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Sample records for brazilian case study

  1. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects. PMID:26477892

  2. Emergency planning for hazardous industrial areas: a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A B

    2000-08-01

    One of the characteristics of modern industrial development is the emergence of a new typology of accidents whose effects can be spread, in space as well as in time, well beyond the borders of the installations where they occur, sometimes impacting the local population and the environment in a catastrophic fashion. This is the result of a number of factors that have changed the risk profile of modern industrial activities. For a number of reasons, the developing countries have proved to be more vulnerable to industrial disasters. Three of the most catastrophic industrial accidents--Bhopal, San Juan de Ixhuatepec, and Cubatão--occurred in developing countries, claiming thousands of lives. During the 1970s and 1980s the higher degree of public visibility of industrial hazards as a result of serious accidents, led to the creation, especially in the more industrialized countries, of regulations for greater control over industrial activities, either by means of new laws or by updating existing legislation. Some of these regulations were designed to improve the response to accidents with potential impacts outside the industrial sites. This article attempts to describe the current status and identify the shortcomings of off-site emergency planning for hazardous industrial areas in Brazil. The most important problems are the lack of specific legislation and the absence of awareness and active participation of public authorities. The experience of an off-site emergency planning process for a Brazilian industrial area is presented. This experience illustrates how difficult it is to prepare and implement emergency planning processes in an industrializing country. PMID:11051072

  3. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  4. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in the study period and whose death had been notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Labour as being related to work. Four controls per case, matched to cases on year of birth, were randomly selected from among workers employed in the plant at the time of death of the matching case. Data on potential risk factors for occupational injury were extracted from company records; for the controls these data were abstracted for the period preceding the death of the matching case. RESULTS: There were 37 deaths related to work injuries during the study period. Four surviving workers were selected as controls for each case, but for eight the personnel records were incomplete, leaving 140 controls in all. Significantly increased risk of fatal injury related to work was associated with exposure to noise, heat, dust and fumes, gases and vapours, rotating shift work, being a manual worker, and working in the steel mill, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and energy and water supply areas. Risk of fatal injury related to work increased with intensity of exposure to noise (P (trend) = 0.004) and heat (P < 0.001), and increased greatly with a hazard score that combined information on noise, heat, dust, and gas exposure (P < 0.001). Number of years of schooling (P = 0.03) and salary level (P = 0.03) were both negatively associated with risk. In a multivariate analysis including all these significant factors, only hazard score and area of work remained associated with death from injury related to work. The

  5. Elements and Degrees of SI: A Case Study of Nikkei Brazilian Immigrants in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Hitomi

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent immigrant phenomenon in Japan and explains the complexity of the social integration (SI) of Nikkei Brazilians. Through the research, factors that explain the degree of social integration (SI) of Nikkei Brazilians are identified. Basic data include triangulated results from a survey of 80 people and…

  6. Melanoma patterns of distant relapse: a study of 108 cases from a South Brazilian center*

    PubMed Central

    Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Pires; Cidral, Danielle Louise da Maia; Hilgert, Sara Fernanda; Ddine, Yasmine Rodrigues Chamse; Stein, Carlos Efrain; Borges, Giuliano Santos; de Lima, Adma Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased over the last decades. Recurrences occur most frequently within the first 2-3 years after diagnosis but patients carry a lifelong risk of relapse. Nevertheless, there is no consensus in the literature on what screening tests patients should undergo. Objectives: To evaluate the most common melanoma metastasis sites among a South Brazilian population from a city with one of the highest melanoma rates, and establish the best screening method for these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study of 108 consecutive melanoma patients followed up at a center from 2009 to 2013. Data were collected on demographic and tumoral characteristics, as well as the site of the first diagnosed metastasis. Results: Patients were divided into 3 groups for analytical purposes: Non-visceral metastases (48% of patients), visceral metastasis (39%) and brain metastasis (13%). We tried to correlate age, gender, mean Breslow thickness, mitosis and death rates with the aforementioned groups but none showed any statistically significant association. Conclusion: Melanoma patients must be monitored to detect early relapse and subsequent effective treatment but the best follow-up strategy remains to be established. PMID:26982777

  7. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country

    PubMed Central

    Velloso, E.D.R.P.; Chauffaille, M.L.; Peliçario, L.M.; Tanizawa, R.S.S.; Toledo, S.R.C.; Gaiolla, R.D.; Lopes, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED). We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome). Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis. PMID:23314345

  8. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  9. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  10. Risk factors associated with death in Brazilian children with severe dengue: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Maria; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Júnior, Leônidas Lopes Braga; de Oliveira, Ricardo Villar Barbosa; Rios, Lívia Teresa Moreira; do Socorro da Silva, Maria; Medeiros, Maria Nilza Lima; Silva, Gilnara Fontinelle; Nina, Fernanda Campos Amaral Figueiredo; Lima, Taliane Jardim; Brito, Jayron Alves; de Oliveira, Avessandra Costa Cardoso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors associated with death in children with severe dengue. METHODS: The clinical condition of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who died (cases, n = 18) was compared with that of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who survived (controls, n = 77). The inclusion criteria for this study were age under 13 years; hospital admission in São Luis, northeastern Brazil; and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of dengue. RESULTS: Severe bleeding (hemoptysis), a defining criterion for dengue severity, was the factor most strongly associated with death in our study. We also found that epistaxis and persistent vomiting, both included as warning signs in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of dengue, were strongly associated with death. No significant association was observed between any of the laboratory findings and death. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that epistaxis and persistent vomiting were also associated with death in children with severe dengue was unexpected and deserves to be explored in future studies. Because intensive care units are often limited in resource-poor settings, any information that can help to distinguish patients with severe dengue with a higher risk to progress to death may be crucial. PMID:24473560

  11. Magnetospheric disturbance induced equatorial plasma bubble development and dynamics: A case study in Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.; MacDougall, J.; Sobral, J. H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Trivedi, N. B.

    2003-12-01

    Equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble irregularity development and dynamics during the major magnetospheric storm of 26 August 1998 are investigated using the data collected by a multistation and multi-instrument diagnostic network operated at equatorial and low latitude sites in Brazil, and auroral electrojet activity (AU/AL), IMF, and Dst indices. A magnetospheric disturbance onset in the morning of 26 August 1998 was initiated by a solar wind shock and associated IMF Bz polarity reversals and ssc that were soon followed by a succession of substorm-like auroral electrojet (AE) intensifications and Dst development. An IMF Bz southward turning and associated AE intensifications in the Brazilian dusk sector produced intense prompt penetration eastward electric field that caused large F region vertical drift and consequently the developments of intense postsunset equatorial anomaly and a series of intense plasma bubbles, the latter event lasting the entire night, as observed by digital ionosondes at São Luís (2.33°S, 315.8°E, dip angle: -.5°) and Fortaleza (3.9°S, 321.55°W, dip angle: -9°) and an all-sky imager, two scanning photometers, and a Digisonde at the low-latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.6°S, 315°E dip angle: -28°). A notable aspect of the dynamics of the bubbles was their initially very low eastward drift velocity which turned into steadily increasing westward velocity that lasted till early morning hours. The results show for the first time a relationship between the zonal drift velocities of optically observed large-scale bubbles (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and that of the smaller scale (kilometer sizes) structures as observed by a digital ionosonde. The results point to the dominant role of a disturbance dynamo associated westward thermospheric wind to maintain the plasma irregularity drift increasingly westward going into postmidnight hours. As an important finding, the results further show that significant contribution to the

  12. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    PubMed Central

    de André, Paulo Afonso; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies. PMID:22760904

  13. Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L

    2011-09-01

    Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. PMID:21550165

  14. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  15. A case study of carbon fluxes from land change in the southwest Brazilian Amazon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, land change is responsible for one-fifth of anthropogenic carbon emissions. In Brazil, three-quarters of carbon emissions originate from land change. This study represents a municipal-scale study of carbon fluxes from vegetation in Rio Branco, Brazil. Land-cover maps of pasture, forest, and secondary growth from 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2003 were produced using an unsupervised classification method (overall accuracy = 89%). Carbon fluxes from land change over the decade of imagery were estimated from transitions between land-cover categories for each time interval. This article presents new methods for estimating emissions reductions from carbon stored in the vegetation that replaces forests (e.g., pasture) and sequestration by new (>10-15 years) forests, which reduced gross emissions by 16, 15, and 22% for the period of 1993-1996, 1996-1999, and 1999-2003, respectively. The methods used in the analysis are broadly applicable and provide a comprehensive characterization of regional-scale carbon fluxes from land change.

  16. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  17. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until the third…

  18. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  19. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  20. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Esaú L; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Salinas, Jorge L; Queiroz, Amanda M; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  1. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  2. Hereditary Pancreatitis Associated With the N29T Mutation of the PRSS1 Gene in a Brazilian Family: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Dytz, Marcio Garrison; Mendes de Melo, Julia; de Castro Santos, Olga; da Silva Santos, Isabel Durso; Rodacki, Melanie; Conceição, Flavia Lucia; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal-dominant disease with incomplete penetrance manifesting as early-onset chronic relapsing pancreatitis. A mutation in the PRSS1 gene is present in greater than 70% of HP kindreds and leads to a gain-of-function characterized by the increased autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, promoting autodigestion and damage to acinar cells. Other genetic defects observed in the pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis include mutations in the genes encoding SPINK1, CTRC, and CPA1. There are few reports of HP in Latin America, and no families have been investigated in Brazil. A case-control observational study was conducted at Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital in Brazil. Patients with suspected HP and healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and a detailed questionnaire was administered to patients with HP. PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes were analyzed by DNA sequencing, and a family that fit the HP diagnostic criteria was identified. The neutral polymorphism c.88-352A > G in the SPINK1 gene was found to be prevalent in the individuals studied, but no important alterations were found in this gene. Ten out of 16 individuals in this family carried the N29T mutation in the PRSS1 gene, with 2 clinically unaffected mutation carriers. The median age of HP onset was 6 years. Pancreatic exocrine failure occurred in 6 patients, 5 of whom also had diabetes mellitus. Surgical procedures were performed on 3 affected members, and no cases of pancreatic cancer have been reported thus far. This study identified the first PRSS1 gene mutation in a Brazilian family with HP. PMID:26376395

  3. Cave conservation priority index to adopt a rapid protection strategy: a case study in Brazilian Atlantic rain forest.

    PubMed

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15% of the caves, high for 36% and average for 46% of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions. PMID:25528593

  4. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  5. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations. PMID:26461039

  6. Brazilian purpuric fever: epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    In late 1984, 10 children in a small, rural town in Brazil had high fever associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. Within 12-48 h of the onset of fever, purpura developed associated with vascular collapse and peripheral necrosis. All 10 children died. Cerebrospinal fluid examinations did not suggest meningitis and, when done, tests were negative for Neisseria meningitidis. Other culture, serological, and necropsy examinations did not reveal a cause. Case-finding uncovered another cluster of similar illness in children in a second town and sporadic cases in five other cities. Two case-control studies demonstrated that children who became ill were significantly more likely than control children to have had conjunctivitis during the month before illness. This conjunctivitis was purulent, preceded the onset of more severe disease by 3-15 days, and had resolved before fever began. Although no conjunctival cultures were obtained from case-children, Haemophilus aegyptius was the most common pathogen isolated from other conjunctival cultures during the epidemic. This organism was also isolated from a non-aseptic skin scraping from 1 case child. A 25-megadalton plasmid distinguished the H aegyptius isolates epidemiologically associated with illness from other Brazilian conjunctival isolates. Brazilian purpuric fever is a newly recognized syndrome of epidemic purpura fulminans associated with antecedent purulent conjunctivitis, possibly caused by H aegyptius. PMID:2888985

  7. Characterization of risk/exposure to climate extremes for the Brazilian Northeast—case study: Rio Grande do Norte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Bruce Kelly N.; Lucio, Paulo Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Climate change would increase the risk of floods or droughts. So far, only a few studies have projected changes in extremes on a regional or local scale. None of these studies relied on multiple climate proxies. Only some studies have started to estimate the exposure to flooding or drought as a proxy of risk; so, here, we present an exercise in risk analysis. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. In addition, Northeast Brazil (NEB) is known for its temporal and spatial variability of rainfall and several studies have investigated this variability in order to understand damaging episodes such as droughts and floods. In NEB, the phenomenon of drought is a complex issue because millions of people are affected, and so, it is an important object of study in various fields of knowledge. One way of trying to argue about this phenomenon is through the concept of vulnerability. In this preliminary study, one will determine the risk or exposure factor to drought, which is one component of vulnerability, mainly concerning agricultural activities. The drought risk/exposure indicator was constructed based on three indices: the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the precipitation concentration period (PCP) and the precipitation concentration degree (PCD). The exposure indices showed an increase in high values from 1979 to 2008. On the contrary, the period from 1967 to 1996 showed that the risk factor in some micro-regions had low indices in a larger number; one can note that the dynamics of the factor is in an evolution between high and extremes.

  8. Influence of fish farming in net cages on phytoplankton structure: a case study in a subtropical Brazilian reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bartozek, E C R; Bueno, N C; Rodrigues, L C

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the enrichment influence due to fish farming in net cages on the phytoplankton composition, density and diversity in two arms of a subtropical reservoir (Salto Caxias, Paraná). There were no statistically significant differences in the phytoplankton composition and diversity, as well as for concentrations of nutrients among the handled treatment. The density values were higher during the summer. Richness and Shannon diversity values were low during the study period. The equitability values were high during the winter and low in the summer. Variations of phytoplankton community and nutrients were mainly influenced by seasonality. The absence of significant differences between the treatments was probably due to the small number of net cages and fish used, as well as to the hydrodynamics of the studied environments, which are influenced by upstream rivers inflows. PMID:25055096

  9. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09–14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  10. Unusual noon-time bite-outs in the ionospheric electron density around the anomaly crest locations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors during quiet conditions - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Pillat, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The present case study reports the unusual noon-time electron density bite-out events during 12th-18th April 2004 around the anomaly crest locations which are not observed over the geomagnetic equator. These bite-out events at the crest locations occurred on three consecutive days under solar and geomagnetically quiet conditions over the Indian and Brazilian sectors. The bite-out events are observed with a delay of two days over the Brazilian sector when compared with those in the Indian sector. The duration of these TEC bite-outs is found to vary around 5 h in the Indian sector while it is around 3 h in the Brazilian sector. Over Raipur in the Indian sector, the bite-out is found to be very strong (~30 TECU) on 13th April 2004, where the TEC drops to nearly 50% of the corresponding day maximum TEC. The diurnal variations of dTEC have also shown significant differences during the occurrence of noon-time TEC bite-outs. Simultaneous Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) variations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors have also been studied. The ionosonde data over the equatorial and anomaly crest locations has been analyzed to understand the F-layer behavior during the occurrence of TEC bite-outs. Significant drop in the F-layer peak density and heights are observed during the TEC bite-outs while the minimum height of the bottom side F-layer do not show considerable differences. Further, the variations of vertical electron density profiles are studied to explain the F-layer characteristics that resulted in the noon-time bite-outs over the anomaly crest locations.

  11. Emotion and Language Politics: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a case for the claim that exclusive focus on the rational has only helped isolate linguists and prevented them from having a say on important political issues relating to language. One important feature of the ordinary person's view of and involvement with language is that emotions play an important role in…

  12. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  13. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil: Case series and review of the Brazilian literature.

    PubMed

    Prado, Laura de Godoy Rousseff; Bicalho, Isabella Carolina Santos; Vidigal-Lopes, Mauro; Ferreira, Carla Juliana Araújo; Mageste Barbosa, Luiz Sérgio; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; De Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to systematically analyse the first series of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Minas Gerais and to review the Brazilian literature about clinical studies in ALS. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients with probable or defined sporadic ALS according to the Awaji criteria, followed at two referral centres of Belo Horizonte (South-east Brazil). Patients underwent full clinical assessment. Comparisons of patient subgroups according to disease duration and initial presentation were performed. A systematic review was performed about Brazilian clinical studies in ALS. Results showed that of the 61 enrolled patients the male/female ratio was 1.6:1. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 54.9 years (SD ± 11.4). Mean age at diagnosis was 56.3 years (SD ± 11.1). Regarding the initial form of presentation, 43 cases (70.5%) were spinal, 12 cases (19.7%) were generalized and six cases (9.8%) were bulbar. Eight studies were found in the systematic review. In conclusion, the profile of our sample was similar to other national and international series, except for fewer cases of bulbar ALS in our series. There are few clinical studies of ALS in Brazil. The national data of prevalence and incidence are still uncertain. PMID:26854959

  15. Organizational Learning and Power Dynamics: A Study in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jane Lucia Silva; Steil, Andrea Valéria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe and analyze organizational learning processes and power dynamics during the adoption and use of an information system (IS) at a Brazilian public organization. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was chosen as the research method. Data were gathered from documents and interviews with key informants.…

  16. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  17. Brazilian rain forest security - environment - development. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, P.A.

    1993-03-25

    The Amazon region has been intensely discussed in the recent years. Most of these discussions have been highly influenced by interests groups. To understand the Amazon area we need to specify what the Amazon is, to describe the forest, to evaluate its mineral and biological resources, and to study the people living in the region. A security analysis reveals that there are no main threats to Brazilian Amazon. Nevertheless, narco guerrillas, acting in neighboring countries, can cross the borders and challenge regional authorities. First World interests may disturb Brazilian policies to the region. To face these threats, Brazilian armed forces maintain a well trained military sharing with other native people the security and the routes towards progress. Brazilian government is also implementing some programs to achieve a well balanced development. The new concepts of sustainable development are applied to keep the region's natural resources available for future generations. Among these programs this paper addresses the ecological economic zoning, Calha Norte Program and Amazon Protection System (SIPAM/SIVAM). In synthesis it demonstrates the Brazilian commitment to integrate, develop and preserve this rich and exotic region.

  18. Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Brazilian Blood Donors; a Multicenter Case-Control Study Using Audio Computer-Assisted Structured-Interviews

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Birch, Rebecca Jeffries; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia F.; Capuani, Ligia; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Miranda, Carolina; Rocha, Pedro Capuani; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Johnson, Bryce R.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Custer, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centers to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. Methods A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centers located in four major cities between April 2009 – March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western Blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured-interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently-acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.3, 95% CI [4.1, 31.7]) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU (AOR 4.65 [1.8, 11.7]). For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM (AOR 13.5 [3.1, 59.8]), and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (AOR 5.19 [2.1, 12.9]). The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity (AOR 21.6 [8.8, 52.9.]). Behaviors associated with recently-acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM (13.82, [4.7, 40.3]), and IVDU (11.47, [3.0, 43.2]). Conclusion Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centers is inadequate. PMID:23517235

  19. An acoustic study of the Brazilian cuica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    The cuica is a friction drum of African origin played in the batucada (an ensemble of instruments used for the samba) during the Brazilian carnival. It is played by rubbing a bamboo rod which is connected to the center of a drum head, giving a rhythmic grunting sound. Pitch is changed by applying pressure to the membrane. This paper discusses several acoustic aspects of a folk cuica (made of a gourd) including the waveforms, spectra, and time envelopes produced. Rubbing the bamboo rod gives a primitive saw-toothed excitation, similar to a bowed violin string. This is connected to the center of a membrane which modifies and radiates the sound. The body of the cuica contributes little to the sound.

  20. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue Between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge about botany, as presented in biology textbooks, and interviews with students who were also farmers, so as to gather data about their ethnobiological knowledge. Our goal was to develop and test resources that can offer support for teachers who wish to build a dialogue between different ways of knowing in multicultural settings. Our results indicate that the use of the didactic material and teaching sequence indeed created possibilities for a dialogue between the students’ ethnobiological knowledge and biology school knowledge. We observed some shortcomings in classroom practice, partly reflecting our very choice of subject matter to develop the teaching sequence. But the interventions also revealed important limitations that we regard as representative of problems that may generally make multicultural science teaching a hard goal to achieve. It was clear that important shortcomings were related to teachers’ difficulties to conduct a dialogue between ways of knowing in a science classroom, and, thus, called attention to the importance of introducing a multicultural dimension into teacher education. We also observed that the fact that students did not show much sensitivity towards dealing with cultural diversity was a factor constraining the success of the interventions. These results highlight the importance of proposing and testing teacher education initiatives aiming at preparing them to teach science in a culturally sensitive manner, and also managing classroom tensions and conflicts so as to make it possible an effective dialogue between different ways of knowing in a multicultural setting.

  1. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  2. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

    PubMed Central

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS), lime schist (LSC), São Paulo peat (SPP) and Santa Catarina peat (SCP); and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE) was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers. PMID:24031673

  3. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13) was used for the statistical analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%), vitamin A (92.4%) and vitamin C (85.1%) in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:21513578

  4. The challenges for solid waste management in accordance with Agenda 21: a Brazilian case review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Rocha, Sandra Mara Santana

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of the Brazilian solid waste policy (BSWP) with global Agenda 21 and the challenges of implementing the BSWP in municipalities. For this, a review of the principles that guided the creation of this policy was performed to demonstrate that international pressures were important in determining its effectiveness. The contradictory relationship between the satisfactory legal framework that established the Brazilian waste management policy and its weakened implementation in the municipalities is also examined . To illustrate the difficulties faced at the local level, a case study involving municipalities that compose the state of Espírito Santowe was undertaken. In this state, the municipalities signed terms of environmental commitment with supervisory agencies who undertook, within a pre-established schedule, to implement a set of actions to shape the proper management of solid waste, adapted to the requirements of national policy and the guidelines of Agenda 21. Finally, the various difficulties in meeting the requirements are discussed. It is necessary and urgent that Brazil finds a way to coordinate the mechanisms of an innovative and well formulated legal instrument to ensure the successful implementation of solid waste management at the local level to achieve the environmental, economic and social objectives. PMID:25023985

  5. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  6. Assessing the Scientific Research Productivity of a Brazilian Healthcare Institution: A Case Study at the Heart Institute of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tess, Beatriz Helena; Furuie, Sérgio Shiguemi; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo; do Carmo Cavarette Barreto, Maria; Nobre, Moacyr Roberto Cuce

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study was motivated by the need to systematically assess the research productivity of the Heart Institute (InCor), Medical School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To explore methodology for the assessment of institutional scientific research productivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bibliometric indicators based on searches for author affiliation of original scientific articles or reviews published in journals indexed in the databases Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO from January 2000 to December 2003 were used in this study. The retrieved records were analyzed according to the index parameters of the journals and modes of access. The number of citations was used to calculate the institutional impact factor. RESULTS: Out of 1253 records retrieved from the five databases, 604 original articles and reviews were analyzed; of these, 246 (41%) articles were published in national journals and 221 (90%) of those were in journals with free online access through SciELO or their own websites. Of the 358 articles published in international journals, 333 (93%) had controlled online access and 223 (67%) were available through the Capes Portal of Journals. The average impact of each article for InCor was 2.224 in the period studied. CONCLUSION: A simple and practical methodology to evaluate the scientific production of health research institutions includes searches in the LILACS database for national journals and in MEDLINE and the Web of Science for international journals. The institutional impact factor of articles indexed in the Web of Science may serve as a measure by which to assess and review the scientific productivity of a research institution. PMID:19578662

  7. Managing Communication among Geographically Distributed Teams: A Brazilian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ana Carina M.; de Farias Junior, Ivaldir H.; de S. Carneiro, Pedro Jorge

    The growing demand for qualified professionals is making software companies opt for distributed software development (DSD). At the project conception, communication and synchronization of information are critical factors for success. However problems such as time-zone difference between teams, culture, language and different development processes among sites could difficult the communication among teams. In this way, the main goal of this paper is to describe the solution adopted by a Brazilian team to improve communication in a multisite project environment. The purposed solution was based on the best practices described in the literature, and the communication plan was created based on the infrastructure needed by the project. The outcome of this work is to minimize the impact of communication issues in multisite projects, increasing productivity, good understanding and avoiding rework on code and document writing.

