agronomists seeking to increase seed yield and to evolutionary biologists interested in understanding natural selection. We examine the genetic architecture of diverse reproductive fitness traits in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a crop (seed oil) × wild-like (rapid cycling) genotype of Brassica rapa in field and greenhouse environments. Results Several fitness traits showed strong correlations and QTL-colocalization across environments (days to bolting, fruit length and seed color). Total fruit number was uncorrelated across environments and most QTL affecting this trait were correspondingly environment-specific. Most fitness components were positively correlated, consistent with life-history theory that genotypic variation in resource acquisition masks tradeoffs. Finally, we detected evidence of transgenerational pleiotropy, that is, maternal days to bolting was negatively correlated with days to offspring germination. A QTL for this transgenerational correlation was mapped to a genomic region harboring one copy of FLOWERING LOCUS C, a genetic locus known to affect both days to flowering as well as germination phenotypes. Conclusions This study characterizes the genetic structure of important fitness/yield traits within and between generations in B. rapa. Several identified QTL are suitable candidates for fine-mapping for the improvement of yield in crop Brassicas. Specifically, brFLC1, warrants further investigation as a potential regulator of phenology between generations. PMID:24641198

  19. Genomic distribution of simple sequence repeats in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Pyo; Piao, Zhong Yun; Kang, Tae Wook; Batley, Jacqueline; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hur, Yoon-Kang; Bhak, Jong; Park, Beom-Seok; Edwards, David; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2007-06-30

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) represent short tandem duplications found within all eukaryotic organisms. To examine the distribution of SSRs in the genome of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, SSRs from different genomic regions representing 17.7 Mb of genomic sequence were surveyed. SSRs appear more abundant in non-coding regions (86.6%) than in coding regions (13.4%). Comparison of SSR densities in different genomic regions demonstrated that SSR density was greatest within the 5'-flanking regions of the predicted genes. The proportion of different repeat motifs varied between genomic regions, with trinucleotide SSRs more prevalent in predicted coding regions, reflecting the codon structure in these regions. SSRs were also preferentially associated with gene-rich regions, with peri-centromeric heterochromatin SSRs mostly associated with retrotransposons. These results indicate that the distribution of SSRs in the genome is non-random. Comparison of SSR abundance between B. rapa and the closely related species Arabidopsis thaliana suggests a greater abundance of SSRs in B. rapa, which may be due to the proposed genome triplication. Our results provide a comprehensive view of SSR genomic distribution and evolution in Brassica for comparison with the sequenced genomes of A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. PMID:17646709

  20. A Proteomic Analysis of Seed Development in Brassica campestri L

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlan; Gao, Yi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination), respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants. PMID:23189193

  1. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  2. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  3. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi; Shintani, Ayumi; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Alternative measures of Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., cabbage) may clarify the association between Brassica and cancer risk. Brassica isothiocyanates (ITCs) are excreted in urine and may provide a sensitive and food-specific dietary biomarker. However, the persistence of ITCs in the body may be brief and dependent on the activity of several Phase II enzymes, raising questions about the relationship between a single ITC measure and habitual dietary patterns. This study investigates the association between urinary ITC excretion and habitual Brassica consumption, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire, among healthy Chinese women enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Participants (n = 347) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire querying habitual dietary intake during the prior 5 years and provided a fasting first-morning urine specimen. Genetic deletion of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1/GSTT1), and single nucleotide substitutions in GSTP1 (A313G) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1: C609T), were identified from blood DNA. Urinary ITC excretion levels were marginally higher with the GSTT1-null or GSTP1-G/G genotypes (P = 0.07, P = 0.05, respectively). Mean habitual Brassica intake was 98.3 g/day, primarily as bok choy, and Brassica intake significantly increased across quartile categories of ITC levels. The association between habitual Brassica intake and urinary ITC levels was stronger among women with GSTT1-null or GSTP1-A/A genotypes, or NQO1 T-allele, and the interaction was statistically significant across GSTP1 genotype. In conclusion, a single urinary ITC measure, in conjunction with markers of Phase II enzyme activity, provides a complementary measure of habitual Brassica intake among Shanghai women. PMID:14693750

  4. In vitro activity of glucosinolates and their degradation products against brassica-pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, T; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Velasco, P

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. PMID:25362058

  5. In Vitro Activity of Glucosinolates and Their Degradation Products against Brassica-Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, T.; Lema, M.; Soengas, P.; Cartea, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites found in Brassica vegetables that confer on them resistance against pests and diseases. Both GSLs and glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) have shown positive effects in reducing soil pathogens. Information about their in vitro biocide effects is scarce, but previous studies have shown sinigrin GSLs and their associated allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to be soil biocides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocide effects of 17 GSLs and GHPs and of leaf methanolic extracts of different GSL-enriched Brassica crops on suppressing in vitro growth of two bacterial (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola) and two fungal (Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia scletoriorum) Brassica pathogens. GSLs, GHPs, and methanolic leaf extracts inhibited the development of the pathogens tested compared to the control, and the effect was dose dependent. Furthermore, the biocide effects of the different compounds studied were dependent on the species and race of the pathogen. These results indicate that GSLs and their GHPs, as well as extracts of different Brassica species, have potential to inhibit pathogen growth and offer new opportunities to study the use of Brassica crops in biofumigation for the control of multiple diseases. PMID:25362058

  6. Exploiting comparative mapping among Brassica species to accelerate the physical delimitation of a genic male-sterile locus (BnRf) in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanzhou; Dong, Faming; Hong, Dengfeng; Wan, Lili; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2012-07-01

    The recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line 9012AB has been used as an important pollination control system for rapeseed hybrid production in China. Here, we report our study on physical mapping of one male-sterile locus (BnRf) in 9012AB by exploiting the comparative genomics among Brassica species. The genetic maps around BnRf from previous reports were integrated and enriched with markers from the Brassica A7 chromosome. Subsequent collinearity analysis of these markers contributed to the identification of a novel ancestral karyotype block F that possibly encompasses BnRf. Fourteen insertion/deletion markers were further developed from this conserved block and genotyped in three large backcross populations, leading to the construction of high-resolution local genetic maps where the BnRf locus was restricted to a less than 0.1-cM region. Moreover, it was observed that the target region in Brassica napus shares a high collinearity relationship with a region from the Brassica rapa A7 chromosome. A BnRf-cosegregated marker (AT3G23870) was then used to screen a B. napus bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. From the resulting 16 positive BAC clones, one (JBnB089D05) was identified to most possibly contain the BnRf (c) allele. With the assistance of the genome sequence from the Brassica rapa homolog, the 13.8-kb DNA fragment covering both closest flanking markers from the BAC clone was isolated. Gene annotation based on the comparison of microcollinear regions among Brassica napus, B. rapa and Arabidopsis showed that five potential open reading frames reside in this fragment. These results provide a foundation for the characterization of the BnRf locus and allow a better understanding of the chromosome evolution around BnRf. PMID:22382487

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Brassica rapa Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Clubroot-Resistant and -Susceptible Alleles in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Early Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Pang, Wenxing; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2) and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1875, and 2103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 h after inoculation (hai). Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins), PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection. PMID:26779217

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Brassica rapa Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Clubroot-Resistant and –Susceptible Alleles in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Early Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Pang, Wenxing; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2016-01-01

    Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2) and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1875, and 2103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 h after inoculation (hai). Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins), PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection. PMID:26779217

  9. Total myrosinase activity estimates in brassica vegetable produce.

    PubMed

    Dosz, Edward B; Ku, Kang-Mo; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2014-08-13

    Isothiocyanates, generated from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates in plants of the Brassicaceae family, promote health, including anticancer bioactivity. Hydrolysis requires the plant enzyme myrosinase, giving myrosinase a key role in health promotion by brassica vegetables. Myrosinase measurement typically involves isolating crude protein, potentially underestimating activity in whole foods. Myrosinase activity was estimated using unextracted fresh tissues of five broccoli and three kale cultivars, measuring the formation of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and/or glucose from exogenous sinigrin. A correlation between AITC and glucose formation was found, although activity was substantially lower measured as glucose release. Using exogenous sinigrin or endogenous glucoraphanin, concentrations of the hydrolysis products AITC and sulforaphane correlated (r = 0.859; p = 0.006), suggesting that broccoli shows no myrosinase selectivity among sinigrin and glucoraphanin. Measurement of AITC formation provides a novel, reliable estimation of myrosinase-dependent isothiocyanate formation suitable for use with whole vegetable food samples. PMID:25051514

  10. Storage lipid biosynthesis in microspore-derived Brassica napus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.C.; Underhill, E.W.; Weber, N. ); Pomeroy, M.K. ); Edwards, L. )

    1989-04-01

    Erucic acid, a fatty acid which is confined to the neutral lipids in developing seed cotyledons or rape, was chosen as a marker to study triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in a Brassica napus L. cv Reston microspore-derived embryo culture system. Accumulation and changes in acyl composition of TAGs during embryogenesis strongly paralleled that observed during seed development. Homogenates of 29-day cultured embryos were examined for the ability to incorporate erucoyl moieties into storage lipids. In the presence of {sup 14}C erucoyl CoA and various acceptors, including glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), {sup 14}C erucic acid was rapidly incorporated into the TAG fraction. However, in contrast to studies with {sup 14}C oleoyl CoA, there was no measurable radioactivity in any Kennedy Pathway intermediates or within membrane lipid components. Analysis of the radiolabelled TAG species suggested that erucoyl moieties were incorporated into the sn-3 position by a highly active diacylglyercol acyltransferase.

  11. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I.; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G. H.; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  12. Phytochelatin systhesis and cadmium uptake of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Selvam, A; Wong, J W C

    2008-07-01

    Soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) poses risk to human health. Metal hyperaccumulator plants play an important role in phytoextraction of heavy metals from such contaminated sites. Accumulation of Cd and its influence on the induction of phytochelatins in Brassica napus was investigated. Brassica napus plants were grown in nutrient culture with 1 and 5 microM Cd for 10 days. The biomass negatively correlates with Cd concentration in the nutrient solution and the reduction in dry weight was significantly higher for the root than the shoot. Cadmium accumulation positively correlates with the Cd concentration in the nutrient solution and the Cd accumulation in root is significantly higher than the shoot. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the induction of PC2, PC3 and PC4 in response to Cd in B. napus and their concentrations vary with the Cd level in the external solution. In 1 microM Cd treated plants; PC2 was the dominant thiol fraction in the root, followed by PC3 and PC4, whereas in the shoot, PC3 is the dominant species followed by PC4 and PC2. In 5 microM Cd treated plants, the concentration of both PC3 and PC4 are higher than that of PC2 in the roots. In the shoot, the concentration of PC3 and PC4 was higher than the PC2 irrespective of the quantity of Cd uptake, implying that the detoxification of Cd involves higher molecular weight thiol complexes in the shoot. Considering the high aboveground biomass and Cd accumulation in the shoot, B. napus can be a potential candidate for the phytoextraction of Cd. PMID:18697518

  13. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  14. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    PubMed Central

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  15. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  16. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  17. A Brassica Exon Array for Whole-Transcript Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Love, Christopher G.; Graham, Neil S.; Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C.; May, Sean T.; White, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3′ exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT) GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E−5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18), and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO) based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html. PMID:20862292

  18. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  19. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  20. Transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Expression of the bar and neo Genes in the Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    De Block, Marc; De Brouwer, Dirk; Tenning, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An efficient and largely genotype-independent transformation method for Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea was established based on neo or bar as selectable marker genes. Hypocotyl explants of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea cultivars were infected with Agrobacterium strains containing chimeric neo and bar genes. The use of AgNO3 was a prerequisite for efficient shoot regeneration under selective conditions. Vitrification was avoided by decreasing the water potential of the medium, by decreasing the relative humidity in the tissue culture vessel, and by lowering the cytokinin concentration. In this way, rooted transformed shoots were obtained with a 30% efficiency in 9 to 12 weeks. Southern blottings and genetic analysis of S1-progeny showed that the transformants contained on average between one and three copies of the chimeric genes. A wide range of expression levels of the chimeric genes was observed among independent transformants. Up to 25% of the transformants showed no detectable phosphinotricin acetyltransferase or neomycin phosphotransferase II enzyme activities although Southern blottings demonstrated that these plants were indeed transformed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667089

