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Sample records for brazilian case examined

  1. The Dilemma of Influenza Vaccine Recommendations when Applied to the Tropics: The Brazilian Case Examined Under Alternative Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Wyller Alencar; de Paiva, Terezinha Maria; Ishida, Maria Akiko; Benega, Margarete Aparecida; dos Santos, Mirleide Cordeiro; Viboud, Cécile; Miller, Mark A.; Alonso, Wladimir J.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999 the World Health Organization issues annually an additional influenza vaccine composition recommendation. This initiative aimed to extend to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) the benefits—previously enjoyed only by the Northern Hemisphere (NH)—of a vaccine recommendation issued as close as possible to the moment just before the onset of the influenza epidemic season. A short time between the issue of the recommendation and vaccine delivery is needed to maximize the chances of correct matching between putative circulating strains and one of the three strains present in the vaccine composition. Here we compare the effectiveness of the SH influenza vaccination adopted in Brazil with hypothetical alternative scenarios defined by different timings of vaccine delivery and/or composition. Scores were based on the temporal overlap between vaccine-induced protection and circulating strains. Viral data were obtained between 1999 and 2007 from constant surveillance and strain characterization in two Brazilian cities: Belém, located at the Equatorial region, and São Paulo, at the limit between the tropical and subtropical regions. Our results show that, among currently feasible options, the best strategy for Brazil would be to adopt the NH composition and timing, as in such case protection would increase from 30% to 65% (p<.01) if past data can be used as a prediction of the future. The influenza season starts in Brazil (and in the equator virtually ends) well before the SH winter, making the current delivery of the SH vaccination in April too late to be effective. Since Brazil encompasses a large area of the Southern Hemisphere, our results point to the possibility of these conclusions being similarly valid for other tropical regions. PMID:19352506

  2. "Tupy or not Tupy?" Examining Hybridity in Contemporary Brazilian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Flavia M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Updating the 1920s notion of Anthropophagy developed to symbolize through cannibalistic ritual the process of cultural assimilation that influences art, this article examines issues of naming, describing, and representing contemporary Brazilian art. In the first part of the article, the work of four contemporary Brazilian artists recently…

  3. Emotion and Language Politics: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a case for the claim that exclusive focus on the rational has only helped isolate linguists and prevented them from having a say on important political issues relating to language. One important feature of the ordinary person's view of and involvement with language is that emotions play an important role in…

  4. Universality, correlations, and rankings in the Brazilian universities national admission examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C.; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the scores obtained by students who have taken the ENEM examination, The Brazilian High School National Examination which is used in the admission process at Brazilian universities. The average high schools scores from different disciplines are compared through the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show a very large correlation between the performance in the different school subjects. Even though the students' scores in the ENEM form a Gaussian due to the standardization, we show that the high schools' scores form a bimodal distribution that cannot be used to evaluate and compare students performance over time. We also show that this high schools distribution reflects the correlation between school performance and the economic level (based on the average family income) of the students. The ENEM scores are compared with a Brazilian non standardized exam, the entrance examination from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis of the performance of the same individuals in both tests shows that the two tests not only select different abilities, but also lead to the admission of different sets of individuals. Our results indicate that standardized tests might be an interesting tool to compare performance of individuals over the years, but not of institutions.

  5. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  6. The challenges for solid waste management in accordance with Agenda 21: a Brazilian case review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Rocha, Sandra Mara Santana

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of the Brazilian solid waste policy (BSWP) with global Agenda 21 and the challenges of implementing the BSWP in municipalities. For this, a review of the principles that guided the creation of this policy was performed to demonstrate that international pressures were important in determining its effectiveness. The contradictory relationship between the satisfactory legal framework that established the Brazilian waste management policy and its weakened implementation in the municipalities is also examined . To illustrate the difficulties faced at the local level, a case study involving municipalities that compose the state of Espírito Santowe was undertaken. In this state, the municipalities signed terms of environmental commitment with supervisory agencies who undertook, within a pre-established schedule, to implement a set of actions to shape the proper management of solid waste, adapted to the requirements of national policy and the guidelines of Agenda 21. Finally, the various difficulties in meeting the requirements are discussed. It is necessary and urgent that Brazil finds a way to coordinate the mechanisms of an innovative and well formulated legal instrument to ensure the successful implementation of solid waste management at the local level to achieve the environmental, economic and social objectives. PMID:25023985

  7. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects. PMID:26477892

  8. Managing Communication among Geographically Distributed Teams: A Brazilian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ana Carina M.; de Farias Junior, Ivaldir H.; de S. Carneiro, Pedro Jorge

    The growing demand for qualified professionals is making software companies opt for distributed software development (DSD). At the project conception, communication and synchronization of information are critical factors for success. However problems such as time-zone difference between teams, culture, language and different development processes among sites could difficult the communication among teams. In this way, the main goal of this paper is to describe the solution adopted by a Brazilian team to improve communication in a multisite project environment. The purposed solution was based on the best practices described in the literature, and the communication plan was created based on the infrastructure needed by the project. The outcome of this work is to minimize the impact of communication issues in multisite projects, increasing productivity, good understanding and avoiding rework on code and document writing.

  9. Emergency planning for hazardous industrial areas: a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A B

    2000-08-01

    One of the characteristics of modern industrial development is the emergence of a new typology of accidents whose effects can be spread, in space as well as in time, well beyond the borders of the installations where they occur, sometimes impacting the local population and the environment in a catastrophic fashion. This is the result of a number of factors that have changed the risk profile of modern industrial activities. For a number of reasons, the developing countries have proved to be more vulnerable to industrial disasters. Three of the most catastrophic industrial accidents--Bhopal, San Juan de Ixhuatepec, and Cubatão--occurred in developing countries, claiming thousands of lives. During the 1970s and 1980s the higher degree of public visibility of industrial hazards as a result of serious accidents, led to the creation, especially in the more industrialized countries, of regulations for greater control over industrial activities, either by means of new laws or by updating existing legislation. Some of these regulations were designed to improve the response to accidents with potential impacts outside the industrial sites. This article attempts to describe the current status and identify the shortcomings of off-site emergency planning for hazardous industrial areas in Brazil. The most important problems are the lack of specific legislation and the absence of awareness and active participation of public authorities. The experience of an off-site emergency planning process for a Brazilian industrial area is presented. This experience illustrates how difficult it is to prepare and implement emergency planning processes in an industrializing country. PMID:11051072

  10. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

    PubMed Central

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS), lime schist (LSC), São Paulo peat (SPP) and Santa Catarina peat (SCP); and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE) was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers. PMID:24031673

  11. Scedosporium apiospermum eumycetoma successfully treated with oral voriconazole: report of a case and review of the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Unis, Gisela; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of white-grain eumycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent host that was successfully treated with oral voriconazole, and we review the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis. PMID:23563766

  12. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  13. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil: Case series and review of the Brazilian literature.

    PubMed

    Prado, Laura de Godoy Rousseff; Bicalho, Isabella Carolina Santos; Vidigal-Lopes, Mauro; Ferreira, Carla Juliana Araújo; Mageste Barbosa, Luiz Sérgio; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; De Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to systematically analyse the first series of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Minas Gerais and to review the Brazilian literature about clinical studies in ALS. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients with probable or defined sporadic ALS according to the Awaji criteria, followed at two referral centres of Belo Horizonte (South-east Brazil). Patients underwent full clinical assessment. Comparisons of patient subgroups according to disease duration and initial presentation were performed. A systematic review was performed about Brazilian clinical studies in ALS. Results showed that of the 61 enrolled patients the male/female ratio was 1.6:1. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 54.9 years (SD ± 11.4). Mean age at diagnosis was 56.3 years (SD ± 11.1). Regarding the initial form of presentation, 43 cases (70.5%) were spinal, 12 cases (19.7%) were generalized and six cases (9.8%) were bulbar. Eight studies were found in the systematic review. In conclusion, the profile of our sample was similar to other national and international series, except for fewer cases of bulbar ALS in our series. There are few clinical studies of ALS in Brazil. The national data of prevalence and incidence are still uncertain. PMID:26854959

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil. PMID:24055973

  17. Companion Cases in a Large Urban Medical Examiner's Office.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Njiwaji, Chantel; Sung, LokMan

    2015-12-01

    Companion death cases, as defined in this study, include 2 or more deaths that occur at the same location or 1 death at a specific location combined with 1 or more individuals transported from that same location to a hospital where death was pronounced within 1 hour of arrival. These types of cases can have multiple causes and manners of death. The Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office conducted a retrospective study of companion death cases that came into the office from mid 2007 to the end of 2014. The purpose of the study was to identify and examine patterns of companion death cases in a large urban area that would assist future companion death case investigations. Three hundred fifty deaths were found to be companion cases, including 135 pairs (2 connected deaths in the same location), 20 trios, and 5 quartets. Approximately 49% of companion case deaths were homicides. Approximately 30% of companion case deaths were traumatic accidental deaths. Around 14% of companion case deaths that were from the same scene location had different manners of death, including suicide, homicide, natural, and indeterminate. The remainder of companion death cases were either drug related or natural. Through this study, we have identified a pattern to these companion death cases and have concluded that it is important to conduct a thorough medicolegal death investigation of such cases to establish and elucidate the true circumstances surrounding these deaths. PMID:26332646

  18. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  19. Discussion on the Criterion for the Safety Certification Basis Compilation - Brazilian Space Program Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Alves, N. C.; Caetano, A. O.; Andrade, N. S. O.

    2012-01-01

    The recent advent of the commercial launch and re- entry activities, for promoting the expansion of human access to space for tourism and hypersonic travel, in the already complex ambience of the global space activities, brought additional difficulties over the development of a harmonized framework of international safety rules. In the present work, with the purpose of providing some complementary elements for global safety rule development, the certification-related activities conducted in the Brazilian space program are depicted and discussed, focusing mainly on the criterion for certification basis compilation. The results suggest that the composition of a certification basis with the preferential use of internationally-recognized standards, as is the case of ISO standards, can be a first step toward the development of an international safety regulation for commercial space activities.

  20. Strategies for reducing carbon emissions on the tropical rain forest: The case of the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.

    1995-11-01

    Forests systems are renewable resources that can be used by present generations and that should be available to future generations if they are exploited on a sustainable basis. The tropical forest is still an immense and unknown field. The issues are: What means a sustainable basis in the tropical rain forests? What are the means of harmonising an economic development with an environmental equilibrium in tropical regions? One way to meet this requirement is to analyse the potentially {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} options on which it is possible to agree upon despite controversies about what will be the true long run costs and benefits of various courses of actions. In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, in the last thirty years, the use of biomass and land has increased rapidly. Therefore, environmental and social problems have emerged with some intensity and have had repercussions on local and global scales. In relation to the recent global environmental changes, the Brazilian Amazon is considered as a key region for biodiversity conservation and preserving a carbon sink. In this paper, the main methodological option is to conceive a set of {open_quotes}no-regret{close_quotes} options, related with the land uses and biomass valorisation, which are analysed through the same framework. The options considered here are: decrease of the great cattle ranching and of the predatory timber extraction; the increase of forest management (harvest of timber and nontimber extractive products) and forest plantations in the degraded lands. The aims to focus on three elements: job creation, technico-economic adequation and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon flow).

  1. [Clinical forensic examination findings in assault cases among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Buddeke, Florian; Schulz, Yvonne; Fieguth, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Child and youth criminality has risen markedly over the past 25 years and causes increasing concern to the general public. The clinical forensic examination cases of youth violence victims examined at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School and its Oldenburg Branch between 1999 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. In all, 55 adolescents (37 females, 18 males; median age 15.5 years) were examined. In most cases the suspect was a close (40.0%) or passing (23.6%) acquaintance. 16 assaults were committed by two or more adolescents jointly. Most of the juveniles were victims of sexual assaults (56.4%). In 15 victims of sexual offences (51.7%) diagnostic findings were obtained on the basis of anogenital injuries and/or the presence of sperm. In summary, the analysis shows that adolescents frequently become victims of sexual assault. In addition, youth violence is often committed in a group. PMID:21254705

  2. Interpretation of automotive light bulb examination results: an intriguing case.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    During the examination of light bulbs from a vehicle involved in a road accident, the headlights did not reveal any evidence regarding whether they were energized or not. Additionally, a police officer turned the lights on after the accident to verify their functioning, thus damaging some of the evidence. By examining the vehicle, it was determined that the park lights could provide answers regarding the conditions of the headlights. After observations, it was concluded that the park lights and headlights were off at the time of the impact. This case report demonstrates how important it is to integrate the circumstances surrounding the case into the interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it also demonstrates the necessity for examining both the vehicle and all light bulbs in order to reach the most pertinent and proper conclusion. PMID:17209923

  3. Elements and Degrees of SI: A Case Study of Nikkei Brazilian Immigrants in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Hitomi

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent immigrant phenomenon in Japan and explains the complexity of the social integration (SI) of Nikkei Brazilians. Through the research, factors that explain the degree of social integration (SI) of Nikkei Brazilians are identified. Basic data include triangulated results from a survey of 80 people and…

  4. (Case studies examining energy policies and strategies for water resources development): Foreign trip report, May 7--13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1989-05-24

    The traveler met with colleagues involved with Project 12.2 of the IHP of UNESCO to discuss and finalize case studies that are being prepared for a report entitled ''Case Studies Examining Energy Policies and Strategies for Water Resources Development.'' Draft case studies from the United States, Brazil, Norway, and Czechoslovakia were reviewed and discussed. The traveler was appointed editor of the final report. The traveler met with staff of the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Executive Secretary to the National Energy Commission of Brazil, and the newly created Brazilian Institute of the Environment. The traveler was briefed on the functions of these departments, and he briefed them on water resource activities conducted at ORNL. The traveler presented a seminar at Eletrobras (national electric utility) in Brazil on environmental research at ORNL.