  8. Characterization of anthropometric assessment studies of Brazilian children attending daycare centers

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; de Menezes, Tarciana Nobre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To obtain an overview of available information on the anthropometric assessment of Brazilian children attending daycare centers. Data source: A literature search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases of studies published from 1990 to 2013 in Portuguese and English languages. The following search strategy was used: (nutritional status OR anthropometrics OR malnutrition OR overweight) AND daycare centers, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. In the case of MEDLINE search, the descriptor Brazil was also used. Data synthesis: It was verified that the 33 studies included in the review were comparable from a methodological point of view. The studies, in general, were characterized by their restrictive nature, geographical concentration and dispersion of results in relation to time. Considering the studies published from 2010 onwards, low prevalence of acute malnutrition and significant rates of stunting and overweight were observed. Conclusions: Despite the limitations, considering the most recent studies that used the WHO growth curves (2006), it is suggested that the anthropometric profile of Brazilian children attending daycare centers is characterized by a nutritional transition process, with significant prevalence of overweight and short stature. We emphasize the need to develop a multicenter survey that will more accurately define the current anthropometric nutritional status of Brazilian children attending daycare centers. PMID:26553574

  9. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  10. Scedosporium apiospermum eumycetoma successfully treated with oral voriconazole: report of a case and review of the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Unis, Gisela; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of white-grain eumycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent host that was successfully treated with oral voriconazole, and we review the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis. PMID:23563766

  11. Setting priorities for environmental sanitation interventions based on epidemiological criteria: a Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico A; Antunes, Carlos M F

    2005-09-01

    The present study addresses the use of analytical epidemiologic approaches to subsidize the establishment of priorities in environmental sanitation interventions. An epidemiological investigation was carried out in 1993 in the urban area of Betim, a southeast Brazilian City of 160,000 inhabitants. The case-control 'inclusive' (or case-cohort) design, with a sample of 997 cases and 999 controls, was employed. Cases were defined as children of less than five years of age presenting diarrhoea episodes, while controls were randomly selected among children of the same age, living in the study area. After logistic regression adjustment, 11 of several exposure variables analysed were significantly associated with diarrhoea. Four different criteria, using as risk measures the relative risk, the attributable risk, the standardized coefficient of the logistic regression and the cost standardized coefficient, were used in order to define intervention priorities. PMID:16209031

  12. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  13. Obstacles to Personal Creativity between Brazilian and Mexican University Students: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.; Fleith, Denise de Souza; Martinez, Albertina Mitjans

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the personal obstacles to creativity cited by 385 Brazilian and 305 Mexican university students. Results indicate that lack of time/opportunity was the most frequently cited obstacle. Mexican students referred to motivation factors as barriers to their creativity more than Brazilian students. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  15. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy: a case report of a rare disease in a Brazilian child.

    PubMed

    Pêgas, Karla Lais; Rohde, Roberta; Garcia, Clotilde Druck; Bittencourt, Viviane de Barros; Keitel, Elizete; Poloni, José Antonio Tesser; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare autosomal recessive glomerulopathy associated with the deposition of lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina due to apoE gene mutations. Abnormal plasma lipoprotein profile and marked increase in serum apoliprotein E (apoE) are characteristic clinical data. The compromised patients can present nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and progressive renal failure. Herein, the authors present the first described case of LPG in a Brazilian male patient, 11 years, who presented with a steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Renal function was normal. Kidney biopsy showed markedly enlarged glomerulus, with dilated capillary loops and weak eosinophilic lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina. Interstitium, tubules, arteries, and veins showed normal histologic aspect. Genotypic study for the apoE gene showed the presence of the alleles E3 and E4. The diagnosis of LPG was then performed. The patient received lipid-lowering treatment. After 2 years of follow-up, renal function is gradually decreasing, with persisting heavy proteinuria, despite a marked decrease in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. PMID:24676620

  16. [Documents make a difference: the case of Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Soares, Gabriella Barreto; Araújo, Pedro Luiz de; Tracy, Maria Natalicia

    2016-07-21

    Brazilian immigrants in the United States experience various social, labor, and health challenges. This study aimed to analyze the profile of female Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA, through a description of their working conditions and self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 domestic workers in Massachusetts, recruited with "snowball" sampling. The instrument addressed participants' demographic characteristics, work conditions, and self-rated health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Among the interviewees, 95.5% were women, 62.1% were 30 to 49 years of age, and 55.6% were undocumented. Documented and undocumented participants showed statistically significant differences in demographics, work conditions, and health. Irregular immigrant status appears to have a negative impact on domestic workers' living and health conditions. PMID:27462853

  17. [Scholar mobility and international circulation of ideas. The brazilian's case].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Afrânio

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, considerable changes have affected the fields of social sciences and humanities. The growing number of advanced students studying abroad after the 1960s and later the creation of PhD programs have turned the road to national political power into an international one. As a result, academic fields have evolved and Elite formation has largely been transformed. Using these elements as a contextual framework, this article seeks to analyze the recent dynamics of the debate over the political and economic evolution of Brazil. PMID:22109089

  18. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  19. Can we predict crashes? The case of the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Werneck, Filipe K.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we analyze Brazilian stock prices to detect the development of bubbles and crashes in individual stocks using a log-periodic equation. We implement a genetic algorithm to calibrate the parameters of the model and we test the methodology for the most liquid stocks traded on the Brazilian Stock Market (Bovespa). In order to evaluate whether this approach is useful we employ nonparametric statistics and test whether returns after the predicted crash are negative and lower than returns before the crash. Empirical results are consistent with the prediction hypothesis, e.g., the method applied can be used to forecast the end of asset bubbles or large corrections in stock prices.

  20. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct

  1. Lexical reorganization in Brazilian Portuguese: an articulatory study

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, A. R.; Barbosa, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    This work, which is couched in the theoretical framework of Articulatory Phonology, deals with the influence of speech rate on the change/variation from antepenultimate stress words into penultimate stress words in Brazilian Portuguese. Both acoustic and articulatory (EMMA) studies were conducted. On the acoustic side, results show different patterns of post-stressed vowel reduction according to the word type. Some words reduced their medial post-stressed vowels more than their final post-stressed vowels, and others reduced their final post-stressed vowels more than their medial post-stressed vowels. On the articulatory side, results show that the coarticulation degree of the post-stressed consonants increases with speech rate. Also, with the use of a measure called proportional consonantal interval (PCI), it was found in measurements of articulation that such measure is influenced by the word type. Three different groups of words were found according to their PCI. These results show how dynamical aspects influenced by speech rate increase are related to the lexical process of change/variation from antepenultimate stress words into penultimate ones. PMID:19885366

  2. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil. PMID:24055973

  3. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  4. Intracluster correlation coefficients for the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP): methodological and practical implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster-based studies in health research are increasing. An important characteristic of such studies is the presence of intracluster correlation, typically quantified by the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), that indicate the proportion of data variability that is explained by the way of clustering. The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate ICC of variables studied in the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth. Methods This was a multicenter cross-sectional study on preterm births involving 20 referral hospitals in different regions of Brazil plus a nested case–control study to assess associated factors with spontaneous preterm births. Estimated prevalence rates or means, ICC with 95% confidence intervals, design effects and mean cluster sizes were presented for more than 250 maternal and newborn variables. Results Overall, 5296 cases were included in the study (4,150 preterm births and 1,146 term births). ICC ranged from <0.001 to 0.965, with a median of 0.028. For descriptive characteristics (socio-demographic, obstetric history and perinatal outcomes) the median ICC was 0.014, for newborn outcomes the median ICC was 0.041 and for process variables (clinical management and delivery), it was 0.102. ICC was <0.1 in 78.4% of the variables and <0.3 for approximately 95% of them. Most of ICC >0.3 was found in some clinical management aspects well defined in literature such as use of corticosteroids, indicating there was homogeneity in clusters for these variables. Conclusions Clusters selected for Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth had mainly heterogeneous findings and these results can help researchers estimate the required sample size for future studies on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:24755392

  5. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  6. Experimental Study On The Effect Of Micro-Cracks On Brazilian Tensile Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2015-12-01

    For coal mine ground control issues, it is necessary to propose a failure criteria accounting for the transversely isotropic behaviors of rocks. Hence, it is very helpful to provide experimental data for the validation of the failure criteria. In this paper, the method for preparing transversely isotropic specimens and the scheme of the Brazilian tensile strength test are presented. Results obtained from Brazilian split tests under dry and water-saturated conditions reflect the effect of the development direction β of the structural plane, such as the bedding fissure, on the tensile strength, ultimate displacement, failure mode, and the whole splitting process. The results show that the tensile strength decreases linearly with increasing β. The softening coefficient of the tensile strength shows a sinusoidal function. The values of the slope and inflection point for the curve vary at the different stages of the Brazilian test. The failure mode of the rock specimen presented in this paper generally coincides with the standard Brazilian splitting failure mode. Based on the test results, the major influencing factors for the Brazilian splitting strength are analyzed and a mathematical model for solving the Brazilian splitting strength is proposed. The findings in this paper would greatly benefit the coal mine ground control studies when the surrounding rocks of interest show severe transversely isotropic behaviors.

  7. Uncomplicated malaria among pregnant women in the Brazilian Amazon: local barriers to prompt and effective case management.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Moritz, Angela Fernandes Esher; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-02-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery and other adverse effects on health. In Brazil, disease transmission is highly concentrated in the multi-state region that constitutes the Brazilian Amazon (more than 99% of all cases). This study, conducted between the first bimesters of 2007 and 2008, aims to identify the local barriers to prompt and effective case management of malaria in pregnancy and was carried out in health facilities located in three endemic municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Porto Velho). The study design combined both qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative design involved semi-structured interviews with health personnel who routinely deal with malaria care. The quantitative design involved a review of medical records of pregnant women in the visited health facilities. Additionally, data were abstracted from SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Brasil, 2007) and Primary Care Information System (SIAB) databases. Flaws were detected in diagnosis (only 6.8% of women tested for malaria) and treatment (for Plasmodium falciparum infections, only 44.8% of patients received recommended first-line therapy; 10.2% of prescription presented treatments were not found in national guideline and 7.3% of the prescriptions for Plasmodium vivax and 17.9% of the prescriptions for P. falciparum were not sanctioned by the official guidelines). Training (only 37.3% had had some training), knowledge and counseling were also sub-optimal. These results indicated the need to improve the health-worker performance through training. Close supervision and feedback on the health-worker performance are also needed. These findings also highlighted the need to put into practice a series of government recommendations that encourage close collaboration between the National Malaria Control Program and

  8. Discussion on the Criterion for the Safety Certification Basis Compilation - Brazilian Space Program Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Alves, N. C.; Caetano, A. O.; Andrade, N. S. O.

    2012-01-01

    The recent advent of the commercial launch and re- entry activities, for promoting the expansion of human access to space for tourism and hypersonic travel, in the already complex ambience of the global space activities, brought additional difficulties over the development of a harmonized framework of international safety rules. In the present work, with the purpose of providing some complementary elements for global safety rule development, the certification-related activities conducted in the Brazilian space program are depicted and discussed, focusing mainly on the criterion for certification basis compilation. The results suggest that the composition of a certification basis with the preferential use of internationally-recognized standards, as is the case of ISO standards, can be a first step toward the development of an international safety regulation for commercial space activities.

  9. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  11. Development and perspective of current Brazilian studies on the epidemiology of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pombo de Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Emerenciano, Mariana; de Oliveira Novaes, Cristiane

    2009-01-01

    In this concise report, we describe the history and evolution of childhood acute leukemia studies in Brazil, and the application if key biomarkers for clinical trials and epidemiological studies over the past 8 years. Highlights of each ongoing study are summarized. A Brazilian network integrating hospitals and scientific institutions from all country regions has been established. This organization is made possible through informatics and computer networking, and the standardization of pathological reviews including immunophenotyping and molecular characterization of childhood leukemias. The unique characteristics of the Brazilian population combined with a large clinical and epidemiologic framework for patient ascertainment has enabled large-scale epidemiological studies on childhood leukemia in Brazil. PMID:19064327

  12. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  13. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  14. Strategies for reducing carbon emissions on the tropical rain forest: The case of the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.

    1995-11-01

    Forests systems are renewable resources that can be used by present generations and that should be available to future generations if they are exploited on a sustainable basis. The tropical forest is still an immense and unknown field. The issues are: What means a sustainable basis in the tropical rain forests? What are the means of harmonising an economic development with an environmental equilibrium in tropical regions? One way to meet this requirement is to analyse the potentially {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} options on which it is possible to agree upon despite controversies about what will be the true long run costs and benefits of various courses of actions. In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, in the last thirty years, the use of biomass and land has increased rapidly. Therefore, environmental and social problems have emerged with some intensity and have had repercussions on local and global scales. In relation to the recent global environmental changes, the Brazilian Amazon is considered as a key region for biodiversity conservation and preserving a carbon sink. In this paper, the main methodological option is to conceive a set of {open_quotes}no-regret{close_quotes} options, related with the land uses and biomass valorisation, which are analysed through the same framework. The options considered here are: decrease of the great cattle ranching and of the predatory timber extraction; the increase of forest management (harvest of timber and nontimber extractive products) and forest plantations in the degraded lands. The aims to focus on three elements: job creation, technico-economic adequation and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon flow).

  15. Light and shadow in the Brazilian graduate studies system in health.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2014-08-01

    The author discusses the challenges faced by the Brazilian graduate studies system with an emphasis on the human health sector. He identifies imbalances in the supply side of knowledge, a prime territory for graduate programs, while highlighting that a proper conceptualization of such imbalances is incomplete if it fails to incorporate the demands for scientific and technological knowledge coming from healthcare services, industry, and society. He draws on concepts from technology economics involved in the innovation systems approach. The article highlights the historical and current role of Brazilian Graduate Studies Coordinating Board (Capes), particularly its evaluation system, as an essential device for overcoming the existing challenges in Brazilian graduate studies. The author concludes by suggesting some conceptual adjustments in the agency's work. PMID:25210895

  16. Afro-Brazilian Literature: A New Dimension for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    This paper profiles representative Afro-Brazilian writers and provides a guide to English language translations and critical studies of their work. The aim is to encourage instructors to broaden the scope of current curricula in black and Latin American studies courses. Recent studies estimate that more than 40 percent of Brazil's inhabitants are…

  17. Economic Impact of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden

  18. Methodological Issues on Planning and Running the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lajos, Giuliane J.; Tedesco, Ricardo P.; Passini, Renato; Dias, Tabata Z.; Nomura, Marcelo L.; Rehder, Patrícia M.; Haddad, Samira M.; Sousa, Maria H.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Assuming that the occurrence of preterm births and their maternal and neonatal associated conditions in Brazil are not completely known, a multicenter study was proposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used, its processes, achievements, and challenges. Study Design. A multicenter cross-sectional study on preterm births in Brazilian facilities plus a nested case-control study to assess their associated factors. A description of all steps of planning and implementing such a nationwide study, including strategies for dealing with problems arising during the process, is presented. Results. 20 referral hospitals in different regions of Brazil participated in the study. A detailed questionnaire for data collection, an electronic platform for data transcription and monitoring, research materials, and specific monitoring tools were developed; then data management and analyses were performed. Finally, we got information on 4,150 preterm births and 1,146 term births. Conclusions. This study represented the first step of a planned comprehensive assessment of preterm birth in Brazil, with detailed information that will lead to several analyses and further studies, bringing the knowledge to improve screening, diagnosis, and treatment practices in maternal and perinatal health with the final purpose of reducing the burden of this condition in the country. PMID:25759862

  19. Transformative Learning through Music: Case Studies from Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Nan; Veblen, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider meaningful, emancipatory, and affirming music-making in Brazil through the lens of five case studies. Each illustrates aspects of transformative theory through music-making in music education as advanced by Mezirow, Freire, and contemporary Brazilian music educators.

  20. Case Study Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Bibliometric study of articles published in a Brazilian journal of pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Vanessa Ceolin; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the abstracts of all articles published in the 'Jornal Brasileiro de Odontopediatria e Odontologia do Bebê' in order to collect data on the study design used, the most researched topics and the Brazilian states with the highest scientific production. Copies were made of the abstracts of each article, totaling 572 abstracts. Data categorization was done by two trained and independent reviewers. The results showed that the most used study design were case report (33%) and cross-sectional study (30%). On the other hand, there were only 2.5% of randomized clinical trials and no systematic review or meta-analysis. The most researched topics were cariology (15%) and restorative dentistry / dental materials (10%). The state with the greatest number of publications was São Paulo (40%), followed by Rio de Janeiro (17%). It was concluded that the majority of the articles published referred to studies with a low potential to establish scientific evidence, indicating a need for conducting research based on better quality methodology. Moreover, it was found that the assessed literature reflected the trends observed in the clinical practice of Pediatric Dentistry in Brazil. PMID:20339719

  2. Brazilian meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: Scaling up studies.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Renata Chagas; de Souza, Iaralice Medeiros; da Silva, Milton Neto; Silva, Flavia de Paiva; Figueira, Elza Scott; Leal, Maria de Lurdes; Jessouroun, Ellen; da Silva, José Godinho; Medronho, Ricardo de Andrade; da Silveira, Ivna Alana Freitas Brasileiro

    2015-08-20

    Several outbreaks caused by Neisseria meningitidis group C have been occurred in different regions of Brazil. A conjugate vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis was produced by chemical linkage between periodate-oxidized meningococcal C polysaccharide and hydrazide-activated monomeric tetanus toxoid via a modified reductive amination conjugation method. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity tested in Phase I and II trials showed satisfactory results. Before starting Phase III trials, vaccine production was scaled up to obtain industrial lots under Good Manufacture Practices (GMP). Comparative analysis between data obtained from industrial and pilot scales of the meningococcal C conjugate bulk showed similar execution times in the scaling up production process without significant losses or alterations in the quality attributes of purified compounds. In conclusion, scale up was considered satisfactory and the Brazilian meningococcal conjugate vaccine production aiming to perform Phase III trials is feasible. PMID:25865466

  3. Three Afro-Brazilian Writers: A Supplemental Guide for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    This biographical/bibliographic guide provides profiles of three Afro-Brazilian writers: Jorge de Lima (1893-1953); Luiz Gonzaga Pinto da Gama (1830-1882); and Abdias do Nascimento (1914- ). The life of each author is briefly described and sources of English language translations together with critical studies of their works are listed. Four…

  4. Brazilian and Mexican experiences in the study of incipient domestication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of domestication enables a better understanding of human cultures, landscape changes according to peoples’ purposes, and evolutionary consequences of human actions on biodiversity. This review aimed at discussing concepts, hypotheses, and current trends in studies of domestication of plants, using examples of cases studied in regions of Mesoamerica and Brazil. We analyzed trends of ethnobiological studies contributing to document processes of domestication and to establish criteria for biodiversity conservation based on traditional ecological knowledge. Methods Based on reviewing our own and other authors’ studies we analyzed management patterns and evolutionary trends associated to domestication occurring at plant populations and landscape levels. Particularly, we systematized information documenting: ethnobotanical aspects about plant management and artificial selection mechanisms, morphological consequences of plant management, population genetics of wild and managed plant populations, trends of change in reproduction systems of plants associated to management, and other ecological and physiological aspects influenced by management and domestication. Results Based on the analysis of study cases of 20 native species of herbs, shrubs and trees we identified similar criteria of artificial selection in different cultural contexts of Mexico and Brazil. Similar evolutionary trends were also identified in morphology (selection in favor of gigantism of useful and correlated parts); organoleptic characteristics such as taste, toxicity, color, texture; reproductive biology, mainly breeding system, phenological changes, and population genetics aspects, maintenance or increasing of genetic diversity in managed populations, high gene flow with wild relatives and low structure maintained by artificial selection. Our review is a first attempt to unify research methods for analyzing a high diversity of processes. Further research should emphasize deeper

  5. Case Studies Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M.

    The case histories of five students enrolled in a university course in how to study are reported. The students ranged in age from 18 to 35, included two males and three females, and varied in school experience from no college in one case and some college in two cases to college degrees in two cases. Students were initially taught to chart their…

  6. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  7. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  8. Clear cell acanthoma of the areola and nipple: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two Brazilian cases*

    PubMed Central

    da Veiga, Rossana Ruth Garcia; Barros, Renata Silva; dos Santos, Josie Eiras Bisi; Abreu Junior, José Maria de Castro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell acanthoma or Degos' acanthoma is a distinct disease concerning its clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features. Its pathologic nature - whether neoplastic or reactive - is still under dispute among researchers. The disease shows a chronic course and often presents with a single papulonodular lesion on the lower limbs of adults. However, cases with multiple lesions, sometimes occurring in an eruptive fashion, and with clear variation in the size and shape of the cutaneous lesions have been reported. So far, five cases in which the lesions were exclusively located in the nipple area have been reported, all in Korean women. Four of these cases mimicked eczema and one, a polypoid nodule. The aim of this article is to present clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two additional cases in Brazilian women with similar nipple topography. PMID:23539008