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) analysis of the genomic relationships among Sinapis arvensis, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shufang; Han, Yonghua; Wu, Xiaoming; An, Tingting; Tang, Jiali; Shen, Junjun; Li, Zongyun

    2012-06-01

    To further understand the relationships between the SS genome of Sinapis arvensis and the AA, BB genomes in Brassica, genomic DNA of Sinapis arvensis was hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of Brassica nigra (BB genome), and the metaphase chromosomes and interphase nucleus of Brassica rapa (AA genome) by comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH). As a result, every chromosome of B. nigra had signals along the whole chromosomal length. However, only half of the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus and the chromosomes showed rich signals in Brassica rapa. Interphase nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes of S. arvensis were simultaneously hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA of B. nigra and biotin-labeled genomic DNA of B. rapa. Signals of genomic DNA of B. nigra hybridized throughout the length of all chromosomes and all the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus, except chromosome 4, of which signals were weak in centromeric regions. Signals of the genomic DNA of B. rapa patterned the most areas of ten chromosomes and ten condensed heterochromatic areas, others had less signals. The results showed that the SS genome had homology with AA and BB genomes, but the homology between SS genome and AA genome was clearly lower than that between the SS genome and BB genome. PMID:22804340

  2. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  3. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers, and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research efforts on genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa have been disconnected, utilizing separate mapping populations and different sets of molecular markers. Here we present public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling B. rapa a...

  4. Evaluating Brassica species as an alternative control measure of root-knot nematode (M. incognita) in Georgia vegetable plasticulture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple Brassica species commonly grown in Georgia were evaluated as a potential alternative to methyl bromide for management of root-knot nematode in vegetables. Brassica species produce general biocides called glucosinolates and were grown as cover crops and incorporated as green manures prior to...

  5. Use of disease-suppressive Brassica rotation crops in potato production: overview of 10 years of field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease-suppressive Brassica rotation crops have shown promise for management of soilborne diseases and enhanced yield in a variety of crop production systems. Over the last 10 years, numerous field trials have focused on how to best use Brassica crops in potato rotations in the Northeast, including...

  6. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Xu, Hao; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects (1) plant volatiles emitted in response to damage by a specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae; (2) the attraction of the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata and (3) the performance of P. brassicae and C. glomerata. Plant volatiles were significantly induced by herbivory in both healthy and mildew-infected plants, but were quantitatively 41% lower for mildew-infected plants compared to healthy plants. Parasitoids strongly preferred Pieris-infested plants to dually-infested (Pieris + mildew) plants, and preferred dually infested plants over only mildew-infected plants. The performance of P. brassicae was unaffected by powdery mildew, but C. glomerata cocoon mass was reduced when parasitized caterpillars developed on mildew-infected plants. Thus, avoidance of mildew-infested plants may be adaptive for C. glomerata parasitoids, whereas P. brassicae caterpillars may suffer less parasitism on mildew-infected plants in nature. From a pest management standpoint, the concurrent presence of multiple plant antagonists can affect the efficiency of specific natural enemies, which may in turn have a negative impact on the regulation of pest populations. PMID:27043839

  7. Chloroplast DNA Variations in Wild Brassicas and Their Implication in Breeding and Population Genetics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Kaula, Babeeta Chrungu; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of cytoplasm and also for population genetics/phylogeographic analyses. The former is useful for breeding programs involving wide hybridization and synthesis of alloplasmic lines, while the latter is important for formulating conservation strategies. Therefore, PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique was applied to study cpDNA diversity in 14 wild brassicas (including 31 accessions) which revealed a total of 219 polymorphic fragments. The combination of polymorphisms obtained by using only two primer pair-restriction enzyme combinations was sufficient to distinguish all 14 wild brassicas. Moreover, 11 primer pairs-restriction enzyme combinations revealed intraspecific polymorphisms in eight wild brassicas (including endemic and endangered species, B. cretica and B. insularis, resp.). Thus, even within a small number of accessions that were screened, intraspecific polymorphisms were observed, which is important for population genetics analyses in wild brassicas and consequently for conservation studies. PMID:26347851

  8. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/ PMID:26589635

  9. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. PMID:26589635

  10. Karyotype and identification of all homoeologous chromosomes of allopolyploid Brassica napus and its diploid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhiyong; Pires, J Chris

    2011-01-01

    Investigating recombination of homoeologous chromosomes in allopolyploid species is central to understanding plant breeding and evolution. However, examining chromosome pairing in the allotetraploid Brassica napus has been hampered by the lack of chromosome-specific molecular probes. In this study, we establish the identification of all homoeologous chromosomes of allopolyploid B. napus by using robust molecular cytogenetic karyotypes developed for the progenitor species Brassica rapa (A genome) and Brassica oleracea (C genome). The identification of every chromosome among these three Brassica species utilized genetically mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from B. rapa as probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). With this BAC-FISH data, a second karyotype was developed using two BACs that contained repetitive DNA sequences and the ubiquitous ribosomal and pericentromere repeats. Using this diagnostic probe mix and a BAC that contained a C-genome repeat in two successive hybridizations allowed for routine identification of the corresponding homoeologous chromosomes between the A and C genomes of B. napus. When applied to the B. napus cultivar Stellar, we detected one chromosomal rearrangement relative to the parental karyotypes. This robust novel chromosomal painting technique will have biological applications for the understanding of chromosome pairing, homoeologous recombination, and genome evolution in the genus Brassica and will facilitate new applied breeding technologies that rely upon identification of chromosomes. PMID:21041557

  11. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  12. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-10-01

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wisconsin Fast Plants®, can be used to indicate potential effects on seed production of herbicides applied at relatively low levels (e.g., low field application rates [FAR]). The effects of ≤0.1 × FAR of aminopyralid, cloransulam, glyphosate, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron applied 14 d after emergence (DAE), were evaluated for B. rapa grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Effects were expressed as the effective concentration of the herbicide producing a 25% reduction in a response (EC25) based on nonlinear regression. Brassica rapa seed dry weight was reduced by sulfometuron at an EC25 of 0.00014 × a field application rate (FAR) of 53 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), primisulfuron at 0.008 (experiment 1) or 0.0050 (experiment 2) × FAR of 40 g a.i. ha(-1), cloransulam at 0.022 × FAR of 18 g a.i. ha(-1), glyphosate at 0.0399 × FAR of 834 g a.i. ha(-1), and by aminopyralid at 0.005 × FAR of 123 g a.i. ha(-1), but only for 1 of 2 experiments. Reduced seed production occurred at less than the FAR that reduced shoot dry weight with sulfometuron and primisulfuron, whereas neither aminopyralid, cloransulam, nor glyphosate affected shoot dry weight. A short life cycle form of B. rapa could be used to indicate reduced seed production with plants grown only 1 week longer (∼35 DAE) than as the current vegetative vigor test for nontarget herbicide effects on plants. PMID:20872651

  13. Identification and characterization of stress resistance related genes of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Seo, Mi-Suk; Kumar, Thamilarasan Senthil; Lee, In-Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2012-05-01

    Two biotic stress resistance related genes from the full-length cDNA library of Brassica rapa cv. Osome were identified from EST analysis and determined to be pathogenesis-related (PR) 12 Brassica defensin-like family protein (BrDLFP) and PR-10 Brassica Betv1 allergen family protein (BrBetv1AFP) after sequence analysis and homology study with other stress resistance related same family genes. In the expression analysis, both genes expressed in different organs and during all developmental growth stages in healthy plants. Expression of BrDLFP significantly increased and BrBetv1AFP gradually decreased after infection with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Chinese cabbage. Expression of these two genes significantly changed after cold, salt, drought and ABA stress treatments. These two PR genes may therefore be involved in the plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:22286206

  14. Cloning and expression of Brassica napus beta-carbonic anhydrase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiu-Hong; Li, Mao-Teng; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A new full-length beta-carbonic anhydrase cDNA was obtained from Brassica napus by homologous cloning. The cDNA has an open-reading frame of 996 nucleotides, encoding 331 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 35,692 Da and an estimated pI value of 5.459. The deduced amino acid sequence of beta-carbonic anhydrase from Brassica napus shared significant identity with beta-carbonic anhydrases from Brassica carinata, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Thlaspi caerulescens (97.9%, 94%, and 93.5% identity, respectively). This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-32a(+). The expression band corresponded to the calculated mass plus the N-terminal fusion protein derived from the vector. PMID:20158161

  15. Profiling Polyphenols in Five Brassica species Microgreens by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Xiao, Zhenlei; Lin, Long-ze; Lester, Gene E.; Wang, Qin; Harnly, James M.; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds associated with human health. A comprehensive profiling of polyphenols from five Brassica species microgreens was conducted using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography photo diode array high-resolution multi-stage mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMSn). A total of 164 polyphenols including 30 anthocyanins, 105 flavonol glycosides, and 29 hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were putatively identified.The putative identifications were based on UHPLC-HRMSn analysis using retention times, elution orders, UV/Vis spectra and high resolution mass spectra, in-house polyphenol database, and as well as literature comparisons. This study showed that these five Brassica species microgreens could be considered as good sources of food polyphenols. PMID:24144328

  16. Genetic Dissection of Leaf Development in Brassica rapa Using a Genetical Genomics Approach1[W

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene BRASSICA RAPA KIP-RELATED PROTEIN2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; BRASSICA RAPA ERECTA_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; BRASSICA RAPA LONGIFOLIA1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, BRASSICA RAPA FLOWERING LOCUS C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

  17. Genetic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Wang, Huange; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Zhao, Jianjun; Lin, Ke; Hou, Xilin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-01

    The paleohexaploid crop Brassica rapa harbors an enormous reservoir of morphological variation, encompassing leafy vegetables, vegetable and fodder turnips (Brassica rapa, ssp. campestris), and oil crops, with different crops having very different leaf morphologies. In the triplicated B. rapa genome, many genes have multiple paralogs that may be regulated differentially and contribute to phenotypic variation. Using a genetical genomics approach, phenotypic data from a segregating doubled haploid population derived from a cross between cultivar Yellow sarson (oil type) and cultivar Pak choi (vegetable type) were used to identify loci controlling leaf development. Twenty-five colocalized phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for leaf morphological traits, leaf number, plant architecture, and flowering time were identified. Genetic analysis showed that four colocalized phenotypic QTLs colocalized with flowering time and leaf trait candidate genes, with their cis-expression QTLs and cis- or trans-expression QTLs for homologs of genes playing a role in leaf development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The leaf gene Brassica rapa KIP-related protein2_A03 colocalized with QTLs for leaf shape and plant height; Brassica rapa Erecta_A09 colocalized with QTLs for leaf color and leaf shape; Brassica rapa Longifolia1_A10 colocalized with QTLs for leaf size, leaf color, plant branching, and flowering time; while the major flowering time gene, Brassica rapa flowering locus C_A02, colocalized with QTLs explaining variation in flowering time, plant architectural traits, and leaf size. Colocalization of these QTLs points to pleiotropic regulation of leaf development and plant architectural traits in B. rapa. PMID:24394778

  18. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  19. Effects of bacterial ACC deaminase on Brassica napus gene expression.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Jennifer C; Woody, Owen Z; McConkey, Brendan J; Glick, Bernard R