  5. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in the study period and whose death had been notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Labour as being related to work. Four controls per case, matched to cases on year of birth, were randomly selected from among workers employed in the plant at the time of death of the matching case. Data on potential risk factors for occupational injury were extracted from company records; for the controls these data were abstracted for the period preceding the death of the matching case. RESULTS: There were 37 deaths related to work injuries during the study period. Four surviving workers were selected as controls for each case, but for eight the personnel records were incomplete, leaving 140 controls in all. Significantly increased risk of fatal injury related to work was associated with exposure to noise, heat, dust and fumes, gases and vapours, rotating shift work, being a manual worker, and working in the steel mill, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and energy and water supply areas. Risk of fatal injury related to work increased with intensity of exposure to noise (P (trend) = 0.004) and heat (P < 0.001), and increased greatly with a hazard score that combined information on noise, heat, dust, and gas exposure (P < 0.001). Number of years of schooling (P = 0.03) and salary level (P = 0.03) were both negatively associated with risk. In a multivariate analysis including all these significant factors, only hazard score and area of work remained associated with death from injury related to work. The

  6. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  7. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare. PMID:26188916

  8. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy: a case report of a rare disease in a Brazilian child.

    PubMed

    Pêgas, Karla Lais; Rohde, Roberta; Garcia, Clotilde Druck; Bittencourt, Viviane de Barros; Keitel, Elizete; Poloni, José Antonio Tesser; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare autosomal recessive glomerulopathy associated with the deposition of lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina due to apoE gene mutations. Abnormal plasma lipoprotein profile and marked increase in serum apoliprotein E (apoE) are characteristic clinical data. The compromised patients can present nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and progressive renal failure. Herein, the authors present the first described case of LPG in a Brazilian male patient, 11 years, who presented with a steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Renal function was normal. Kidney biopsy showed markedly enlarged glomerulus, with dilated capillary loops and weak eosinophilic lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina. Interstitium, tubules, arteries, and veins showed normal histologic aspect. Genotypic study for the apoE gene showed the presence of the alleles E3 and E4. The diagnosis of LPG was then performed. The patient received lipid-lowering treatment. After 2 years of follow-up, renal function is gradually decreasing, with persisting heavy proteinuria, despite a marked decrease in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. PMID:24676620

  9. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M; Slack, Kristen S

    2012-11-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that-even after accounting for caseworker race-differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  10. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that—even after accounting for caseworker race—differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  11. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices. PMID:21854384

  12. Intelligent image capture of cartridge cases for firearms examiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1997-02-01

    The FBI's DRUGFIRETM system is a nationwide computerized networked image database of ballistic forensic evidence. This evidence includes images of cartridge cases and bullets obtained from both crime scenes and controlled test firings of seized weapons. Currently, the system is installed in over 80 forensic labs across the country and has enjoyed a high degree of success. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and methods associated with providing a front-end semi-automated image capture system that simultaneously satisfies the often conflicting criteria of the many human examiners visual perception versus the criteria associated with optimizing autonomous digital image correlation. Specifically, we detail the proposed processing chain of an intelligent image capture system (IICS), involving a real- time capture 'assistant,' which assesses the quality of the image under test utilizing a custom designed neural network.

  13. Clear cell acanthoma of the areola and nipple: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two Brazilian cases*

    PubMed Central

    da Veiga, Rossana Ruth Garcia; Barros, Renata Silva; dos Santos, Josie Eiras Bisi; Abreu Junior, José Maria de Castro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell acanthoma or Degos' acanthoma is a distinct disease concerning its clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features. Its pathologic nature - whether neoplastic or reactive - is still under dispute among researchers. The disease shows a chronic course and often presents with a single papulonodular lesion on the lower limbs of adults. However, cases with multiple lesions, sometimes occurring in an eruptive fashion, and with clear variation in the size and shape of the cutaneous lesions have been reported. So far, five cases in which the lesions were exclusively located in the nipple area have been reported, all in Korean women. Four of these cases mimicked eczema and one, a polypoid nodule. The aim of this article is to present clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two additional cases in Brazilian women with similar nipple topography. PMID:23539008

  14. Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

  15. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  16. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

  17. Can we predict crashes? The case of the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Werneck, Filipe K.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we analyze Brazilian stock prices to detect the development of bubbles and crashes in individual stocks using a log-periodic equation. We implement a genetic algorithm to calibrate the parameters of the model and we test the methodology for the most liquid stocks traded on the Brazilian Stock Market (Bovespa). In order to evaluate whether this approach is useful we employ nonparametric statistics and test whether returns after the predicted crash are negative and lower than returns before the crash. Empirical results are consistent with the prediction hypothesis, e.g., the method applied can be used to forecast the end of asset bubbles or large corrections in stock prices.

  18. [Documents make a difference: the case of Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Soares, Gabriella Barreto; Araújo, Pedro Luiz de; Tracy, Maria Natalicia

    2016-07-21

    Brazilian immigrants in the United States experience various social, labor, and health challenges. This study aimed to analyze the profile of female Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA, through a description of their working conditions and self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 domestic workers in Massachusetts, recruited with "snowball" sampling. The instrument addressed participants' demographic characteristics, work conditions, and self-rated health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Among the interviewees, 95.5% were women, 62.1% were 30 to 49 years of age, and 55.6% were undocumented. Documented and undocumented participants showed statistically significant differences in demographics, work conditions, and health. Irregular immigrant status appears to have a negative impact on domestic workers' living and health conditions. PMID:27462853

  19. Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Analysis of 91 cases.

    PubMed

    Silveria, P V; Nishioka, S de A

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii). In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming). The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did not show any sign of envenoming or fang mark. Most cases occurred in men (66;73%), in the 10-19 years age group (26;29%), in the lower limbs (51/74;69%), between 6 A. M. and 2 P.M. (49;61%) and in the month of April (16;18%). One patient bitten by Philodryas olfersii developed severe local pain, swelling and redness at the site of the bite, with normal clotting time. The patient bitten by Drymarcon corais was misdiagnosed as being bitten by a snake of the genus Bothrops, was given the specific antivenom, and developed anaphylaxis. One patient bitten by Sibynomorphus mikanii presented prolonged clotting time, and was also given antivenom as a case of Bothrops bite. Correct identification of venomous snakes by physicians is necessary to provide correct treatment to victims of snake bite, avoiding unnecessary distress to the patient, and overprescription of antivenom, which may eventually cause severe untoward effects. PMID:1342117

  20. Examining End-of-Life Case Management: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E.; Wilson, Donna M.; Birch, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Case management was initiated in the 1970s to reduce care discontinuity. A literature review focused on end-of-life (EOL) case management identified 17 research articles, with content analysis revealing two themes: (a) seeking to determine or establish the value of EOL case management and (b) identifying ways to improve EOL case management. The evidence, although limited, suggests that EOL case management is helpful to dying individuals and their families. Research is needed to more clearly illustrate its usefulness or outcomes and the extent of need for it and actual availability. Among other benefits, EOL case management may help reduce hospital utilization, a major concern with the high cost of hospital-based care and the increased desire for home-based EOL care. PMID:24999433

  1. Examining Charging Agreement between Police and Prosecutors in Rape Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, David; Beichner, Dawn; Spohn, Cassia

    2010-01-01

    Although prior research has contributed to understanding of the factors that influence sexual assault case processing, it has primarily been viewed through the prosecutorial lens. The authors assert that a prosecutor's charging decision involves not only a decision to file or reject the charge but, assuming that the case is not rejected, also a…

  2. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  3. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country

    PubMed Central

    Velloso, E.D.R.P.; Chauffaille, M.L.; Peliçario, L.M.; Tanizawa, R.S.S.; Toledo, S.R.C.; Gaiolla, R.D.; Lopes, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED). We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome). Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis. PMID:23314345

  4. Uncomplicated malaria among pregnant women in the Brazilian Amazon: local barriers to prompt and effective case management.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Moritz, Angela Fernandes Esher; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-02-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery and other adverse effects on health. In Brazil, disease transmission is highly concentrated in the multi-state region that constitutes the Brazilian Amazon (more than 99% of all cases). This study, conducted between the first bimesters of 2007 and 2008, aims to identify the local barriers to prompt and effective case management of malaria in pregnancy and was carried out in health facilities located in three endemic municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Porto Velho). The study design combined both qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative design involved semi-structured interviews with health personnel who routinely deal with malaria care. The quantitative design involved a review of medical records of pregnant women in the visited health facilities. Additionally, data were abstracted from SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Brasil, 2007) and Primary Care Information System (SIAB) databases. Flaws were detected in diagnosis (only 6.8% of women tested for malaria) and treatment (for Plasmodium falciparum infections, only 44.8% of patients received recommended first-line therapy; 10.2% of prescription presented treatments were not found in national guideline and 7.3% of the prescriptions for Plasmodium vivax and 17.9% of the prescriptions for P. falciparum were not sanctioned by the official guidelines). Training (only 37.3% had had some training), knowledge and counseling were also sub-optimal. These results indicated the need to improve the health-worker performance through training. Close supervision and feedback on the health-worker performance are also needed. These findings also highlighted the need to put into practice a series of government recommendations that encourage close collaboration between the National Malaria Control Program and

  5. Examining Effective Teaching via a Social Constructivist Pedagogy "Case Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As students engage in pre-service teacher (PT) activities, they take a number of courses that help prepare them to teach in schools. During that time, they must also form their own understanding of what teaching and learning means for them (Kroll, 2004). In many cases, this can conflict with their view of teaching as a command approach to…

  6. Women in the Maharaj libel case: a re-examination.

    PubMed

    Shodhan, A

    1997-01-01

    This article applies a gender perspective to the history of social reform efforts in mid-19th century Bombay to help illuminate the origins of Indian modernism. In the Maharaj Libel Case, two social reformers successfully defended a libel suit after they published charges of sexual misconduct against the religious priests of the Pushtimarga Vaishnava sect. The paper contextualizes the discussion with a brief review of the rise of British education in Bombay, a note that the social reformers considered the ideal woman to be a domestic helpmate, and a sketch of the history of the devotional religious sect that worships Krishna. The libel case attracted immense public attention, and the reformers based their defense on charges that the Maharajs (priests) were immoral and exploited female devotees sexually. The priests were described as ignorant and blind while the women were considered merely passive objects subordinate to males. No woman was called to give evidence, but evidence shows that the women willingly visited the priests for sexual acts. The reformers' solution to the problem was for the women they regarded as infantilized and/or degraded to be more firmly controlled by their male kin. The conclusion that the reformers were patriarchal and not concerned about the well-being of women is supported by three cases. The reformers ignored the two in which women brought charges against priests and only urged action in the case of a rape/murder by a priest. PMID:12321343

  7. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations. PMID:26461039

  8. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight

  9. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  10. Magnetospheric disturbance induced equatorial plasma bubble development and dynamics: A case study in Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.; MacDougall, J.; Sobral, J. H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Trivedi, N. B.

    2003-12-01

    Equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble irregularity development and dynamics during the major magnetospheric storm of 26 August 1998 are investigated using the data collected by a multistation and multi-instrument diagnostic network operated at equatorial and low latitude sites in Brazil, and auroral electrojet activity (AU/AL), IMF, and Dst indices. A magnetospheric disturbance onset in the morning of 26 August 1998 was initiated by a solar wind shock and associated IMF Bz polarity reversals and ssc that were soon followed by a succession of substorm-like auroral electrojet (AE) intensifications and Dst development. An IMF Bz southward turning and associated AE intensifications in the Brazilian dusk sector produced intense prompt penetration eastward electric field that caused large F region vertical drift and consequently the developments of intense postsunset equatorial anomaly and a series of intense plasma bubbles, the latter event lasting the entire night, as observed by digital ionosondes at São Luís (2.33°S, 315.8°E, dip angle: -.5°) and Fortaleza (3.9°S, 321.55°W, dip angle: -9°) and an all-sky imager, two scanning photometers, and a Digisonde at the low-latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.6°S, 315°E dip angle: -28°). A notable aspect of the dynamics of the bubbles was their initially very low eastward drift velocity which turned into steadily increasing westward velocity that lasted till early morning hours. The results show for the first time a relationship between the zonal drift velocities of optically observed large-scale bubbles (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and that of the smaller scale (kilometer sizes) structures as observed by a digital ionosonde. The results point to the dominant role of a disturbance dynamo associated westward thermospheric wind to maintain the plasma irregularity drift increasingly westward going into postmidnight hours. As an important finding, the results further show that significant contribution to the

  11. 5 CFR 316.601 - Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 316.601 Section 316.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Rare Cases § 316.601 Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases. (a) An agency may make... are such, or qualified persons are so rare, that in the interest of good civil service...