  9. Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

  10. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  11. Anatomic pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy: the Brazilian experience (VATS Brazil study)

    PubMed Central

    Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Kazantzis, Thamara; Pinto-Filho, Darcy Ribeiro; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Martins-Neto, Francisco; Guimarães, Anderson Nassar; Araújo, Carlos Alberto; Losso, Luis Carlos; Ghefter, Mario Claudio; de Lima, Nuno Ferreira; Gomes-Neto, Antero; Brito-Filho, Flávio; Haddad, Rui; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi; Lima, Alexandre Marcelo Rodrigues; de Siqueira, Rafael Pontes; Pinho, Astunaldo Júnior de Macedo e; Vannucci, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the results of anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil. Methods: Thoracic surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery) were invited, via e-mail, to participate in the study. Eighteen surgeons participated in the project by providing us with retrospective databases containing information related to anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data were collected with a standardized instrument, after which they were compiled and analyzed. Results: The surgeons provided data related to a collective total of 786 patients (mean number of resections per surgeon, 43.6). However, 137 patients were excluded because some data were missing. Therefore, the study sample comprised 649 patients. The mean age of the patients was 61.7 years. Of the 649 patients, 295 (45.5%) were male. The majority-521 (89.8%)-had undergone surgery for neoplasia, which was most often classified as stage IA. The median duration of pleural drainage was 3 days, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. Of the 649 procedures evaluated, 598 (91.2%) were lobectomies. Conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in 30 cases (4.6%). Postoperative complications occurred in 124 patients (19.1%), the most common complications being pneumonia, prolonged air leaks, and atelectasis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.0%, advanced age and diabetes being found to be predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Our analysis of this representative sample of patients undergoing pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil showed that the procedure is practicable and safe, as well as being comparable to those performed in other countries. PMID:27383936

  12. Strategies for genetic study of hearing loss in the Brazilian northeastern region

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Uirá S; Santos, Silvana; Cavalcanti, Hannalice G; Andrade, Wagner T; Dantas, Vitor G; Rosa, Marine RD; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of hearing loss (HL) in two counties in the Brazilian northeastern region. A cross-sectional study, based on the key informant approach (KI) was conducted in Queimadas and Gado Bravo counties (Paraíba, Northeast Brazil). The sample consisted of 182 patients with HL. Genetic screening of the most frequent mutations associated with HL was performed for all samples. DFNB1 mutations were the most frequently found in both counties. The c.35delG mutation was detected in homozygosis in seven non-syndromic probands in Queimadas (7/76, 9.2%) and only a single homozygote with this mutation was found in Gado Bravo (1/44, 2.3%). We also detected the del(GJB6-D13S1854) mutation in non-syndromic probands from Gado Bravo (2/44, 4.5%). The c.189C>A (p.TyrY63*) mutation in the CLRN1 gene was detected in homozygosis in 21/23 Usher syndrome patients from Gado Bravo and it was not found in Queimadas. Cases with probable genetic etiology contributed approximately to half of HL probands in each county (54.6% in Gado Bravo and 45.7% in Queimadas). We confirm the importance of DFNB1 locus to non-syndromic HL but we show that the frequency of mutations in the northeastern region differs somewhat from those reported in southeastern Brazil and other populations. In addition, the extremely high frequency of individuals with Usher syndrome with c.189C>A variation in CLRN1 indicates the need for a specific screening of this mutation. PMID:24596593

  13. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  14. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through a variety…

  15. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

  16. Association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies: A case-control study in dogs from a Brazilian endemic area.

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B; de Magalhães, Danielle F; Sathler, Kelly P B; Morais, Maria Helena F; Fiúza, Vanessa O P; Brandão, Silvana T; Werneck, Guilherme L; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto S

    2010-11-01

    The association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has been evaluated in dogs located in a city of Brazil endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Blood samples from 5556 domestic dogs domiciliated in the urban area of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) were submitted to enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT) assays, and 432 (7.8%) animals tested positive. Seropositive (n=200) and seronegative (n=200) dogs were randomly selected and examined for the presence of ticks and fleas, the results of which were expressed qualitatively as infested or non-infested, irrespective of the intensity of infestation. The prevalence of infestation by R. sanguineus was significantly greater (ρ=0.04) among seropositive dogs (38.5%) compared with their seronegative counterparts (29.0%). Similarly, the prevalence of infestation by C. felis felis was significantly greater (ρ<0.01) within the seropositive group (36.5%) than within the seronegative group (15.0%). Moreover, the probability of seropositivity for Leishmania was 53% higher in tick-infested dogs and 300% higher in flea-infested dogs in comparison with non-infested animals. Our data provide evidence of the vectorial capacity of these ectoparasites in transmitting Leishmania to the canine population, although further studies are needed to confirm or reject this hypothesis. PMID:20869131

  17. Automated Access to Multilingual Information: A Brazilian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Roseane R. Velho

    1989-01-01

    Identifies some of the problems the foreign language barrier creates in the handling of scientific and technical texts in Brazil and suggests the creation of some automated tools to overcome these problems. It is suggested that international efforts to maximize access to technical and scientific information will improve multilingual communication…

  18. Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Analysis of 91 cases.

    PubMed

    Silveria, P V; Nishioka, S de A

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii). In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming). The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did not show any sign of envenoming or fang mark. Most cases occurred in men (66;73%), in the 10-19 years age group (26;29%), in the lower limbs (51/74;69%), between 6 A. M. and 2 P.M. (49;61%) and in the month of April (16;18%). One patient bitten by Philodryas olfersii developed severe local pain, swelling and redness at the site of the bite, with normal clotting time. The patient bitten by Drymarcon corais was misdiagnosed as being bitten by a snake of the genus Bothrops, was given the specific antivenom, and developed anaphylaxis. One patient bitten by Sibynomorphus mikanii presented prolonged clotting time, and was also given antivenom as a case of Bothrops bite. Correct identification of venomous snakes by physicians is necessary to provide correct treatment to victims of snake bite, avoiding unnecessary distress to the patient, and overprescription of antivenom, which may eventually cause severe untoward effects. PMID:1342117

  19. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  20. Laos case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peuan Mit is a Lao organization working to address the needs of children and youth living and working on the streets. This case study outlines how a trusted and strong relationship with local police provides mutual benefit. PMID:22769869

  1. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  2. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

    PubMed

    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p < 0.01) during the first year of residency, and the prevalence of burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine. PMID:25952940

  3. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted. PMID:24799072

  4. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nabout, J C; Carneiro, F M; Borges, P P; Machado, K B; Huszar, V L M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI). The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility. PMID:25945640

  5. Recommendations on the use of biosimilars by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease--Focus on clinical evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Valderílio Feijó; Meirelles, Eduardo de Souza; Kochen, Jussara de Almeida Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cristina; Miszputen, Sender J; Teixeira, Fábio Vieira; Damião, Adérson Osmar Mourão Cintra; Kotze, Paulo Gustavo; Romiti, Ricardo; Arnone, Marcelo; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Maia, Cláudia Pires Amaral; de Carvalho, André Vicente E

    2015-09-01

    The Brazilian Societies of Rheumatology (SBR) and Dermatology (SBD), the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) and the Brazilian Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (GEDIIB) gathered a group of their respective specialists on the topic of interest to discuss the most relevant issues regarding the clinical use of biosimilar medicines in Brazil. The main aim of that meeting was to prepare a document with recommendations to guide medical specialists and to help the national regulatory and policy-making agencies as concerns the authorization for marketing biosimilars used in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and ulcerative colitis. In addition to considerations on the typical differences between innovator medicines and biosimilars, the specialists established a set of seven recommendations on regulatory advances related to clinical studies, indication extrapolation, nomenclature, interchangeability, automatic substitution and pharmacovigilance. PMID:25936608

  6. Actual preoperative fasting time in Brazilian hospitals: the BIGFAST multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; de Almeida Dias, Ana L; Dock-Nascimento, Diana B; Correia, Maria Isabel TD; Campos, Antonio CL; Portari-Filho, Pedro Eder; Oliveira, Sergio S

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged fasting increases organic response to trauma. This multicenter study investigated the gap between the prescribed and the actual preoperative fasting times in Brazilian hospitals and factors associated with this gap. Methods Patients (18–90-years-old) who underwent elective operations between August 2011 and September 2012 were included in the study. The actual and prescribed times for fasting were collected and correlated with sex, age, surgical disease (malignancies or benign disease), operation type, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of hospital (public or private), and nutritional status. Results A total of 3,715 patients (58.1% females) with a median age of 49 (18–94) years from 16 Brazilian hospitals entered the study. The median (range) preoperative fasting time was 12 (2–216) hours, and fasting time was longer (P<0.001) in hospitals using a traditional fasting protocol (13 [6–216] hours) than in others that had adopted new guidelines (8 [2–48] hours). Almost 80% (n=2,962) of the patients were operated on after 8 or more hours of fasting and 46.2% (n=1,718) after more than 12 hours. Prolonged fasting was not associated with physical score, age, sex, type of surgery, or type of hospital. Patients operated on due to a benign disease had an extended duration of preoperative fasting. Conclusion Actual preoperative fasting time is significantly longer than prescribed fasting time in Brazilian hospitals. Most of these hospitals still adopt traditional rather than modern fasting guidelines. All patients are at risk of long periods of fasting, especially those in hospitals that follow traditional practices. PMID:24627636

  7. Study of the reaction p+p-->d+π+ at Threshold using the Brazilian Nuclear Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Carlos A.

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Potential (BP) [1, 2], a relativistic and covariant O(q4) chiral expansion of the two-pion exchange NN potential had its configuration space content fitted by simple formulas [3]. In order to test the applicability of this parametrized potential, the dπ+ production in pp scattering at threshold was studied and the results were compared to the ones given by Reid 93 and v18 potentials. The results are very close to the v18 potential, repeating what had happen in a previous work [4].

  8. Study of Risk Factors Associated with Peripheral Arteriopathy in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP)

    PubMed Central

    Garofolo, Luciana; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G.; Miranda, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and emerging countries. Their main etiology, atherosclerosis, is a disseminated disease that affects the coronary, cerebral and peripheral territories. The peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as its consequences, indicates the involvement of the coronary territory. Therefore, its better understanding enables proper treatment, delaying local and long-term complications, reducing the cost to the health system. Objective This study estimates the percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP), recognized by the high prevalence of metabolic disorders such as hypertension (43%), diabetes mellitus (33%) and hypercholesterolemia (60%), and examines the association with risk biomarkers. Methods This cross-sectional population study evaluated 1,330 Japanese-Brazilians of both genders aged ≥ 30 who underwent a complete physical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants with ABI ≤ 0.90 were diagnosed as having PAD. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 individuals were part of the analysis. We used Poisson regression to analyze associations with PAD. Results The mean age was 56.8 years and the percentage of PAD was 21.1%, equal among the genders. PAD was associated with smoking (PR 2.16 [1.33 to 3.48]) and hypertension (PR 1.56 [1.12-2.22]). Conclusion The percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians was similar to other populations of adverse cardiometabolic profile (US PARTNERS and POPADAD). The independent association of PAD with smoking and hypertension, but not with other classical risk factors, may depend on the very high frequencies of metabolic disorders in this population. PMID:24676369

  9. Population Genetics of GYPB and Association Study between GYPB*S/s Polymorphism and Susceptibility to P. falciparum Infection in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Daphne R. T.; Costa, Daiane C.; Furlani, Natália G.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Machado, Moara; Reid, Marion E.; Zalis, Mariano G.; Rossit, Andréa R.; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Machado, Ricardo L.; Lustigman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. Methods Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases); and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls). The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. Results GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02). Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. Conclusion Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is

  10. Use of non-formulary drugs in children at a Brazilian teaching hospital: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Tramontina, Mariana Y.; Heineck, Isabela; Dos Santos, Luciana

    Objective To characterise the prescription of non-formulary drugs to children and neonates at a Brazilian teaching hospital and identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions, and prescription of potentially hazardous medicines. Methods A prospective exploratory study was carried out between January and May 2011 at the general paediatric wards and paediatric oncology, paediatric intensive care, and neonatal care units of the study hospital. Non-formulary drugs were categorised as approved, off-label, or not approved for use in children according to Brazilian compendia. Electronic health records were actively searched for ADRs and the possibility of moderate to severe interactions between non-formulary drugs and other medicines was determined with the Micromedex® database. Results Overall, 109 children or neonates received non-formulary drugs. Of these drugs, 54% were approved for use in children, 12.2% were used off-label, and 33.8% were not approved for use in children. Non-formulary drugs accounted for 13.4% of total prescriptions; 5.3% of drugs had a potential for interactions and five were possibly associated with ADRs. Conclusions Prescription of non-formulary drugs not approved for use in children was common at the study hospital. Studies such as this provide information on the use of medicines for special indications and permit assessment of the relevance of hospital formularies for the paediatric population. PMID:24155845

  11. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Guilherme F.; Santos, Thiago R. T.; Lasmar, Rodrigo C. P.; Oliveira, Otaviano; Lopes, Rômulo F. F.; Fonseca, Sérgio T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position. Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position. Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost), while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost) and severe injuries (>28 days lost). Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries. Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile. PMID:26537809

  12. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  13. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  14. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  15. Brazilian Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Himilcon

    Brazilian experience with micro scientific satellites began in 1995 with the SACI project that comprised 2 scientific satellites that carried onboard experiments from Brazil, Japan and US. The first one failed after launch (1998) and the second was lost during the second launch attempt of the Brazilian national launcher, VLS, in1999. Started by 1997, the French-Brazilian Microsatellite Project comprised a set of 9 experiments from French and Brazilian scientists. The project was terminated by the French side in 2002. Currently, there are two ongoing science projects, MIRAX (devoted to X-Ray astronomy) and EQUARS (to study the higher atmosphere). These projects include experiments from US, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, and Brazil, with launch scheduled to 2011 or 2012. This paper presents a brief summary of the history of the development of these satellites along with some highlights on the Brazilian Space Program.

  16. Radiographic study on the anatomical characteristics of the proximal femur in Brazilian adults☆

    PubMed Central

    de Farias, Tércio Henrique Soares; Borges, Vinícius Quadros; de Souza, Eduardo Soares; Miki, Natália; Abdala, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the geometry of the femur in the Brazilian population by means of a radiographic study and to correlate the values with regard to sex and right/left side. Methods Five hundred anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis of skeletally mature patients (250 of each sex) who did not present any osteoarthrosis, fractures or tumoral or infectious lesions were analyzed. The length and width of the femoral neck, length of the femoral axis, neck-shaft angle and femoral offset were measured. Results The following means were observed: 36.54 mm for the length of the femoral neck; 37.48 mm for the width of the femoral neck; 108.42 mm for the length of the femoral axis; 130.47° for the neck-shaft angle; and 44.4 mm for the femoral offset. Conclusion The mean values for the main measurements on the proximal femur in Brazilians differed from those of previous studies. It could also be shown that there was a statistically significant mean difference between men and women for all the variables, both on the left and on the right side, and that the men had greater means than the women. PMID:26229891

  17. Services available at the Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Cecatto, J. R.; Costa, J. E. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Koga, D.; Alves, L. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Banik de Padua, M.; De Nardin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian government has been supporting a Space Weather Program at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The main objective of the "Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program" is to proceed with data collection and maintenance of Space Weather observation, modeling processes of the Sun-Earth on a global and regional scale, provide information in real time and make Space Weather forecast, and provide diagnostics of their effects on different technology systems through the collection of satellite data, surface and computational modeling. Advantage was taken on the long lasting expertise of the local scientific community, specially regarding local phenomena, such as the equatorial ionosphere and effects of the South American Magnetic Anomaly. Since April 2012, weekly briefings are held where scientists discuss and evaluate in a comprehensive manner all the chains of events from the sun, interplanetary space, earth magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and reaching the effects on ground. One unique aspect of Embrace program is the strong emphasis on ionospheric and upper atmospheric disturbances. Recently, strong focus on radiation belt variability is progressively been included. Another important particularity of this program is the use of cosmic ray observations to develop nowcasting and forecasting of solar wind structures. In this work, we present an overview of activities and contributions related to the EMBRACE Program.

  18. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  19. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  20. Sociocultural factors associated with cigarette smoking among women in Brazilian worksites: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Silveira, Andréa F; dos Santos, Daniele Figueiredo; Beech, Bettina M

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the contextual factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation among women in Brazilian worksites (Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil). A total of 22 focus groups were conducted among 108 women in private and public worksites. The most frequently endorsed negative factors that contributed to smoking initiation included exposure to smoking-prompting behaviors through family members, peer pressure, media and easy access/low cost of cigarettes. Positive factors that served as protective mechanisms against initiation included smoking-related health effects and strong influence from parents and family members. The most salient negative factors associated with smoking cessation included stress/anxiety-relieving benefits, weight control, access/low cost of cigarettes, being around smokers and risk-exempting beliefs. Positive factors included smoking restrictions at home and workplace and concerns about appearance. Current and former smokers reported that they had never received any assistance from their physicians to quit smoking, nor did they rely on smoking cessation programs or aids or believe in their effectiveness. There are specific contextual factors that contribute to smoking initiation/cessation among women in Brazilian worksites which have important clinical, research and policy implications. PMID:17491118

  1. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  2. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  3. A feasibility study of powerline communication technology for digital inclusion in Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Jorge A. M.; da Silva, Marcelino S.; Francês, Carlos R. L.; Costa, João C. W. A.; Santana, Ádamo; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Antonio, Flavio R.; Rodrigues, Gabryella

    2006-10-01

    In the current national scene, many actions point at projects of digital inclusion and citizenship. In this context, providing access technologies as a requisite for the implementation of these actions is primordial. In this way, many innovative experiences have been presented in the past few years. This paper presents a study on the Powerline Communication- PLC technology; as a proposal for a feasible access network for Brazilian Amazon. First, the characteristics of the PLC technology are studied from an implanted indoor prototype at Federal University of Para. The measures used in this prototype serve as input for a created model, from which it is intended to study the system more widely, considering factors such as: scalability, reliability and the physical characteristics.

  4. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  5. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  6. Atrial fibrillation case study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Wilson, Tracey

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the irregular heart rhythm caused by atrial fibrillation (AF). A brief overview of the pathophysiology will be provided. A case study is discussed to highlight the treatment and management of AF. The care provision describes common signs and symptoms and also the treatment and management of AF within the maternity care setting. The importance of maintaining the mother-baby dyad is highlighted. For the purpose of maintaining confidentiality the woman will be referred to as Shama. PMID:27044188

  7. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  8. Student Destination Choices in Higher Education: Exploring Attitudes of Brazilian Students to Study in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border education provides evidence about international student destination choice including the push and pull model of international student choice. The research upon which this article is based, into Brazilian students' decisions to study at universities in the United Kingdom, reveals some particular barriers such as cost, negative…

  9. Reiki for Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy in a Brazilian Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Pamela; da Motta, Pedro Mourão Roxo; da Silva, Luis G; Stephan, Celso; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; de Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore whether individualized Reiki given to cancer patients at a Brazilian hospital improved symptoms and well-being. Data from 36 patients who received 5 Reiki sessions were collected using the MYMOP and were compared before and after their treatment and also with 14 patients who did not receive Reiki and who acted as a comparison group. Twenty-one patients reported feeling better, 12 felt worse, and 3 reported no change. Of the comparison group, 6 patients reported feeling better and 8 felt worse. The Reiki practice delivered as part of the integrative care in oncology did produce clinically significant effects, although not statistically significant results, for more than half of the patients undergoing cancer treatment. PMID:27078812

  10. Human adenovirus spread, rainfalls, and the occurrence of gastroenteritis cases in a Brazilian basin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Henzel, Andréia; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-11-01

    Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization. PMID:26514803

  11. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  12. Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, R; Batista, H B R; Franco, A C; Rijsewijk, F A M; Roehe, P M

    2005-05-20

    Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. For that, 79 Brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within Brazil were submitted to antigenic characterization with a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed to lyssavirus antigens and to genomic analyses by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the N gene followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). In addition, the nucleotide sequences of part of the N gene (225 bp) of seven isolates, taken as representative of the majority of the viruses under study, were determined. The analyses with the Mabs and RT-PCR/REA allowed the identification of two major groups of variants, the first formed by most isolates of cattle and bats and the second formed by viruses of dog origin. Partial sequencing of the N gene confirmed the similarity among isolates from cattle origin and those of vampire bats. However, viruses from non-haematophagous bats exhibited consistent differences from those of vampire bat isolates. Such findings suggest that the variants have evolved fairly stable modifications, which are not altered after passage in a dead-end host of a distinct species. No association could be established between antigenic or genomic alterations and geographic distribution of the isolates, which suggests that evolution of the virus has been directed to adaptation to the host species. PMID:15863275

  13. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  14. P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Siqueira, André M.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Souza, Marcela S.; Gimaque, João B.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Melo, Gisely C.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011) in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1%) presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37%) dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8%) were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected), deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected), hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected). Conclusions/Significance In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients) and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients) should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group. PMID:25340346

  15. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  16. The costs of overweight and obesity-related diseases in the Brazilian public health system: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. It is well known risk factor for a number of chronic medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the direct costs associated to outpatient and inpatient care of overweight and obesity related diseases in the perspective of the Brazilian Health System (SUS). Methods Population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated for selected diseases related to overweight and obesity and with the following parameters: Relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20 or RR ≥1.10 and < 1.20, but important problem of public health due its high prevalence. After a broad search in the literature, two meta-analysis were selected to provide RR for PAR calculation. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in Brazilians with ≥18 years were obtained from large national survey. The national health database (DATASUS) was used to estimate the annual cost of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) with the diseases included in the analysis. The extracted values were stratified by sex, type of service (inpatient or outpatient care) and year. Data were collected from 2008 to 2010 and the results reflect the average of 3 years. Brazilian costs were converted into US dollars during the analysis using a purchasing power parity basis (2010). Results The estimated total costs in one year with all diseases related to overweight and obesity are US$ 2,1 billion; US$ 1,4 billion (68.4% of total costs) due to hospitalizations and US$ 679 million due to ambulatory procedures. Approximately 10% of these cost is attributable to overweight and obesity. Conclusion The results confirm that overweight and obesity carry a great economic burden for Brazilian health system and for the society. The knowledge of these costs will be useful for future economic analysis of preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:22713624

  17. PREDICT : A CASE STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W. J. III; Booker, J. M.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and the Los Alamos National Laboratory worked together to develop PREDICT, a new methodology to characterize the reliability of a new product during its development program. Rather than conducting testing after hardware has been built, and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this updating approach starts with an early reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty, and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework. A considerable amount of knowledge is available at the beginning of a program in the form of expert judgment which helps to provide the initial estimate. This estimate is then continually updated as substantial and varied information becomes available during the course of the development program. This paper presents a case study of the application of PREDICT, with the objective of further describing the methodology. PREDICT has been honored with an R&D 100 Award presented by R&D Magazine.