    2012-05-01

    Plants in association with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can benefit from lower plant ethylene levels through the action of the bacterial enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme cleaves the immediate biosynthetic precursor of ethylene, ACC. Ethylene is responsible for many aspects of plant growth and development but, under stressful conditions, it exacerbates stress symptoms. The ACC deaminase-containing bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 is a potent plant growth-promoting strain and, as such, was used to elaborate the detailed role of bacterial ACC deaminase in Brassica napus (canola) plant growth promotion. Transcriptional changes in bacterially treated canola plants were investigated with the use of an Arabidopsis thaliana oligonucleotide microarray. A heterologous approach was necessary because there are few tools available at present to measure global expression changes in nonmodel organisms, specifically with the sensitivity of microarrays. The results indicate that the transcription of genes involved in plant hormone regulation, secondary metabolism, and stress response was altered in plants by the presence of the bacterium, whereas the upregulation of genes for auxin response factors and the downregulation of stress response genes was observed only in the presence of bacterial ACC deaminase. These results support the suggestion that there is a direct link between ethylene and the auxin response, which has been suggested from physiological studies, and provide more evidence for the stress-reducing benefits of ACC deaminase-expressing plant growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:22352713

  20. Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Engelke, Thomas; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

    2011-01-01

    Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind or insects, and the presence of related, cross-pollinating species in the surrounding ecosystem in Europe. Different natural occurring male sterilities and alloplasmic forms have been tried to be used in rapeseed with more or less success. Due to the difficulties and limitations with these systems, we present a biotechnological alternative: a metabolically engineered male sterility caused by interference with anther-specific cell wall-bound invertase. This is an essential enzyme for carbohydrate supply of the symplastically isolated pollen. The activity of this enzyme is reduced either by antisense interference or by expressing an invertase inhibitor under control of the anther-specific promoter of the invertase with the consequence of a strong decrease of pollen germination ability. PMID:20821307

  1. Lipid composition and metabolism in embryos of Brassica napus

    SciTech Connect

    Sparace, S.A. ); Pomroy, M.K. )

    1990-05-01

    Seven and 14-day old microspore-derived developing embryos of the low-erucate Brassica napus L. (cv. Topas) were analyzed for their acyl lipid composition and capacity to incorporate ({sup 14}C)acetate into lipid. The most significant changes in the lipid compositions of these ages of embryos are (1) increased total lipid from 2 to 5% of fresh weight; (2) increased proportion of TAG from 31 to 74%, and shifts in the fatty acid composition of TAG from 25 to 50% 18:1; 28 to 23% 18:2; and 24 to 13% 18:3. Lipids of 7-day embryos also consist of primarily 8% DAG, 2% MG, 12% FFA, 10% DGDG, 15% PA and approximately 5% each of PC, PE and PG. The levels of these lipids generally decrease as the embryos mature and accumulate TAG. ({sup 14}C)Acetate is incorporated into all lipids and fatty acids except 18:2 or 18:3. As much as 39, 59 and 34% of the fatty acid radioactivity of Mg was recovered in 20:0, 22:0 and 24:0, respectively.

  2. The elucidation of stress memory inheritance in Brassica rapa plants

    PubMed Central

    Bilichak, Andriy; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Wóycicki, Rafal; Kepeshchuk, Nina; Fogen, Dawson; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs) are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome) from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants. PMID:25653665

  3. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kataya, Hazem A. H.

    2008-01-01

    The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Throughout the experimental period (60 days), diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight) of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:18830445

  4. Enzymatic degradation of Congo Red by turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Ahmedi, Afaf; Abouseoud, Mahmoud; Couvert, Annabelle; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme peroxidase is known for its capacity to remove phenolic compounds and aromatic amines from aqueous solutions and also to decolourize textile effluents. This study aims at evaluating the potential of a turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidase (TP) preparation in the discolouration of textile azo dyes and effluents. An azo dye, Congo Red (CR), was used as a model pollutant for treatment by the enzyme. The effects of various operating conditions like pH value, temperature, initial dye and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, contact time, and enzyme concentration were evaluated. The optimal conditions for maximal colour removal were at pH 2.0, 40 degrees C, 50 mM hydrogen peroxide, 50 mg/l CR dye, and TP activity of 0.45 U/ml within 10 min of incubation time. Analysis of the by-products from the enzymatic treatment by UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy showed no residual compounds in the aqueous phase and a precipitate of polymeric nature. PMID:23016283

  5. Physiological and proteomic analyses on artificially aged Brassica napus seed

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaojian; He, Dongli; Gupta, Ravi; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Plant seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to long term storage or controlled deterioration treatments, by a process known as seed aging. Based on previous studies, artificially aging treatments have been developed to accelerate the process of seed aging in order to understand its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used Brassica napus seeds to investigate the mechanisms of aging initiation. B. napus seeds were exposed to artificially aging treatment (40°C and 90% relative humidity) and their physio-biochemical characteristics were analyzed. Although the treatment delayed germination, it did not increase the concentration of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted among the control and treated seeds at different stages of germination. The proteins responded to the treatment were mainly involved in metabolism, protein modification and destination, stress response, development, and miscellaneous enzymes. Except for peroxiredoxin, no changes were observed in the accumulation of other antioxidant enzymes in the artificially aged seeds. Increased content of abscisic acid (ABA) was observed in the artificially treated seeds which might be involved in the inhibition of germination. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of ABA in the initiation of seed aging in addition to the ROS which was previously reported to mediate the seed aging process. PMID:25763006

  6. Mapping loci controlling flowering time in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L E; Osborn, T C

    1996-04-01

    The timing of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is a major determinant of the morphology and value of Brassica oleracea crops. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flowering time in B. oleracea were mapped using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci and flowering data of F3 families derived from a cabbage by broccoli cross. Plants were grown in the field, and a total of 15 surveys were made throughout the experiment at 5-15 day intervals, in which plants were inspected for the presence of flower buds or open flowers. The flowering traits used for data analysis were the proportion of annual plants (PF) within each F3 family at the end of the experiment, and a flowering-time index (FT) that combined both qualitative (annual/biennial) and quantitative (days to flowering) information. Two QTLs on different linkage groups were found associated with both PF and FT and one additional QTL was found associated only with FT. When combined in a multi-locus model, all three QTLs explained 54.1% of the phenotypic variation in FT. Epistasis was found between two genomic regions associated with FT. Comparisons of map positions of QTLs in B. oleracea with those in B. napus and B. rapa provided no evidence for conservation of genomic regions associated with flowering time between these species. PMID:24166330

  7. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  8. Susceptibility of four different vegetable brassicas to cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L., Aleyrodidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Papler, Ursa

    2002-01-01

    Cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.) is one of the most noticeable pests on cultivated Brassica species in the continental part of Slovenia. In year 2000 a susceptibility of four different vegetables of Brassica genus to cabbage whitefly attack had been examined. The highest number of imagoes and larvae was found on kale, significantly less on savoy cabbage and Brussels sprouts and only individual specimen on cabbage. Due to relatively small parcels, the most appropriate way of determining potential economic importance was to count imogoes and larvae on plants (visual inspection). On the other hand, monitoring with sticky yellow boards gave less satisfactory results. PMID:12696419

  9. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time. PMID:21376770

  10. Effect of enzyme-aided cell wall disintegration on protein extractability from intact and dehulled rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. and Brassica napus L.) press cakes.

    PubMed

    Rommi, Katariina; Hakala, Terhi K; Holopainen, Ulla; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lantto, Raija

    2014-08-13

    Cell-wall- and pectin-degrading enzyme preparations were used to enhance extractability of proteins from rapeseed press cake. Rapeseed press cakes from cold pressing of intact Brassica rapa and partially dehulled Brassica napus seeds, containing 36-40% protein and 35% carbohydrates, were treated with pectinolytic (Pectinex Ultra SP-L), xylanolytic (Depol 740L), and cellulolytic (Celluclast 1.5L) enzyme preparations. Pectinex caused effective disintegration of embryonic cell walls through hydrolysis of pectic polysaccharides and glucans and increased protein extraction by up to 1.7-fold in comparison to treatment without enzyme addition. Accordingly, 56% and 74% of the total protein in the intact and dehulled press cakes was extracted. Light microscopy of the press cakes suggested the presence of pectins colocalized with proteins inside the embryo cells. Hydrolysis of these intracellular pectins and deconstruction of embryonic cell walls during Pectinex treatment were concluded to relate with enhanced protein release. PMID:25039585

  11. Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate in edible cole crops (Brassica sp.) produced in the lower Colorado River region.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Blount, B C; Valentin-Blasini, L; Krieger, R I

    2007-12-01

    The Colorado River is contaminated with low levels of perchlorate. Perchlorate has the potential to disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting the uptake of iodide. Brassica are rich sources of thiocyanate and nitrate, also inhibitors of iodide uptake. This study was conducted to estimate potential human exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate from Brassica sp. irrigated with Colorado River water. Results indicate that Brassica sp. irrigated with Colorado River water do accumulate trace levels of perchlorate. However, the levels of perchlorate observed are low relative to the nitrate and thiocyanate naturally present in these species and low relative to the reference dose recommended by the NAS and the USEPA. PMID:17962898

  12. Development of genome-specific 5S rDNA markers in Brassica and related species for hybrid testing.

    PubMed

    La Mura, Maurizio; Norris, Carol; Sporle, Sue; Jayaweera, Dasuni; Greenland, Andy; Lee, David

    2010-08-01

    The Brassicaceae are targets for DNA manipulation to modify oil content and composition. However, any strategy for creating novel products using genetic modification or traditional breeding must take into account the potential for hybridization with other Brassica species, many of which are important sources of edible oils. In this study we have tested Brassica carinata, a possible target for oil modification, to establish whether it can cross with other Brassica species and related genera, and we have developed molecular DNA assays to confirm hybridization. PMID:20725152

  13. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  14. Optimization of Brassica napus (canola) explant regeneration for genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Priti; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-12-15

    Brassica napus (canola) is the second largest oilseed crop in the world. It is among the first crops to be genetically transformed, and genetically modified cultivars are in commercial production at very significant levels. Despite the early lead with respect to transgenesis, there remain cultivars that are recalcitrant to transformation. To address this, we have conducted an elaborate investigation of the conditions for regenerating shoots from hypocotyl explants from four genetic lines: Invigor 5020, Westar and Topas as well as a microspore culture derived line of Topas (Line 4079). We analyzed the effect of hormonal combinations in regeneration medium, donor plant age and explant type on the regeneration capacity of these plants. The analysis showed that hypocotyls of eight-day-old seedlings grown on media supplemented with 1mg/L dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-D) produced the most shoots. Globular somatic embryos emerged following two weeks of 2,4-D treatment. When transferred to the medium containing 5mg/L benzyladenine (BA), approximately 82% of embryos produced shoots within six weeks. Invigor plants were shown to regenerate more efficiently than Topas; the number of plantlets regenerated from Invigor was approximately 40-50% more as compared to Topas or Line 4079. When hypocotyl explants were co-cultivated with the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 harboring a binary vector carrying a firefly luciferase reporter gene (LUC), significant numbers of plantlets were LUC-positive in a luciferase assay. Frequency of such plants were: Invigor 5020 (54.2 ± 2.5%), Westar (53.7 ± 5.3), Topas (16.0 ± 0.24) and Line 4079 (13.4 ± 4). PMID:21722759