  12. 5 CFR 316.601 - Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 316.601 Section 316.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Rare Cases § 316.601 Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases. (a) An agency may make... are such, or qualified persons are so rare, that in the interest of good civil service...

  13. Barlett v. N.Y. State Board of Law Examiners: Making the Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jo Anne

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the court case of a woman with learning disabilities who applied to take the New York State Bar Examination and was denied testing accommodations. The issues in the case are examined, including the refusal of the New York State Board of Law Examiners to provide adequate accommodations. (CR)

  14. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling. PMID:27446605

  15. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination - a case report.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Mateusz; Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling. PMID:27446605

  16. Melanoma patterns of distant relapse: a study of 108 cases from a South Brazilian center*

    PubMed Central

    Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Pires; Cidral, Danielle Louise da Maia; Hilgert, Sara Fernanda; Ddine, Yasmine Rodrigues Chamse; Stein, Carlos Efrain; Borges, Giuliano Santos; de Lima, Adma Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased over the last decades. Recurrences occur most frequently within the first 2-3 years after diagnosis but patients carry a lifelong risk of relapse. Nevertheless, there is no consensus in the literature on what screening tests patients should undergo. Objectives: To evaluate the most common melanoma metastasis sites among a South Brazilian population from a city with one of the highest melanoma rates, and establish the best screening method for these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study of 108 consecutive melanoma patients followed up at a center from 2009 to 2013. Data were collected on demographic and tumoral characteristics, as well as the site of the first diagnosed metastasis. Results: Patients were divided into 3 groups for analytical purposes: Non-visceral metastases (48% of patients), visceral metastasis (39%) and brain metastasis (13%). We tried to correlate age, gender, mean Breslow thickness, mitosis and death rates with the aforementioned groups but none showed any statistically significant association. Conclusion: Melanoma patients must be monitored to detect early relapse and subsequent effective treatment but the best follow-up strategy remains to be established. PMID:26982777

  17. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until the third…

  18. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    PubMed Central

    de André, Paulo Afonso; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies. PMID:22760904

  19. 5 CFR 3.2 - Appointments without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 3.2 Section 3.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... examination in rare cases. Subject to receipt of satisfactory evidence of the qualifications of the person to... persons are so rare, that, in the interest of good civil-service administration, the position cannot...

  20. 5 CFR 3.2 - Appointments without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 3.2 Section 3.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... examination in rare cases. Subject to receipt of satisfactory evidence of the qualifications of the person to... persons are so rare, that, in the interest of good civil-service administration, the position cannot...

  1. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  2. Management and Follow-Up of a Case of Gestational Gigantomastia in a Brazilian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Blunck Santos, Natalia Quarto; Barbosa Pagio, Fernanda Alves; Chambô, Fabio; Chambô, Danielle; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Gigantomastia is a breast disorder that is associated with an exaggerated, rapid growth of the breasts, generally bilaterally. Since the pathology is rare and has seldom been described, its etiology has yet to be fully established, although there are speculations that a hormonal component may play an important role. Treatment is aimed at improving the clinical and psychological symptoms; however, the best therapeutic option varies from case to case. The present report describes a case of gestational gigantomastia seen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in a primigravida in the second trimester of pregnancy. The report follows this patient from her diagnosis until the completion of treatment with a third and final surgical procedure. PMID:25215252

  3. Management and follow-up of a case of gestational gigantomastia in a brazilian hospital.

    PubMed

    Eler Dos Reis, Pollyana; Blunck Santos, Natalia Quarto; Barbosa Pagio, Fernanda Alves; Chambô, Fabio; Chambô, Danielle; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Gigantomastia is a breast disorder that is associated with an exaggerated, rapid growth of the breasts, generally bilaterally. Since the pathology is rare and has seldom been described, its etiology has yet to be fully established, although there are speculations that a hormonal component may play an important role. Treatment is aimed at improving the clinical and psychological symptoms; however, the best therapeutic option varies from case to case. The present report describes a case of gestational gigantomastia seen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in a primigravida in the second trimester of pregnancy. The report follows this patient from her diagnosis until the completion of treatment with a third and final surgical procedure. PMID:25215252

  4. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  5. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  6. The Business Case Method: An Examination of a 2009 Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare, contrast and analyze the business case formats of college students involved in a business case competition. The authors observed and documented teams of business students from 6 colleges in Ontario, Canada. The teams had 20 minutes to prepare a solution from a given business case using their own case…

  7. Cryptococcosis in non-HIV/non-transplant patients: A Brazilian case series.

    PubMed

    Lomes, Naiane Ribeiro; Melhem, Marcia Souza de Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Martins, Marilena Dos Anjos; Buccheri, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a classical systemic opportunistic mycosis, primarily occurring among patients with significant immunologic impairment. However, this disease could also affect patients without any recognized immunologic defects, that is, phenotypically normal patients. The medical records of 29 non-HIV/nontransplant patients with cryptococcal disease during the period 2007-2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The most common site of infection was the central nervous system (n = 25, 86.2%), followed by the pulmonary system (n = 11, 37.9%) and blood (n = 2, 6.8%). Thoracic- and brain-computed tomography demonstrated abnormalities of 81.2% (n = 13) and 62.5% (n = 15), respectively. In sum, 22% (n = 6) of the patients experienced a significant underlying condition. More than one therapeutic regimen was used in 77.8% (n = 21) of the patients. The isolates were identified as being Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (n = 4, 36.4%) and Cryptococcus gattii species complex (n = 7, 63.6%). The overall mortality was 20.7% (n = 6). Herein, we presented the first case series of cryptococcosis in this specific population in São Paulo City, Brazil. The incidence of cryptococcosis in our hospital has not increased in recent years, and 77.8% (n = 21) of cases had no obvious predisposing factor. However, this disease remains associated with high mortality. PMID:27118805

  8. Risk factors associated with death in Brazilian children with severe dengue: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Maria; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Júnior, Leônidas Lopes Braga; de Oliveira, Ricardo Villar Barbosa; Rios, Lívia Teresa Moreira; do Socorro da Silva, Maria; Medeiros, Maria Nilza Lima; Silva, Gilnara Fontinelle; Nina, Fernanda Campos Amaral Figueiredo; Lima, Taliane Jardim; Brito, Jayron Alves; de Oliveira, Avessandra Costa Cardoso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors associated with death in children with severe dengue. METHODS: The clinical condition of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who died (cases, n = 18) was compared with that of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who survived (controls, n = 77). The inclusion criteria for this study were age under 13 years; hospital admission in São Luis, northeastern Brazil; and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of dengue. RESULTS: Severe bleeding (hemoptysis), a defining criterion for dengue severity, was the factor most strongly associated with death in our study. We also found that epistaxis and persistent vomiting, both included as warning signs in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of dengue, were strongly associated with death. No significant association was observed between any of the laboratory findings and death. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that epistaxis and persistent vomiting were also associated with death in children with severe dengue was unexpected and deserves to be explored in future studies. Because intensive care units are often limited in resource-poor settings, any information that can help to distinguish patients with severe dengue with a higher risk to progress to death may be crucial. PMID:24473560

  9. Human adenovirus spread, rainfalls, and the occurrence of gastroenteritis cases in a Brazilian basin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Henzel, Andréia; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-11-01

    Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization. PMID:26514803

  10. Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L

    2011-09-01

    Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. PMID:21550165

  11. Examining Treatment Effects for Single-Case ABAB Designs through Sensitivity Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbacher, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are often used to examine the impact of an intervention over brief periods of time (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Segool, Brinkman, & Carlson, 2007). The majority of SCDs are inspected using visual analysis (Kromrey & Foster-Johnson, 1996; Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Although the single-case literature…

  12. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  13. Examining the Stability of Experts' Clinical Case Processing: An Experimental Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, Anique B. H.; Van De Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that the intermediate effect in clinical case recall is partly explained by experts' lower motivation to write down "everything" they remember when asked for free recall. Medical experts and students were presented with two clinical cases, which they had to read, diagnose, and recall.…

  14. Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System: The Case of the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banraba, Boboya James Edimond

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the contemporary status of an education system. The paper takes the case of the Republic of South Sudan. The key issues the paper will examine are the education enrollment and completion rates while paying particular attention to inequalities in both access and quality among racial or ethnic groups, males and…

  15. [Examination of the Cases Given Primary Tumor Resection after Systemic Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukiko; Sakurai, Kenichi; Adachi, Keita; Fujiwara, Asako; Ono, Youko; Nagashima, Saki; Suzuki, Shuhei; Waga, Eiko; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    We examined the records of patients with stage Ⅳ breast cancer who underwent primary tumor resection after systemic therapy. In our department, in 2013, there were 8 such cases. The average local tumor diameter was 59 mm. There was 1 case of metastases to the liver, 2 cases to the lung, 3 cases to the bone, and 1 case to the kidney. Three cases had lymph node metastases. Two cases were treated with hormonal therapy, and 6 cases received chemotherapy as preoperative systemic therapy. All cases underwent Bt plus Ax. Approximately 2 years after the surgery, 5 of the 8 patients were alive. The postoperative local control was good and we were able to continue systemic treatment for the distant metastases in all cases. We think that resection of the primary tumor improved the quality of life of the patients. However, for 1 fatal case, a brain metastasis was detected shortly after surgery. Therefore, we need to consider the patient's condition carefully before we operate. PMID:26805078

  16. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  17. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  18. A Constructivist Case Study Examining the Leadership Development of Undergraduate Students in Campus Recreational Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…

  19. The Secondary Education Certificate and Matriculation Examinations in Malta: A Case Study. INNODATA1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    This monograph presents a case study of a significant innovation in Malta: the establishment of an indigenous system of examinations at the secondary school and postsecondary levels. This is an example of a small state setting up its own end-of-cycle certification rather than using what is provided by metropolitan countries. The introductory…

  20. An Examination of Resilience Processes in Context: The Case of Tasha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined resilience processes in context through a narrative case study of Tasha, a young African-American woman who grew up in a poverty-ridden area of a mid-sized city in the Southeast. Personal and external data are analyzed and interpreted in terms of contextually defined themes of adversity (i.e., intersectionality of social…

  1. A Case for Examining Pre-Service Teacher Preparation for Inquiry Teaching Science with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Chris T.; Yerrick, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry has been the framework for guiding reform-based science instruction. All too often, the role of technology is treated tacitly without contributions to this framework. This case study examines a collection of pre-service teachers enrolling in two educational technology courses and the role these experiences play in promoting inquiry…

  2. Examination of a Dispositional System in a Teacher Education Program: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Prooyen, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods, case study research examined the teacher education program at Illinois State University (ISU-Normal, Illinois) as related to the views and assessment practices of the dispositions of its teacher candidates. Five years of quantitative and qualitative data from ISU's Disposition Concern form was collected and analyzed currently…

  3. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  4. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library project…

  5. [The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion. PMID:21340108

  6. Brazilian purpuric fever: epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    In late 1984, 10 children in a small, rural town in Brazil had high fever associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. Within 12-48 h of the onset of fever, purpura developed associated with vascular collapse and peripheral necrosis. All 10 children died. Cerebrospinal fluid examinations did not suggest meningitis and, when done, tests were negative for Neisseria meningitidis. Other culture, serological, and necropsy examinations did not reveal a cause. Case-finding uncovered another cluster of similar illness in children in a second town and sporadic cases in five other cities. Two case-control studies demonstrated that children who became ill were significantly more likely than control children to have had conjunctivitis during the month before illness. This conjunctivitis was purulent, preceded the onset of more severe disease by 3-15 days, and had resolved before fever began. Although no conjunctival cultures were obtained from case-children, Haemophilus aegyptius was the most common pathogen isolated from other conjunctival cultures during the epidemic. This organism was also isolated from a non-aseptic skin scraping from 1 case child. A 25-megadalton plasmid distinguished the H aegyptius isolates epidemiologically associated with illness from other Brazilian conjunctival isolates. Brazilian purpuric fever is a newly recognized syndrome of epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis, possibly caused by H aegyptius. PMID:2888985

  7. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  8. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates. PMID:26646782

  9. Cuts and tears on a paper towel: a case report on an unusual examination of damage.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Schiavone, Sergio