  18. Management and follow-up of a case of gestational gigantomastia in a brazilian hospital.

    PubMed

    Eler Dos Reis, Pollyana; Blunck Santos, Natalia Quarto; Barbosa Pagio, Fernanda Alves; Chambô, Fabio; Chambô, Danielle; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Gigantomastia is a breast disorder that is associated with an exaggerated, rapid growth of the breasts, generally bilaterally. Since the pathology is rare and has seldom been described, its etiology has yet to be fully established, although there are speculations that a hormonal component may play an important role. Treatment is aimed at improving the clinical and psychological symptoms; however, the best therapeutic option varies from case to case. The present report describes a case of gestational gigantomastia seen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in a primigravida in the second trimester of pregnancy. The report follows this patient from her diagnosis until the completion of treatment with a third and final surgical procedure. PMID:25215252

  19. Management and Follow-Up of a Case of Gestational Gigantomastia in a Brazilian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Blunck Santos, Natalia Quarto; Barbosa Pagio, Fernanda Alves; Chambô, Fabio; Chambô, Danielle; Chambô Filho, Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Gigantomastia is a breast disorder that is associated with an exaggerated, rapid growth of the breasts, generally bilaterally. Since the pathology is rare and has seldom been described, its etiology has yet to be fully established, although there are speculations that a hormonal component may play an important role. Treatment is aimed at improving the clinical and psychological symptoms; however, the best therapeutic option varies from case to case. The present report describes a case of gestational gigantomastia seen at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in a primigravida in the second trimester of pregnancy. The report follows this patient from her diagnosis until the completion of treatment with a third and final surgical procedure. PMID:25215252

  20. Social determinants of health and periodontal disease in Brazilian adults: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, increasing importance has been placed on the social determinants of health and disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in Brazilian adults and identify possible relationships with social determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 743 adults (aged 35–49 years) living in an urban area of a large city in southeastern Brazil. The condition of the periodontium was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to the diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The variables related to social determinants were collected using a structured questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of all study variables was performed. Multiple correspondence analysis was subsequently performed to identify relationships between periodontal disease and the social determinants of health. Results The periodontal exams showed that 36.5% of adults had a healthy periodontium, 2.0% had gingival bleeding, 47.1% had calculus and 9.5% had periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. Periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more were the worst periodontal condition found (affecting only 2.1% of the participants). The correspondence analysis enabled us to form three groups with different profiles. The first group was distinguished by the presence of bleeding (gingivitis) or a healthy periodontium. The members of this group were typically aged 35 to 39 years and had 9–12 years or more than 12 years of education. The second group consisted of subjects with calculus and periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. The members of this group were typically white men aged 40–44 years with incomes greater than $ 300.00. The third group was distinguished by the presence of periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more. The members of this group were typically adult females, black and mixed individuals who had 8 years or less of schooling, individuals with incomes ≤ $ 300.00 and widowers

  1. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  2. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  3. Case Studies in Wilderness Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Melissa; Tarter, Shana Lee

    Five case studies explore issues in wilderness medicine, with emphasis on evacuation decision making. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips involving college or high school students. In each case, the situation and facts of the case are outlined, including the patient's medical history and vital signs, and at…

  4. Descriptive study of suicide attempts in the Brazilian elderly population, 2000 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2015-06-01

    The study describes hospital admission rates for suicide attempts among the Brazilian elderly and discusses the weaknesses of data from information systems. Data were extracted from the Hospital Information System (HIS) and from the Violence and Injury Surveillance System (VIVA). The analyzes included: (1) temporal evolution of rates by age group (1-9; 10-19; 20-39; 40-59 and 60 or over) from 2000 to 2014 by region; (2) triennial hospital admission rates by sex for age groups 60-69, 70-79 and 80 or over by region and state; (3) hospital admission rates for the elderly from the two information systems. Temporal evolution showed higher rates in the north and lower ones in the northeast. The analysis by age group and sex showed higher rates for older men of the three investigated age groups. The comparison of rates obtained from the two information systems showed a gradual increase in rates from VIVA. After 2012, rates obtained from VIVA were higher in the Southeast, South and Midwest regions. The study highlights the need for further improvement of information on hospital morbidity and data from compulsory notification of violence. PMID:26060946

  5. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities—an analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing students may exhibit the characteristics of resistance to stress, such as hardiness, which can reduce the risk of burnout. However, we found only one published study about these phenomena among nursing students. Thus, we investigated the association between hardiness and burnout in such students. Methods An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted among 570 nursing students from three Brazilian universities. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic characteristics, hardiness, and burnout, which we analyzed using inferential statistics. Results We observed that 64.04% of nursing students in the sample had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 35.79% had a high level of cynicism, and 87.72% had a low level of professional efficacy: these are dimensions of burnout. We also found that 48.77% had a high level of control, 61.40% a high level of commitment, and 35.44% a high level of challenge: these are dimensions of hardiness. Only 24.74% of the students experienced burnout, and 21.93% met the criteria for a hardy personality. There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of hardiness and burnout (p = 0.033), with 68.00% of hardy students not exhibiting burnout. Conclusions Although nursing students live with educational stressors, burnout was not preponderant in our sample students; this may be linked to hardiness. Thus, given its benefits to student life and health, we recommend the development of strategies to promote hardiness among nursing students. PMID:24678676

  6. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  7. The Dilemma of Influenza Vaccine Recommendations when Applied to the Tropics: The Brazilian Case Examined Under Alternative Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Wyller Alencar; de Paiva, Terezinha Maria; Ishida, Maria Akiko; Benega, Margarete Aparecida; dos Santos, Mirleide Cordeiro; Viboud, Cécile; Miller, Mark A.; Alonso, Wladimir J.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999 the World Health Organization issues annually an additional influenza vaccine composition recommendation. This initiative aimed to extend to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) the benefits—previously enjoyed only by the Northern Hemisphere (NH)—of a vaccine recommendation issued as close as possible to the moment just before the onset of the influenza epidemic season. A short time between the issue of the recommendation and vaccine delivery is needed to maximize the chances of correct matching between putative circulating strains and one of the three strains present in the vaccine composition. Here we compare the effectiveness of the SH influenza vaccination adopted in Brazil with hypothetical alternative scenarios defined by different timings of vaccine delivery and/or composition. Scores were based on the temporal overlap between vaccine-induced protection and circulating strains. Viral data were obtained between 1999 and 2007 from constant surveillance and strain characterization in two Brazilian cities: Belém, located at the Equatorial region, and São Paulo, at the limit between the tropical and subtropical regions. Our results show that, among currently feasible options, the best strategy for Brazil would be to adopt the NH composition and timing, as in such case protection would increase from 30% to 65% (p<.01) if past data can be used as a prediction of the future. The influenza season starts in Brazil (and in the equator virtually ends) well before the SH winter, making the current delivery of the SH vaccination in April too late to be effective. Since Brazil encompasses a large area of the Southern Hemisphere, our results point to the possibility of these conclusions being similarly valid for other tropical regions. PMID:19352506

  8. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  9. Vulnerability and the psychosocial aspects of tooth loss in old age: a Southern Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Renato J; Leal, Andréa F; Padilha, Dalva M; Brondani, Mario A

    2012-09-01

    Extensive tooth loss and edentulism can have a negative impact on the general health and quality of life of older adults. The extent to which psychological and social factors affect an individual's decision to undergo tooth extraction and mouth clearance (extraction of all teeth), and the theoretical relationships between social structure, social life and oral health can be unraveled through qualitative research. This study aimed to explore the social and psychological factors involved in tooth extraction and mouth clearance within a historical perspective among rural Southern Brazilian older adults. It is based on qualitative data gathered via a series of eight focus groups among 41 older adults. Underlying the focus group discussions of different levels of health risks and resources for prevention of disease was the concept of vulnerability. Participants' responses illustrated that tooth loss and mouth clearance were related to a lack of public dental health policies and programs, were influenced by social norms (including values pertaining to gender), and were associated with a low level of oral health knowledge. The social and program-dependent contexts of vulnerability were shown to have played a major role in the development of norms and values towards tooth extraction and mouth clearance. Vulnerability must be reduced in order to prevent disease particularly among rural populations. The influence of fatalistic beliefs about the inevitable loss of teeth with age may negatively influence the acceptance of dental treatment and predilection for oral health self-care. PMID:22870826

  10. Neurotoxic sequelae of mercury exposure: an intervention and follow-up study in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Myriam; Philibert, Aline; Mertens, Frédéric; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Frenette, Benoit; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Mergler, Donna

    2011-06-01

    Since 1995, the Caruso Project used an Ecosystem Approach to Human Health to examine mercury (Hg) exposure in fish-eating communities in the Brazilian Amazon and develop interventions to maximise nutrition from traditional diet and minimise toxic risk. In 1995, 2000 and 2006, this study followed fish consumption, Hg levels, and visual and motor functions in 31 villagers. Questionnaires gathered information on socio-demographics and diet. Hair Hg (H-Hg) levels were measured. Visual acuity, colour vision, manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. Data was analysed using general linear models of repeated measures. Total fish consumption, similar in 1995 and 2000, decreased in 2006. Carnivorous fish consumption initially decreased and then remained stable, whereas non-carnivorous fish consumption first increased and then decreased. H-Hg declined from 17.6 to 7.8 μg/g. Visual functions showed a significant decrease over time, with those with H-Hg ≥ 20 μg/g in 1995 showing greater loss. Motor functions showed initial improvement and then returned to the 1995 performance level. Decrease in Hg exposure is attributed to the intervention and socio-economic changes in the village. While there may be a certain reversibility of motor deficits, visual capacities may decrease progressively with respect to exposure prior to the intervention. PMID:22160443

  11. Cryptococcosis in non-HIV/non-transplant patients: A Brazilian case series.

    PubMed

    Lomes, Naiane Ribeiro; Melhem, Marcia Souza de Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Martins, Marilena Dos Anjos; Buccheri, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a classical systemic opportunistic mycosis, primarily occurring among patients with significant immunologic impairment. However, this disease could also affect patients without any recognized immunologic defects, that is, phenotypically normal patients. The medical records of 29 non-HIV/nontransplant patients with cryptococcal disease during the period 2007-2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The most common site of infection was the central nervous system (n = 25, 86.2%), followed by the pulmonary system (n = 11, 37.9%) and blood (n = 2, 6.8%). Thoracic- and brain-computed tomography demonstrated abnormalities of 81.2% (n = 13) and 62.5% (n = 15), respectively. In sum, 22% (n = 6) of the patients experienced a significant underlying condition. More than one therapeutic regimen was used in 77.8% (n = 21) of the patients. The isolates were identified as being Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (n = 4, 36.4%) and Cryptococcus gattii species complex (n = 7, 63.6%). The overall mortality was 20.7% (n = 6). Herein, we presented the first case series of cryptococcosis in this specific population in São Paulo City, Brazil. The incidence of cryptococcosis in our hospital has not increased in recent years, and 77.8% (n = 21) of cases had no obvious predisposing factor. However, this disease remains associated with high mortality. PMID:27118805

  12. Calciphylaxis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Caring for J.D. was a stressful experience. The extent of her wounds, pain, and limited options for treatment was very frustrating for the nursing staff. Although she did not survive, patient outcomes were met to some degree. Her pain was controlled to a greater extent, and there was less infection present in her wounds. The nurses worked with J.D. closely to improve her pain control and facilitate less painful dressing changes. They were vigilant in assessing the progress of her wound healing and communicating any increased signs of infections from her wounds. They sang with her to help distract her from the pain she was experiencing and to help her cope with her lengthy 8-month hospitalization. Providing care for J.D. was also a very important learning experience for nurses in terms of appropriate pain management for patients with CUA, wound care, and the need to sustain adequate nutrition to promote wound healing. CUA is a rare but potentially fatal disease that occurs in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the devastating effects of this disease. Nephrology nurses need to reinforce the importance of keeping calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid levels within normal ranges for their patients on dialysis. They also need to be vigilant in monitoring for potential CUA skin lesions to prevent and treat it early. To date, treatment options are mostly based on findings from case reports. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with input from nephrologists, nurses, pain specialists, infectious disease specialists, and surgeons. The major goals of treatment are controlling risk factors, controlling pain, and preventing wound infection and possible sepsis. More studies need to be conducted to test interventions that may help treat CUA. PMID:23094342

  13. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  14. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  15. MOBRAL--The Brazilian Adult Literacy Experiment. Educational Studies and Documents No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The Brazilian Literacy Movement (MOBRAL-El Movimento Brasileno de Alfabetizacion de Adultos) is discussed in terms of its legal and conceptual bases, organization, participants, technical aspects, and effectiveness. Established by law December 15, 1967 to lower the illiteracy rate in Brazil by improving educational opportunities for the…

  16. Tissue factor-dependent pathway in severe preeclampsia revisited: a Brazilian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dusse, Luci M; Godoi, Lara C; Gomes, Karina B; Carvalho, Maria das G; Lwaleed, Bashir A

    2016-06-01

    Previously we investigated the tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation pathway and key haemostatic cofactors in white women with preeclampsia (P-EC) and suggested that plasma factor VII (FVII) levels can differentiate women with P-EC from healthy nonpregnant women or normal pregnant women, at the same trimester, with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Here we re-examine the TF-dependent pathway in a large cohort of Brazilian women. A total of 240 women were studied. These included healthy nonpregnant women (n = 79), normotensive pregnant women (n = 80) and women with severe P-EC (n = 81). Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure plasma FVII, activated factor VII (FVIIa), TF and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). All study participants were matched for age. Pregnant women (with/without P-EC) were matched for gestational age and parity. Plasma levels of FVII, FVIIa and TFPI were significantly increased in women with severe P-EC compared with healthy nonpregnant women (P < 0.01) or normotensive pregnant women (P < 0.01). FVIIa was also higher in normotensive pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (P < 0.01). However, no such significant trends were observed for plasma TF levels (P = 0.074). In conclusion, circulating FVII, FVIIa and TFPI were significantly elevated in women with severe P-EC in the absence of comparable changes in plasma TF levels. The present work is in agreement with our previous report on FVII levels in white women with P-EC. Thus, this lends further support to the notion that plasma FVII levels are potentially valuable diagnostic marker for P-EC, irrespective of ethnicity. PMID:26765308

  17. Immunocytochemical study of the ontogeny of Peyer's patches in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, H B; Nogueira, J C; King, G; Coutinho, V B; Robalinho, T I; Amorim, A M; Cavalcanti, V M; Robins, R A; Sewell, H F

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ontogenetic immunocytochemical study is reported on gut-associated lymphoid development in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris. This employed antibody probes raised to evolutionarily conserved peptides which have been shown to detect HLA-DR-like (class II MHC) antigens and T and B cell markers in a wide range of animal species. Cells with macrophage and dendritic morphology expressing class II MHC and a few cells expressing the T cell marker CD3 were found in the lamina propria of duodenal villi in early (approximately 24 mm crown-rump length) latent opossum. Cells with B cell markers were not detected until lactent animals reached > 60 mm. Development of Peyer's patches (PP) was seen first in the duodenum in 45-60 mm lactent animals, progressing to well developed PP in the duodenum and ileum in lactent animals > 80 mm. These PP, like those in weanling and juvenile animals, consisted of follicles with a network of class II MHC positive dendritic cells and round cells lacking T and B markers, but lacking well defined mantle zones. B cells were present mainly in the lymphatic sinuses, with CD3 T cells present between follicles in the PP and intraepithelially in the villi. The study reveals the sequential development of class II MHC positive dendritic cells, T cells and B cells in the intestinal ontogeny of the opossum PP. These features occurred initially exclusively in the duodenum and subsequently in the ileum, paralleling the physiological maturation of the gut in eutheria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7961141

  18. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  19. Syncope: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Kleyman, Inna; Weimer, Louis H

    2016-08-01

    Syncope, or the sudden loss of consciousness, is a common presenting symptom for evaluation by neurologists. It is not a unique diagnosis but rather a common manifestation of disorders with diverse mechanisms. Loss of consciousness is typically preceded by a prodrome of symptoms and sometimes there is a clear trigger. This article discusses several cases that illustrate the various causes of syncope. Reflex syncope is the most common type and includes neurally mediated, vasovagal, situational, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and atypical forms. Acute and chronic autonomic neuropathies and neurodegenerative disorders can also present with syncope. PMID:27445240

  20. Immunohistochemistry panel segregates molecular types of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilian autopsy cases

    PubMed Central

    Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; Wakamatsu, Alda; dos Santos Cirqueira, Cinthya; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the distribution of proteins coded by genes reported as relevant for the molecular classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the following clinicopathological data were analyzed in 80 autopsied HCC patients: sex, age, ethnicity, alcohol intake, infection with hepatitis B and/or C virus, infection with human immunodeficiency virus, prior treatment, basic and immediate causes of death, liver weight, presence of cirrhosis, number and size of nodules, gross pattern, histological grade and variants, architectural pattern, invasion of large veins, and presence and location of extrahepatic metastases. The protein products of genes known to be involved in molecular pathogenesis of HCC, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MET, keratin 19 (K19), vimentin, beta-catenin, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK)1, ERK2, Ki67, cyclin D1, caspase 3 and p53, were detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The expression levels were scored and statistically assessed for correlation with HCC parameters. RESULTS: Infection with hepatitis C virus was identified in 49% of the 80 autopsy patients, cirrhosis in 90%, advanced tumors in 95%, and extrahepatic metastases in 38%. Expression of K19, p53 and ERK1 correlated to high-grade lesions. Expression of ERK1, nuclear beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and ERK2 correlated to higher rates of cell proliferation as determined by Ki67. Expression of MET, EGFR (> 0) and caspase 3 correlated with lower histological grades. Expression of EGFR correlated to that of caspase 3, and overexpression of EGFR (≥ 200/300) was observed in low-grade tumors more frequently (grades 1 and 2: 67% vs grade 3: 27% and grade 4: 30%). Expression of ERK1 was associated with that of K19 and vimentin, whereas expression of ERK2 was associated with that of cyclin D1, MET and membrane beta-catenin. Expression of vimentin was

  1. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  2. Three Community College Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  3. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  4. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  5. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America. PMID:7860085

  6. An Initial Psychometric Evaluation and Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of the Body Checking Questionnaire among Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Swami, Viren; Onodera, Carolina Mie Kawagosi; da Silva, Dirceu; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Body checking is considered an expression of an excessive preoccupation with appearance. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ). Additionally, we wanted to examine the questionnaire’s associations with body avoidance behaviour, body mass index, dietary habits, and the intensity, frequency, and length of physical exercise. Finally, we also examined the differences between the total BCQ score and the individual BCQ factor scores. Differences between active and sedentary persons and between non-dieters and those on weight-loss diets were also analyzed. For the psychometric study, 546 female public university students from four different courses were surveyed. Two minor samples of university students and eating disorders women were also recruited. In the second part of the study, 403 women were recruited from weight-loss programs, gyms, and a university. All participants were verbally invited to participate in the research and voluntarily took part. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original model of the Brazilian BCQ that retained all 23 items. Satisfactory evidence of construct validity and internal consistency were also generated through analysis of factor loadings, t-values, Cronbach’s alpha, and construct reliability tests. The results also showed associations among body checking and body avoidance, body satisfaction, social anxiety, body mass index, and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise. Significant differences were found between non-dieters and weight-loss dieters for all BCQ factors and the total BCQ score. For physically active and sedentary persons, a significant difference was only observed for idiosyncratic checking behaviour. In conclusion, the BCQ appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Brazilian research, and the associations and differences found in this study suggest that women at gyms and especially in

  7. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the five urban regions of Brazil-the Brazilian COPCORD study (BRAZCO).

    PubMed

    Dos Reis-Neto, Edgard Torres; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sérgio Candido; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Sato, Emilia Inoue

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSK-S) in the five urban geographical regions of Brazil using the Portuguese version of the Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire (CQ)-BRAZCO study. From April to May 2013, a population-based survey was conducted by applying the CQ for 5000 individuals aged over 15 years in 16 capitals of the Brazilian regions. Trained teams assessed the MSK-S and socioeconomic status. The sample consisted of representative quotas of the Brazilian population, proportional to the capitals' population density. It respected the groups' quotas of gender and age and included all socioeconomic classes, educational levels, and occupations. There were 1342 (26.9 %) participants who presented MSK-S unrelated to trauma in 7 days preceding the interview. A higher prevalence of these complaints were in females (65.2 %), elderly people, in the north region of the country (30.7 %), and a lower prevalence was found in single individuals (41.7 %) and in the south (23.3 %). The most frequent pain sites were the spine (76.7 %) and knees (49.6 %), and the mean pain intensity was 6.8 (VAS). The BRAZCO study shows that Brazilian population presents a higher rate of MSK-S unrelated to trauma than many Asian countries. These results can be applied to guide the assessment of prevalence of rheumatic diseases. Additionally, it can help in the design of policies for health care workforce organization and its accessibility, as well as to reduce the risk of rheumatic diseases at the community level. PMID:25963999

  8. Industrial cogeneration case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, D. R.; Isser, S.; Hinkle, B.; Friedman, N. R.

    1980-09-01

    Studies were performed on a number of operating cogeneration systems to determine application, economics, and attitudes of industrial and utility executives toward cogeneration. A literature survey was conducted and an identification of candidate cogeneration sites was carried out. This was followed by a screening of these sites down to 20 to 30 candidate sites. The screening was carried out on the basis of cogeneration capacity, geographical diversity, generation type, and industrial diversity. The remaining sites were contacted as to their willingness to work with EPRI, and an industrial questionnaire was developed on technical, economic, and institutional cogeneration issues. Each of the seventeen sites was visited during this task. A utility questionnaire was developed and utilities with cogeneration systems studied in this survey were contacted as to their attitudes toward cogeneration. In addition, a compilation of a list of operating cogeneration systems was performed.