  15. Brassica napus Rop GTPases and their expression in microspore cultures.

    PubMed

    Chan, John; Peter Pauls, K

    2007-01-01

    Androgenesis in plants involves a shift in development that causes cultured microspore cells to form embryos rather than continue to develop pollen. In Brassica napus microspore culture a mild heat stress is used to switch on embryo development. An early hallmark of embryogenesis in this system is a symmetrical division of the nucleus instead of the asymmetric division that occurs during pollen formation. ROP GTPases act as molecular switches in a variety of developmental processes; therefore, the current study was initiated to examine whether they might be involved in androgenesis. Five distinct Rop genes with nucleic acid similarities ranging from 82 to 93% to Arabidopsis Rop1 were isolated from B. napus cv Topas. A Southern blot hybridization with a BnRop sequence probe suggested that there are 11-15 ROP gene family members in B. napus. RT-PCR reactions with PCR primers specific to BnRop5, BnRop6, BnRop9 and BnRop10 showed that expression of the BnRop5 was restricted to pollen but the others were detected in leaf, root, stem and pollen tissue. Pollen-like cells obtained from 3-day-old cultures by flow cytometric sorting had BnRop5 transcript levels that were 2.8 times higher than in flow sorted embryogenic microspores. Conversely, the BnRop9 transcript levels were 2.5-fold higher in the embryogenic cells than in the pollen-like cells. The potential involvement of specific ROPs in early stage microspore culture responses is discussed. PMID:16896789

  16. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L. PMID:24840879

  17. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, S.B. ); Williams, P.H. ); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. ); Murofushi, Noboru ); Mander, L.N. )

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  18. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  19. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils. PMID:26099461

  20. Gene expression profiles associated with intersubgenomic heterosis in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Li, Maoteng; Shi, Jiaqin; Fu, Donghui; Qian, Wei; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Chunyu; Meng, Jinling

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the genetic mechanism of heterosis that has been observed in hybrids between Brassica napus and partial new-type B. napus which had exotic genome components from relative species, this study focused on the difference in gene expression patterns among partial new-typed B. napus lines, B. napus cultivars and their hybrids using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism technique (cDNA-AFLP) technique. First, three partial new-type B. napus lines were compared with their original parents. One new line contained the exotic genomic components from B. rapa, and the other two new lines were obtained by the introgression of genomic components from B. rapa and B. carinata. The experimental results showed that the introgression of A(r) and C(c) genome components from B. rapa and B. carinata led to considerable differences in the gene expression profiles of the partial new-type lines when compared with their parents. Secondly, the gene expression profiles of nine cross-combinations between three partial new-type lines and three B. napus cultivars were compared. Twenty transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) associated with intersubgenomic heterosis were randomly selected and converted into PCR-based molecular markers. Some of them were mapped in the confidence intervals of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield and yield-related traits in three segregative populations of B. napus. These results suggested that a proportion of the heterosis-associated TDFs were really responsible for fluctuating seed yield in rapeseed. PMID:18754099

  1. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-07-01

    Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits. PMID:26800855

  2. Purification and biochemical characterization of phytocystatin from Brassica alba.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-05-01

    Phytocystatins belong to the family of cysteine proteinases inhibitors. They are ubiquitously found in plants and carry out various significant physiological functions. These plant derived inhibitors are gaining wide consideration as potential candidate in engineering transgenic crops and in drug designing. Hence it is crucial to identify these inhibitors from various plant sources. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated and purified by a simple two-step procedure using ammonium sulfate saturation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR from Brassica alba seeds (yellow mustard seeds).The protein was purified to homogeneity with 60.3% yield and 180-fold of purification. The molecular mass of the mustard seed cystatin was estimated to be nearly 26,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography. The stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of the mustard cystatin were found to be 23A° and 9.4 × 10(-7)  cm(2) s(-1) respectively. The isolated phytocystatin was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-8 and is thermostable up to 60 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the phytocystatin exhibited non-competitive type of inhibition and inhibited papain more efficiently (K(i)  = 3 × 10(-7)  M) than ficin (K(i)  = 6.6 × 10(-7)  M) and bromelain (K(i) = 7.7 × 10(-7)  M respectively). CD spectral analysis shows that it possesses 17.11% alpha helical content. PMID:26748819

  3. The effect of overexpression of two Brassica CBF/DREB1-like transcription factors on photosynthetic capacity and freezing tolerance in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Allard, Ghislaine; Seki, Motoaki; Robert, Laurian S; Tinker, Nicholas A; Huner, Norman P A; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Singh, Jas

    2005-09-01

    The effects of overexpression of two Brassica CBF/DREB1-like transcription factors (BNCBF5 and 17) in Brassica napus cv. Westar were studied. In addition to developing constitutive freezing tolerance and constitutively accumulating COR gene mRNAs, BNCBF5- and 17-overexpressing plants also accumulate moderate transcript levels of genes involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast development as identified by microarray and Northern analyses. These include GLK1- and GLK2-like transcription factors involved in chloroplast photosynthetic development, chloroplast stroma cyclophilin ROC4 (AtCYP20-3), beta-amylase and triose-P/Pi translocator. In parallel with these changes, increases in photosynthetic efficiency and capacity, pigment pool sizes, increased capacities of the Calvin cycle enzymes, and enzymes of starch and sucrose biosynthesis, as well as glycolysis and oxaloacetate/malate exchange are seen, suggesting that BNCBF overexpression has partially mimicked cold-induced photosynthetic acclimation constitutively. Taken together, these results suggest that BNCBF/DREB1 overexpression in Brassica not only resulted in increased constitutive freezing tolerance but also partially regulated chloroplast development to increase photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. PMID:16024910

  4. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  5. QTL Analysis for Four Major Genes Involved in the Aliphatic Glucosinolate Pathways of Brassica Oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We screened by PCR a doubled haploid broccoli Early Big BAC library for genes CYP79F1, CS-Lyase, S-GT, and GS-OH using BAC pools. For that purpose, we used primers based on conserved regions of Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs. We designed the primers from the Brassica database to amplify the whole ...

  6. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids. PMID:25135243

  7. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  8. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  9. Neglected Landraces of Collard (Brassica oleracea L.) from the Carolinas (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common garden crop grown in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina (United States) is the non-heading, leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. known as collard (B. oleracea Acephala Group). Predominantly a fall and winter vegetable in this region, collard is often the only green pl...

  10. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  11. Flowering times in genetically modified Brassica hybrids in the absence of selection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in days to flowering (DTF) were observed among reciprocal F1 progeny of Brassica napus ‘RaideRR’ with other B. napus and also with weedy B. rapa. Changes in DTF are presented as factors to consider in evaluating the potential of crop to weed gene flow in different geograp...

  12. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases

    PubMed Central

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  13. High Density Brassica Oleracea Linkage Map: Identification of Useful New Linkages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We constructed a 1257-marker, high-density genetic map of Brassica oleracea spanning 703cM in nine linkage groups, named LG1-LG9. It was developed in a F2 segregating population of 143 individuals obtained by crossing two double-haploid plants of broccoli Early-Big and cauliflower An-Nan Early. The...

  14. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  15. Combining ecological and molecular methods to investigate predation of a lepidopteron pest complex of Brassica crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southeast Queensland Brassica crops are attacked by Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in late summer and autumn, and Plutella xylsotella (L) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from late autumn through spring. The impact of endemic predatory and parasitic arthropods on each pest was studie...

  16. Regulatory Network of Secondary Metabolism in Brassica rapa: Insight into the Glucosinolate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Arends, Danny; Lin, Ke; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Muth, Dorota; Kodde, Jan; Boutilier, Kim; Bucher, Johan; Wang, Xiaowu; Jansen, Ritsert; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs) and transcript QTLs (eQTLs). Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables. PMID:25222144

  17. Influence of microgravity on ultrastructure and storage reserves in seeds of Brassica rapa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Xiao, Y.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Successful plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. During a 122 d opportunity on the Mir space station, full life cycles of Brassica rapa L. were completed in microgravity in a series of three experiments in the Svet greenhouse. Ultrastructural and cytochemical analyses of storage reserves in mature dry seeds produced in these experiments were compared with those of seeds produced during a high-fidelity ground control. Additional analyses were performed on developing Brassica embryos, 15 d post pollination, which were produced during a separate experiment on the Shuttle (STS-87). Seeds produced on Mir had less than 20% of the cotyledon cell number found in seeds harvested from the ground control. Cytochemical localization of storage reserves in mature cotyledons showed that starch was retained in the spaceflight material, whereas protein and lipid were the primary storage reserves in ground control seeds. Protein bodies in mature cotyledons produced in space were 44% smaller than those in the ground control seeds. Fifteen days after pollination, cotyledon cells from mature embryos formed in space had large numbers of starch grains, and protein bodies were absent, while in developing ground control seeds at the same stage, protein bodies had already formed and fewer starch grains were evident. These data suggest that both the late stage of seed development and maturation are changed in Brassica by growth in a microgravity environment. While gravity is not absolutely required for any step in the plant life cycle, seed quality in Brassica is compromised by development in microgravity.

  18. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  19. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of Brassica napus phloem sap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2-DE (IEF-SDS PAGE). The experiment was repeated thrice and two technical replicates per treatment were done. Two hundred sixty-three spots were consistently detected...

  20. Reduced rate brassica seed meal amendment efficacy is apple rootstock genotype-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal formulations have been shown to provide effect control of the biologically complex disease phenomenon termed apple replant disease (Mazzola et al., 2015). The seed meal formulation when used at an application rate of 3 ton ac-1 provided disease control that was in some instances ...

  1. A genetic linkage map of Brassica carinata constructed with a doubled haploid population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaomin; Zou, Jun; Li, Ruiyan; Long, Yan; Chen, Sheng; Meng, Jinling

    2012-10-01

    Brassica carinata is an important oilseed crop with unique favourable traits that are desirable for other Brassica crops. However, given the limited research into genetic resources in B. carinata, knowledge of the genetic structure of this species is relatively poor. Nine homozygous, genetically distinct accessions of B. carinata were obtained via microspore culture, from which two divergent doubled haploid (DH) lines were used to develop a DH mapping population that consisted of 183 lines. The mapping population showed segregation of multiple traits of interest. A genetic map was constructed with PCR-based markers, and a total of 212 loci, which covered 1,703 cM, were assigned to eight linkage groups in the B genome and nine linkage groups in the C genome, which allowed comparison with genetic maps of other important Brassica species that contain the B/C genome(s). Loci for two Mendelian-inherited traits related to pigmentation (petal and anther tip colour) and one quantitative trait (seed coat colour) were identified using the linkage map. The significance of the mapping population in the context of genetic improvement of Brassica crops is discussed. PMID:22669300

  2. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment on soil biology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  3. Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve leafy green Brassica entries (including turnip, mustard, and collard greens) were evaluated for response to inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis (Psa) in an experiment conducted at the Clemson University Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC. On 21 Septembe...