    2005-03-10

    The examination of damage to a paper towel, an item of evidence in a murder case, is described. Simulations performed with selected tools and the observation of the lacerations present on the towel permitted to infer that they were originated by cleaning of a pointed and sharp implement. Some marks, considered characteristic of scissors, were detected on the exhibit. This experimental outcome resulted critical in challenging the declarations of the suspect. A rather significant analogy between damage examination on paper towels and on textiles was established. PMID:15639610

  10. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  11. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  12. Examining the Alignment of Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and 12th-Grade Exit Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Yuan, Haiquan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of the 2002 Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and the alignment between the curriculum guidelines and two most recent provincial-level 12th-grade exit examinations in China. Both curriculum guidelines and test content were represented using two-dimensional matrices (i.e., topic by level of…

  13. The Validation of a Case-Based, Cumulative Assessment and Progressions Examination

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Adeola O.; Copeland, Jeffrey T.; Gottlieb, Helmut B.; Horlen, Cheryl; Smith, Helen E.; Urteaga, Elizabeth M.; Ramsinghani, Sushma; Zertuche, Alejandra; Maize, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess content and criterion validity, as well as reliability of an internally developed, case-based, cumulative, high-stakes third-year Annual Student Assessment and Progression Examination (P3 ASAP Exam). Methods. Content validity was assessed through the writing-reviewing process. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing student scores on the P3 ASAP Exam with the nationally validated Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Reliability was assessed with psychometric analysis comparing student performance over four years. Results. The P3 ASAP Exam showed content validity through representation of didactic courses and professional outcomes. Similar scores on the P3 ASAP Exam and PCOA with Pearson correlation coefficient established criterion validity. Consistent student performance using Kuder-Richardson coefficient (KR-20) since 2012 reflected reliability of the examination. Conclusion. Pharmacy schools can implement internally developed, high-stakes, cumulative progression examinations that are valid and reliable using a robust writing-reviewing process and psychometric analyses. PMID:26941435

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  15. Fatal diving accidents: two case reports and an overview of the role of forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Lüderwald, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina

    2008-09-18

    During the years 2004-2006, seven divers, who had deadly accidents, underwent post-mortem examination at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Munich. The cause of death in all divers was drowning with typical pathomorphological findings. This should be regarded as separated to the triggering reason for drowning. The trigger for accident was established in four of seven cases by technical analysis and police investigation. High risk-taking, lack of technical service, and deficiency of dive equipment care were main reasons for death. We present two of these cases which showed several problems occurring concurrently. Autopsy always is necessary to look for indices for application of force or to exclude competitive reasons for death. PMID:18706775

  16. Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Sarah A; Taylor, G Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R; Mays, Simon A; Pike, Alistair W G; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Stewart, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21-35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  17. Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Sarah A.; Taylor, G. Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.; Mays, Simon A.; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M.; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Minnikin, David E.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Stewart, Graham R.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21–35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  18. [Occurrence of deviant tendencies in phalloplethysmographic and vulvoplethysmographic examinations in sexually dysfunctional patients (case reports)].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1994-10-01

    The author demonstrates on four case-histories the presence of sexual deviant trends as the cause of sexual dysfunctions in conventional heterosexual relations in men and women and the irreplaceable part played by vulvo- or phalloplethysmography used for their detection. In a man treated for some time on account of impaired erectile potency and in a woman who visited the surgery with her husband and presented complaints diagnosed as secondary frigidity and anorgasmy, PPG or VPG examination revealed a homosexual orientation. Both these patients knew of their homosexual orientation but did not tell anybody. The mentioned male patient intentionally dissimulated homosexuality, the woman attempted in vain to achieve heterosexual adaptation. In two young men with primary disorders of erectile potency PPG examination revealed sadomasochistic tendencies. In the first one the impaired erectility created the impression of "debutant's failure" when starting a partnership, in the second one it seemed to be due to adverse psychosocial factors. During an interview following the examination both described spontaneously and in detail erotic dreams and masturbation fantasies with sadomasochistic contents. They were not aware of the association of their specific sexual motivation structure. It was typical for all four patients that they never disclosed previously their deviant sexual tendencies and only the specific situation during the PPG or VPG examination, which they had voluntarily after previous instruction, they were motivated to confess their problems. PMID:7850913

  19. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  20. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Esaú L; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Salinas, Jorge L; Queiroz, Amanda M; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  1. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  2. A Case Controlled Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Smith, Phillip N; Chen, Tian; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-07-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the most proximal cause of suicide is the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness coupled with a pre-existing vulnerability of reduced fear of death and increased pain tolerance. This pre-existing vulnerability develops in response to painful and provocative life events. According to the theory, empirically demonstrated risk factors for suicide operate by increasing the likelihood of one or more of the theory's constructs. The current study examined the relations of the major constructs of the interpersonal theory with suicide case status compared to living controls in the second half of life. The current study used a pre-existing psychological autopsy database to compare suicide decedents to living controls 50 years and older. Theory constructs were measured by composite scores of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and painful and provocative experiences using an a priori selection of items comprising each construct. Suicide decedents experienced greater levels of all three of the theory's constructs when examined independently compared to living controls. When examined simultaneously while also controlling for Major Depression, greater perceived burdensomeness and painful and provocative experiences were associated with suicide case status (vs. control). The interpersonal theory is a comprehensive framework that may be useful in understanding risk for death by suicide in the second half of life. Clinical management of suicide risk for adults in the second half of life could include a focus on perceived burdensomeness, as the IPTS proposes that this psychological state is amenable to change via therapeutic intervention. PMID:26219512

  3. [A case of ectopic ureterocele in a male adult found during examination of a traumatic injury].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuuichi; Hyoudou, Youji; Okamoto, Masayuki; Yamada, Yuji; Takechi, Yosizumi

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of ectopic ureterocele in a male adult found during examination of a traumatic injury. A 26-year-old man sustained a blow to his left back during a football game and was admitted to the hospital with a complaint of abdominal pain. The computed tomographic scan showed a huge cystic mass in the retroperitoneum. A cystoscope revealed a large bulge from the left ureteral orifice to the bladder neck and another ureteral orifice distal to the bulge. Retrograde pyelography revealed an ectopic ureterocele showing a complete duplication, a lateral deviation of the left ureter and a bladder deviation to the right. An ectopic ureteral orifice was opening in the posterior urethra. An ureteral catheter inserted into this orifice revealed a dilated left ureter from the upper half of the kidney. Because the function of left upper of kidney was maintained, a transurethral incision was performed. Vesicoureteral reflux remained, but the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss 11 cases of ectopic ureterocele in male adults including this case. PMID:15188616

  4. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil’s elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems. PMID:26985258

  5. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  6. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  7. Cave conservation priority index to adopt a rapid protection strategy: a case study in Brazilian Atlantic rain forest.

    PubMed

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15% of the caves, high for 36% and average for 46% of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions. PMID:25528593

  8. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  9. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  10. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2011 - Did the 'Tønder-case' have an impact?

    PubMed

    Skovmand, Sofie; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2015-11-01

    In 2005 a serious case of child sexual abuse from the region of Southern Denmark was revealed to the Danish public. The case became known as the 'Tønder-case'. It was the first in a series of 4-5 serious cases of child maltreatment in Denmark, cases which spurred heavy public debate. In this study all the cases of child sexual abuse referred for forensic examination in a 12 year period, a total of 368 cases, were systematically evaluated. In order to identify any trends that could be correlated to an impact of the 'Tønder-case', cases from 2000 to 2002 and cases from 2009 to 2011 underwent an in-depth analysis. In the 12 year period there was a significant increase in numbers of cases. In the subgroups, comprised of 113 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, we found a significant increase in the frequency of cases involving incest and systematic abuse, as well as an uncorrelated increase in the frequency of cases where children were placed in foster care prior to the examination. These results were countered by a significant decrease in the number cases police reported child sexual abuse in the same period. The possible impact that cases like the 'Tønder-case' and the following press coverage may have on disclosure and the handling of this type of case by authorities is discussed, as well as further perspectives of extensive press coverage. PMID:26454218

  11. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  12. Examining students' graduation issues using data mining techniques - The case of TEI of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaris, Manolis; Gritzalis, Stefanos; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2015-02-01

    One of the major issues that Greek Higher Education Institutes face is the delayed completion of studies of their students. For example, in the case of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, in the academic year 2012-2013, the percentage of graduates with a length of studies of more than 6 years was 53%. This "problem" becomes harder if we consider that according to the new legislation, the Greek Higher Education Institutes (HEI) must cut off access to the students who "linger" too long. This means that many of these graduates wouldn't be able to complete their studies. While many institutes have systems to quantify and report the length of studies of all graduates, far less attention is typically paid to each student's reason(s) for delayed graduation. In this paper, we focus on examining the question of why students delay in the completion of their studies using several data mining techniques. Through the application of data mining techniques new knowledge will be provided to the administration of a HEI that could be used for solving this problem. The data used in our case study come from a questionnaire distributed to graduates of the institute but also from educational data stored in the Institute's student database.

  13. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. Aim To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. Materials and Methods A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Results Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. Conclusion There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour. PMID:26816933

  14. Senior medical student perceived ability and experience in giving peer feedback in formative long case examinations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning to provide feedback on a peer’s performance in formative clinical assessments can be a valuable way of enriching the students’ own learning experience. Students are often reluctant to provide honest, critical feedback to their peers. Nevertheless, it is an area of practice that is important to develop as students report feeling ill prepared in feedback techniques when entering the medical workforce. We sought to investigate students’ perceptions of their ability to provide feedback to their peers using the positive critique method, and their perceived benefits and challenges during the experience. Methods Over a two year period (2011 to 2012), senior medical students assessed and gave feedback to their peers alongside academic examiners during formative long case clinical examinations. Rating scales, open ended questions and focus group discussions were used to evaluate student perceptions. Results Of the 94 participants, 89/94 (95%) completed the questionnaire, and 39/94 (41%) participated in focus groups. Students found the positive critique method provided a useful framework. Some students raised concerns about the accuracy of their feedback, and felt that further training was required. A substantial number of respondents (42%) did not report feeling confident providing negative feedback to their peers, and qualitative analysis indicated concerns around potential impacts on social relationships. Despite these concerns, the majority (90%) of respondents found the exercise useful, identifying several benefits, including development in the understanding of knowledge content; development of professionalism skills, and increased responsibility. Conclusion Students identified several challenging aspects to providing feedback to their peers. While the experience of giving feedback to peers was perceived by students to provide a valuable learning experience, further training in this area may help to improve the learning experience for students

  15. Hereditary Pancreatitis Associated With the N29T Mutation of the PRSS1 Gene in a Brazilian Family: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Dytz, Marcio Garrison; Mendes de Melo, Julia; de Castro Santos, Olga; da Silva Santos, Isabel Durso; Rodacki, Melanie; Conceição, Flavia Lucia; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal-dominant disease with incomplete penetrance manifesting as early-onset chronic relapsing pancreatitis. A mutation in the PRSS1 gene is present in greater than 70% of HP kindreds and leads to a gain-of-function characterized by the increased autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, promoting autodigestion and damage to acinar cells. Other genetic defects observed in the pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis include mutations in the genes encoding SPINK1, CTRC, and CPA1. There are few reports of HP in Latin America, and no families have been investigated in Brazil. A case-control observational study was conducted at Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital in Brazil. Patients with suspected HP and healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and a detailed questionnaire was administered to patients with HP. PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes were analyzed by DNA sequencing, and a family that fit the HP diagnostic criteria was identified. The neutral polymorphism c.88-352A > G in the SPINK1 gene was found to be prevalent in the individuals studied, but no important alterations were found in this gene. Ten out of 16 individuals in this family carried the N29T mutation in the PRSS1 gene, with 2 clinically unaffected mutation carriers. The median age of HP onset was 6 years. Pancreatic exocrine failure occurred in 6 patients, 5 of whom also had diabetes mellitus. Surgical procedures were performed on 3 affected members, and no cases of pancreatic cancer have been reported thus far. This study identified the first PRSS1 gene mutation in a Brazilian family with HP. PMID:26376395

  16. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  17. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    PubMed

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  18. A detailed examination of substance P in pathologically graded cases of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Beal, M F; Ellison, D W; Mazurek, M F; Swartz, K J; Malloy, J R; Bird, E D; Martin, J B

    1988-03-01

    Substance P concentrations have been found to be reduced in the basal ganglia in Huntington's disease (HD). In order to further examine this finding in the present study we measured substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in cases of HD which had been graded as to the severity of pathological changes in the striatum. Marked significant reductions of SPLI were found in all striatal nuclei which were significantly correlated with the percentage of neuronal loss in the varying pathologic grades. Similar changes were found in the projection sites of striatal substance P neurons, the globus pallidus interna and the substantia nigra. These changes are consistent with a loss of striatal substance P containing projection neurons in HD. Significant reductions in SPLI were also found in the external pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subthalamic nucleus. Small significant increases in SPLI (20-30%) were found in 3 frontal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 6, 8 and 9). The finding of neurochemical changes in the subthalamic nucleus is of particular interest since lesions in this nucleus are known to result in chorea and therefore might contribute to the chorea which is a cardinal symptom of HD. PMID:2452859