  9. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  10. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  11. Brazilian medicinal plants to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness: systematic review and meta-analyses—study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciane C; Silva, Maria Carolina O; Motta, Cristiane Bergamashi; Macho Quirós, Antonio; Biavatti, Maique Weber; de Oliveira, Jardel Corrêa; Guyatt, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory illness, often associated with cough and sputum, is frequent. In Brazil, herbal medicines are often recommended as a first-line treatment for respiratory illness. There exists uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these treatments. No systematic review has evaluated Brazilian medicinal plants (BMP) to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial illness (URTI). Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and, if appropriate, a series of meta-analyses evaluating the safety and effectiveness of BMP for URTI. Eligible randomised controlled trials and observational studies will enrol adult or paediatric patients presenting with URTI treated by BMP approved by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency compared with placebo, no treatment or an alternative therapy. Our search will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Illness Group's Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Web of Science; AMED; LILACS; CAB abstracts; clinical trial.gov; the WHO Trial Register and the Brazilian thesis database (CAPES) without any language restrictions. Outcomes of interest are time to resolution of clinical symptoms and/or signs (cough, sputum production or activity limitations), severity of symptoms prior to resolution and major/minor adverse events. Teams of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, screen titles and abstracts and the complete full text to determine eligibility. For eligible studies, reviewers will perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. When appropriate, we will conduct meta-analyses. We will also assess the quality of body of evidence (confidence in estimates of effect) for each of the outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will be published in

  12. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  13. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black – the major categories of the Brazilian Census “race/color” system – have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen1, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  14. Work Teams: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, M. Scott

    1981-01-01

    An important aspect of work environment is job content and structure. As this case study illustrates, increased productivity, enhanced job satisfaction, substantial cost reduction, and a reduction in turnover are some of the benefits of task reorganization. (CT)

  15. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  16. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  17. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  19. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  20. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  1. [The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion. PMID:21340108

  2. [Methodology and social, demographic, cognitive, and frailty profiles of community-dwelling elderly from seven Brazilian cities: the FIBRA Study].

    PubMed

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes de; Eulálio, Maria do Carmo; Cabral, Benedita Edina; Siqueira, Maria Eliane Catunda de; Santos, Geraldine Alves dos; Moura, José Guilherme de Arruda

    2013-04-01

    A study was designed to identify conditions of frailty in relation to social, demographic, health, cognitive, functional, and psychosocial variables in community-dwelling elderly. The article presents the methodology and preliminary data. A total of 3,478 elderly (65 years and older) were selected from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian cities chosen by convenience and participated in a data collection session in a community setting. The following characteristics predominated: women (67.7%), married (48%) or widowed (36.4%), living with a son or daughter and family (52.6%), head of family (64.5%), and 1-4 years of schooling (49%); 28.8% were illiterate and 24.8% presented a cognitive deficit; 9.1% were frail, 51.8% pre-frail, and 39.1% non-frail. There were more frail individuals among women, those 80 years or older, the widowed, the illiterate, those who had never attended school, and those with cognitive deficit. In general, the social and demographic data corroborate Brazilian epidemiological studies, while those on frailty, cognitive status, and schooling corroborate the international literature. PMID:23568307

  3. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity. PMID:21575274

  4. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  5. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; de Castro, Paulo Carrara

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  6. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; Castro, Paulo Carrara de

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  7. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  8. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  9. Call Accuracy and Distance from the Play: A Study with Brazilian Soccer Referees

    PubMed Central

    DE OLIVEIRA, MARIO CESAR; ORBETELLI, ROGERIO; DE BARROS NETO, TURIBIO LEITE

    2011-01-01

    Refereeing decisions in soccer has always been a controversial issue. In order to better understand this subject, foul calls made by Brazilian soccer referees were evaluated to determine the potential relationship between the distance from the referee to a foul play and the accuracy of the call. Soccer matches supervised by the São Paulo State Football Federation were recorded and 321 foul calls were analyzed. No significant association was found between the referee’s distance from a foul play and accuracy of the call (p = 0.561). However, there was a significant increase in the number of correct calls in the last 15 minutes of the second half compared with the number of correct calls in the first 30 minutes of the same half (p = 0.003). PMID:27182355

  10. Experimental study of induced inflammation in the Brazilian Boa (Boa constrictor constrictor).

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, M; Borelli, P; Silva, J R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the cellular types present in inflammatory processes in the Brazilian snake, Boa constrictor constrictor. Blood smears were first made from three normal snakes and stained by several methods to identify the cell types present, thus facilitating the identification of cells in inflammatory processes induced in 16 further snakes by the subcutaneous implantation of cotton suture threads and circular coverslips. Implanted threads induced migration of heterophils and monocytes after 4 h, more intense monocyte migration after 24 h, an intense granulocytic migration inside and around the thread after 48 h, heterophilic granulocytes, macrophages and giant cells after 7 days, and giant cells with a typical granuloma response and persistence of heterophilic cells after 15, 69 and 117 days. The cell population attached to the implanted coverslips after 4 h was composed of heterophils, thrombocytes, erythrocytes and macrophages; after 24 and 48 h heterophils predominated, and after 7 days heterophils, macrophages and giant cells predominated. PMID:11578134

  11. Brazilian Adults' Sedentary Behaviors by Life Domain: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Grégore I.; da Silva, Inácio C. M.; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. Methods A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. Results On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5–8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Conclusion Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains. PMID:24619086

  12. Socio-Cultural Factors and Experience of Chronic Low Back Pain: a Spanish and Brazilian Patients’ Perspective. A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) could be influenced by socio-cultural factors. Pain narratives are important to understand the influence of environment on patients with chronic LBP. There are few studies that have explored the experience of patients with chronic LBP in different socio-cultural environments. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with chronic LBP in Spain and Brazil. Methods A qualitative phenomenology approach was implemented. Chronic LBP patients from the University Hospital of Salamanca (Spain), and/or Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil) were included, using purposeful sampling. Data were collected from 22 Spanish and 26 Brazilian patients during in-depth interviews and using researchers’ field notes and patients' personal diaries and letters. A thematic analysis was performed and the guidelines for reporting qualitative research were applied. Results Forty-eight patients with a mean age of 50.7 years (SD: ± 13.1 years) were included in the study. The themes identified included: a) ways of perceiving and expressing pain—the participants focused constantly on their pain and anything outside it was considered secondary; b) the socio-familial environment as a modulator of pain—most participants stated that no one was able to understand the pain they were experiencing; c) religion as a modulator of pain—all Brazilian patients stated that religious belief affected the experience of pain; and d) socio-economic and educational status as a modulator of pain—the study reported that economic factors influenced the experience of pain. Conclusions The influences of LBP can be determined based on the how a patient defines pain. Religion can be considered as a possible mechanism for patients to manage pain and as a form of solace. PMID:27434594

  13. Case Studies in Broadcast Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Howard W.

    This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…

  14. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  15. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  16. The Language Dilemma: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teboul, J. C. Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…

  17. INNOVATIVE CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Innovative Clean Technologies case studies contained herein are the products of the "Pollution Prevention by and for Small Business" Program (P2SB). he P2SB was an outreach program directed to small businesses that had developed innovative concepts for pollution prevention in...

  18. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  19. Case Study: Planning as Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that the objectives of strategic planning may be attained more effectively if implemented via a learning paradigm. In support of this claim, describes a case study detailing implementation of such an initiative plus post-implementation interviews. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. State Planning System. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherin, Ellen, Ed.

    The State Planning System (SPS) is a policy-oriented management tool intended to help analyze the interrelated effects of alternative policies and their relationships to state goals. Two pilot-test case studies are described--the SPS tuition policy evaluation conducted in Colorado, and New York's SPS evaluation of the applicability of large scale…

  1. Case Studies in Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.

    This collection of nine case studies in applied mathematics was written primarily for the use of the instructor by a Conference sponsored by the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM). Each chapter contains exercises of varying degrees of difficulty and several include student projects. The materials were used on a trial…

  2. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Renato T.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Passini, Renato; Tedesco, Ricardo P.; Lajos, Giuliane J.; Nomura, Marcelo L.; Rehder, Patricia M.; Dias, Tabata Z.; Haddad, Samira M.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Costa, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Background About 15 million children are born under 37 weeks of gestation worldwide. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal deaths and short/long term morbidities, entailing consequences not only for the individual, but also their family, health agencies, facilities and all community. The provider-initiated preterm birth is currently one of the most important obstetric conditions related to preterm births, particularly in middle and high income countries, thus decreasing the need for therapeutic preterm birth is essential to reduce global prematurity. Therefore detailed knowledge on the factors associated with provider-initiated preterm birth is essential for the efforts to reduce preterm birth rates and its consequences. In this current analysis we aimed to assess the proportion of provider-initiated (pi-PTB) among preterm births in Brazil and identify associated factors. Methods and Findings This is an analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component called Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP). EMIP was conducted in 20 referral obstetric hospitals located in the three most populated of the five Brazilian regions. We analysed data of women with pi-PTB, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks, medically indicated for maternal/fetal compromise or both; and women with term birth, childbirth at or after 37 weeks. Maternal, sociodemographic, obstetric, prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal characteristics were assessed as possible factors associated with pi-PTB, compared to term births. The overall prevalence of preterm births was 12.3%. Of these, approximately one-third of cases were initiated by the provider. Hypertensive disorders, placental abruption, and diabetes were the main maternal conditions leading to pi-PTB. Caesarean section was the most common mode of delivery. Chronic hypertension (OR 7.47; 95%CI 4.02–13.88), preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP syndrome (OR 15.35; 6.57–35.88), multiple

  3. Studies on cambial activity: advances and challenges in the knowledge of growth dynamics of Brazilian woody species.

    PubMed

    Callado, Cátia H; Vasconcellos, Thaís J de; Costa, Monique S; Barros, Claudia F; Roig, Fidel A; Tomazello-Filho, Mário

    2014-03-01

    The lack of specific research on the sequence of events that determine plant growth from meristem until wood formation represents a gap in the knowledge of growth dynamics in woody species. In this work, we surveyed published studies concerning cambial activity of Brazilian native species aiming at allowing the comparison of applied methods and obtained results. The annual cambial seasonality was observed in all the investigated species. Nevertheless, we found high heterogeneity in the used methodologies. As a result from this analysis, our opinion points to the need for standardizing sampling protocols and for discussing the suitability of experimental designs. This will help to define with greater precision the factors that determine the radial growth in the different tropical ecosystems. PMID:24519008

  4. [Development of the Brazilian version of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Measure (MSFC-BCTRIMS): pilot study].

    PubMed

    Haase, Vitor Geraldi; Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio

    2004-06-01

    Initial efforts are reported to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Measure (MSFC-BCTRIMS). MSFC is an outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS) which assesses motor functions of legs and arms/hands besides cognitive function. MSFC was designed to have better sensitivity and sounder psychometric foundations than traditional measures in detecting therapeutic benefits of disease-modifying agents. Results from the pilot study indicate that the MSFC-BCTRIMS discriminates between MS individuals and a control group. An initial approach to construct validation, intercorrelating the MSFC-BCTRIMS scores with several other measures, suggests speed of information processing is important for both arm/hand and cognitive function. PMID:15235748

  5. Absence of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Is a Reproducible Predictive Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis: A Multicenter Database Study by the Brazilian Melanoma Group

    PubMed Central

    Duprat, João Pedreira; Brechtbülh, Eduard René; Costa de Sá, Bianca; Enokihara, Mauro; Fregnani, Jose Humberto; Landman, Gilles; Maia, Marcus; Riccardi, Felice; Belfort, Francisco Alberto; Wainstein, Alberto; Moredo, Luciana F.; Steck, Higino; Brandão, Miguel; Moreno, Marcelo; Miranda, Eduardo; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study is to confirm the function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 633 patients with invasive melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in 7 referral centers certified by the Brazilian Melanoma Group. Independent risk factors of sentinel node metastasis (SNL) were identified by multiple logistic regression. Results SLN metastasis was detected in 101 of 633 cases (16.1%) and in 93 of 428 patients (21.7%) when melanomas ≤ 1mm were excluded. By multiple logistic regression, the absence of TILs was as an independent risk factor of SLN metastasis (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1–3.0), in addition to Breslow index (greater than 2.00 mm), lymph vascular invasion, and presence of mitosis. Conclusion SLNB can identify patients who might benefit from immunotherapy, and the determination of predictors of SLNB positivity can help select the proper population for this type of therapy. The absence of TILs is a reproducible parameter that can predict SLNB positivity in melanoma patients, since this study was made with several centers with different dermatopathologists. PMID:26859408

  6. Becoming a scientist: A qualitative study of the educational experience of undergraduates working in an American and a Brazilian research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim

    Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in

  7. Melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: a clinical pathological study in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Paula C F; Noda, Aliene Y I; Franco, Dilcilea D G S; Lourenço, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Neto, Cyro F

    2014-08-01

    Malignant melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults is unusual, especially before puberty. In children (age, 0-14 years), most primary lesions are thick and atypical (amelanotic, simulating pyogenic granuloma). In the population of adolescents and young adults (age, 15-39 years), melanoma is the third most common cancer, only behind lymphoma and breast cancer. Our study investigated the records of 89 patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma at age 0-39 years at Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School, University of São Paulo between 1992 and 2002. They were divided into group A (0-14 years of age) and group B (15-39 years of age). The histopathology of all cases was reexamined. Statistical analysis of the data presented was performed, and the obtained data were compared with the literature. The frequency of melanoma in the group aged 15-39 years was higher in women, and the most affected site was the trunk. Additionally, melanomas were more frequent at an earlier age in patients with family history of melanoma (P = 0.014). Most cases were diagnosed, at histopathology, as superficial spreading melanoma. Thick nodular melanomas with Breslow values higher than 2 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults may present peculiar behavior and outcome, which might reflect the genetic and yet not fully unraveled pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25051040

  8. Exploring patients’ perceptions for insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: a Brazilian and Canadian qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Camila; Marra, Carlo A; Gill, Sabrina; Meneilly, Graydon; Simpson, Scot; Godoy, Ana LPC; Foss de, Maria Cristina; Freitas; Queiroz, Regina HC; Lynd, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore which attributes of insulin therapy drive patients’ preferences for management in Canada and Brazil. Methods: A qualitative design was implemented in which a total of 32 patients with type 2 diabetes from Canada and Brazil, were interviewed in one of the 4 focus groups, or 16 individual interviews. Eighteen participants (56%) were women and fourteen participants (44%) were men (15 insulin nonusers and 17 insulin users). Two focus groups of 4 participants each and 9 individual interviews were conducted in Brazil. In Canada, 2 focus groups of 4 participants each and 7 individual interviews were conducted. A framework analysis was used to analyse all data. Results: Brazilian participants, when considering two insulin treatments, would prefer the one that had fewer side-effects (specially hypoglycemia events), was noninjectable, had the lowest cost and was most effective. Meanwhile, Canadian participants would prefer a treatment that had fewer side-effects (specially weight gain), was less invasive, was more convenient and was most effective. Conclusions: Finding the insulin-delivery system and the attributes of insulin therapy that best meet patients’ preferences may lead to improved control, through improved compliance, which may ultimately reduce the financial burden of the disease and improve quality of life. PMID:20694179

  9. Genogroup I avian picobirnavirus detected in Brazilian broiler chickens: a molecular epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Silva, René; Bezerra, Delana Andreza Melo; Kaiano, Jane Haruko Lima; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) belongs to the family Picobirnaviridae. Picobirnaviruses contain a bisegmented dsRNA genome that is non-enveloped. A total of 85 pooled faecal samples were collected from the poultry of 37 farms from the Metropolitan Mesoregion of Belém (MMB), Pará state, Brazil. The viral RNA from each sample was analysed by PAGE and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). For each county affected, at least one positive sample was selected, cloned and sequenced. The samples showed a positivity of 15.3 % (13/85) by PAGE and 49.4 % (42/85) by RT-PCR. Sequencing of these strains demonstrated a considerable RdRp gene heterogeneity that ranged from 56.1 to 100 % at the nucleotide level compared with prototypes of different species and water sewage, and from 50.3 to 100 % among themselves. Avian picobirnavirus (AvPBV) was detected in MMB broiler farms and showed a heterogeneous relationship with the prototypes used. This report includes what is believed to be the first gene sequencing of AvPBV in Brazilian broiler chickens. PMID:24108140

  10. [Research progress on case-control study].

    PubMed

    Zhang, F F; Liu, Z D; Zhang, C X; Jiang, B F

    2016-04-10

    Several new varients related to the case-control designs have been developed in the recent decades, and this article briefly summarized four new designs: two-stage design, case-specular study, exposure-crossover study and case-case-time-control study. This paper involved principles of study design, requisites for application, advantages and disadvantages on all the studies. PMID:27087230

  11. Designing case-control studies.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, T

    1979-01-01

    Identification of confounding factors, evaluation of their influence on cause-effect associations, and the introduction of appropriate ways to account for these factors are important considerations in designing case-control studies. This paper presents designs useful for these purposes, after first providing a statistical definition of a confounding factor. Differences in the ability to identify and evaluate confounding factors and estimate disease risk between designs employing stratification (matching) and designs randomly sampling cases and controls are noted. Linear logistic models for the analysis of data from such designs are described and are shown to liberalize design requirements and to increase relative risk estimation efficiency. The methods are applied to data from a multiple factor investigation of lung cancer patients and controls. PMID:540588

  12. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  13. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil’s elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems. PMID:26985258

  14. A case for case studies: exploring the use of case study design in community nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bergen, A; While, A

    2000-04-01

    The case study has become an accepted vehicle for conducting research in a variety of disciplines. However, the meaning behind the term is not always made explicit by researchers and this has given rise to a number of assumptions which are open to challenge, and to questions about the robustness of the method. This paper explores some of the issues arising from one particular definition of case study research, used in a study by Yin which examined the practice of case management in community nursing. Four main areas are discussed. First, defining 'case' is seen to pose questions about the relationship of the phenomenon to its context, the degree of researcher control over case definition, the limits to what may constitute a 'case' and what is meant by the term 'unit of analysis'. Second, the relevance of external validity to case study research is supported through the use of a number of tactics, in particular Yin's concept of replication logic, which involves generalizing to theory, rather than to empirical data. Third, the use of method triangulation (multiple methods of data collection) is advanced as a means of enhancing construct validity in research where data converge around a particular theory. Finally, the relationship of the case study to theory construction, through the prior development of 'propositions' is discussed. Each of these issues is applied to the design and conduct of a research study based closely on Yin's multiple case study framework. Thirteen 'cases' were selected of case management practice and data were collected through interviews and examination of literature and documentation, to explore the suitability of community nurses for the role. It is concluded that, given the appropriate subject matter, context and research aims, the case study method may be seen as a credible option in nursing research. PMID:10759989

  15. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  16. Evaluation of functional capacity in individuals with signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disease: results of the BRAZCO population study (Brazilian COPCORD Study).

    PubMed

    Jennings, Fabio; Sato, Emilia Inoue; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2015-11-01

    The disability caused by the musculoskeletal signs and symptoms affects the quality of life of a population, especially that related to health. The objective of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian population who presented musculoskeletal signs and symptoms (MSK-S). The prevalence of MSK-S was evaluated in 5000 individuals (>15 years) in 16 capitals from the five regions of Brazil using the COPCORD Core Questionnaire. Those individuals (n = 2494) that experienced MSK-S and referred some level of disability at the time of the interview were invited to complete the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The HAQ-DI scores were compared among regions, and subgroups according to gender, age and type of activity. Three hundred ninety-four (7.9 %) participants reported disability at the time of the interview. The average score of HAQ-DI was 1.09 (SD = 0.71), and the Brazilian region with the highest level of disability was the North region. Among individuals without history of trauma, the disability was higher when the duration of MSK-S was longer. Disability was shown to worsen with increasing age, and the group with 25-34 years showed the lowest scores. Females showed worse functional capacity scores compared to males (p = 0.002). Individuals showed higher degrees of difficulty or were incapable of performing the activities walking, reaching, usual activities and dressing. MSK-S reduce the functional capacity of individuals of the Brazilian general population. The reduction in functional capacity was mainly observed in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal complaints not due to trauma, as well as in female gender and in advancing age. PMID:26055534

  17. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Dynamic flood risk: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2013-04-01

    While many progresses have been made in the static assessment of (current) flood risk, additional transdisciplinary research is required for the development of new methods for the dynamic assessment of (future) flood risk, which is very much needed in a rapidly changing environment. To this end, it is essential to understand why flood risk has changed in the past. This presentation shows the scientific outcomes of diverse case studies (the Po river in Italy and a number of African rivers), whereby data and models are utilized to analyse and interpret the dynamics of flood risk. In particular, a number of hypotheses were tested by considering different agents of change, such as climate and/or land-use, flood prevention measures, human population dynamics. These case studies show that one of the main challenges in assessing (dynamic) flood risk is the deep interconnection not only between the different agents of change, but also between the components of risk (i.e. hazard, exposure, vulnerability or resilience). For instance, changes in flood hazard often trigger changes in exposure and vulnerability to flooding, and vice versa. These complex interactions seem to make predictions of future flood risk over long time scales rather difficult, if not impossible.

  20. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  1. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  2. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    LOULY, Fabiane; NOUER, Paulo Roberto Aranha; JANSON, Guilherme; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. Material and methods Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus’ compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. Results Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically significant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a significantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. Conclusion In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. PMID:21552719

  3. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion. PMID:24695943

  4. Comparative study on the ionospheric response to minor and major sudden stratospheric events in the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Vieira, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Total electron Content (TEC), derivate from GPS, becomes one of the most powerful techniques to study the space-time ionospheric (F-region) electrodynamics, during the quiet and disturbed periods. The number of GPS stations in Brazil increased significantly during the last few years; currently more than 100 GPS stations are in operation over the Brazilian region. The GPS-TEC values are derived using the differential delay technique from the dual frequency measurements at L1 and L2 frequencies over the considered locations at equatorial and low latitudes. The present study investigates the ionospheric total electron content (GPS-TEC) response in the Southern Hemisphere equatorial and low latitudes, due to major and minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events, which took place during 2009 and 2012. During both the SSW events, the TEC values are depleted to the order of 20-30% all over the Brazil from equator to beyond Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) regions. In addition, the EIA were suppressed during the SSW events for several days. However, the TEC depletion and EIA suppression lasted for a longer period during SSW-2012 when compared with the SSW-2009; despite the SSW-2012 is considerd as a minor event.