  4. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    PubMed

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  5. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  6. Polymorphism Identification and Improved Genome Annotation of Brassica rapa Through Deep RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Devisetty, Upendra Kumar; Covington, Michael F.; Tat, An V.; Lekkala, Saradadevi; Maloof, Julin N.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping and functional analysis of quantitative traits in Brassica rapa can be greatly improved with the availability of physically positioned, gene-based genetic markers and accurate genome annotation. In this study, deep transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Brassica rapa was undertaken with two objectives: SNP detection and improved transcriptome annotation. We performed SNP detection on two varieties that are parents of a mapping population to aid in development of a marker system for this population and subsequent development of high-resolution genetic map. An improved Brassica rapa transcriptome was constructed to detect novel transcripts and to improve the current genome annotation. This is useful for accurate mRNA abundance and detection of expression QTL (eQTLs) in mapping populations. Deep RNA-Seq of two Brassica rapa genotypes—R500 (var. trilocularis, Yellow Sarson) and IMB211 (a rapid cycling variety)—using eight different tissues (root, internode, leaf, petiole, apical meristem, floral meristem, silique, and seedling) grown across three different environments (growth chamber, greenhouse and field) and under two different treatments (simulated sun and simulated shade) generated 2.3 billion high-quality Illumina reads. A total of 330,995 SNPs were identified in transcribed regions between the two genotypes with an average frequency of one SNP in every 200 bases. The deep RNA-Seq reassembled Brassica rapa transcriptome identified 44,239 protein-coding genes. Compared with current gene models of B. rapa, we detected 3537 novel transcripts, 23,754 gene models had structural modifications, and 3655 annotated proteins changed. Gaps in the current genome assembly of B. rapa are highlighted by our identification of 780 unmapped transcripts. All the SNPs, annotations, and predicted transcripts can be viewed at http://phytonetworks.ucdavis.edu/. PMID:25122667

  7. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hye-Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Baek, Seunghoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jin, Mina; Kim, Jin A; Lim, Myung-Ho; Lee, Soo In; Kim, Ho-Il; Kim, Hyungtae; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok

    2008-01-01

    Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF) technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community. PMID:18549474

  8. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y; Hantoro, Inneke; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of changes in the content of phytochemicals. The survey on preparation practices was performed with food service establishments (n = 123) and households (n = 477) in Semarang, Indonesia, and assessed the food handlers' perception of the health benefits of these vegetables. Boiling and stir-frying are the most frequently applied techniques to prepare Brassicas. The respondents perceive that steaming, boiling, and stir-frying result in vegetables with a high health benefit. White cabbage and choysum are the most frequently prepared Brassicas. However, broccoli is perceived as the healthiest. The consequences of the various applied preparation techniques on the content of alleged health promoting phytochemicals (glucosinolates) in dishes containing Brassica vegetables are discussed. PMID:26171631

  9. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  10. Pleiotropy in Triazine-Resistant Brassica napus1

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Jack H.; Burmester, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted that supported the hypothesis that the mutation to the psbA plastid gene that confers S-triazine resistance (R) in Brassica napus also results in an altered diurnal pattern of photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) relative to that of the susceptible (S) wild type, and that these patterns change over the ontogeny of a plant. Photosynthetic photon flux density, under closely controlled environmental conditions, was incrementally increased and decreased on either side of the midday maxima of 1150 to 1300 μmol quanta m−2 s−1. In all experiments, A approximately tracked the increasing and decreasing diurnal light levels. Younger (3- to 4-leaf) R plants had greater photosynthetic rates early and late in the diurnal light period, whereas those of S plants were greater during midday as well as during the photoperiod as a whole. These relative photosynthetic characteristics of R and S plants changed in several ways with ontogeny. As the plants aged during the vegetative phase of development, S plants gradually assimilated more carbon in the early, and then in the late, part of the day. At the end of the vegetative phase of development, R plant carbon assimilation was less relative to S plants at most times of the day, and was never greater. This relationship between the two biotypes dramatically changed with the onset of the reproductive phase (8½ to 9½ leaf) of plant development: R plants assimilated more carbon than S plants during all periods of the diurnal light period with the exception of the late part of the day. In addition to these differences in A, R plant stomatal function differed from that in S plants. R plant leaves were always cooler than S plant leaves under the same environmental and diurnal conditions. Correlated with this difference in leaf temperature were equal or greater total conductances to water vapor and intercellular CO2 partial pressures in R compared to S leaves in most instances. These studies indicate a more

  11. Mapping the Anthocyaninless (anl) Locus in Rapid-Cycling Brassica rapa (RBr) to Linkage Group R9

    PubMed Central

    Burdzinski, Carrie; Wendell, Douglas L

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments that are responsible for purple coloration in the stems and leaves of a variety of plant species. Anthocyaninless (anl) mutants of Brassica rapa fail to produce anthocyanin pigments. In rapid-cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, the anthocyaninless trait, also called non-purple stem, is widely used as a model recessive trait for teaching genetics. Although anthocyanin genes have been mapped in other plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the anl locus has not been mapped in any Brassica species. Results We tested primer pairs known to amplify microsatellites in Brassicas and identified 37 that amplified a product in rapid-cycling Brassica rapa. We then developed three-generation pedigrees to assess linkage between the microsatellite markers and anl. 22 of the markers that we tested were polymorphic in our crosses. Based on 177 F2 offspring, we identified three markers linked to anl with LOD scores ≥ 5.0, forming a linkage group spanning 46.9 cM. Because one of these markers has been assigned to a known B. rapa linkage group, we can now assign the anl locus to B. rapa linkage group R9. Conclusion This study is the first to identify the chromosomal location of an anthocyanin pigment gene among the Brassicas. It also connects a classical mutant frequently used in genetics education with molecular markers and a known chromosomal location. PMID:17894874

  12. A high-throughput SNP array in the amphidiploid species Brassica napus shows diversity in resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Hayward, Alice; Alamery, Salman; Tollenaere, Reece; Mason, Annaliese S; Campbell, Emma; Patel, Dhwani; Lorenc, Michał T; Yi, Bin; Long, Yan; Meng, Jinling; Raman, Rosy; Raman, Harsh; Lawley, Cindy; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)are molecular markers based on nucleotide variation and can be used for genotyping assays across populations and to track genomic inheritance. SNPs offer a comprehensive genotyping alternative to whole-genome sequencing for both agricultural and research purposes including molecular breeding and diagnostics, genome evolution and genetic diversity analyses, genetic mapping, and trait association studies. Here genomic SNPs were discovered between four cultivars of the important amphidiploid oilseed species Brassica napus and used to develop a B. napus Infinium™ array containing 5,306 SNPs randomly dispersed across the genome. Assay success was high, with >94 % of these producing a reproducible, polymorphic genotype in the 1,070 samples screened. Although the assay was designed to B. napus, successful SNP amplification was achieved in the B. napus progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and to a lesser extent in the related species Brassica nigra. Phylogenetic analysis was consistent with the expected relationships between B. napus individuals. This study presents an efficient custom SNP assay development pipeline in the complex polyploid Brassica genome and demonstrates the utility of the array for high-throughput genotyping in a number of related Brassica species. It also demonstrates the utility of this assay in genotyping resistance genes on chromosome A7, which segregate amongst the 1,070 samples. PMID:25147024

  13. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives.

    PubMed

    Rana, Debashis; van den Boogaart, Tom; O'Neill, Carmel M; Hynes, Llewelyn; Bent, Elisabeth; Macpherson, Lee; Park, Jee Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Bancroft, Ian

    2004-12-01

    The cultivated Brassica species are the group of crops most closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). They represent models for the application in crops of genomic information gained in Arabidopsis and provide an opportunity for the investigation of polyploid genome formation and evolution. The scientific literature contains contradictory evidence for the dynamics of the evolution of polyploid genomes. We aimed at overcoming the inherent complexity of Brassica genomes and clarify the effects of polyploidy on the evolution of genome microstructure in specific segments of the genome. To do this, we have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from genomic DNA of B. rapa subspecies trilocularis (JBr) and B. napus var Tapidor (JBnB) to supplement an existing BAC library from B. oleracea. These allowed us to analyse both recent polyploidization (under 10,000 years in B. napus) and more ancient polyploidization events (ca. 20 Myr for B. rapa and B. oleracea relative to Arabidopsis), with an analysis of the events occurring on an intermediate time scale (over the ca. 4 Myr since the divergence of the B. rapa and B. oleracea lineages). Using the Arabidopsis genome sequence and clones from the JBr library, we have analysed aspects of gene conservation and microsynteny between six regions of the genome of B. rapa with the homoeologous regions of the genomes of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis. Extensive divergence of gene content was observed between the B. rapa paralogous segments and their homoeologous segments within the genome of Arabidopsis. A pattern of interspersed gene loss was identified that is similar, but not identical, to that observed in B. oleracea. The conserved genes show highly conserved collinearity with their orthologues across genomes, but a small number of species-specific rearrangements were identified. Thus the evolution of genome microstructure is an ongoing process. Brassica napus is a recently formed polyploid resulting

  14. Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

  15. Value-added Sustainability: Energy Crops for Biological Disinfestation and Remediation of Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxa that are candidates for refining into biodiesel also possess qualities, which make them potentially useful for managing soilborne pests and/or managing Se-contaminated soils. Some of the plant species include: canola(Brassica napus) and mustard(Brassica juncea) that ...

  16. Molecular characterization of two genotypes of a new polerovirus infecting brassicas in China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai-Ying; Dong, Shu-Wei; Shang, Qiao-Xia; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2011-12-01

    The genomic RNA sequences of two genotypes of a brassica-infecting polerovirus from China were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to but significantly different from turnip yellows virus (TuYV). This virus and other poleroviruses, including TuYV, had less than 90% amino acid sequence identity in all gene products except the coat protein. Based on the molecular criterion (>10% amino acid sequence difference) for species demarcation in the genus Polerovirus, the virus represents a distinct species for which the name Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is proposed. Interestingly, there were two genotypes of BrYV, which mainly differed in the 5'-terminal half of the genome. PMID:21874520

  17. Organ-Specific Quantitative Genetics and Candidate Genes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Ali, Mahmoud; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A.; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop development, defense and adaptation. In spite of the economical importance of Brassica crops in agriculture, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds presents in these species remain unknown. The genetic and metabolic basis of phenolics accumulation was dissected through analysis of total phenolics concentration and its individual components in leaves, flower buds, and seeds of a double haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on phenolics concentration in each organ were integrated, resulting in 33 consensus QTLs controlling phenolics traits. Most of the studied compounds had organ-specific genomic regulation. Moreover, this information allowed us to propose candidate genes and to predict the function of genes underlying the QTL. A number of previously unknown potential regulatory regions involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified and this study illustrates how plant ontogeny can affect a biochemical pathway. PMID:26858727

  18. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  19. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  20. The δ-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the δ-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the δ1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the δ3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the δ1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  1. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops. PMID:24599866

  2. Centromere Locations in Brassica A and C Genomes Revealed Through Half-Tetrad Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Morice, Jérôme; Bayer, Philipp E; Besharat, Naghmeh; Cousin, Anouska; Pradhan, Aneeta; Parkin, Isobel A P; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-02-01

    Locating centromeres on genome sequences can be challenging. The high density of repetitive elements in these regions makes sequence assembly problematic, especially when using short-read sequencing technologies. It can also be difficult to distinguish between active and recently extinct centromeres through sequence analysis. An effective solution is to identify genetically active centromeres (functional in meiosis) by half-tetrad analysis. This genetic approach involves detecting heterozygosity along chromosomes in segregating populations derived from gametes (half-tetrads). Unreduced gametes produced by first division restitution mechanisms comprise complete sets of nonsister chromatids. Along these chromatids, heterozygosity is maximal at the centromeres, and homologous recombination events result in homozygosity toward the telomeres. We genotyped populations of half-tetrad-derived individuals (from Brassica interspecific hybrids) using a high-density array of physically anchored SNP markers (Illumina Brassica 60K Infinium array). Mapping the distribution of heterozygosity in these half-tetrad individuals allowed the genetic mapping of all 19 centromeres of the Brassica A and C genomes to the reference Brassica napus genome. Gene and transposable element density across the B. napus genome were also assessed and corresponded well to previously reported genetic map positions. Known centromere-specific sequences were located in the reference genome, but mostly matched unanchored sequences, suggesting that the core centromeric regions may not yet be assembled into the pseudochromosomes of the reference genome. The increasing availability of genetic markers physically anchored to reference genomes greatly simplifies the genetic and physical mapping of centromeres using half-tetrad analysis. We discuss possible applications of this approach, including in species where half-tetrads are currently difficult to isolate. PMID:26614742

  3. The Fate of Arabidopsis thaliana Homeologous CNSs and Their Motifs in the Paleohexaploid Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Wang, Xiaowu; Freeling, Michael; Pires, J. Chris