  19. A Case Study of a Kindergarten Teacher: Examining Practices and Beliefs That Support the Social-Emotional Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This 5-month qualitative case study investigated the social-emotional climate of one half-day kindergarten classroom by examining the role of the teacher in establishing and sustaining a classroom climate that nurtured the social-emotional lives of students. This case study asks: How and why did the teacher establish and sustain a classroom…

  20. Using a Comprehensive Case-Based Examination to Evaluate and Integrate Student Learning in Social Work Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Thomas; Austin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    While the case method has been used in teaching social work practice for many years, its use as an evaluation tool is less common. This analysis describes the use of the case method in a comprehensive examination for MSW students in an Administration concentration. After a brief review of the issues related to student outcome assessment and the…

  1. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  2. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  3. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  4. Examining the Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Colorectal Cancer Using Historical Case-Control Data

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Hyland, Andrew; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Reid, Mary E.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Mustian, Karen M.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The majority of recent, well-designed studies have shown that long-term cigarette smoking increases colorectal cancer risk, but older studies with shorter durations of exposure often found no association. This study aimed to examine colorectal cancer risk by smoking exposure using data collected in the late 1950s and early 1960s. METHODS This case-control study examined colorectal cancer risk by lifetime smoking history. There were 1,365 patients who visited Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) between 1957 and 1965 diagnosed with primary, incident colorectal cancers that were matched to 4,096 malignancy-free controls on gender and age. Odds ratios were calculated using separate logistic regression models for each smoking exposure, while controlling for other tobacco use, county of residence, race, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS The adjusted OR for individuals who reported their greatest level of smoking to be more than 1 pack/day was 0.87 (95% CI=0.67–1.15). Among those who smoked 42 or more years, the adjusted OR was 0.89 (95% CI=0.68–1.15) compared to those who never smoked. For individuals who smoked more than 45 pack-years, the OR was 0.92 (95% CI=0.72–1.19). The results did not differ significantly by gender, although men had considerably greater exposure compared to women. Results also did not differ by colorectal sub-site. CONCLUSION No association was found between long-term cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk. These results are in accord with studies that followed cohorts throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Methodological limitations, such as missing data on covariates and the higher incidence of smoking-related illness in a hospital setting, may have contributed to the null results found in this study. Prolonged population exposure to cigarettes and perhaps a changing product may explain why more recent studies have reported a positive association between smoking and colorectal cancer. PMID:19683487

  5. Online Case-Based Discussions: Examining Coverage of the Afforded Problem Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies hold great potential for engaging students in disciplinary content. However, little is known about the extent to which students actually cover the problem space afforded by a particular case study. In this research, we compared the problem space afforded by an instructional design case study with the actual content covered by 16…

  6. Conducting Examinations in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde, Martha O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that the conduct of examinations in any educational institution can make or mar the institution, Kwara State Polytechnic inclusive. This is because examinations constitute the hub of any institution. First, the place of polytechnic education in the growth and development of the country is examined. Next, is a consideration of…

  7. 10 years of 1:1 taping in Belgium - A selection of murder cases involving fibre examination.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the 1:1 tape lifting technique on murder victims has been introduced in Belgium. Thirty-six murder cases for which a fibre examination was carried out in our laboratory between 2002 and 2012 are reviewed. These cases all involved the collection of microtraces on 39 victims using a 1:1 taping or similar technique, called semi 1:1 taping. The degree of "positive outcomes" for investigative and comparative fibre cases is high. Especially in cases where the modus operandi of suspects had to be verified, the examination of the 1:1 tape lifting led to very useful fibre results. The findings from some of these fibre cases are used to illustrate the advantages, drawbacks and points of interest of the two collection techniques. These are also compared with the zonal taping technique, another microtrace collection technique applied on victims at the crime scene. PMID:26746822

  8. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  9. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  10. Unusual noon-time bite-outs in the ionospheric electron density around the anomaly crest locations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors during quiet conditions - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Pillat, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The present case study reports the unusual noon-time electron density bite-out events during 12th-18th April 2004 around the anomaly crest locations which are not observed over the geomagnetic equator. These bite-out events at the crest locations occurred on three consecutive days under solar and geomagnetically quiet conditions over the Indian and Brazilian sectors. The bite-out events are observed with a delay of two days over the Brazilian sector when compared with those in the Indian sector. The duration of these TEC bite-outs is found to vary around 5 h in the Indian sector while it is around 3 h in the Brazilian sector. Over Raipur in the Indian sector, the bite-out is found to be very strong (~30 TECU) on 13th April 2004, where the TEC drops to nearly 50% of the corresponding day maximum TEC. The diurnal variations of dTEC have also shown significant differences during the occurrence of noon-time TEC bite-outs. Simultaneous Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) variations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors have also been studied. The ionosonde data over the equatorial and anomaly crest locations has been analyzed to understand the F-layer behavior during the occurrence of TEC bite-outs. Significant drop in the F-layer peak density and heights are observed during the TEC bite-outs while the minimum height of the bottom side F-layer do not show considerable differences. Further, the variations of vertical electron density profiles are studied to explain the F-layer characteristics that resulted in the noon-time bite-outs over the anomaly crest locations.

  11. Examining Preservice Teachers' Decision Behaviors and Individual Differences in Three Online Case-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of case-based methods (case-based reasoning, worked example, and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n = 71) interaction with decision tasks and whether decision related measures (task difficulty, mental effort, decision making performance) were associated with the differences in student…

  12. Moving beyond Mentoring: A Collective Case Study Examining the Perceived Characteristics of Positive Transformational Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Brent W.; Kroth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective-case study was to explore the characteristics of transformational figures. This study revealed that interpersonal encounters were seen as a catalyst that assisted study participants through the process of transformation. Ten themes emerged from the cross-case analysis: Imposed and Intentional Influence; Metaphors of…

  13. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  14. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiraslan-Çevik, Yasemin; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  15. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  16. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of Effective Rural Superintendents: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the leadership practices of rural superintendents who have led their districts to significant improvement in student academic achievement. The overall research goal was to examine how Waters' and Marzano's six correlates of effective superintendent leadership practice have been applied by school leaders who have successfully…

  17. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09–14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  18. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  19. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  20. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition

    PubMed Central

    McCunney, Robert J.; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W. David; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose “Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines” (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  1. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  2. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  3. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  4. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted. PMID:24799072

  5. Brazilian Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Himilcon

    Brazilian experience with micro scientific satellites began in 1995 with the SACI project that comprised 2 scientific satellites that carried onboard experiments from Brazil, Japan and US. The first one failed after launch (1998) and the second was lost during the second launch attempt of the Brazilian national launcher, VLS, in1999. Started by 1997, the French-Brazilian Microsatellite Project comprised a set of 9 experiments from French and Brazilian scientists. The project was terminated by the French side in 2002. Currently, there are two ongoing science projects, MIRAX (devoted to X-Ray astronomy) and EQUARS (to study the higher atmosphere). These projects include experiments from US, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, and Brazil, with launch scheduled to 2011 or 2012. This paper presents a brief summary of the history of the development of these satellites along with some highlights on the Brazilian Space Program.

  6. Assessment of Professional Development by Teachers and Administrators: An Examination of the Literature in the Context of One Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Marjorie J.; Berger, Marie Josee

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is teacher professional development. The article examines literature related to teacher professional development and methods of measuring its impact. In order to ground the discussion, the article focuses on a case study that captures the perspectives of Ontario secondary school teachers and their administrators as they…

  7. An Examination of Resource Allocation Strategies That Promote Student Achievement: Case Studies of Rural Elementary Schools in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acopan-Tuasivi, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents case studies of rural elementary schools in Hawaii that examine resource allocation strategies that promote student achievement. The combined frame work of the Evidence Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) and the 10 Strategies for Doubling Student Performance (Odden, 2009) were utilized to compare actual school resources and…

  8. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Martin, E. Davis, Jr.; Nelson-Head, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using the LexisNexis database, the authors examined 99 court cases on students--who were 3-21 years of age and with various forms of autism spectrum disorder--between 2007 and 2008. The authors coded and analyzed procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the provision of a Free and Appropriate…

  9. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-nine court cases from the "LexisNexis" database regarding students, ages 3-21, with various forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were examined for the years 2007-2008. Procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) were…

  10. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI. PMID:25995529

  11. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  12. Seeing Chemistry through the Eyes of the Blind: A Case Study Examining Multiple Gas Law Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshman, Jordan; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Adequately accommodating students who are blind or low-vision (BLV) in the sciences has been a focus of recent inquiry, but much of the research to date has addressed broad accommodations rather than devising and testing specific teaching strategies that respond to the unique challenges of BLV students learning chemistry. This case study seeks to…

  13. Examining the Role of Reflection in ePortfolios: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Cynthia M.; Scott, Susan B.; Kahn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Extended institutional experience with ePortfolios grounded and framed this qualitative case study guided by the research question: Why, how, and with what success is reflection, as a teaching/learning process, employed among ePortfolio projects at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)? Thirty-two representatives of 16 varied…

  14. Examining What We Mean by "Collaboration" in Collaborative Action Research: A Cross-Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Catherine D.; Flynn, Tara; Stagg-Peterson, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the nature of collaboration in a multi-year, large-scale collaborative action research project in which a teachers' federation (in Ontario, Canada), university researchers and teachers partnered to investigate teacher-selected topics for inquiry. Over two years, 14 case studies were generated involving six…

  15. "I'm Present, 'A' Please": A Case Study Examining Grading Issues in a Recreation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, H. Joey

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive research, grading and the potential for grade inflation remain areas of concern within higher education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to obtain collective understandings regarding grading and pressures to inflate grades from faculty and instructors within a research-intensive university. The study focused on a…

  16. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Case Method Teaching Online: Does the Technology Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sharon; Sutton, Jann Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of the case method when teaching online by comparing synchronous and asynchronous communication technologies with respect to how well they each embody Chickering and Gamson's Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The authors also present their empirical study of the effectiveness of…

  17. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  18. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Early Childhood Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Case Study Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alison; McFarland, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three primary teacher education students participating in early childhood-focused community play sessions, as well as their perceptions of early childhood and primary philosophy and pedagogy. The purpose was to explore perceived differences in primary and early childhood pre-service teacher courses, which may…

  19. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  20. Examining Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Mathematics Teaching Cycle: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…

  1. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  2. Examining Facilitators' Habits of Mind in an Asynchronous Online Discussion Environment: A Two Cases Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2010-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion has been widely used by faculty members and students in schools and universities. Previous research has examined how factors such as the discussion activity, knowledge about the discussion topic, and the behaviour of other participants can affect learner participation. This study explored student facilitators'…

  3. An Examination on School Engagement and Metaphorical School Perception: Case of Province of Çankiri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Murat; Kalayci, Hakki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, school engagement and metaphorical school perceptions of students were analyzed based on gender, school type and grade. The relationship between school engagement and school perception was also examined. 410 high school students from ten different schools participated in the study. The data were collected through the…

  4. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  5. The Case for Curriculum-Based, External Examinations that Have Significant Consequences for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    State-mandated systems of comprehensive examinations to be taken prior to high school graduation would focus the attention of students in high school, motivate them to higher levels of performance, provide guidance to teachers as to the appropriate material to be covered, and reduce antieducational pressures within peer groups, all of whose…

  6. Evaluation of Final Examination Papers in Engineering: A Case Study Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions are used to obtain information, stimulate thinking, and redirect reasoning. Academics in higher education use questions on a daily basis to stimulate thinking and reasoning in students. Final examination papers are used by academics to assess the retention and application skills of students. The assumption, however, exists that questions…

  7. An Examination of Court Cases Involving Interscholastic Athletics in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that school administrators, athletic directors, and interscholastic/athletic associations become knowledgeable in the area of interscholastic athletics at the secondary level and fully understand its potential for litigation. Thus, the purpose of this research study is to examine issues, outcomes, and legal trends involving…

  8. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  9. A Content Analysis of the TEFL M.A. Entrance Examinations (Case Study: Majors Courses)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Heydari Tabrizi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The MA Entrance Examinations (MAEE) held in Iran since 1990 are frequently criticized as being invalid, unstandardized exams with lots of problem in terms of principles of testing in general and test construction in particular (for instance, Jafarpur, 1996). To make sound judgments about such objections, the present study dealt with a content…

  10. Examining Health Information Technology Implementations: Case of the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behkami, Nima A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the use of Health Information Technology (HIT) is associated with reduced cost and increased quality of care. This dissertation examined the use of registries in Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) practices. A survey questionnaire was sent to a nationwide group of clinics certified for being a PCMH. They were asked to…

  11. [Retained capacity for action in brain gunshot injury. Case report and systematic examination].