  5. Deep Thermal Front (southeastern Brazilian coast) see through acoustics: a preliminary study from an operational oceanography perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, L.; Hermand, J.-P.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The continental shelf region off the southeastern Brazilian coast (between 20°S and 28°S) is characterized by intrusions of the relatively cold and fertile South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) from the open ocean. Prediction and monitoring of this water mass are topics of great interest given its importance, for example, on climate, carbon cycle, fishing, mariculture, nutrients and pollutants dispersion, and for the oil industry. The intersection of the 18°C isotherm with the seafloor is appointed in the literature as a good tracer for SACW presence on the continental shelf and also to characterize the Deep Thermal Front (DTF) [Castro, 1996]. Among different factors that drive the SACW penetration on the continental shelf, one prominent mechanism is the water transport driven by the conditions of NE-E wind forcing. These winds varies seasonally, and they are prevalent during the spring and summer months. During these months, the water column is generally stratified due the combined effects of solar heating and DTF presence. In contrast, the reverse effect is characteristic in winter, when the water column is nearly homogeneous, relatively colder on the surface and relatively warm close to the bottom. Consequently, the sound speed field changes and thus the acoustic rays are propagated with different characteristics depending on presence, absence or DTF position. Considering this information, acoustics may provide an additional source of data that supplements the other conventional methods (e.g., hydrographic moorings and cruises, buoys, gliders, and others) for tracking and monitoring the front movement. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that acoustic methods present one interesting advantage in that they are able to sample the water column over large three-dimensional distances on an effectively synoptic scale. In this paper, a preliminary study of acoustic propagation modelling through one vertical section off the Brazilian southeastern coast at Canan

  6. Poor glycaemic control in Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Luciana V; Leitão, Cristiane B; Kramer, Caroline K; Zucatti, Alessandra T N; Jezini, Deborah L; Felício, João; Valverde, Ana B; Chacra, Antonio R; Azevedo, Mirela J; Gross, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the clinical profile of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system and identify factors associated with poor glycaemic control. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 14 centres in five regions of Brazil, including primary care units and outpatient clinics of University Hospitals. Participants Patients with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics of public healthcare system. Main outcome measured Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), centrally measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program certified). Results A total of 5750 patients aged 61±10 years, with 11±8 years of diabetes duration (66% women, 56% non-white, body mass index: 28.0±5.3 kg/m2) were analysed. Mean HbA1c was 8.6±2.2%, and median HbA1c was 8.1% (6.9% to 9.9%). HbA1c <7% was observed in only 26% of patients. Mean HbA1c was higher (p < 0.01) in the North (9.0±2.6%) and Northeast (8.9±2.4%) than in the Midwest (8.1±2%), Southeast (8.4±2.1%) and South regions (8.3±1.9%). Using the cut-off value of HbA1c above the median, age (0.986 (0.983 to 0.989)), white ethnicity (0.931 (0.883 to 0.981)) and being from Midwest region (0.858 (0.745 to 0.989)) were protective factors, while diabetes duration (1.015 (1.012 to 1.018)), use of insulin (1.710 (1.624 to 1.802)) and living in the Northeast region (1.197 (1.085 to 1.321)) were associated with HbA1c >8%. Conclusions The majority of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system had HbA1c levels above recommended targets. The recognition of Northeast residents and non-white patients as vulnerable populations should guide future policies and actions to prevent and control diabetes. PMID:24052610

  7. The CZSaw notes case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eric; Gupta, Ankit; Darvill, David; Dill, John; Shaw, Chris D.; Woodbury, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Analysts need to keep track of their analytic findings, observations, ideas, and hypotheses throughout the analysis process. While some visual analytics tools support such note-taking needs, these notes are often represented as objects separate from the data and in a workspace separate from the data visualizations. Representing notes the same way as the data and integrating them with data visualizations can enable analysts to build a more cohesive picture of the analytical process. We created a note-taking functionality called CZNotes within the visual analytics tool CZSaw for analyzing unstructured text documents. CZNotes are designed to use the same model as the data and can thus be visualized in CZSaw's existing data views. We conducted a preliminary case study to observe the use of CZNotes and observed that CZNotes has the potential to support progressive analysis, to act as a shortcut to the data, and supports creation of new data relationships.

  8. STS Case Study Development Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  9. [Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists].

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Kobayashi, Eliane; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M

    2003-12-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country. PMID:14762617

  10. Observations of the intraseasonal oscillations over two Brazilian low latitude stations: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Buriti, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A comparative study of intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) in the period range 20-110 days is carried out in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) zonal wind at two low latitude stations, Cariri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W) located far from the convective anomaly region. Considerable seasonal and interannual variability is observed. The ISO in the MLT and lower atmosphere are found to be well correlated during winter and spring indicating a coupling of the atmospheric regions through the ISO. On the other hand, relatively less correlation during summer and fall may suggest a dominance of the in situ excitation of the ISO in the MLT relative to the lower atmospheric contribution. The correlation between the MLT and lower atmosphere is found to be a little higher at Cachoeira Paulista than Cariri. The ISO in the MLT shows good correlation between the two stations, but correlation is insignificant in the case of lower atmosphere. The ISO is most prominent in the upper troposphere, upper stratosphere and MLT. The waves responsible for communicating the ISO signature from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere in the tropics are believed to refract through mid-latitudes in course of their propagation. An evident height variation of the high amplitude ISO in the upper troposphere is observed with a clear annual oscillation at Cariri. The observed behaviors of the ISO at the present sites are discussed in the light of plausible physical mechanisms.

  11. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  12. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Michelle Ralil; Xavier, César Coelho; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH) utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old) who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life). Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression. RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females). The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%), followed by on the streets (28.5%), at home (9.8%), while practicing sports (7.3%), at parties (4.6%), at work (1.7%), and at other locations (1.6%). Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries. PMID:26274869

  13. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities. PMID:21643725

  14. Using Case Studies To Teach Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Connie

    Using case studies in science instruction develops problem solving and enhances listening and cooperative learning skills. Unlike other disciplines such as law and medicine, the case study method is rarely used in science education to enrich the curriculum. This study investigates the use of content-based case studies as a means of developing…

  15. Study of neutron scattering contribution on Hp(10) and H*(10) calibration in the Brazilian National Low Scattering Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B M; Pereira, W W; Patrão, K C S; Fonseca, E S; Mauricio, C L P

    2014-10-01

    The neutron scattering at the Low Scattering Laboratory of the Brazilian National Neutron Laboratory has been studied using three different methods. The measurements have been done with a traceable standard (241)Am-Be from source-to-detector distances of 0.52-3.00 m. The obtained results with the variation distance methods are in agreement. Measurements with a large shadow cone are not worth for larger distances due to overshadowing. As the quantity required in a calibration is the response of the device being calibrated to the scattered neutron component in order to subtract this from the total response, for these purposes, the distance variation method must be used for each device. To quantify absolutely the scattering contribution on the quantity rates of fluence, Hp(10) and H*(10) in irradiation procedures, a Bonner sphere spectrometer with the shadow cone was employed. The evaluated scattering correction factor value may be employed for a distance of 1.00 m. PMID:24984874

  16. Nutritional study of two Brazilian soybean (Glycine max) cultivars differing in the contents of antinutritional and toxic proteins.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, I M.; Maia, A A.B.; Siebra, E A.; Oliveira, J T.A.; Carvalho, A d.F.F.U.; Melo, V M.M.; Carlini, C R.; Castelar, L I.d.M.

    2001-01-01

    The research was conducted with two different recently released Brazilian soybean cultivars (Rio Balsas and Bays) to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the different levels of antinutritional and/or toxic proteins in the cultivars and their nutritive value as sources of protein for monogastric animals (rats). Furthermore, it is discussed, for the first time, the role of the dietary soyatoxin on the performance of rats fed on diets containing soyatoxin-rich (cv. Bays) and soyatoxin-free (cv. Rio Balsas) soybean cultivars. Feeding rats with diets containing raw soybean cultivars showed a lower growth rate, net protein utilization and digestibility, a much higher dry matter and nitrogen excretion and macroscopic alterations in internal organs when compared to rats fed on egg-white protein. The nutritional parameters measured for the diet based on raw Bays cultivar were poorer than those of the diet prepared with Rio Balsas. In the raw soybeans, trypsin inhibitor and lectin, and urease to a lesser extent, significantly affected at different fashion the soybean protein utilization. Heating treatment of the Bays seeds increased the growth rate, NPU, in vivo protein digestibility and practically eliminated or attenuated all the organ alterations observed. This study might be helpful in the choice of safe and nutritious soybean cultivars. PMID:11179862

  17. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Silva dos Santos, Mônica Caroline; Lopes Simplício, Janicéia; Menezes de Medeiros, Jandira; Barroso Gomes, Kelly Cristina; de Carvalho Costa, Isabel Cristina; Batista-Silva, Eva; Teixeira do Nascimento, Cristiana; da Silva Chagas, Eda Cristina; Jardim Sardinha, José Felipe; Simões de Santana Filho, Franklin; Brock, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). Methods/Principal Findings Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54%) were between 20–29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503) reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001) were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16–0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10–0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively). The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19–0.95]; p = 0.037) and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC) attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15–0.70]; p = 0.005). Conclusion This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance. PMID:26675007

  18. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, L. C.; Batista, J. E. S.; Zemolin, A. P. P.; Nunes, M. E. M.; Lippert, D. B.; Royes, L. F. F.; Soares, F. A.; Pereira, A. B.; Posser, T.; Franco, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26904632

  19. [Analysis of the implementation of the Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis control measures in Brazil's prison population have been regulated for ten years under the National Prison Health System Plan. Brazilian states have different organizational models for the Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP) in their prison systems. This study evaluated TCP implementation in prisons in two Brazilian states, using a multiple case study design with a qualitative approach and a log-frame analysis and assessment. According to predefined criteria, two state cases were selected, with two analytical units for each case and one prison hospital in Case 2. We identified partial program implementation in the Case 1 prisons and prison hospital and low implementation in non-hospital prison health services in Case 2. Lack of financial investment and resources, lack of integration between the courts and law enforcement system and health institutions, and poor access to health services in prisons were adverse factors for program implementation. PMID:25859721

  20. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index—HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14–20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  1. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  2. Allographic agraphia: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Menichelli, Alina; Rapp, Brenda; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of patient MN, diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, who exhibited a severe impairment in writing letters and words in upper-case print in the face of accurate production of the same stimuli in lower-case cursive. In contrast to her written production difficulties, MN was unimpaired in recognizing visually presented letters and words in upper-case print. We find a modest benefit of visual form cueing in the written production of upper-case letters, despite an inability to describe or report visual features of letters in any case or font. This case increases our understanding of the allographic level of letter-shape representation in written language production. It provides strong support for previous reports indicating the neural independence of different types of case and font-specific letter-shape information; it provides evidence that letter-shape production does not require explicit access to information about the visual attributes of letter shapes and, finally, it reveals the possibility of interaction between processes involved in letter-shape production and perception. PMID:18489965

  3. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  4. Case Studies for Inclusive Schools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Peggy L.

    2005-01-01

    Case Studies for "Inclusive Schools, Second Edition" presents a sampling of case studies that contain realistic problems concerning inclusion issues for teacher education students to solve. This format was chosen because the case study approach to learning is gaining in popularity as it provides students with an opportunity to apply information…

  5. Business and Consumer Education Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon, Minneapolis, Minn. Phi Chapter.

    This publication contains 58 case studies for classroom use in teaching various business and consumer education subjects at the high school level. A supplement to a previous Phi Chapter publication, "Office Education Case Studies" (1973), the case studies are intended to create class discussions and help students acquire the ability to analyze…

  6. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  7. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  8. Association between regular participation in sports and leisure time behaviors in Brazilian adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Vaz Ronque, Enio Ricardo; Loch, Mathias Roberto; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Background The belief that adolescents engaged in sports increase their overall physical activity level while simultaneously decreasing physical inactivity has been the foundation of many intervention programs in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between regular participation in sports and both active behaviors and TV viewing during leisure time. Methods A total of 1752 Brazilian adolescents (812 = male and 940 = female) participated in this study. Regular participation in sports, as well as active behaviors (exemplified by walking or cycling) and TV viewing during leisure time were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The chi-square test analyzed the association between sports practice and leisure time behaviors, and the Poisson regression with robust variance indicated the magnitude of these associations. Results The prevalence of regular participation in sports was 14.8% (95% confidence interval 13.2% to 16.5%). After adjustment for all confounders, participation in sports was associated with, at the highest frequency, cycling (PR = 2.55 [1.80–3.60]) and walking (PR = 2.69 [1.98–3.64]) during leisure time. However, there was not an association between the participation in sports and frequency of TV viewing (PR = 1.28 [0.81–2.02]). Conclusion This study presented data indicating that the regular participation in sports is positively associated with a higher frequency of physically active behaviors during leisure time. However, the results did not support the hypothesis that the engagement in sports necessarily decreases leisure time spent in TV viewing. PMID:18811976

  9. Differences in Forestry Students' Perceptions across Study Years in a Brazilian Undergraduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, Javier; Jarschel, Barbara; Pitkanen, Sari; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Enkenberg, Jorma

    2010-01-01

    Forestry higher curricula reform is being debated globally. This study examines the views of students on aspects related to forestry education and the profession, focusing on how these views differ across the study years of a higher education forestry program. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences across study years with…

  10. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  11. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155

  12. Case Studies for Effective Business Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister-Kizzier, Donna

    This book is designed as a resource for educators who teach business content in a variety of instructional settings. It contains case studies representing all functional areas of business, including corporate training, for grades 7 through graduate education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the case study method. The history of the case method,…

  13. The Brazilian National Curriculum for Foreign Languages Revisited through a Multiculturalism and Peace Studies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Rejane Pinto

    2011-01-01

    This study emerged from a broader research completed during my Masters Course. (THEORY/METHODOLOGY) Theory and methodology were guided by the critical multiculturalism as seen in McLaren (1997, 2000). In my doctoral thesis, this concept was deepened by and linked to the peace studies of Galtung (1990, 2005, 2006), to empower multicultural peace…

  14. Neurology Case Studies: Cerebrovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad U; Gorelick, Philip B

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses interesting vascular neurology cases including the management of intracranial stenosis, migraine headache and stroke risk, retinal artery occlusions associated with impaired hearing, intracranial occlusive disease, a heritable cause of stroke and vascular cognitive impairment, and an interesting clinico-neuroradiologic disorder associated with eclampsia. PMID:27445238

  15. Ensemble streamflow forecasting experiments in a tropical basin: The São Francisco river case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando Mainardi; Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Botelho, Luiz César Mendes

    2014-11-01

    The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system.

  16. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  17. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  18. Case Studies for Management Development in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    Eight case studies appropriate for use in a course in management development were prepared and are provided in this document. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision. Questions for…

  19. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  20. Accounting Professor Qualification in Digital Age: A Perception Study on Brazilian Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendruscolo, Maria Ivanice; Behar, Patrícia Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This papers aims at analyzing the perception of Accounting professors about the necessary qualifications in Accounting undergraduate courses. The contribution of this study is to theoretically discuss the education of Accounting professors, with empirical data, because Accounting teaching requires specific competencies in the digital area. The…

  1. Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p < 0.01); 35.8% (p = 0.08) of those with alcohol abuse and 23.9% (p < 0.01) of those with a binge-drinking pattern also had depressive symptoms. Alcohol abstainers and infrequent drinkers had the highest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms, whereas frequent heavy drinkers had the lowest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms. In women, alcohol dependence and the presence of one or more problems related to alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Among men, alcohol dependence and being ≥45 years old were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Conclusions In Brazil, the prevalence of depressive symptoms is strongly related to alcohol dependence; the strongest association was between major/severe depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence in women. This survey supports the possible association of biopsychosocial distress

  2. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIV - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Conquista, Minas Gerais, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Kirchner, E.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Murta, R. L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Conquista chondrite is described and classified as an H4. The mineral composition is reported. H-group classification is based on described microscopic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. The evidence for petrologic type 4 classification includes the pronounced well-developed chondritic texture; the slight compositional variations in constituent phases; the high Ca contents of pyroxene and the presence of pigeonite; glassy to microcrystalline interstitial material rich in alkalis and SiO2; and twinned low-Ca clinopyroxene.

  3. Brazilian studies on pulmonary function in COPD patients: what are the gaps?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide, and is characterized by persistent airflow obstruction. The evaluation of obstruction is critically dependent on sensitive methods for lung-function testing. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years showing that these methods have been significantly refined and seems promising for detection of early disease. Objectives This review focuses on research on pulmonary function analysis in COPD performed in Brazil during this century. Materials and methods The literature was searched using a systematic search strategy limited to English language studies that were carried out in Brazil from the year 2000 onward, with study objectives that included a focus on lung function. Results After we applied our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 94 articles addressed our stated objectives. Among the new methods reviewed are the forced-oscillation technique and the nitrogen-washout test, which may provide information on small-airway abnormalities. Studies investigating the respiratory muscles and thoracoabdominal motion are also discussed, as well as studies on automatic clinical decision-support systems and complexity measurements. We also examined important gaps in the present knowledge and suggested future directions for the cited research fields. Conclusion There is clear evidence that improvements in lung-function methods allowed us to obtain new pathophysiological information, contributing to improvement in our understanding of COPD. In addition, they may also assist in the diagnosis and prevention of COPD. Further investigations using prospective and longitudinal design may be of interest to elucidate the use of these new methods in the diagnosis and prevention of COPD. PMID:27468230

  4. Investigation of the intraseasonal oscillations over a Brazilian equatorial station: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Amitava; Batista, Paulo Prado; Clemesha, Barclay Robert; Sarkhel, Sumanta; Buriti, Ricardo Arlen

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of the intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are investigated using meteor radar wind observations from a South American, equatorial station, São João do Cariri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) during 2008. A prominent ISO signature is observed during January-May in the period band approximately 40 to 70 days in the MLT zonal wind. In the lower atmosphere, a dominant ISO is observed in the period band approximately 30 to 60 days in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) (a proxy for convection), total columnar water vapor (a proxy for tides), and zonal wind. Considerable high correlation of the ISO between the MLT and lower atmosphere indicates significant dynamical coupling between the lower and middle atmosphere during the observational period. The MLT-ISO shows conspicuous downward propagation of the peak amplitude indicating the role of the dissipating upward propagating waves for its generation. The amplitudes in the zonal wind of the dominant tidal components in the MLT exhibit conspicuous ISO modulation. The eastward propagating waves and tides are surmised to be responsible for communicating the ISO signature from the lower atmosphere to the MLT. The origin of the MLT-ISO is believed to take place in the lower troposphere, below 4 km. The MLT-ISO is believed to be the imprint of the lower atmospheric Madden-Julian oscillation which travels eastward from the Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean to the present location.

  5. Academic Planning: Four Institutional Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    As part of a project studying intrainstitutional planning, management, and evaluation, four case studies were undertaken in 1976 of academic planning at Villa Maria College, Kansas City Metropolitan Community College District, West Virginia University, and Western Washington University. The case studies were part of an ongoing project, the…

  6. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  7. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  8. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  9. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  10. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  11. Case Studies in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    Sakusic, Amra; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2016-08-01

    The practice of neurocritical care encompasses multiple acute neurologic and neurosurgical diseases and requires detailed knowledge of neurology and critical care. This article presents 5 cases that illustrate just some of the conditions encountered in the daily practice of neurocritical care and exemplify some of the common diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic challenges facing the neurointensivist. Life-threatening medical complications after severe acute ischemic stroke, seizures and extreme agitation from autoimmune encephalitis, refractory seizures after subdural hemorrhage, neurologic and systemic complications related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus after cardiac arrest are discussed in this article. PMID:27445248

  12. Composites in manufacturing - Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, A.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

  13. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Giovana Pereira da Cunha; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year. PMID:23827911

  14. Study of influence on harvesting point in Brazilian Tommy Atkins mangoes submitted to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Cruz, J. N.; Rela, P. R.; Broisler, P. O.

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is a great producer of tropical fruits including mangoes. Among several purposes gamma radiation can be applied as phytosanitary treatment. This is well studied in scientific papers and more recently demonstrated through commercial advances like bilateral protocols established between India and USA. The whole experiment evolved two parts where each of them used fruits from different maturity stages (stages 2 and 3). This experiment was carried out with around 300 fruits in each part of the study. The main objective was to get the experience close to commercial conditions. The irradiation was realized in Multipurpose Cobalt-60 source belonging to IPEN-CNEN/SP (developed in house by own technology). The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75 kGy. After irradiation all fruits were kept at 12 °C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days. After this period the fruits were brought to environmental conditions (25 °C) for around 14 more days of duration. These conditions were established to simulate the exportation conditions from Brazil to distant countries. Physical-chemical analysis (pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids (°Brix) and texture) as well as visual observation (mass loss, rotting, internal and skin color) were evaluated. The results from this experiment could demonstrate that the characteristics of the mangoes are more dependent on time and temperature storage rather than irradiation.