    2013-01-01

    Following polyploidy, duplicate genes are often deleted, and if they are not, then duplicate regulatory regions are sometimes lost. By what mechanism is this loss and what is the chance that such a loss removes function? To explore these questions, we followed individual Arabidopsis thaliana–A. thaliana conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) into the Brassica ancestor, through a paleohexaploidy and into Brassica rapa. Thus, a single Brassicaceae CNS has six potential orthologous positions in B. rapa; a single Arabidopsis CNS has three potential homeologous positions. We reasoned that a CNS, if present on a singlet Brassica gene, would be unlikely to lose function compared with a more redundant CNS, and this is the case. Redundant CNSs go nondetectable often. Using this logic, each mechanism of CNS loss was assigned a metric of functionality. By definition, proved deletions do not function as sequence. Our results indicated that CNSs that go nondetectable by base substitution or large insertion are almost certainly still functional (redundancy does not matter much to their detectability frequency), whereas those lost by inferred deletion or indels are approximately 75% likely to be nonfunctional. Overall, an average nondetectable, once-redundant CNS more than 30 bp in length has a 72% chance of being nonfunctional, and that makes sense because 97% of them sort to a molecular mechanism with “deletion” in its description, but base substitutions do cause loss. Similarly, proved-functional G-boxes go undetectable by deletion 82% of the time. Fractionation mutagenesis is a procedure that uses polyploidy as a mutagenic agent to genetically alter RNA expression profiles, and then to construct testable hypotheses as to the function of the lost regulatory site. We show fractionation mutagenesis to be a “deletion machine” in the Brassica lineage. PMID:23493633

  4. Influence of microgravity on ultrastructure and storage reserves in seeds of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Kuang, A; Xiao, Y; McClure, G; Musgrave, M E

    2000-06-01

    Successful plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. During a 122 d opportunity on the Mir space station, full life cycles of Brassica rapa L. were completed in microgravity in a series of three experiments in the Svet greenhouse. Ultrastructural and cytochemical analyses of storage reserves in mature dry seeds produced in these experiments were compared with those of seeds produced during a high-fidelity ground control. Additional analyses were performed on developing Brassica embryos, 15 d post pollination, which were produced during a separate experiment on the Shuttle (STS-87). Seeds produced on Mir had less than 20% of the cotyledon cell number found in seeds harvested from the ground control. Cytochemical localization of storage reserves in mature cotyledons showed that starch was retained in the spaceflight material, whereas protein and lipid were the primary storage reserves in ground control seeds. Protein bodies in mature cotyledons produced in space were 44% smaller than those in the ground control seeds. Fifteen days after pollination, cotyledon cells from mature embryos formed in space had large numbers of starch grains, and protein bodies were absent, while in developing ground control seeds at the same stage, protein bodies had already formed and fewer starch grains were evident. These data suggest that both the late stage of seed development and maturation are changed in Brassica by growth in a microgravity environment. While gravity is not absolutely required for any step in the plant life cycle, seed quality in Brassica is compromised by development in microgravity. PMID:11543312

  5. Quantifying the thermal heat requirement of Brassica in assessing biophysical parameters under semi-arid microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Tarun; Chakravarty, N. V. K.

    2010-07-01

    Evaluation of the thermal heat requirement of Brassica spp. across agro-ecological regions is required in order to understand the further effects of climate change. Spatio-temporal changes in hydrothermal regimes are likely to affect the physiological growth pattern of the crop, which in turn will affect economic yields and crop quality. Such information is helpful in developing crop simulation models to describe the differential thermal regimes that prevail at different phenophases of the crop. Thus, the current lack of quantitative information on the thermal heat requirement of Brassica crops under debranched microenvironments prompted the present study, which set out to examine the response of biophysical parameters [leaf area index (LAI), dry biomass production, seed yield and oil content] to modified microenvironments. Following 2 years of field experiments on Typic Ustocrepts soils under semi-arid climatic conditions, it was concluded that the Brassica crop is significantly responsive to microenvironment modification. A highly significant and curvilinear relationship was observed between LAI and dry biomass production with accumulated heat units, with thermal accumulation explaining ≥80% of the variation in LAI and dry biomass production. It was further observed that the economic seed yield and oil content, which are a function of the prevailing weather conditions, were significantly responsive to the heat units accumulated from sowing to 50% physiological maturity. Linear regression analysis showed that growing degree days (GDD) could indicate 60-70% variation in seed yield and oil content, probably because of the significant response to differential thermal microenvironments. The present study illustrates the statistically strong and significant response of biophysical parameters of Brassica spp. to microenvironment modification in semi-arid regions of northern India.

  6. Antiepileptic and Antioxidant Effect of Brassica nigra on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Sadeghian, Azam

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rate of epilepsy today, with respect to the insufficiency of the available therapies, new strategies and methods are recommended for medical treatment of epileptic patients. Therefore, the present study experimentally investigated the anticonvulsant effect of a herbal medicine candidate brassica nigra, by using kindling method. Sixty male mice were randomly selected and divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) including: 1-control, 2-pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-kindled mice, 3-positive control group received valproate (100 mg/Kg) as anti-convulsant drug, 4-5 and 6 received brassica nigra seed extract in three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg; IP). All groups except for the control ones were kindled by 11 period injections of PTZ (35 mg/Kg; IP). In the 12th injection, all groups except for the control group were tested for PTZ challenge dose (75 mg/Kg). However, the exhibited phases of seizure (0-6) were observed and noted till 30 min after the PTZ injection. At last, the brains of all the mice were removed and then malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels of the brain tissues were determined. Statistical analysis of the data shows that the seed extract could reduce the intensity, improvement and duration of seizure. In addition, the brassica nigra extract increased the SOD and NO levels and decreased the MDA level in the brain tissues. Attained results show that the extract of Brassica nigra seed can be used in grand mal seizure treatment. Moreover, the antiepileptic effect of this extract is probably caused by its antioxidant properties and acts via enzyme activity mechanism. PMID:24250555

  7. Identification, duplication, evolution and expression analyses of caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis subspecies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Mingzhe; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhuowei; Taylor, David C; Li, Zhixi; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Caleosins are a class of Ca(2+) binding proteins that appear to be ubiquitous in plants. Some of the main proteins embedded in the lipid monolayer of lipid droplets, caleosins, play critical roles in the degradation of storage lipids during germination and in lipid trafficking. Some of them have been shown to have histidine-dependent peroxygenase activity, which is believed to participate in stress responses in Arabidopsis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, caleosins have been examined extensively. However, little is known on a genome-wide scale about these proteins in other members of the Brassicaceae. In this study, 51 caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis lyrata were investigated and analyzed in silico. Among them, 31 caleosins, including 7 in A. lyrata, 11 in Brassica oleracea and 13 in Brassica napus, are herein identified for the first time. Segmental duplication was the main form of gene expansion. Alignment, motif and phylogenetic analyses showed that Brassica caleosins belong to either the H-family or the L-family with different motif structures and physicochemical properties. Our findings strongly suggest that L-caleosins are evolved from H-caleosins. Predicted phosphorylation sites were differentially conserved in H-caleosin and L-caleosins, respectively. 'RY-repeat' elements and phytohormone-related cis-elements were identified in different caleosins, which suggest diverse physiological functions. Gene structure analysis indicated that most caleosins (38 out of 44) contained six exons and five introns and their intron phases were highly conserved. Structurally integrated caleosins, such as BrCLO3-3 and BrCLO4-2, showed high expression levels and may have important roles. Some caleosins, such as BrCLO2 and BoCLO8-2, lost motifs of the calcium binding domain, proline knot, potential phosphorylation sites and haem-binding sites. Combined with their low expression, it is suggested that these caleosins may have lost function. PMID:26786939

  8. Phytotoxicity evaluation of some commonly used shampoos using Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Faiqa; Ahmed, Faiza; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2015-10-01

    Hair shampoos are among the most commonly used chemicals in everyday life. Since shampoos are a major component of domestic and municipal wastewater, they may affect plants when irrigated with wastewater. However, their effects on plants have never been investigated in detail. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of some commonly used hair shampoos on seed germination and seedling vigor of Brassica napus. Seeds of Brassica napus were exposed to different concentrations of hair shampoos, i.e., 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 %. The obtained results revealed that germination was not very sensitive to shampoo stress and was significantly inhibited only at the highest tested concentration (10 %) of shampoo except in the case of one shampoo where it was inhibited at concentration of 1 % or above. The other tested parameters of Brassica napus were comparatively more sensitive than germination to shampoo stress. However, at lower concentrations of shampoos, stimulatory effects were also observed in some cases. Although no exact data is available on shampoo concentration in wastewater used for irrigation, it is unlikely that shampoo concentration in irrigation water reach so high and pose adversity to plants. PMID:26201659

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for high level of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Horisaki, Atsushi; Niikura, Satoshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshiaki, Hitoshi; Ishida, Masahiko; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2010-04-01

    The level of self-incompatibility (SI) is important to the purity of F1 seeds produced using the SI system of Brassica vegetables. To analyze the genetic basis of the level of SI, we generated an F2 population derived from a cross between a turnip inbred line showing a high level of SI and a Chinese cabbage inbred line showing a low level, and evaluated the level of SI under insect pollination in two years. We constructed a detailed linkage map of Brassica rapa from the F2 progeny, consisting of SSR, SNP, indel, and CAPS loci segregating into 10 linkage groups covering approximately 700 cM. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) for high-level SI were identified. The phenotypic variation explained by the QTL ranged between 7.2% and 23.8%. Two QTL were detected in both years. Mapping of SI-related genes revealed that these QTL were co-localized with SLG on R07 and MLPK on R03. This is the first report of QTL for high-level SI evaluated under insect pollination in a Brassica vegetable. Our results could be useful for the marker-assisted selection of parental lines with a stable SI. PMID:20616857

  10. Identification, evolution, and expression partitioning of miRNAs in allopolyploid Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Enhui; Zou, Jun; Hubertus Behrens, Falk; Chen, Li; Ye, Chuyu; Dai, Shutao; Li, Ruiyan; Ni, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weidi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Chalhoub, Boulos; Bancroft, Ian; Meng, Jinling; Cai, Daguang; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-12-01

    The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors' genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs. PMID:26357884

  11. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:27079962

  12. Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Ivette; Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F

    2012-07-25

    Brassica oleracea vegetables, such as broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) and cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis), are known to contain bioactive compounds associated with health, including three classes of photosynthetic lipid-soluble compounds: carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments. Tocopherols have vitamin E activity. Due to genetic and environmental variables, the amounts present in vegetables are not constant. To aid breeders in the development of Brassica cultivars with higher provitamin A and vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity, a more efficient method was developed to quantitate carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in the edible portions of broccoli and cauliflower. The novel UPLC method separated five carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and two tocopherols in a single 30 min run, reducing the run time by half compared to previously published protocols. The objective of the study was to develop a faster, more effective extraction and quantitation methodology to screen large populations of Brassica germplasm, thus aiding breeders in producing superior vegetables with enhanced phytonutrient profiles. PMID:22734504

  13. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. PMID:26250982

  14. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  15. Characterization and expression analysis of dirigent family genes related to stresses in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Thamil Arasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-06-01

    The dirigent (DIR) genes are playing a vital role in enhancing stress resistance in different crop plants. In this study, we collected 29 DIR like genes, two from a Brassica rapa cv. Osome full length cDNA library and 27 from the B. rapa database designated as B. rapa Dirigent (BrDIR) like genes. Sequence analysis and a comparison study of these genes confirmed that seven were dirigent and the remaining 22 were dirigent like genes. Expression analysis revealed an organ specific expression of these genes. BrDIR2 showed differential responses after Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans infection in cabbage. Four Brassica oleracea dirigent like genes highly homologous to BrDIR2 also showed similar responses in cabbage plants infected with this fungus. Moreover, several BrDIR like genes showed significant responses after water, ABA and cold stress treatments in Chinese cabbage. Under water stress, most responsive genes showed the highest expression at 24 h, at which time the acid soluble lignin content of samples under the same stress condition were also highest, indicating a possible relationship between BrDIR like genes and lignin content. Taken together, our results indicate a protective role of BrDIR genes against biotic and abiotic stresses in Brassica. PMID:23562798