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Banaschak, S; Brinkmann, B

    1997-01-01

    A case of physical activity following a suicidal gunshot to the head including perforation of the left frontal lobe from a .22 rimfire rifle is reported. Subsequently, the man was able to walk a distance of more than 100 m and to reload manually. The special wound ballistic features of the head leading to increased intracranial projectile effects are discussed and the morphological changes such as cortical contusion zones, intracerebral hemorrhages or indirect skull fractures are explained. The analysis of 38 cases of head shots followed by physical activity reveals that injury to certain CNS-areas or the use of centre fire rifles and large handguns usually excludes a potential for subsequent physical activity. But physical activity is possible if the trajectory is restricted to the frontal brain or one temporal lobe only and if a projectile of low wounding potential has been used for this gunshot. PMID:9313065

  12. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  13. The Application of Confocal Microscopy and Particle Size Analysis to Cartridge Case Examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClorry, Shannon

    Although cross-correlation analysis is a convenient tool for image comparison, research shows that cross-correlation analysis of surface topographies is incapable of distinguishing between the large numbers of cartridge cases that would be necessary to create a national database. In this study, we manually overlay confocal images of primer face impressions and show that the size distribution of the regions of correspondence between two impressions has the potential to significantly improve the number of discernible topographies. Our results indicate that the average area of the individual regions of correspondence in an overlay provides a more abrupt distinction between matching and non-matching cartridge cases than does the overall extent of correspondence. In the 1950s, Biasotti discovered a similar trend in bullets, noting that the number of consecutive matching striae never exceed a particular number for non-matching bullets.

  14. Examining a shrinking rustbelt city: A case of Binghamton, NY (1990 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Paul Sung-Pyo

    Shrinking cities are locations that have experienced population and economic loss. Each shrinking city is unique in the influential characteristics that result in loss, however, patterns of the contemporary city is highly based on economic changes. The impact of shrinking cities is a global phenomenon not only limited to the U.S. or the developed world. However, among large shrinking cities of the world, 25% are located in the U.S. Therefore, it is of utter importance to understand and examine these locations. The connection of spectral findings of a shrinking "Rustbelt" city of Binghamton, NY using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN) mean of classification was made with spatial findings of demographic and socioeconomic status of the local population. This resulted in a high scale classification of urban ecozones, which created the boundaries for examining the changes in population size and the types of individuals associated with these populations.

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lenora; Carthron, Dana L.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Brown, LaShanda

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 children using surveys and semi-structured instruments. Physical and mental health outcomes were measured using Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF 12) to measure the perceived quality of health for grandparents and the Child Behavior Checklist to measure the emotional and behavioral functioning of grandchildren. Grandparents more positively perceived their mental health after participating in the program. Perceptions about physical health were generally the same before and after the program. Grandparents' reported that many grandchildren had emotional and behavioral problems in the clinical range. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mental health needs of children being parented by grandparents as well as determining effective models and interventions to minimize adverse effects of parenting on grandparents. PMID:22720151

  16. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  17. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections. PMID:24377911

  18. Accountability Policy Implementation and the Case of Smaller School District Capacity: Three Contrasting Cases that Examine the Flow and Use of NCLB Accountability Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act increases pressure on schools and districts to use standardized state test data. Seeking to learn about the process of turning accountability data into actionable information, this paper presents findings from three case studies of small to medium sized school districts. The study examines the flow of state science…

  19. Prosecution of adult sexual assault cases: a longitudinal analysis of the impact of a sexual assault nurse examiner program.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah

    2012-02-01

    Most sexual assaults are never reported to law enforcement, and even among reported cases, most will never be successfully prosecuted. This reality has been a long-standing source of frustration for survivors, victim advocates, as well as members of the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary response interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase reporting and prosecution rates. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, whereby specially trained nurses (rather than hospital emergency department [ED] physicians) provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault victims. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adult sexual assault cases were more likely to be investigated and prosecuted after the implementation of a SANE program within a large Midwestern county. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare criminal justice system case progression pre-SANE to post-SANE. Results from longitudinal multilevel ordinal regression modeling revealed that case progression through the criminal justice system significantly increased pre- to post-SANE: more cases reached the "final" stages of prosecution (i.e., conviction at trial and/or guilty plea bargains) post-SANE. These findings are robust after accounting for changes in operation at the focal county prosecutors' office and seasonal variation in rape reporting. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:22433229

  20. Variation of Ultrasound Findings in the First Trimester Examination of Recurrent Cases With Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Daniilidis, Aggelos; Balaouras, Dimitrios; Chitzios, Dimitrios; Balaouras, Georgios; Capilna, Mihai; Asimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) is present in about 50% of cases with trisomy 21. Very often the nuchal edema evolves in hydrops fetalis until the second trimester. Furthermore, a small amount of cases with a normal NT and trisomy 21 exhibit anatomical anomalies. We present a case of a 21-year-old woman, nulliparous, with a history of one termination of pregnancy and a smoking quitter. The prenatal control was negative for TORCH. During the first trimester scan on the 13th week, the NT was found 2.7 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present. Hydrops fetalis was present though, and the parents were advised for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), but they opted for termination of pregnancy. The molecular control by QF-PCR showed normal karyotype for 13 and 18, a male fetus, but non-dysjunction trisomy 21 was present. Parental karyotype was advised, but they refused to perform it. One year later, the couple had another pregnancy. On the 12th week scan, the NT was found 1.0 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present, but encephalocele was also found, and the parents consented again for termination of pregnancy. The new molecular control showed the same results. This time parental karyotype was performed. The father had a normal one, whereas the mother showed reversed p11 and q13 zones in chromosome 2. Genetical consulting and prenatal cytological control was advised in before next pregnancy. PMID:25883716

  1. Variation of ultrasound findings in the first trimester examination of recurrent cases with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, Aggelos; Balaouras, Dimitrios; Chitzios, Dimitrios; Balaouras, Georgios; Capilna, Mihai; Asimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-06-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) is present in about 50% of cases with trisomy 21. Very often the nuchal edema evolves in hydrops fetalis until the second trimester. Furthermore, a small amount of cases with a normal NT and trisomy 21 exhibit anatomical anomalies. We present a case of a 21-year-old woman, nulliparous, with a history of one termination of pregnancy and a smoking quitter. The prenatal control was negative for TORCH. During the first trimester scan on the 13th week, the NT was found 2.7 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present. Hydrops fetalis was present though, and the parents were advised for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), but they opted for termination of pregnancy. The molecular control by QF-PCR showed normal karyotype for 13 and 18, a male fetus, but non-dysjunction trisomy 21 was present. Parental karyotype was advised, but they refused to perform it. One year later, the couple had another pregnancy. On the 12th week scan, the NT was found 1.0 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present, but encephalocele was also found, and the parents consented again for termination of pregnancy. The new molecular control showed the same results. This time parental karyotype was performed. The father had a normal one, whereas the mother showed reversed p11 and q13 zones in chromosome 2. Genetical consulting and prenatal cytological control was advised in before next pregnancy. PMID:25883716

  2. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  3. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  4. CT Findings of Axillary Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis: A Case Detected by Breast Cancer Screening Examination

    PubMed Central

    Tanada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kouichi; Adachi, Yasuko; Matsui, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of CT findings of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis confirmed by the pathological specimen. The breast cancer screening examination is one of the prime methods of detection of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis. The most common site of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis is the deep axilla. Screening mammography often fails to cover the whole axilla. The presence on the contrast-enhanced CT of unilateral multiple circumscribed dense nodes, some of which have large and dotted calcifications, might suggest tuberculous lymphadenitis in axillary region. PMID:27379192

  5. [The evaluation of the physiological workload in the Brazilian legislation should be revised! The case of garbage collectors in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Anjos, L A; Ferreira, J A

    2000-01-01

    The physiological workload (PW) involved in garbage collection was assessed in a probabilistic sample of 70 Rio de Janeiro city garbage collectors to determine the adequacy of Brazilian labor legislation regarding classification of work. PW was measured as energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) during total work time (TT) and actual time (AT) in garbage collection on 4 consecutive days. Median EE values were 288.4 and 319.1 kcal.h-1 during TT and AT, respectively, indicating moderately intense work according to Brazilian legislation. However, PW was considered heavy when work classifications based on individual response to work were used: 1) ratio of EE and resting metabolic rate was above 5.0, indicating heavy workload according to the WHO; 2) mean percentage of maximal EE was higher (36.2 and 41.1% for TT and AT, respectively) than the limit for garbage collection (30%) suggested as maximal for Dutch workers; and 3) percentage of maximal HR reserve was also higher than 30% (32.2 and 37.5% for TT and AT, respectively). These results indicate the need for a revision of the workload classification in the Brazilian legislation to take individual workers' characteristics into account. PMID:11035517

  6. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  7. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  8. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  9. One or two: an examination of the recent case of the conjoined twins from Malta.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2003-02-01

    The article questions the assumption that conjoined twins are necessarily two people or persons by employing arguments based on different points of view: non-personal vitalism, the person as a sentient being, the person as an agent, the person as a locus of narrative and valuation, and the person as an embodied mind. Analogies employed from the cases of amputation, multiple personality disorder, abortion, split-brain patients and cloning. The article further questions the assumption that a conjoined twin's natural interest and wish is separation. I first contend that separation is such a radical procedure as to render the post-separation person different from the pre-separation one. Therefore, it is not possible to benefit the pre-separation twin by the act of separation. The article concludes with a critical evaluation of the tendency in bioethics to regard ethical challenges as rivalry between individuals competing for scarce resources. PMID:12715280

  10. Medical examiners, coroners, and biologic terrorism: a guidebook for surveillance and case management.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Hanzlick, Randy L; Payne, Daniel C; Kroger, Andrew T; Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; McGowan, Dennis E; DeJong, Joyce L; Bell, Micahel R; Guarner, Jeannette; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R

    2004-06-11

    Medical examiners and coroners (ME/Cs) are essential public health partners for terrorism preparedness and response. These medicolegal investigators support both public health and public safety functions and investigate deaths that are sudden, suspicious, violent, unattended, and unexplained. Medicolegal autopsies are essential for making organism-specific diagnoses in deaths caused by biologic terrorism. This report has been created to 1) help public health officials understand the role of ME/Cs in biologic terrorism surveillance and response efforts and 2) provide ME/Cs with the detailed information required to build capacity for biologic terrorism preparedness in a public health context. This report provides background information regarding biologic terrorism, possible biologic agents, and the consequent clinicopathologic diseases, autopsy procedures, and diagnostic tests as well as a description of biosafety risks and standards for autopsy precautions. ME/Cs' vital role in terrorism surveillance requires consistent standards for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data. Familiarity with the operational, jurisdictional, and evidentiary concerns involving biologic terrorism-related death investigation is critical to both ME/Cs and public health authorities. Managing terrorism-associated fatalities can be expensive and can overwhelm the existing capacity of ME/Cs. This report describes federal resources for funding and reimbursement for ME/C preparedness and response activities and the limited support capacity of the federal Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team. Standards for communication are critical in responding to any emergency situation. This report, which is a joint collaboration between CDC and the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME), describes the relationship between ME/Cs and public health departments, emergency management agencies, emergency operations centers, and the Incident Command System. PMID:15192550

  11. Ground penetrating radar examination of thin tsunami beds - A case study from Phra Thong Island, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam D.; Polivka, Peter M.; Bristow, Charles S.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dat, Pham T.; Pile, Jeremy; Rubin, Charles M.; Yingsin, Lee; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon R.; Jol, Harry M.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal overwash deposits from tsunamis and storms have been identified and characterised from many coastal environments. To date, these investigations have utilised ad-hoc time, energy and cost intensive invasive techniques, such as, pits and trenches or taking core samples. Here, we present the application of high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to identify and characterise the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) and palaeotsunami deposits from Phra Thong Island, Thailand. This site is one of the most intensively studied palaeotsunami sites globally and preserves a series of late-Holocene stacked sandy tsunami deposits within an organic, muddy low-energy backbeach environment. Using 100, 500 and 1000 MHz GPR antennas, 29 reflection profiles were collected from two swales (X and Y) inland of the modern beach, and two common mid-point (CMP) profiles using the 200 MHz antennas were collected from Swale Y. Detailed examination of the CMPs allowed accurate velocity estimates to be applied to each profile. The reflection profiles included across-swale profiles and a high-resolution grid in Swale X, and were collected to investigate the feasibility of GPR to image the palaeotsunami deposits, and two profiles from Swale Y where the tsunami deposits are poorly known. The 500 MHz antennas provided the best stratigraphic resolution which was independently validated from the stratigraphy and sedimentology recovered from 17 auger cores collected along the profiles. It is clear from the augers and GPR data, that the different dielectric properties of the individual layers allow the identification of the IOT and earlier tsunami deposits on Phra Thong Island. Although applied in a coastal setting here, this technique can be applied to other environments where thin sand beds are preserved, in order to prioritise sites for detailed examination.