  15. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Pontes, Ana Paula Munhen; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS) among health professionals. Method a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. Results it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. Conclusion a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing. PMID:24553704

  16. In vitro and in vivo studies of ribavirin action on Brazilian Orthobunyavirus.

    PubMed

    Livonesi, Márcia C; De Sousa, Ricardo L Moro; Badra, Soraya J; Figueiredo, Luiz T M

    2006-11-01

    Oropouche, Caraparu, Guama, Guaroa, and Tacaiuma are viruses (genus Orthobunyavirus) that cause human febrile illnesses and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antiviral action of ribavirin on these orthobunyaviruses to achieve a therapeutical agent to treat the diseases caused by these viruses. In vitro results showed that ribavirin (50 microg/mL) had antiviral activity only on the Tacaiuma virus. Addition of guanosine in the culture reversed the antiviral effect of ribavirin on Tacaiuma virus, suggesting that ribavirin inhibited this virus by reducing the intra-cellular guanosine pool. Moreover, ribavirin was not an effective drug in vivo because it was unable to inhibit the death of the mice or virus replication in the brain. The results suggest that ribavirin has no antiviral activity on the Oropouche, Caraparu, Guama, Guaroa, or Tacaiuma viruses; consequently, ribavirin would not be a good therapeutical agent to treat these arboviruses. PMID:17124004

  17. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  18. Clinical Profile of Concurrent Dengue Fever and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Case Series of 11 Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Siqueira, André M.; Melo, Gisely C.; Gimaque, João B. L.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Carvalho, Ricardo C.; Tavares, Michel A.; Naveca, Felipe G.; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical profile of patients with molecular diagnosis of concurrent malaria and dengue fever in a tropical-endemic area. Eleven patients with concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and Plasmodium vivax infection are reported. Similar frequencies of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 were found, including DENV-3/DENV-4 co-infection. In eight patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severe malaria could be fulfilled (jaundice being the most common). Only one patient met severe dengue criteria, but warning signs were present in 10. Syndromic surveillance systems must be ready to identify this condition to avoid misinterpretation of severity attributed to a single disease. PMID:23033396

  19. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  20. Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C

    2014-03-01

    Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this

  1. [Epidemiologic study of bovine and human leptospirosis in eastern Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Homem, V S; Heinemann, M B; Moraes, Z M; Vasconcellos, S A; Ferreira, F; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2001-01-01

    The seroprevalence study for leptospirosis in bovines and humans was realized in family holder farms along the Transamazon Highway. The prevalence of bovine leptospirosis was 97% [90.9 - 99.5%] of farms with at least one positive animal according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 61.2% of the tested herds, the serovar hardjo was the most common, followed by the serovar bratislava (9%) and the serovar shermani (4.5%). The serologic prevalence of leptospirosis in humans was 32.8% [23.4 - 43.5%] in family groups with at least one positive individual according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 9% of family groups, the serovar bratislava was the most common, while serovar hardjo and grippotyphosa accounted for 6% and 4.5%, respectively. The impact of these results is discussed in relation to animal production and public health. Suggestions have been proposed in order to improve the situation in the region. PMID:11391439

  2. Association of dental infections with systemic diseases in Brazilian Native Indigenous: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lívia S F; Santos, Jean N; Vieira, Carolina L Z; Caramelli, Bruno; Ramalho, Luciana M P; Cury, Patricia R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between dental infections and systemic diseases in the Indigenous population of Brazil. A representative sample of 225 Indigenous (≥19 years) was assessed. The T-test and bivariate and logistic models were used to assess the associations of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with dental caries and destructive periodontal disease. After adjustments for covariates, dental caries were associated with hypertension (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.66; P = .04). Individuals with destructive periodontal disease had a higher systolic blood pressure (124 ± 20.34 mm Hg) than those without destructive periodontal disease (117.52 ± 16.54 mm Hg; P = .01). In conclusion, dental infections were found to be associated with hypertension in the present population. Thus, patients diagnosed with hypertension should be referred for dental evaluation and vice versa. PMID:27039160

  3. [Perception of prenatal care among clients of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS): a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Costa, Nílson do Rosário; Pinto, Luiz Felipe da Silva; Silva, Pedro Luiz Barros

    2004-01-01

    This was a comparative cross-sectional study among public prenatal care users in conventional outpatient health services and family health services, aimed at assessing perception and quality differences between the two models of health services organization according to Ministry of Health guidelines. A total of 203 pregnant women from 22 municipalities in five regions of the country were interviewed while waiting for prenatal consultation. Besides soliciting the women's opinions, we checked for possible advantages in innovative family care services in issues like access and commitment. Data revealed approval by users for key aspects related to care and consultation in both types of public facilities and suggest consistent primary care policies. Low coverage in dentistry (18.9%), gynecological preventive tests (39.6%), and HIV tests (52.6%) indicates policy obstacles. Comparatively, family health services received significantly greater approval by women on issues like quality of the last visit (p = 0.0432), maternity hospital access (p = 0.0106), vaccination schedules (p = 0.0023), drug delivery (p = 0.0053), blood glucose tests (p = 0.0309), nursing visit (p = 0.0469), and home visits (p < 0.0001). PMID:15073634

  4. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Kriebel, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p < 0.001). MPD were more common among females, those of lower economic level, smokers and alcoholics. Among occupational characteristics, MPD prevalence was associated with frequent static postures, low job satisfaction and recent work accidents. Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well. PMID:16734911

  5. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  6. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. PMID:25975381

  7. Case studies in conservation science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  8. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  9. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians) aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years (<1 to 50 years). Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels <7.0%, and 47.5% patients had HbA1c levels ≥ 9%. HbA1c levels were associated with lower economic status, female gender, age and the daily frequency of self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) but not with insulin regimen and geographic region. Hypertension was more frequent in the mid-west (32%) and north/northeast (25%) than in the southeast (19%) and south (17%) regions (p<0.001). More patients from the southeast region achieved LDL cholesterol goals and were treated with statins (p<0.001). Fewer patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions were screened for retinopathy and nephropathy, compared with patients from the south and southeast. Patients from the south/southeast regions had more intensive insulin regimens than patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions (p<0.001). The most common insulin therapy combination was intermediate-acting with regular human insulin, mainly in the north/northeast region (p<0.001). The combination of insulin glargine with lispro and glulisine was more frequently used in the mid-west region (p<0.001). Patients from the north/northeast region were younger

  10. Case-Control Study of Writer's Cramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…

  11. A Constructive Controversy Approach to "Case Studies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…

  12. Self-Employment Training Programs: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Melissa, Ed.; And Others

    This self-employment training program case study booklet has been developed for general use in exploring the feasibility of this kind of development tool. The case studies describe a number of comprehensive, self-employment training and assistance programs, from the local to the national level. Chapter II includes information on the training plan,…

  13. Chemical Case Studies: Science-Society "Bonding."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Nae, Nehemia

    1981-01-01

    Describes a unit designed to illustrate the "science-society-technology connection," in which three case studies of the chemical industry in Israel are presented to high school chemistry students. Chosen for the unit are case studies on copper production in Timna, on plastics, and on life from the Dead Sea. (CS)

  14. Twenty Techniques for Teaching with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudzina, Mary R.

    2005-01-01

    Problem-based learning and teaching with case studies are instructional approaches that are increasingly being applied in a variety of disciplines, such as business, law, medicine, and education. Instructors who have experienced traditional, teacher-centered instruction are often looking for ways to successfully integrate case studies, a…

  15. Using Case Studies: An International Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Tricia; Woodside, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Case studies as an instructional strategy have been used in many disciplines, including law, teacher education, science, medicine, and business. Among the benefits of this method of instruction are involving students in learning, developing their critical thinking skills, promoting communication, and engaging in critical analysis. Case studies are…

  16. Library Media Center Problems: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Louis

    Problems which arise in school library media centers are considered, using the case study method. The 30 case studies cover: problems in child management; the librarian's role in reading instruction and guidance, and in teaching library skills; conflicting opinions on the management and objectives of the media center; the librarian's role and job…

  17. Collaboration in Distance Education. International Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.

    This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…

  18. Teaching Case Studies: A Collaborative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, James R.; Harper, Jeffrey S.

    Many of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools require undergraduate Management Information Systems (MIS) majors to take a course in the management of information technology. Over half of these schools utilize case studies in the teaching of this course. The authors emphasize that case studies are an…

  19. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants'…

  20. Case Studies for Teaching Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnamara, Gael R.

    2004-01-01

    This easy-to-use book of case studies helps you recognize the signs of dyslexia and prescribe effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. It includes a Case Study Analysis Sheet so you can work through important aspects of a student's personal, academic, and social life. You can then compare what you've compiled to the author's…

  1. Is Pain Suffering? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Helen K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the case study of an elderly woman shows how bodily pain and suffering meld in her narrative, not as the subjective and objective sides of the same event, but as distinct experiences in which both constructs emerge separately or come together based on the meaning she imputes to the event. The case study shows the clear…

  2. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…

  3. A case study of embarrassment.

    PubMed

    Dann, O T

    1977-01-01

    The psychoanalytic references to embarrassment are reviewed. Embarrassment, in the literature, is seen largely as an affect involving exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and defenses against these. A case in which embarrassment was prominent is discussed. Embarrassment in the patient was an ego response which implied an external object for its manifestation. It involved exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and projective defenses, but also operated in ego-gratifying and adaptive ways. Her embarrassment was understood through the analysis of an initial embarrassing dream of nakedness and other dreams and associated material as the defensive out-grouth of repeated exposures to the primal scene. Embarrassment was a resistance to remembering in the analysis, and the primal-scene experiences were partially reconstructed. The analytic situation was, in many ways, a symbolic re-creation of the primal scene, including the patient's response of embarrassment. The development of embarrassment in the patient's childhood was furthered and confirmed by its being an identification with the attitudes of both parents. Finally, some reflections on embarrassment and shame in its various forms are set forth. PMID:560404

  4. Modern midwifery: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1985-01-01

    To gain more understanding of the practices of modern midwives, 2 births occurring in a Botswanan District Hospital Maternity Ward were observed by a research assistant. Naturalistic observation was considered more reliable than interviews with either patients or modern midwives to assess the biosocial aspects of birth in the modern sector. At admission to the labor room, these 2 midwives checked the patient's blood pressure, performed a vaginal examination, checked the fetal heart, palpated the uterus, shaved the public hair, and administered an enema. Both midwives did not communicate with their patients during these procedures or offer information on the results. The patients were told not to push; 1 midwife commented, "In the hospital, nobody delivers by herself." Rather, patients were instructed to do their "breathing exercises," a term with which they were not familiar and was not explained. In the 1st case, an episiotomy was performed. Both births were uneventful in terms of complications, but marked by a lack of attention to the psychological needs of the patient or sufficient explanations as to the progress of the delivery. Overall, all communications between the modern midwives observed and their patients were impersonal, with an emphasis on technical procedures. PMID:12282440

  5. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G.; MacDonald, M.

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  6. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  7. Clinicopathologic and molecular features of 122 Brazilian cases of nodal and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with EBV subtyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Chioato, Lucimara; Barber, Glen; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-08-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/TCL) is more prevalent in Asia and in some areas of South and Central America, but it is rarely seen in the United States and Europe. In this study, a series of 122 cases of NK/TCL from Brazil was analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic features. Clinical characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated in 97 cases of nasal/nasopharyngeal region and 23 cases in extranasal sites including 6 nodal cases. Clinical staging and follow-up information was available in a subset of 21 patients. All cases harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 95% and 85% expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and CD56, respectively, and all cases were positive for at least 1 marker for cytotoxic granules. The global distribution of EBV subtypes showed predominance of strain subtype A, 89%, and subtype B, 11%. No dual infections were detected. TCR-γ TCR-gene rearrangement was observed in 7 cases; all of them extranodal. Three of TCR-γ(+) cases showed EBV subtype A. Two TCR-γ(+)/CD56(+) cases showed EBV subtype B. Geographic distribution of NK/TCL showed higher frequency in the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Striking differences among geographic regions were seen with the vast majority of EBV subtype B (86%) occurring in the south and southeast regions. PMID:21716086

  8. A first-year dornase alfa treatment impact on clinical parameters of patients with cystic fibrosis: the Brazilian cystic fibrosis multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Tatiana; Silva, Fernando Antônio A. e; Santana, Maria Angélica; Adde, Fabíola Villac; Mendes, Rita Heloisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical impact of the first year treatment with dornase alfa, according to age groups, in a cohort of Brazilian Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: The data on 152 eligible patients, from 16 CF reference centers, that answered the medical questionnaires and performed laboratory tests at baseline (T0), and at six (T2) and 12 (T4) months after dornase alfa initiation, were analyzed. Three age groups were assessed: six to 11, 12 to 13, and >14 years. Pulmonary tests, airway microbiology, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, emergency and routine treatments were evaluated. Student's t-test, chi-square test and analysis of variance were used when appropriated. RESULTS: Routine treatments were based on respiratory physical therapy, regular exercises, pancreatic enzymes, vitamins, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. In the six months prior the study (T0 phase), hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbations occurred in 38.0, 10.0 and 61.4% in the three age groups, respectively. After one year of intervention, there was a significant reduction in the number of emergency room visits in the six to 11 years group. There were no significant changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (VEF1), in forced vital capacity (FVC), in oxygen saturation (SpO2), and in Tiffenau index for all age groups. A significant improvement in Shwachman-Kulczychi score was observed in the older group. In the last six months of therapy, chronic or intermittent colonization by P. aeruginosa was detected in 75.0, 71.4 and 62.5% of the studied groups, respectively, while S. aureus colonization was identified in 68.6, 66.6 and 41.9% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with dornase alfa promoted the maintenance of pulmonary function parameters and was associated with a significant reduction of emergency room visits due to pulmonary exacerbations in the six to 11 years age group, with better clinical scores in the >14 age group, one year after the

  9. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  10. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. ); Roberts, K.H. . Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  11. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T.; Roberts, K.H.

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  12. Case Studies in Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Don

    The report details results of a research project to monitor and map the literacy development of three learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) studying in an Australian English program for adult migrants. The objective was to gain a longitudinal picture of their reading and writing development over a period of nine months. Five additional…

  13. A Case Study of Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo

    In Engineering Ethics Class at Shizuoka University, the Code of Ethics and Cases for Electrical Engineers by IEEJ Ethics committee is used to promote for high education effect to correspond large number of students (140students). In this paper, a case study in the class, and survey results for ethics value of students are presented. In addition, some comments for role playing act on the case of virtual experiences by students are described.

  14. Labyrinthine sequestrum: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Lao, Zheng; Sha, Yan; Chen, Bing; Dai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Wen-Hu; Cheng, Yu-Shu

    2012-09-01

    Labyrinthine sequestrum, a rare form of labyrinthitis, is highly distinct from the more commonly encountered labyrinthitis ossificans based on its unique clinical, radiologic, and histologic characteristics. The study included 4 such patients who had undergone clinical and laboratory investigations, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments followed by surgical procedures and pathological evaluation. Their major symptoms were otorrhea, otalgia, tinnitus, and profound hearing loss. Imaging studies showed an osteolytic soft mass with calcified debris in the inner ear, and the bony labyrinth was eroded partly or completely by granulation mass, with loss of bony morphology. Further pathological examination was coincident with inflammatory granulation tissue with some calcification or osseous tissue. The disease process is attributed to chronic osteomyelitis due to the presence of osteonecrosis. Prompt CT and MRI examinations and optimal therapeutic management facilitate definitive diagnosis and protect against fatal complications. PMID:22467283

  15. Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost in 16 Brazilian capitals, 2003: a prevalence-based study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Paulo CRP; Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria MA

    2009-01-01

    Background To establish the impact of tobacco smoking on mortality is essential to define and monitor public health interventions in developing countries. Methods The Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) software was used to estimate the smoking attributable mortality (SAM) in 15 Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District for the year 2003. Smoking prevalence and mortality data of people aged 35 years or older were obtained for each city from the Brazilian Household Survey on Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors (2002–2003) and from the Brazilian Mortality System (2003), respectively. Results In 2003, of the 177,543 deaths of persons aged 35 years and older 24,222 (13.64%) were attributable to cigarette smoking. This total represents 18.08% of all male deaths (n = 16,896) and 8.71% (n = 7,326) of all female deaths in these cities. The four leading causes of smoking-attributable death were chronic airways obstruction (4,419 deaths), ischemic heart disease (4,417 deaths), lung cancer (3,682 deaths), and cerebrovascular disease (3,202 deaths). Cigarette smoking accounted for 419,935 years of potential life lost (YPLL) (279,990 YPLL for men and 139,945 YPLL for women) in the same period. Conclusion Tobacco use caused one out of five male deaths and one out of ten female deaths in the sixteen cities in 2003. Four leading causes of smoking attributable deaths (ischemic heart disease, chronic airways obstruction, lung cancer and cerebrovascular disease) accounted for 64.9% of SAM. Effective and comprehensive actions must be taken in order to slow this epidemic in Brazil. PMID:19558658

  16. [Evaluation of eight Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines under the Brazilian Ministry of Health using the AGREE II instrument: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Ronsoni, Ricardo De March; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Osanai, Mário Henrique; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The number of clinical guidelines is increasing worldwide, while there are concerns regarding their quality. In 2000, the Brazilian Ministry of Health began its process of creating clinical guidelines, called Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT). The goal of this study was to assess the quality of Brazilian guidelines approved since 2009 using the AGREE II instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation). We identified 59 PCDT from 2009 to 2012, of which eight were randomly selected and evaluated by three independent evaluators. For the item "recommends the guidelines", two evaluators recommended the use of all eight, but with modifications, and one did not recommend any to the guidelines. Regarding the item "global quality of the guidelines" (varying from 1 to 7), the mean was 4.25 (SD = 0.46). The results showed the need for adjustments in the PCDT in relation to AGREE II domains. However, due to the instrument's limitations, further studies are needed, including the quality of evidence used in the PCDT. PMID:26200364

  17. Brick handling: a case study.

    PubMed

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  18. [The evaluation of the physiological workload in the Brazilian legislation should be revised! The case of garbage collectors in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Anjos, L A; Ferreira, J A

    2000-01-01

    The physiological workload (PW) involved in garbage collection was assessed in a probabilistic sample of 70 Rio de Janeiro city garbage collectors to determine the adequacy of Brazilian labor legislation regarding classification of work. PW was measured as energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) during total work time (TT) and actual time (AT) in garbage collection on 4 consecutive days. Median EE values were 288.4 and 319.1 kcal.h-1 during TT and AT, respectively, indicating moderately intense work according to Brazilian legislation. However, PW was considered heavy when work classifications based on individual response to work were used: 1) ratio of EE and resting metabolic rate was above 5.0, indicating heavy workload according to the WHO; 2) mean percentage of maximal EE was higher (36.2 and 41.1% for TT and AT, respectively) than the limit for garbage collection (30%) suggested as maximal for Dutch workers; and 3) percentage of maximal HR reserve was also higher than 30% (32.2 and 37.5% for TT and AT, respectively). These results indicate the need for a revision of the workload classification in the Brazilian legislation to take individual workers' characteristics into account. PMID:11035517

  19. Case Studies on Educational Administration. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    This book contains 24 case studies selected to demonstrate the different types of challenges in contemporary educational leadership. It is intended to help prospective administrators develop decision-making skills. The cases are quite complex with multiple viewpoints and aspects. They represent a range of problems encountered by practitioners in…

  20. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  1. Case Studies in Elementary and Secondary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boboc, Marius; Nordgren, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Practical and engaging, this book contains 21 case studies that help students apply curriculum theory to classroom reality. Each case is authored by an in-service teacher, reflecting on ways to improve instruction by making changes to various aspects of the curriculum. These real-life examples investigate up-to-date curricular issues ranging from…

  2. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  3. Case Study Report #8. Lisa Williams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Douglas D.; And Others

    This document presents one in a series of twenty-three case studies derived from in-depth interviews using a sampling of former participants in the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle of selected student families in a six-state area. Each case study…

  4. Clinical outcomes of patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary information on mechanical ventilation (MV) use in emerging countries is limited. Moreover, most epidemiological studies on ventilatory support were carried out before significant developments, such as lung protective ventilation or broader application of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for hospital mortality and failure of NIV in patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units (ICU). Methods In a multicenter, prospective, cohort study, a total of 773 adult patients admitted to 45 ICUs over a two-month period requiring invasive ventilation or NIV for more than 24 hours were evaluated. Causes of ventilatory support, prior chronic health status and physiological data were assessed. Multivariate analysis was used to identifiy variables associated with hospital mortality and NIV failure. Results Invasive MV and NIV were used as initial ventilatory support in 622 (80%) and 151 (20%) patients. Failure with subsequent intubation occurred in 54% of NIV patients. The main reasons for ventilatory support were pneumonia (27%), neurologic disorders (19%) and non-pulmonary sepsis (12%). ICU and hospital mortality rates were 34% and 42%. Using the Berlin definition, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 31% of the patients with a hospital mortality of 52%. In the multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.03), comorbidities (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 3.17), associated organ failures (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.20), moderate (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.35) to severe ARDS (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.41), cumulative fluid balance over the first 72 h of ICU (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.39 to 4.28), higher lactate (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.50), invasive MV (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.32 to 5.39) and NIV failure (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.74 to 8.99) were independently associated with hospital mortality

  5. A Singapore Case of Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Lu Pien; Yee, Lee Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of six Singaporean elementary school teachers working in a Lesson Study team that prepared them for problem solving instruction. The Lesson Study process included preparing, observing, and critiquing mathematics lessons in the context of solving fractions tasks. By conducting Lesson Study, we anticipated…

  6. A qualitative study of the role of food in family relationships: An insight into the families of Brazilian obese adolescents using photo elicitation.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Juniana de Almeida Mota; Lachal, Jonathan; Bucher-Maluschke, Júlia Sursis Nobre Ferro; Moro, Marie-Rose; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in adolescence is a major public health issue in Brazil. The relation between food and family plays an important role in both prevention and treatment, although its precise effect has not been clearly established. The purpose of this study is to investigate the meanings of food for Brazilian obese adolescents and their parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 individuals from two medical centers in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil: seven adolescents with obesity (six girls and one boy aged between 12 and 18 years) and their parents (seven mothers, four fathers and one grandmother). The researchers used photo elicitation for the interview; that is, one photograph taken by each adolescent was used to evoke the statements we analyze here, according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The results were categorized into two principal superordinate themes. The first described the role of food in the parent-child relationship and the second, the organization of the family group. Results show that food reinforces the adolescents' dependence on their parents and the conflicts related to parental control of their food and what they can eat. The interrelations between food and family dynamics must be considered in developing therapeutic strategies for Brazilian obese adolescents and their families. These strategies must include siblings as well as grandparents. PMID:26505289

  7. rRNA gene restriction patterns of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains associated with Brazilian purpuric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Irino, K; Grimont, F; Casin, I; Grimont, P A

    1988-01-01

    The rRNA gene restriction patterns of 92 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius, associated with conjunctivitis or Brazilian purpuric fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were studied with 16 + 23S rRNA from Escherichia coli as a probe. All strains were classified into 15 patterns. Isolates from Brazilian purpuric fever cases were seen only in patterns 3 (most frequently) and 4 (rarely), whereas isolates from conjunctivitis were found in all 15 patterns. The study demonstrated that rRNA from E. coli can serve as a probe for molecular epidemiology. Images PMID:2459153

  8. BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home

    SciTech Connect

    Brandegee Group

    1999-03-08

    Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997.