  16. Recent progress in drought and salt tolerance studies in Brassica crops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuekun; Lu, Guangyuan; Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Li, Feng; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Water deficit imposed by either drought or salinity brings about severe growth retardation and yield loss of crops. Since Brassica crops are important contributors to total oilseed production, it is urgently needed to develop tolerant cultivars to ensure yields under such adverse conditions. There are various physiochemical mechanisms for dealing with drought and salinity in plants at different developmental stages. Accordingly, different indicators of tolerance to drought or salinity at the germination, seedling, flowering and mature stages have been developed and used for germplasm screening and selection in breeding practices. Classical genetic and modern genomic approaches coupled with precise phenotyping have boosted the unravelling of genes and metabolic pathways conferring drought or salt tolerance in crops. QTL mapping of drought and salt tolerance has provided several dozen target QTLs in Brassica and the closely related Arabidopsis. Many drought- or salt-tolerant genes have also been isolated, some of which have been confirmed to have great potential for genetic improvement of plant tolerance. It has been suggested that molecular breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection and gene transformation, that will enhance oil product security under a changing climate be integrated in the development of drought- and salt-tolerant Brassica crops. PMID:24987291

  17. High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. Results More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. Conclusions Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus. PMID:22726880

  18. The Role of Primary and Secondary Infection in Host Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Mary Ruth; Sharma, Kalpana; Gossen, Bruce D; Deora, Abhinandan; Feng, Jie; Hwang, Sheau-Fang

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT The disease cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae consists of a primary phase in root hairs followed by a secondary phase in the root cortex and adjacent tissues. However, the role of root hair infection in subsequent cortical infection and development of P. brassicae is not well understood. To examine the role of the primary and secondary stages separately, inoculation studies with resting spores (source of primary zoospores) and secondary zoospores of a virulent and avirulent pathotype were conducted on canola (Brassica napus). The size of secondary zoospores and number of nuclei were also examined. The zoospores were larger (≈9.6 to 14.4 μm) than in previous reports and all were uninucleate. Inoculation with secondary zoospores alone produced both primary and secondary infection, even with the avirulent pathotype. No symptoms developed from inoculation with avirulent primary zoospores but tiny, bead-shaped clubs developed from inoculation with avirulent secondary zoospores. Inoculation with virulent secondary zoospores alone resulted in lower disease severity than inoculation with virulent resting spores alone. The results indicate that recognition of infection by the host and initiation of a response (induction or suppression of resistance) occurs during primary infection, although recognition can also occur during cortical infection and development. PMID:24655290

  19. Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Chen, Tianjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yongzhi; Li, Yong; Xu, Xiahong; Shao, Shengzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang; Rogers, Karyne M

    2016-07-20

    Multielement and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, (207)Pb/(206)Pb, and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of individual isotopes or elemental characterization. LDA shows strong promise as an improved method to discriminate genuine organic Brassica vegetables from produce treated with chemical fertilizers and could be used as a robust test for organic produce authentication. PMID:27355562

  20. Elevated Ozone Modulates Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions of Brassica nigra and Alters a Tritrophic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2016-05-01

    Plants damaged by herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by parasitoids for host location. In nature, however, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses of varying intensities, which may affect tritrophic interactions. Here, we studied the effects of ozone exposure and feeding by Pieris brassicae larvae on the VOCs emitted by Brassica nigra and the effects on oriented flight of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. We also investigated the oriented flight of C. glomerata in a wind-tunnel with elevated ozone levels. Herbivore-feeding induced the emission of several VOCs, while ozone alone had no significant effect. However, exposure to 120 ppb ozone, followed by 24 hr of herbivore-feeding, induced higher emissions of all VOCs as compared to herbivore-feeding alone. In accordance, herbivore-damaged plants elicited more oriented flights than undamaged plants, whereas plants exposed to 120 ppb ozone and 24 hr of herbivore-feeding elicited more oriented flights than plants subjected to herbivore-feeding alone. Ozone enrichment of the wind-tunnel air appeared to negatively affect orientation of parasitoids at 70 ppb, but not at 120 ppb. These results suggest that the combination of ozone and P. brassicae-feeding modulates VOC emissions, which significantly influence foraging efficiency of C. glomerata. PMID:27167383

  1. Identification, evolution, and expression partitioning of miRNAs in allopolyploid Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Enhui; Zou, Jun; Hubertus Behrens, Falk; Chen, Li; Ye, Chuyu; Dai, Shutao; Li, Ruiyan; Ni, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Qiu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Wang, Weidi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Chalhoub, Boulos; Bancroft, Ian; Meng, Jinling; Cai, Daguang; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors’ genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs. PMID:26357884

  2. Towards identifying Brassica proteins involved in mediating resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans: a proteomics-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Hotte, Naomi; Rahman, Muhammad H; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Deyholos, Michael K; Kav, Nat N V

    2008-09-01

    To better understand the pathogen-stress response of Brassica species against the ubiquitous hemi-biotroph fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis between blackleg-susceptible Brassica napus and blackleg-resistant Brassica carinata following pathogen inoculation. We examined temporal changes (6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) in protein profiles of both species subjected to pathogen-challenge using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 64 proteins were found to be significantly affected by the pathogen in the two species, out of which 51 protein spots were identified using tandem mass spectrometry. The proteins identified included antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, and those involved in protein processing and signaling. Specifically, we observed that in the tolerant B. carinata, enzymes involved in the detoxification of free radicals increased in response to the pathogen whereas no such increase was observed in the susceptible B. napus. The expression of genes encoding four selected proteins was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and an additional one by Western blotting. Our findings are discussed with respect to tolerance or susceptibility of these species to the pathogen. PMID:18668695

  3. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. PMID:26691228

  4. Transferability, amplification quality, and genome specificity of microsatellites in Brassica carinata and related species.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Lema, A; Velasco, L; Perez-Vich, B

    2010-01-01

    No information is available on the transferability and amplification quality of microsatellite (SSR) markers of the public domain in Brassica carinata A. Braun. The objective of the presented research was to study the amplification of a set of 73 SSRs from B. nigra (L.) Koch and B. napus L. in B. carinata, and to compare the results with those obtained in the amplification of the same markers in other Brassica species of the U triangle. This set of SSRs from B. nigra (B genome) and B. napus (AC genome) allows the identification of the 3 basic genomes of the Brassica species tested. 94.3% of the SSR markers from B. nigra and 97.4% of those from B. napus amplified SSR-specific products in B. carinata. Very high-quality amplification with a strong signal and easy scoring in B. carinata was recorded for 52.8% of the specific loci from B. nigra SSRs and 59.3% of the specific loci from B. napus SSRs, compared to 66.7% in B. nigra and 62.8% in B. napus. Genome specificity and amplification quality of B. nigra and B. napus SSR markers in the 6 species under study is reported. High-quality transferable SSR markers provide an efficient and cost-effective platform to advance in molecular research in B. carinata. PMID:20453299

  5. Recent progress in drought and salt tolerance studies in Brassica crops

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuekun; Lu, Guangyuan; Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Li, Feng; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit imposed by either drought or salinity brings about severe growth retardation and yield loss of crops. Since Brassica crops are important contributors to total oilseed production, it is urgently needed to develop tolerant cultivars to ensure yields under such adverse conditions. There are various physiochemical mechanisms for dealing with drought and salinity in plants at different developmental stages. Accordingly, different indicators of tolerance to drought or salinity at the germination, seedling, flowering and mature stages have been developed and used for germplasm screening and selection in breeding practices. Classical genetic and modern genomic approaches coupled with precise phenotyping have boosted the unravelling of genes and metabolic pathways conferring drought or salt tolerance in crops. QTL mapping of drought and salt tolerance has provided several dozen target QTLs in Brassica and the closely related Arabidopsis. Many drought- or salt-tolerant genes have also been isolated, some of which have been confirmed to have great potential for genetic improvement of plant tolerance. It has been suggested that molecular breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection and gene transformation, that will enhance oil product security under a changing climate be integrated in the development of drought- and salt-tolerant Brassica crops. PMID:24987291

  6. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow. PMID:17177782

  7. Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anika Eva; Terschluesen, Anna Maria; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of brassica vegetables may be associated with a decreased chronic disease risk. Health promoting effects of Brassicaceae have been partly attributed to glucosinolates and in particular to their hydrolyzation products including isothiocyanates. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest a chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates through the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Furthermore, studies in cultured cells, in laboratory rodents, and also in humans support an anti-inflammatory effect of brassica-derived phytochemicals. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these compounds mediate their health promoting effects are yet not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that brassica-derived compounds are regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that isothiocyanates may inhibit histone deacetylase transferases and DNA-methyltransferases in cultured cells. Only a few papers have dealt with the effect of brassica-derived compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in laboratory animals, whereas data in humans are currently lacking. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the biological activities of brassica-derived phytochemicals regarding chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and epigenetic pathways. PMID:24454992

  8. Effects of allelochemicals from first (brassicaceae) and second (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) trophic levels on Adalia bipunctata.

    PubMed

    Francis, F; Lognay, G; Wathelet, J P; Haubruge, E

    2001-02-01

    Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the generalist Myzus persicae and the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae. Each combination of aphid species and prey host plant was used to feed the polyphagous ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. Experiments with Brassicaceae species including different amounts and kinds of glucosinolates (GLS) showed increased ladybird larval mortality at higher GLS concentrations. When reared on plants with higher GLS concentrations, the specialist aphid, B. brassicae, was found to be more toxic than M. persicae. Identification of GLS and related degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates (ITC), was investigated in the first two trophic levels, plant and aphid species, by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. While only GLS were detected in M. persicae on each Brassicaceae species, high amounts of ITC were identified in B. brassicae samples (allyl-ITC and benzyl-ITC from B. nigra and S. alba, respectively) from all host plants. Biological effects of allelochemicals from plants on predators through aphid prey are discussed in relation to aphid species to emphasize the role of the crop plant in integrated pest management in terms of biological control efficacy. PMID:14768813

  9. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  10. Viminaria juncea does not vary its shoot phosphorus concentration and only marginally decreases its mycorrhizal colonization and cluster-root dry weight under a wide range of phosphorus supplies

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Mariana C. R.; Pearse, Stuart J.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The Australian legume species Viminaria juncea forms both cluster roots and mycorrhizal associations. The aim of this study was to identify if these root specializations are expressed at differential supplies of phosphorus (P) and at different shoot P concentrations [P]. Methods Seedlings were planted in sand and provided with a mycorrhizal inoculum and basal nutrients plus one of 21 P treatments, ranging from 0 to 50 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks, and roots, shoots and cluster roots were measured for length and fresh and dry weight. The number of cluster roots, the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and shoot [P] were determined. Key Results Shoot biomass accumulation increased with increasing P supply until a shoot dry weight of 3 g was reached at a P supply of approx. 27·5 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Neither cluster-root formation nor mycorrhizal colonization was fully suppressed at the highest P supply. Most intriguingly, shoot [P] did not differ across treatments, with an average of 1·4 mg P kg−1 shoot dry weight. Conclusions The almost constant shoot [P] in V. juncea over the very wide range of P supplies is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. To maintain these stable values, this species down-regulates its growth rate when no P is supplied; conversely, it down-regulates its P-uptake capacity very tightly at the highest P supplies, when its maximum growth rate has been reached. It is proposed that the persistence of cluster roots and mycorrhizal colonization up to the highest P treatments is a consequence of its tightly controlled shoot [P]. This unusual P physiology of V. juncea is surmised to be related to the habitat of this N2-fixing species. Water and nutrients are available at a low but steady supply for most of the year, negating the need for storage of P which would be metabolically costly and be at the expense of metabolic energy and P available for symbiotic N2 fixation. PMID:23456689

  11. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  12. Identification and expression analysis of chitinase genes related to biotic stress resistance in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Seo, Mi-Suk; Kumar, Thamilarasan Senthil; Lee, In-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2012-04-01