  12. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  13. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  14. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum. PMID:15947210

  15. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    PubMed

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use. PMID:23574872

  16. Childhood fatalities in new Mexico: medical examiner-investigated cases, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2013-05-01

    To better understand risk factors and populations at risk of childhood fatalities, a review of all records of childhood deaths (≤19 years) between 2000 and 2010 from New Mexico's statewide medical examiner was conducted. Annually, 313-383 childhood deaths were investigated (3820 total). Males and American Indians were overrepresented (62% and 20.4% of deaths, respectively). The most common manner of death was natural (44.8%), followed by accidental (31.4%), homicide (8.8%), suicide (8.8%), and undetermined (4.1%). Infants under 1 year of age accounted for 41.4% of deaths. Motor vehicle crashes were responsible for the majority of accidental deaths (69%), followed by unintentional overdoses (6.9%), and drowning (5.3%). Gunshot wounds, either intentional or unintentional, caused 10.7% of childhood deaths. Complete medico-legal investigation of childhood fatalities is needed to provide public health agencies with adequate data to evaluate and prevent childhood deaths. PMID:23488683

  17. A new binary model for university examination timetabling: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijan, Alireza Rashidi; Koupaei, Mehrdad Nouri

    2012-12-01

    Examination timetabling problem (ETP) is one of the most important issues in universities. An improper timetable may result in students' dissatisfaction as it may not let them study enough between two sequential exams. In addition, the many exams to be scheduled, the large number of students who have taken different courses, the limited number of rooms, and some constraints such as no conflict in a single student's exams make it very difficult to schedule experimentally. A mathematical programming model is required to formulate such a sophisticated problem. In this paper, a new binary model is developed for ETP. The novelty of the paper can be discussed in two directions. The first one is that a course can be offered more than once in a semester. If a course is requested by a few students, then it is enough to be offered once. If the number of students requesting a course is more than the maximum number of students who are allowed to attend a single class, then the course is multi-offered. The second novelty is that sharing a room for two simultaneous exams is allowed. Also, the model considers some hard and soft constraints, and the objective function is set in such a way that soft constraints are satisfied as much as possible. Finally, the model is applied in a sample department and is solved by GAMS.

  18. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  19. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  20. A case law survey of the Personality Assessment Inventory: examining its role in civil and criminal trials.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kacy L; Edens, John F

    2008-05-01

    Although professional surveys suggest that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a popular instrument among forensic and correctional psychologists, relatively little is known about the specific types of legal cases in which it is applied, the particular types of questions it is used to address, or the extent to which its admissibility has been at issue in court cases. Using a comprehensive legal database, we surveyed all published U.S., Canadian, European, and Australian criminal and civil cases in which the PAI was administered. The PAI appears to be introduced by examiners in a wide variety of civil (e.g., child custody, personal injury) and criminal (e.g., insanity, competence) cases to aid in the assessment of a broad range of psychopathology. Additionally, the PAI seems to be used frequently to assess questions concerning potential dissimulation and response styles. Surprisingly, the admissibility of the PAI into evidence was never at issue in any of the cases reviewed. PMID:18444127

  1. Using IRT Approach to Detect Gender Biased Items in Public Examinations: A Case Study from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, O. O.

    2010-01-01

    This is a quantitative study, which attempted to detect gender bias test items from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in mathematics. To detect gender bias test items, a randomly selected sample of 4000 students responses to mathematics paper 1 of the Botswana Junior Certificate examination were selected from 36,000 students who sat for…

  2. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  3. Examination and treatment of a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear: A case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo-Summers, Lynnette; Bloom, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    Dancers are at risk for developing groin pain that is due to acetabular labral tears. Although surgical management of labral tears has been reported extensively, conservative management has been poorly described. This case report describes the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of groin pain in a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear. Treatment focused on decreasing anterior hip joint stresses and improving the precision of hip motion through correction of alignment and movement impairments noted during functional activities and dance. Successful outcomes included a reduction in pain and return to professional ballet dancing. PMID:25725589

  4. Ganglion cyst at the fibular head causing common peroneal neuropathy diagnosed with ultrasound and electrodiagnostic examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lawrence P; Chen, Boqing; Kumar, Suneil; Desai, Raj; Mendoza, Justin; Foye, Patrick M; Stitik, Todd P

    2014-09-01

    The common peroneal nerve is a major source of innervation to the lower limb, but it is sometimes compressed or entrapped at the fibular head. The authors present what they believe is the first reported case where peroneal nerve impingement caused by ganglion cyst compression of the nerve at the fibular head was diagnosed using a combination of ultrasound imaging and electrodiagnostic studies. The authors described the history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic findings, and musculoskeletal ultrasound findings of a patient with a left foot drop caused by a ganglion cyst compressing the common peroneal nerve at the fibular head. The increasing role of ultrasound imaging to evaluate musculoskeletal pathology is discussed. PMID:24919081

  5. Context, evidence and attitude: the case for photography in medical examinations of asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebekah; Oomen, Janus

    2010-07-01

    Can photographs of scars serve as evidence of torture? Amnesty International's Medical Examination Group in the Netherlands (AI-MEG) has, for more than a decade, been photographing torture scars to supplement the testimonies of asylum seekers who have been denied refuge. AI-MEG only intervenes at this point, when asylum seekers face extradition. Proving allegations of torture is of vital importance, as asylum seekers face rising anti-immigrant sentiment in European countries. All victims examined by AI-MEG present a combination of mental, physical and emotional scars. We summarize five cases where AI-MEG used photography in their medical examinations, and consider the ethical role physicians play in helping asylum seekers obtain refuge. Though photographs cannot capture all forms of trauma, as visual documents, they are a compelling form of concrete evidence of torture. In this way, photographs complement verbal testimonies and help doctors and immigration authorities to see and understand physical scars left by various forms of torture. AI-MEG explains in medical terms the connections between the visible late sequelae of torture and victims' testimonies. They then assess whether or not the physical scars are consistent with the forms of torture recounted by victims, using the terminology of the Istanbul Protocol (1999), the United Nations-adopted manual of guidelines that explains how to document torture. This paper outlines the medical examination process and argues for the use of photography as medical evidence on behalf of asylum seekers. PMID:20359805

  6. Impact: a case study examining the closure of a large urban fixed site needle exchange in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In 2008, one of the oldest fixed site needle exchanges in a large urban city in Canada was closed due to community pressure. This service had been in existence for over 20 years. Case Description This case study focuses on the consequences of the switch to mobile needle exchange services immediately after the closure and examines the impact of the closure on changes in risk behavior related to drug use, needle distribution and access to services The context surrounding the closure was also examined. Discussion and Evaluation After the closure of the fixed site exchange, access to needle exchange services decreased as evidenced by the sharp decline in numbers of clients reached, and the numbers of needles distributed and collected monthly. Reports related to needle reuse and selling of syringes suggest changes in risk behaviors. Thousands of needles remain unaccounted for in the community. To date, a new fixed site has not been found. Conclusion Closing the fixed site needle exchange had an adverse effect on already vulnerable clients and reduced access to comprehensive harm reduction services. While official public policy supports a fixed site, politicization of the issue has meant a significant setback for harm reduction with reduced potential to meet public health targets related to reducing the spread of blood borne diseases. This situation is unacceptable from a public health perspective. PMID:20500870

  7. Brazilian stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of Brazilian meteorites is presented, along with basic premises of meteoritics, including classification, naming, and analytic procedures. Meteorites are noted to be of interest as representative samples of ancient rocks, perhaps half as old as the universe, as sometimes originating from outside the solar system, containing early solar material, and containing evidence of cosmic ray interactions or collisions. The characteristics which make up the achondrite and chondrite group are reviewed, and a listing of the primary characteristics of known Brazilian meteorites is provided.

  8. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. Case report: The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. Conclusion: The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD. PMID:26339428

  9. Undiagnosed Borrmann type IV gastric cancer despite repeated endoscopic biopsies and PET-CT examination: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang-Qing; Chu, Hong-Jin; Gong, Zhao-Hua; Du, Feng-Cai; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Borrmann type IV gastric cancer is a particular histological type of carcinoma, which has the characteristic of diffused infiltration that invades the entire stomach, resulting in the thickening and stiffness of the stomach wall. Borrmann type IV gastric cancer is known for the difficulty of detecting tumor cells in endoscopic biopsy specimens. This is crucial in obtaining the pathological results to make a therapeutic decision. The case reported in the present study was highly suspected to be Borrmann type IV gastric cancer according to the clinical manifestations and gastrointestinal barium meal examinations, but demonstrated negative results in multiple endoscopic biopsies and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination. The patient was discharged as no affirmative diagnosis was specified. Two weeks after discharge, the patient was administered to another hospital under emergency treatment due to frequent urination. Cystoscopy examination revealed marked thickening of the right bladder wall over a large area. Biopsy specimens were sampled. Pathological consultation suggested a gastrointestinal original of the lesion, which was most likely poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine metastasis to the bladder. PMID:27446457

  10. Brief Report: A Case of Chromosome 22 Alteration Associated with Autistic Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assumpcao, F. B., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A case study is presented of a Brazilian adolescent with a behavioral profile meeting the criteria of autism. After clinical and laboratory examinations, it was found that he had an abnormal karyotype. The need for case studies to develop data for defining an etiological basis for diagnosis is emphasized. (CR)

  11. Diagnosis of Groin Pain Associated With Sports Hernia Using Dynamic Ultrasound and Physical Examination: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong Chan; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Ki Hyung; Lee, Ho Jun; Sim, Gyu Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Groin pain in athletes is a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Sports hernia is one of the common causes of groin pain. We report a case of sports hernia, initially presented as groin pain and aggravated by sports activity. A 19-year-old soccer player visited the outpatient department of general surgery and was referred to the rehabilitation center due to no abnormalities detected in the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography. An incipient direct bulge of the posterior inguinal wall was detected with dynamic ultrasound when abdominal tension was induced by raising both legs during a full inhalation. Surgery was performed and preoperatively both groins showed the presence of inguinal hernia. Diagnosing sports hernia is very challenging. Through careful history documentation and physical examination followed by dynamic ultrasonography, we identified his posterior inguinal wall deficiency for early management. PMID:26798621

  12. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  13. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy. PMID:23527455

  14. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    PubMed

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future. PMID:26667199

  15. Gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitovitch, Elisa Maria Baggio; Barbosa, Marcia Cristina; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich; de Pinho, Suani Tavares Rubim; de Santana, Ademir Eugênio

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of the advances and difficulties in gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time. Recognizing that in some cases the level of gender equity has remained unchanged for a decade, the Commission for Relations and Gender of the Brazilian Physical Society plans not only to continue current activities but also seek new ways to address the issue, which will be discussed at the 2nd Brazilian Conference for Women in Physics, to be organized for 2015.

  16. Possibilities to reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region with non timber biomass valorization: The case of biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.; Lascio, M.A. Di |

    1996-12-31

    Brazil`s annual rate of deforestation reached 2.1 million ha or about 13.6% of the total annual rate of deforestation for the whole tropical area in the world during 1981--1990. Today, the extent of gross deforestation is 10.9% of the tropical closed forest area. Relative to Brazilian participation in the greenhouse effect, the changes in forest area and associated biomass burning in Amazon region are responsible for about 25.5% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the tropics. Harvest of the non-timber biomass products may be important as a potentially sustainable use of forest in some areas. An excellent option to promote these biomass products is to provide energy and industrial goods for the Amazon communities and other external markets. In this work, the biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils and their by-products are analyzed in relation to job creation, economics and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.

  17. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil. PMID:20464076

  18. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  19. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  1. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue Between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge about botany, as presented in biology textbooks, and interviews with students who were also farmers, so as to gather data about their ethnobiological knowledge. Our goal was to develop and test resources that can offer support for teachers who wish to build a dialogue between different ways of knowing in multicultural settings. Our results indicate that the use of the didactic material and teaching sequence indeed created possibilities for a dialogue between the students’ ethnobiological knowledge and biology school knowledge. We observed some shortcomings in classroom practice, partly reflecting our very choice of subject matter to develop the teaching sequence. But the interventions also revealed important limitations that we regard as representative of problems that may generally make multicultural science teaching a hard goal to achieve. It was clear that important shortcomings were related to teachers’ difficulties to conduct a dialogue between ways of knowing in a science classroom, and, thus, called attention to the importance of introducing a multicultural dimension into teacher education. We also observed that the fact that students did not show much sensitivity towards dealing with cultural diversity was a factor constraining the success of the interventions. These results highlight the importance of proposing and testing teacher education initiatives aiming at preparing them to teach science in a culturally sensitive manner, and also managing classroom tensions and conflicts so as to make it possible an effective dialogue between different ways of knowing in a multicultural setting.