    Brassica is a very important vegetable group because of its contribution to human nutrition and consequent economic benefits. However, biotic stress is a major concern for these crops and molecular biology techniques offer the most efficient of approaches to address this concern. Chitinase is an important biotic stress resistance-related gene. We identified three genes designated as Brassica chitinase like protein (BrCLP1), BrCLP2 and BrCLP3 from a full-length cDNA library of Brassica rapa cv. Osome. Sequence analysis of these genes confirmed that BrCLP1 was a class IV chitinase, and BrCLP2 and BrCLP3 were class VII chitinases. Also, these genes showed a high degree of homology with other biotic stress resistance-related plant chitinases. In expression analysis, organ-specific expression of all three genes was high except BrCLP1 in all the organs tested and BrCLP2 showed the highest expression compared to the other genes in flower buds. All these genes also showed expression during all developmental growth stages of Chinese cabbage. In addition, BrCLP1 was up-regulated with certain time of infection by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Chinese cabbage plants during microarray expression analysis. On the other hand, expression of BrCLP2 and BrCLP3 were increased after 6 h post inoculation (hpi) but decreased from 12 hpi. All these data suggest that these three chitinase genes may be involved in plant resistance against biotic stresses. PMID:21720758

  13. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  14. Fine mapping of a male sterility gene MS-cd1 in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinmei; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yuan; Guo, Aiguang; Wang, Xiaowu

    2011-07-01

    A dominant male sterility (DGMS) line 79-399-3, developed from a spontaneous mutation in Brassica oleracea var. capitata, has been widely used in production of hybrid cultivars in China. In this line, male sterility is controlled by a dominant gene Ms-cd1. In the present study, fine mapping of Ms-cd1 was conducted by screening a segregating population Ms79-07 with 2,028 individuals developed by four times backcrossing using a male sterile Brassica oleracea var. italica line harboring Ms-cd1 as donor and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra as the recipient. Bulked segregation analysis (BSA) was performed for the BC(4) population Ms79-07 using 26,417 SRAP primer SRAPs and 1,300 SSRs regarding of male sterility and fertility. A high-resolution map surrounding Ms-cd1 was constructed with 14 SRAPs and one SSR. The SSR marker 8C0909 was closely linked to the MS-cd1 gene with a distance of 2.06 cM. Fourteen SRAPs closely linked to the target gene were identified; the closest ones on each side were 0.18 cM and 2.16 cM from Ms-cd1. Three of these SRAPs were successfully converted to dominant SCAR markers with a distance to the Ms-cd1 gene of 0.18, 0.39 and 4.23 cM, respectively. BLAST analysis with these SCAR marker sequences identified a collinear genomic region about 600 kb in scaffold 000010 on chromosomeA10 in B. rapa and on chromosome 5 in A. thaliana. These results provide additional information for map-based cloning of the Ms-cd1 gene and will be helpful for marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:21538103

  15. Bioremediation of pesticide wastes in soil using two plant species, Kochia Scoparia and Brassica Napus

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, E.L.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Radiotracer studies were conducted to determine the fate of atrazine and metolachlor, applied as a mixture, in soils taken from pesticide-contaminated sites. Samples taken from nonvegetated areas and from the rhizosphere of Kochia scoparia were treated with {sup 14}C-atrazine and unlabeled metolachlor (50 {mu}g/g each) and incubated for 30, 60 or 135 d. A mass balance of the {sup 14}C applied revealed significant differences between the two soil types in soil bound residues, {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, and the extractable organic fraction (p<0.05). After 135-d incubation, 28% of the applied {sup 14}C was mineralized in Kochia rhizosphere soil, compared to 4% in soil taken from a nonvegetated area. A greater amount of {sup 14}C was extractable from the nonvegetated soil compared to the rhizosphere soil (64% and 22%, respectively). The half-life of atrazine based on extractable {sup 14}C-atrazine was 193 d in nonvegetated soil and 50 d in Kochia rhizosphere soil. Additional subsamples of nonvegetated soils treated with a mixture of {sup 14}C-atrazine and metolachlor were allowed to age for 135 d, and then were either planted with Brassica napus, Kochia scoparia, or left unvegetated. Incubations were carried out in enclosed chambers under controlled conditions. After 30 additional days, a subset of samples was extracted and analyzed using thin-layer chromatography, soil and plant combustion, and liquid scintillation spectroscopy. The percent of applied {sup 14}C-atrazine remaining as atrazine in soil which was nonvegetated, or planted with Brassica napus or Kochia scoparia was 9.3, 6.5, and 4.2%, respectively. Combustion of plants revealed that 11% of the applied radioactivity was taken up in Kochia scoparia, while less than 1% was taken up in Brassica napus plants. The potential for vegetation to aid in bioremediating pesticide wastes in soil is promising.

  16. Brassica rapa plants adapted to microgravity with reduced photosystem I and its photochemical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Guikema, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus contains several protein complexes, many of which are regulated by environmental conditions. In this study, the influences of microgravity on PSI and PSII in Brassica rapa plants grown aboard the space shuttle were examined. We found that Brassica plants grown in space had a normal level of growth relative to controls under similar conditions on Earth. Upon return to Earth, cotyledons were harvested and thylakoid membranes were isolated. Analysis of chlorophyll contents showed that the Chl a/b ratio (3.5) in flight cotyledons was much higher than a ratio of 2.42 in the ground controls. The flight samples also had a reduction of PSI complexes and a corresponding 30% decrease of PSI photochemical activity. Immunoblotting showed that the reaction centre polypeptides of PSI were more apparently decreased (e.g. by 24-33% for PsaA and PsaB, and 57% for PsaC) than the light-harvesting complexes. In comparison, the accumulation of PSII complex was less affected in microgravity, thus only a slight reduction in D1, D2 and LHCII was observed in protein blots. However, there was a 32% decrease of OEC1 in the flight samples, indicating a defective OEC subcomplex. In addition, an average 54% increase of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform was found in the flight samples, suggesting that space-grown plants suffered from certain stresses, consistent with implications of the increased Chl a/b ratio. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Brassica plants can adapt to spaceflight microgravity, but with significant alterations in chloroplast structures and photosynthetic complexes, and especially reduction of PSI and its activity.

  17. Deposition and localization of lipid polyester in developing seeds of Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B; Pollard, Mike

    2008-02-01

    Mature seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus contain complex mixtures of aliphatic monomers derived from non-extractable lipid polyesters. Most of the monomers are deposited in the seed coat, and their compositions suggest the presence of both cutin and suberin layers. The location of these polyesters within the seed coat, and their contributions to permeability of the seed coat and other functional properties are unknown. Polyester deposition was followed over Brassica seed development and distinct temporal patterns of monomer accumulation were observed. Octadecadiene-1,18-dioate, the major leaf cutin monomer, was transiently deposited. In contrast, the saturated dicarboxylates maintained a constant level during seed desiccation, whereas the fatty alcohols and saturated omega-hydroxy fatty acids continually increased. Dissection and analysis of Brassica seed coats showed that suberization is not specific to the chalaza. Analysis of the Arabidopsis ap2-7 mutant suggested that suberin monomers are preferentially associated with the outer integument. Several Arabidopsis knockout mutant lines for genes involved in polyester biosynthesis (att1, fatB and gpat5) were examined for seed monomer load and composition. The variance in polyester monomers of these mutants is correlated with dye penetration assays. Furthermore, stable transgenic plants expressing promoter::YFP fusions showed ATT1 promoter activity in the inner integument, whereas GPAT5 promoter is active in the outer integument. Together, the Arabidopsis data indicated that there is a suberized layer associated with the outer integument and a cutin-like polyester layer associated with the inner seed coat. PMID:18179651

  18. Camalexin contributes to the partial resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to the biotrophic soilborne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Levrel, Anne; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J.; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Camalexin has been reported to play defensive functions against several pathogens in Arabidopsis. In this study, we investigated the possible role of camalexin accumulation in two Arabidopsis genotypes with different levels of basal resistance to the compatible eH strain of the clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. Camalexin biosynthesis was induced in infected roots of both Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant) accessions during the secondary phase of infection. However, the level of accumulation was four-to-seven times higher in Bur-0 than Col-0. This was associated with the enhanced transcription of a set of camalexin biosynthetic P450 genes in Bur-0: CYP71A13, CYP71A12, and CYP79B2. This induction correlated with slower P. brassicae growth in Bur-0 compared to Col-0, thus suggesting a relationship between the levels of camalexin biosynthesis and the different levels of resistance. Clubroot-triggered biosynthesis of camalexin may also participate in basal defense in Col-0, as gall symptoms and pathogen development were enhanced in the pad3 mutant (Col-0 genetic background), which is defective in camalexin biosynthesis. Clubroot and camalexin responses were then studied in Heterogeneous Inbred Families (HIF) lines derived from a cross between Bur-0 and Col-0. The Bur/Col allelic substitution in the region of the previously identified clubroot resistance QTL PbAt5.2 (Chromosome 5) was associated with both the enhanced clubroot-triggered induction of camalexin biosynthesis and the reduced P. brassicae development. Altogether, our results suggest that high levels of clubroot-triggered camalexin biosynthesis play a role in the quantitative control of partial resistance of Arabidopsis to clubroot. PMID:26257750

  19. Molecular characterization of the S locus in two self-incompatible Brassica napus lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K; Schafer, U; Glavin, T L; Goring, D R; Rothstein, S J

    1996-01-01

    In Brassica species, self-incompatibility has been mapped genetically to a single chromosomal location. In this region, there are two closely linked genes coding for the S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK). They appear to comprise the pistil component of the self-incompatibility reaction. SLG and SRK are thought to recognize an unknown pollen component on the incompatible pollen, and the gene encoding this pollen component must also be linked to the SLG and SRK genes. To further our understanding of self-incompatibility, the chromosomal region carrying the SLG and SRK genes has been studied. The physical region between the SLG-910 and the SRK-910 genes in the Brassica napus W1 line was cloned, and a search for genes expressed in the anther revealed two additional S locus genes located downstream of the SLG-910 gene. Because these two genes are novel and are conserved at other S alleles, we designated them as SLL1 and SLL2 (for S locus-linked genes 1 and 2, respectively). The SLL1 gene is S locus specific, whereas the SLL2 gene is not only present at the S locus but is also present in other parts of the genomes in both self-incompatible and self-compatible Brassica ssp lines. Expression of the SLL1 gene is only detectable in anthers of self-incompatible plants and is developmentally regulated during anther development, whereas the SLL2 gene is expressed in anthers and stigmas in both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants, with the highest levels of expression occurring in the stigmas. Although SLL1 and SLL2 are linked to the S locus region, it is not clear whether these genes function in self-incompatibility or serve some other cellular roles in pollen-pistil functions. PMID:8989888

  20. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  1. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  2. Cropping systems and cultural practices determine the Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; Bertier, Lien; Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  3. Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices Determine the Rhizoctonia Anastomosis Groups Associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  4. Effect of temperature on cortical infection by Plasmodiophora brassicae and clubroot severity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kalpana; Gossen, Bruce D; McDonald, Mary Ruth

    2011-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature on infection and development of Plasmodiophora brassicae in the root cortex of Shanghai pak choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and on subsequent clubroot severity. Ten-day-old seedlings were grown individually, inoculated with resting spores, and maintained in growth cabinets at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30?C. Seedlings were harvested at 2-day intervals, starting 8 days after inoculation (DAI) and continuing until 42 DAI. Roots were assessed at 4-day intervals for the incidence of cortical infection and stage of infection (young plasmodia, mature plasmodia, and resting spores), at 2-day intervals for symptom development and clubroot severity, and at 8-day intervals for the number of spores per gram of gall. Temperature affected every stage of clubroot development. Cortical infection was highest and symptoms were observed earliest at 25?C, intermediate at 20 and 30?C, and lowest and latest at 15?C. No cortical infection or symptoms were observed at 42 DAI in plants grown at 10?C.