  2. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  3. Examining the role of voluntary associations in environmental management: the case of the Sam Houston national forest.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22005968

  4. Clinicopathologic and molecular features of 122 Brazilian cases of nodal and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with EBV subtyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Chioato, Lucimara; Barber, Glen; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-08-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/TCL) is more prevalent in Asia and in some areas of South and Central America, but it is rarely seen in the United States and Europe. In this study, a series of 122 cases of NK/TCL from Brazil was analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic features. Clinical characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated in 97 cases of nasal/nasopharyngeal region and 23 cases in extranasal sites including 6 nodal cases. Clinical staging and follow-up information was available in a subset of 21 patients. All cases harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 95% and 85% expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and CD56, respectively, and all cases were positive for at least 1 marker for cytotoxic granules. The global distribution of EBV subtypes showed predominance of strain subtype A, 89%, and subtype B, 11%. No dual infections were detected. TCR-γ TCR-gene rearrangement was observed in 7 cases; all of them extranodal. Three of TCR-γ(+) cases showed EBV subtype A. Two TCR-γ(+)/CD56(+) cases showed EBV subtype B. Geographic distribution of NK/TCL showed higher frequency in the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Striking differences among geographic regions were seen with the vast majority of EBV subtype B (86%) occurring in the south and southeast regions. PMID:21716086

  5. Examining the Impact of Case Management in Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court: A Quasi-Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Patterson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem solving courts (PSC) have been implemented internationally, with a common objective to prevent reoffending by addressing criminogenic needs and strengthening social determinants of health. There has been no empirical research on the effectiveness of community courts, which are a form of PSC designed to harness community resources and inter-disciplinary expertise to reduce recidivism in a geographic catchment area. Method We used the propensity score matching method to examine the effectiveness of Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court (DCC). We focused on the subset of DCC participants who were identified as having the highest criminogenic risk and were assigned to a case management team (CMT). A comparison group was derived using one-to-one matching on a large array variables including static and dynamic criminogenic factors, geography, and time. Reductions in offences (one year pre minus one year post) were compared between CMT and comparison groups. Results Compared to other DCC offenders, those triaged to CMT (9.5% of the DCC population) had significantly higher levels of healthcare, social service use, and justice system involvement over the ten years prior to the index offence. Compared to matched offenders who received traditional court outcomes, those assigned to CMT (n = 249) exhibited significantly greater reductions in overall offending (p<0.001), primarily comprised of significant reductions in property offences (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CMT achieved significantly greater reductions in recidivism than traditional court among offenders with complex needs and high numbers of previous offences. Limitations of this research include a non-experimental design and one year follow up. Strengths include a robust matching process and extensive client level data spanning multiple sectors. Further research is needed to replicate the observed outcomes, to investigate the extension of community courts to settings with

  6. Are extra-pair males different from cuckolded males? A case study and a meta-analytic examination.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, ('nonadaptive') models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example, males gained fitness benefits from extra-pair mating, while female and male extra-pair mating behaviours were genetically correlated. Extra-pair males are also expected to be older and larger if this improves their ability to convince or coerce females to mate. We investigated whether a female's extra-pair mates differed from her cuckolded mate in both genetic and phenotypic traits by analysing data from an insular house sparrow population. We found that extra-pair males were older than cuckolded males, consistent with both models. However, in contrast to the expectations from from adaptive models, extra-pair and cuckolded males were of similar genetic relatedness, and hence expected compatibility, with the female, and had comparable body size and secondary sexual traits. We also updated previous meta-analyses examining differences between extra-pair and cuckolded males. The meta-analytic results matched results from our house sparrow case study. Although we cannot completely exclude indirect benefits for females, nonadaptive models may better explain female extra-pair matings. These neglected alternative models deserve more research attention, and this should improve our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. PMID:25706253

  7. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  8. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  9. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  11. Examining the Relationships Between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case-Controlled FTIRI Study.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R

    2016-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) provides information on spatial distribution of the chemical composition of thin tissue specimens at ∼7 µm spatial resolution. This study of 120 age- and bone mineral density (BMD)-matched patients was designed to investigate the association of FTIRI variables, measured in iliac crest biopsies, with fragility fractures at any site. An earlier study of 54 women found hip BMD to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture risk for cortical bone but not for cancellous bone. In the current study, where age and BMD were controlled through matching, no such association was observed, validating the pairing scheme. Our first study of unmatched iliac crest biopsies found increases in collagen maturity (cancellous and cortical bone) and mineral crystal size (cortical bone only) to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture when combined with other covariates. The ratio for collagen maturity has been correlated to the amount of enzymatic collagen cross-links. To assess the impact of other FTIRI variables (acid phosphate substitution, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, and the pixel distribution [heterogeneity] of all relevant FTIRI variables), we examined biopsies from a matched case-controlled study, in which 60 women with fractures were each paired with an age- and BMD-matched female control. With the matched data set of 120 women, conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that significant explanatory variables of fracture were decreased carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in both cancellous (odds ratio [OR] = 0.580, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.909, p = 0.0176) and cortical bone (OR = 0.519, 95% CI 0.325-0.829, p = 0.0061), and increased heterogeneity (broadened pixel distribution) of collagen maturity for cancellous bone (OR = 1.549, 95% CI 1.002-2.396, p = 0.0491). The observation that collagen maturity was no longer linked to fracture in age- and BMD-matched samples suggests that age

  12. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  13. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  14. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  15. Developing and Testing Student Oriented Case Studies: The Production Process and Classroom/Examination Experiences with "Entertaining" Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cinneide, Barra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide insights into approaches for conceptualising and producing case studies that will be appropriate for inclusion in educational and training programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The efficacy of a new process adopted in case writing, through "front loading" production of the teaching note, is described. An analogy is derived…

  16. An Examination of Court Cases Relating to the Dismissal of K-12 Teachers for Immorality (1977-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    This was a purposeful, qualitative, historical and document-based research study that investigated the trends and outcomes of the legal issues relating to teacher dismissal for "immorality". The study included 114 cases over a 30-year period spanning from 1977-2007. Federal and state level law cases were researched to determine the ruling of…

  17. The Porter Douglass Case: Examining the Impact of Power, Politics, and the Press on Academic Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley; Lynch, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Mixing political appointments and university operations can prove challenging and, in this case, caused the resignation of three senior officials at State University. Bolman and Deal's four frames provide a structure for analyzing this complex case. The political frame and issues of power and coalitions offer a particularly useful lens to…

  18. Examination Management as a Way of Achieving Quality Assurance in ODL Institutions: The Case of Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafa, Onias; Gudhlanga, Enna Sukutai

    2012-01-01

    An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students' understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes…

  19. Validating the Slovenian National Alignment to CEFR: The Case of the B2 Reading Comprehension Examination in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilc, Gašper; Stopar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the results of the CEFR alignment project for the Slovenian national examinations in English. The authors aim to validate externally the standard-setting procedures by adopting a socio-cognitive model of validation (Khalifa & Weir, 2009; Weir, 2005) to analyse the scoring, context and cognitive validity of three reading…

  20. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black – the major categories of the Brazilian Census “race/color” system – have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen1, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  1. Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Brazilian Blood Donors; a Multicenter Case-Control Study Using Audio Computer-Assisted Structured-Interviews

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Birch, Rebecca Jeffries; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia F.; Capuani, Ligia; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Miranda, Carolina; Rocha, Pedro Capuani; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Johnson, Bryce R.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Custer, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centers to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. Methods A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centers located in four major cities between April 2009 – March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western Blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured-interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently-acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.3, 95% CI [4.1, 31.7]) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU (AOR 4.65 [1.8, 11.7]). For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM (AOR 13.5 [3.1, 59.8]), and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (AOR 5.19 [2.1, 12.9]). The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity (AOR 21.6 [8.8, 52.9.]). Behaviors associated with recently-acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM (13.82, [4.7, 40.3]), and IVDU (11.47, [3.0, 43.2]). Conclusion Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centers is inadequate. PMID:23517235

  2. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  3. Identification of a microdeletion at the 7q33-q35 disrupting the CNTNAP2 gene in a Brazilian stuttering case.

    PubMed

    Petrin, Aline L; Giacheti, Célia M; Maximino, Luciana P; Abramides, Dagma V M; Zanchetta, Sthella; Rossi, Natalia F; Richieri-Costa, Antônio; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2010-12-01

    Speech and language disorders are some of the most common referral reasons to child development centers accounting for approximately 40% of cases. Stuttering is a disorder in which involuntary repetition, prolongation, or cessation of the sound precludes the flow of speech. About 5% of individuals in the general population have a stuttering problem, and about 80% of the affected children recover naturally. The causal factors of stuttering remain uncertain in most cases; studies suggest that genetic factors are responsible for 70% of the variance in liability for stuttering, whereas the remaining 30% is due to environmental effects supporting a complex cause of the disorder. The use of high-resolution genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization has proven to be a powerful strategy to narrow down candidate regions for complex disorders. We report on a case with a complex set of speech and language difficulties including stuttering who presented with a 10 Mb deletion of chromosome region 7q33-35 causing the deletion of several genes and the disruption of CNTNAP2 by deleting the first three exons of the gene. CNTNAP2 is known to be involved in the cause of language and speech disorders and autism spectrum disorder and is in the same pathway as FOXP2, another important language gene, which makes it a candidate gene for causal studies speech and language disorders such as stuttering. PMID:21108403

  4. [THE GENETIC EXAMINATION OF BRONCHIAL LAVAGE ENABLES THE PROMPT DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY MYCOBACTERIUM KANSASII--A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Ageshio, Fumitaka; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Oshitani, Yohei; Fujikawa, Takeya; Saito, Haruko; Sako, Hajime; Yano, Yukihiro; Kitada, Seigo; Maekura, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    A 59-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma presented at our hospital with an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph, which was obtained as part of a routine medical examination. Computed tomography of the chest revealed two nodules in the right upper lung with the longest diameter measuring 29 mm and 10 mm, respectively. A granulomatous disease was strongly suspected based on the histological features of the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. Results of smear examination for mycobacteria and genetic examination of the bronchial lavage aspirate by the transcription reverse transcription concerted (TRC) reaction method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC), were both negative. However, three days after the bronchoscopic examination, an additional genetic examination by the TRC method confirmed the diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. About two weeks later, the culture results were positive and M. kansasii infection was re-confirmed with the DNA probe method. The patient responded well to treatment with a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. In Japan, among the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, the prevalence of pulmonary M.kansasii disease is second only to infection with MAC. However, it is often difficult to distinguish this disease from pulmonary tuberculosis. In this patient, a genetic examination with the TRC method enabled a prompt diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. The TRC method appears to be a useful tool for diagnosing nontubercular mycobacterial infections. PMID:26665518

  5. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  6. Prevalence of precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer in Japanese-Brazilians in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Priscila; Marques, Sílvio Alencar; Hirai, Amélia Toyomi; Marques, Mariangela E A; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; Yamada, Sérgio

    2009-05-01

    Precancerous lesions and skin cancer are infrequent in Asians, and have received little documentation in the literature. Brazil has the world's largest contingent of Japanese immigrants and their descendants, and 70% live in the State of São Paulo. The prevalence of such skin lesions in Japanese-Brazilians is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancer in first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians over 30 years of age, without miscegenation, living in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, in 2006. Of the 567 Japanese-Brazilians that underwent dermatological examination, actinic keratosis was diagnosed in 76, with a mean age of 68.9 years, and a single case of basal cell carcinoma was detected in a 39-year-old female patient. In Japan, prevalence of actinic keratosis varies from 0.76% to 5%, and the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is 1.2 to 5.4/100 thousand. Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru showed a 13.4% prevalence of actinic keratoses and earlier age at onset. Proximity to the Equator and a history of farming contribute to these higher rates. Presence of solar melanosis was associated with a 1.9-fold risk of developing actinic keratosis. PMID:19488481

  7. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  8. Reconceptualizing Educational Transfer: Brazilian Curriculum Field in the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Antonio Flavio Barbosa; Macedo, Elizabeth

    A study examined the conception of educational transfer, considering the foreign influence in Brazilian curriculum throughout the 1990s. The study criticizes the literature on educational transfer produced in the 1970s, mainly the works of Martin Carnoy (1974) and Philip Altbach and Gail Kelly (1984), arguing that their two theories understress…

  9. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and Italians. (VWL)

  10. Thermoluminescence of brazilian topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Divanízia Do N.; de Lima, José F.; Valerio, Mário Ernesto G.

    Thermoluminiscence measurements were performed on samples of yellowish Brazilian Topaz from Acari, MG. Virgin samples revealed peaks 2 and 4 at about 150 and 300°C. respectively, while in samples with extra dose of y-rays, we observed another peak at 80°C. When topaz samples were thermally treated, peak 4 vanished and peak 3 at about 180°C, became visible. Isothermal decay of peak 2 performed on virgin samples showed that peak 3 is present on this samples too. The spectra of the first 3 peaks are very similar in the range of 350 to 500 nm indicating that the recombination processes related to these 3 peaks could be the same. The dose dependency of the TL intensity of the first 3 peaks was mesured from 0.5 to 400 Gy and it sems to start saturating above 400 Gy.