  9. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  10. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  11. Pharmacogenomic implications of population admixture: Brazil as a model case.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Paula, Daniela Polessa; Struchiner, Claudio J

    2014-02-01

    The heterogeneous Brazilian population, with European, African and Amerindian ancestral roots is a model case for exploring the impact of population admixture on the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes, and the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomics trials. Examples drawn from studies carried out by researchers of the Brazilian pharmacogenomics network, support the following conclusions: the distribution of polymorphisms varies across geographical regions and self-reported 'race/color' categories, and is best modeled as continuous functions of individual proportions of European and African ancestry; the differential frequency of polymorphisms impacts the calculations of sample sizes required for adequate statistical power in clinical trials performed in different segments of the Brazilian population; and extrapolation of pharmacogenomics data from well-defined ethnic groups to Brazilians is plagued with uncertainty. Data for warfarin and tacrolimus are reviewed to highlight the advantages and challenges of performing pharmacogenomic trials in Brazilians. PMID:24444410

  12. A Case Study about Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case study was to identify what were Taiwanese University English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' perceptions about learning communication strategies. This study collected qualitative data about students' beliefs and attitudes as they learned communication strategies. The research question guiding the study was:…

  13. Education and Work Councils: Four Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Audrey; And Others

    This collection of four case studies represents the conclusion of a two-phase study of a federal program to sponsor education and work councils. Following an outline of the history and concept of education and work councils as well as the findings of a study of such councils, the importance of council collaboration with selected sectors is…

  14. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  15. Variability of streamflow under climate change: A study for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Tiezzi, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is entirely dependent on water resources, thus highly vulnerable to the effects of rainfall variability. This work aims to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on streamflow for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments. Records form 83-years of observations (1931-2013) were compared with the results of simulations for the 2011-2100 (90-year) period. Two rainfall-runoff hydrological models were used for the numerical simulations: Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure-SMAP (process-based) and Stochastic Linear Model-MEL (stochastic). Very significant impacts were found, namely the increase in streamflow in the Southern basins that may reach almost 100%, while in the Northern and Northeastern basins, streamflow may decrease about 90%. These major changes can aggravate the history of flooding in the Southern basins and of droughts in several regions of the North and Northeast basins.

  16. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  17. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Horstmann, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  18. Nuclear forensic investigations: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, M; Mayer, K; Ray, I

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and analytical methods used in nuclear forensic investigations. Two case studies are taken as examples to illustrate this. These examples represent typical cases that have been analysed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) since last 10 years, i.e. the beginning of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Results of the various analytical techniques are shown, which, together with other type of information, reveal the origin of the material. PMID:16410154

  19. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK FOR STUDIES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND PERINATAL HEALTH: THE POWER OF COLLABORATION IN POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMS.

    PubMed

    Cecatti, José G; Silveira, Carla; Souza, Renato T; Fernandes, Karayna G; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    The scientific collaboration in networks may be developed among countries, academic institutions and among peer researchers. Once established, they contribute for knowledge dissemination and a strong structure for research in health. Several advantages are attributed to working in networks: the inclusion of a higher number of subjects in the studies; generation of stronger evidence with a higher representativeness of the population (secondary generalization and external validity); higher likelihood of articles derived from these studies to be accepted in high impact journals with a wide coverage; a higher likelihood of obtaining budgets for sponsorship; easier data collection on rare conditions; inclusions of subjects from different ethnic groups and cultures, among others. In Brazil, the Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health was created in 2008 with the initial purpose of developing a national network of scientific cooperation for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity. Since the establishment of this Network, five studies were developed, some of them already finished and others almost being completed, and two new ones being implemented. Results of the activities in this Network have been very productive and with a positive impact on not only the Postgraduate Program of Obstetrics and Gynecology from the University of Campinas, its coordinating center, but also on other participating centers. A considerable number of scientific articles was published, master´s dissertations and PhD theses were presented, and post-doctorate programs were performed, including students from several areas of health, from distinct regions and from several institutions of the whole country. This represents a high social impact taking into account the relevance of the studied topics for the country. As colaborações científicas em rede podem ocorrer entre países, instituições acadêmicas e entre pares de pesquisadores e, uma vez estabelecidas

  20. (Case studies examining energy policies and strategies for water resources development): Foreign trip report, May 7--13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1989-05-24

    The traveler met with colleagues involved with Project 12.2 of the IHP of UNESCO to discuss and finalize case studies that are being prepared for a report entitled ''Case Studies Examining Energy Policies and Strategies for Water Resources Development.'' Draft case studies from the United States, Brazil, Norway, and Czechoslovakia were reviewed and discussed. The traveler was appointed editor of the final report. The traveler met with staff of the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Executive Secretary to the National Energy Commission of Brazil, and the newly created Brazilian Institute of the Environment. The traveler was briefed on the functions of these departments, and he briefed them on water resource activities conducted at ORNL. The traveler presented a seminar at Eletrobras (national electric utility) in Brazil on environmental research at ORNL.

  1. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  2. Technologies in Literacy Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on outcomes of a study which explored changes in teachers' literacy pedagogies as a result of their participation in a collaborative teacher professional learning project. The educational usability of schemas drawn from multiliteracies and Learning by Design theory is illustrated through a case study of a teacher's work on…

  3. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  4. Case Studies of the Migrant Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ellen L.

    Intended for federal policymakers, this study examined four aspects of the Chapter 1 migrant education program: program administration, program services, students served, and program expenditures. Case studies were conducted in California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Texas between November 1986 and March 1987. State agencies and…

  5. Case Studies in Australian Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ralph J., Ed.; Rooth, S. John, Ed.

    This publication contains the following 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: "NSW Department of Agriculture Home Study Programme" (O'Neill); "Self-Help Adult Education: The University of the Third Age at the Brisbane CAE" (Swindell); "Marriage Enrichment Programme" (D. Kerr, C. Kerr); "Carringbush Library: A Place to Be" (Letcher);…

  6. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  7. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  8. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  9. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  10. Case Studies of Three Interorganizational Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    As part of their study of interorganizational collaboration, researchers present three detailed case studies of how regional education agencies (REAs) supply knowledge utilization services to the school districts they serve. The three REAs are the Wayne County (Michigan) Intermediate School District (with 36 districts), the Educational Improvement…

  11. Integrating ethics into case study assignments.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Pamela A

    2014-12-01

    I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking. Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks. Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components. I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should," and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good. PMID:25574287

  12. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  13. The Science Manager's Guide to Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Peffers, Melissa S.; Ruegg, Rosalie T.; Vallario, Robert W.

    2001-09-24

    This guide takes the science manager through the steps of planning, implementing, validating, communicating, and using case studies. It outlines the major methods of analysis, describing their relative merits and applicability while providing relevant examples and sources of additional information. Well-designed case studies can provide a combination of rich qualitative and quantitative information, offering valuable insights into the nature, outputs, and longer-term impacts of the research. An objective, systematic, and credible approach to the evaluation of U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science programs adds value to the research process and is the subject of this guide.

  14. [Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. Familial study of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Gay, G; Pessah, M; Bouma, M E; Roche, J F; Aymard, J P; Beucler, I; Aggerbeck, L P; Infante, R

    1990-01-01

    A familial study of four cases with hypobetalipoproteinemia is reported. Three members are heterozygous and one is homozygous. This congenital fat malabsorption in homozygous state is commonly associated with an absence of serum apoprotein B and LDL. Neuromuscular and ophthalmological signs are absent in this case. The major role of upper digestive endoscopy in the diagnostic procedure is emphasized. Histochemical and immunoenzymatic stains of enterocytes and intestinal organ culture show defective synthesis apo B in the homozygous patient. Studies of DNA polymorphism in the homozygous patient have shown that the apo B gene doesn't certain major insertions or deletions. These results are discussed. PMID:2096430

  15. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Monlleó, Isabella Lopes; Fontes, Marshall Ítalo Barros; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; de Souza, Josiane; Leal, Gabriela Ferraz; Félix, Têmis Maria; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Bueno, Bruna Henrique; Magna, Luis Alberto; Mossey, Peter Anthony; Gil-da Silva-Lopes, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%), cleft palate to 99 (26.8%), and cleft lip to 73 (19.7%) cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide. PMID:23577250

  16. Case studies in organic contaminant hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-07-01

    The effective management of domestic solid waste and hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste is a major problem in the area of environmental geology and water sciences over the world. This series of case studies of organic contaminants from both solid and hazardous waste disposal facilities provides examples of these problems. The facilities were investigated to determine risks and liabilities before acquisition, to determine the site hydrogeologic conditions for design of appropriate groundwater monitoring plans, and/or to determine the potential for groundwater contamination. The results of these studies and investigations by Waste Management Inc. (WMI) and its consultants have shown certain relationships in the distribution of organic pollutants to the different geologic and hydrogeologic charac teristics of each facility. In each of the case studies, all 129 priority pollutants were analyzed in private wells and/or monitoring wells at the request of regulatory agencies. The 31 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the priority pollutant list were the majority of the organic compounds detected and these data are evaluated in each case study. The case studies are on disposal facilities located in glacial tills, carbonaceous weathered clay soils, weathered shale, limestone bedrock, dolomite bedrock, and alluvial and sedimentary deposits. A brief discussion of groundwater quality impacts and remedial measures also is included.

  17. Case study examples using self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D; Hutton, C L; Nerbonne, M A; Newman, C W; Smoski, W J

    1990-10-01

    The following case studies demonstrate the application of self-assessment techniques. The selection of procedures reported here is not meant to imply necessarily that these procedures are more or less effective or more widely used than other available self-assessment tests, but rather to illustrate the various purposes for which self-assessment tools may be employed. Case 1 illustrates the contribution of data obtained from the Hearing Performance Inventory (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Shubert, 1979) in the management and counseling of a severely hearing impaired adult. Case 2 involves the use of the Hearing Problem Inventory developed by Hutton in Atlanta (HPI-A, Hutton, 1987). Application of the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) (Schow and Nerbonne, 1982) is shown in Case 3, whereas Case 4 demonstrates the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, Ventry and Weinstein, 1982). Both the SAC/SOAC and HHIE batteries involve problem cases associated with hearing aid fitting and assessment of benefit. The final illustration (Case 5) is a report on the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS), a new questionnaire developed by Smoski, Brunt, and Tannahill/ISHA (1987) for assessing parent's judgment of children's listening abilities (Appendix). The versatility of self-assessment applications across a broad assortment of impairment levels, age groups, and clinical settings is demonstrated in these cases. Hopefully the reader will see more clearly the application and value of these and other non-audiometric techniques and will be motivated to increase the use of self-assessment tools in the individual work setting. PMID:2269415

  18. American and Brazilian Children With Primary Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa; Guimarães, Milena Maria Moreira; Srivastava, Tarak; Alon, Uri Saggie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Considering the differences in location, socioeconomic background, and cultural background, the aim of this study was to try to identify possible factors associated with the increased incidence of urolithiasis by comparing American and Brazilian children with stones. Methods. Data of 222 American and 190 Brazilian children with urolithiasis were reviewed including age, gender, body mass index, imaging technique used (ultrasound and computed tomography), and 24-hour urine volume and chemistries. Results. There were no differences between age and gender at diagnosis. Brazilian children were leaner but in no population did obesity rate exceed that of the general population. Ultrasound was most commonly used to diagnose stones, even more so in Brazilians. Decreased urine flow was more common among Americans (P = .004), hypercalciuria among Brazilians (P = .001), and elevated Ca/citrate ratio among Americans (P = .009). There were no differences between the groups in the frequency of hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria, absorptive hyperoxaluria, and cystinuria. Conclusions. Despite some differences between the populations, the leading causes of urolithiasis among both were “oliguria,” hypercalciuria, and high Ca/citrate ratio. In neither country was obesity the reason for the increase in incidence of urolithiasis, nor was the use of computed tomography. The similarities between the 2 populations call for combining efforts in addressing the leading causes of pediatric urolithiasis.

  19. Brazilian stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of Brazilian meteorites is presented, along with basic premises of meteoritics, including classification, naming, and analytic procedures. Meteorites are noted to be of interest as representative samples of ancient rocks, perhaps half as old as the universe, as sometimes originating from outside the solar system, containing early solar material, and containing evidence of cosmic ray interactions or collisions. The characteristics which make up the achondrite and chondrite group are reviewed, and a listing of the primary characteristics of known Brazilian meteorites is provided.

  20. Case Studies of Altruistic Persons: AERA Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, William N.

    This document presents information from a body of research called Lives of Service, a collection of case studies of 32 altruistic adults. It begins with a review of the research on altruism, service orientation, giving, helpfulness, social responsibility, and voluntarism. Research on altruism in psychology and in other disciplines is included,…

  1. Lifelong Learning in SMEs: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…

  2. An Effective School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Candace

    An elementary school principal's successful attempts to improve her inner-city school are described in this case study, which includes a diagram representing her formula for better education. The principal, a charismatic, elderly woman, takes an aggressive role in improving the school environment and student nutrition, encouraging and monitoring…

  3. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  4. A Case Study of Online Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ling; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This case study investigated 12 graduate students' online collaborative experiences and attitudes in an instructional design course. The instructor divided students into 4 groups based on their academic backgrounds. Content analysis of asynchronous group discussion board messages was used to measure degrees of collaboration of each group in terms…

  5. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  6. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  7. Grade One: Math Computation. Case Study #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to highlight the integral role that progress monitoring (PM) plays throughout any Response to Intervention (RTI) process. This example uses a three-level, responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI) method for identifying students with learning difficulties. Using a fictional first-grade classroom as the setting for…

  8. ESL and Digital Video Integration: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, J., Ed.; Gromik, N., Ed.; Edwards, N., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that digital video technology is of particular interest to English language learners; students are drawn to its visual appeal and vibrant creative potential. The seven original case studies in this book demonstrate how video can be an effective and powerful tool to create fluid, fun, interactive, and collaborative…

  9. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  10. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  11. Value for Money Case Studies. Mendip Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Bob, Ed.

    In response to a shift from the management of curriculum to the management of scarce resources to deliver a changing curriculum, this paper brings together three "value for money" case studies in college administration. The papers identify three levels of activity, ranging from the one-time opportunity for good housekeeping through tactical…

  12. Tachycardia During Resistance Exercise: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Andrew C.; Parks, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study examined a weight-trained (WT) male who had an unusually high heart rate response to heavy resistance exercise and self-administered anabolic androgenic steroids as an ergogenic aid to training. The subject was compared to 18 other WT people. His tachycardia response occurred only in the presence of a pressure load and not with a…

  13. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  14. Case Study of Home-School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguerrebere, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This case study evaluated one site of a California teacher home visit program. Home visits have been an important means of connecting families and schooling. In 1999, California inaugurated a statewide home visit program to promote effective partnership between home and school for low-achieving schools. At this site, families in 3 kindergarten…

  15. Learning To Teach Spanish: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rendon, Gloria

    This case study explores the student teaching experience of a Spanish language teacher candidate through her own eyes. It sheds light on how the participants' prior learning experience and beliefs inform her initial practice, how she develops her teaching skills, what contextual factors affect her learning-to-teach process, and the sources from…

  16. Performance Support Case Studies from IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke-Moran, Celia; Swope, Ginger; Morariu, Janis; deKam, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Presents two case studies that show how IBM addressed performance support solutions and electronic learning. The first developed a performance support and expert coaching solution; the second applied performance support to reducing implementation time and total cost of ownership of enterprise resource planning systems. (Author/LRW)

  17. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  18. Semantically Redundant Language--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concept of semantically redundant language through a case study of the Te Rauparaha Maori haka. I suggest that current linguistic theories cannot give a full account of ritualized speech events, of which the haka is an example, as these theories are based on a traditional dyadic model of interaction involving a…

  19. A Case Study in Learning to Unlearn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Martin; Grummell, Bernie; Murphy, Conor; Ryan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, Irish academics reflect on our involvement in a project--Transformative Engagement Network (TEN). This project aims to transform the nature of the engagement between the various stakeholders impacted by or concerned with climate change and to insert the voice and concerns of the most vulnerable food producers into climate…

  20. The Postmodern English Major: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Offers a case study in curriculum change that reveals a very different experience--one that demonstrates a discipline more alive than ever. Presents a story of how the lively canon debates prompted the English department at Montclair State University to restructure the English major. Finds that the culture wars, critical theory, poststructuralism,…

  1. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  2. Case Study of Sabrina and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Annette F.; Davis, Kevin; Lane, Linda; Smith, Lonna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a case study of an adult student preparing for her first year of college through a writing course and work in a writing workshop. Explains complicating circumstances in the student's life. Presents four professional responses commenting on the difficulties of the situation and possible solutions. (TB)

  3. Acquaintance Rape: A Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Rosalie D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a case study approach to acquaintance rape used in a Personal Health and Lifestyles course at the University of Nevada in Reno that allows students to discuss the characters in a scenario, an instructional process seen as less threatening than describing personal experiences. (MDM)

  4. The Verbal Noncommunicator: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a nine-year-old male with language impairment and specific pragmatic disabilities. His interactions with an adult, a language age-matched peer, and a chronological age-matched peer were observed and analyzed to determine conversational responsiveness and assertiveness. Findings support Fey's (1986) verbal…

  5. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology and space tribology. Two case studies describe aspects of real problems in sufficient detail for the engineer and the scientist to understand the tribological situations and the failures. The nature of the problems is analyzed and the range of potential solutions is evaluated. Courses of action are recommended.

  6. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  7. Case Studies in Managing Psychological Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, Martin; Gillis, H. L.

    This paper outlines a model for assessing and managing psychological depth in outdoor and experiential group work, and presents two case studies of the complexity of such management in real life. The model contains eight levels of emotional risk and presents four criteria for assessing the level to which a particular event or discussion may lead…

  8. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  9. Library Virtual Tours: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Beth; Grogg, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual tours delivered via the Web have become a common tool for both instruction and outreach. This article is a case study of the creation of a virtual tour for a university library and is intended to provide others interested in creating a virtual tour of their library the opportunity to learn from the mistakes and successes of fellow…

  10. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  11. Case Studies: Windows onto Clinical Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    By examining the structures and activities common to six case studies of clinical teacher supervision, this article identifies five conditions that facilitate changes in teacher thinking and behavior: development of a supportive, collegial relationship; teacher control over supervision products; continuity over time; focused, descriptive records…

  12. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  13. Acoustical case studies of three green buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebein, Gary; Lilkendey, Robert; Skorski, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Case studies of 3 green buildings with LEED certifications that required extensive acoustical retrofit work to become satisfactory work environments for their intended user groups will be used to define areas where green building design concepts and acoustical design concepts require reconciliation. Case study 1 is an office and conference center for a city environmental education agency. Large open spaces intended to collect daylight through clerestory windows provided large, reverberant volumes with few acoustic finishes that rendered them unsuitable as open office space and a conference room/auditorium. Case Study 2 describes one of the first gold LEED buildings in the southeast whose primary design concepts were so narrowly focused on thermal and lighting issues that they often worked directly against basic acoustical requirements resulting in sound levels of NC 50-55 in classrooms and faculty offices, crosstalk between classrooms and poor room acoustics. Case study 3 is an environmental education and conference center with open public areas, very high ceilings, and all reflective surfaces made from wood and other environmentally friendly materials that result in excessive loudness when the building is used by the numbers of people which it was intended to serve.

  14. Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…

  15. Simulations & Case Studies. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Cathy R., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on simulations and case studies from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "3-D Virtual Classroom Technology" (Kimberly Arseneau Miller, Angela Glod); "Simulated Lesson Design Studios" (Willis Copeland); "Lights, Camera, Integration: Presentation Programs and…

  16. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  17. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  18. New Case Studies of Citizen Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Describes a six-unit case study curriculum package designed for secondary and college-level courses relating to environmental education. The units deal with nuclear power, stream channelization, a river dam project, overgrazing of public lands, agribusiness versus the family farm, and swamp preservation. (Author/DB)

  19. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  20. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  1. CALIFORNIA PROJECT TALENT. IDENTIFICATION, CASE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICE, JOSEPH P.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF CASE STUDIES CAN HELP THE TEACHER TO APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, TO CAPITALIZE ON INTERESTS AND ABILITIES, TO APPRECIATE AND UTILIZE EXCEPTIONAL SKILLS, AND TO SET UP APPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS FOR INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN. AN OUTLINE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION PROCESS INCLUDES SCREENING (GROUP DEVICES), NOMINATION (STAFF MATCHES THE…

  2. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  3. NACASETAC BAY: AN INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive case study or "game" was created to provide a "hands on" experience in the application of a weight of evidence approach to sediment assessment. The game proceeds in two phases. In each phase the players work together as a group. A scenario is presented, and the g...

  4. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  5. Fraternization in Accounting Firms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Tim; Kizirian, Tim; Leese, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    This case study sheds light on how to avoid risks caused by manager-subordinate dating relationships (fraternization) such as employee misunderstandings, retaliation charges, favoritism complaints, wrongful termination lawsuits, and sexual harassment lawsuits, as well as associated ethical risks. Risk avoidance can be accomplished through a better…

  6. Teaching the Holocaust through Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to the curricular challenges teachers face with Holocaust education, including cursory treatments and a lack of focus on individual experiences. First, the author argues for a case-study approach to help students reengage concrete and complex features of the Holocaust as a point of departure for subsequent inquiry. In…

  7. The Campus Diversity Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Sharada

    2005-01-01

    This Case Study presents the Campus Diversity Initiative (CDI), a three-phase project lead by the Educational Resources Project Centre Trust, in New Delhi, India. In a historic and cultural context different from that of India, the American Diversity Initiative was launched by the Ford Foundation in 1990 and addressed their diversity issues by…

  8. Interactive Videodisc Case Studies for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Harless, William G.; Zier, Marcia A.; Duncan, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The TIME Project of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications is using interactive videodisc, microprocessor and voice recognition technology to create patient simulations for use in the training of medical students. These interactive case studies embody dramatic, lifelike portrayals of the social and medical conditions of a patient and allow uncued, verbal intervention by the student for independent clinical decisions.

  9. School University Collaboration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Robert; And Others

    A case study of school-university collaboration between Starkville School District (Mississippi) and Mississippi State University (MSU) explored the process of collaboration and the ingredients for successful implementation. MSU offered grant opportunities for university faculty to work with local school district personnel. Starkville School…

  10. The Induction of Marketing Teachers: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath-Camp, Betty; And Others

    As part of a larger, 5-year national project, case study analyses were conducted of the induction experiences of two beginning teachers of marketing education. One teacher (Mary) entered the profession through a traditional teacher education program in marketing education. The other (Jake) obtained certification based on extensive experience in…

  11. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology. A case study describes an aspect of a real problem in sufficient detail for the engineer and scientist to understand the tribological situation and the failure. The nature of the problem is analyzed and the tribological properties are examined.

  12. Evaluating Innovation: The Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Maria Jose; Carretero, Antonia J.

    1998-01-01

    Characterized the methodology of case studies, using examples from science education, with regard to their potential for the analysis of innovation and formulation of emerging trends. The theoretical and empirical support of evaluation will generate a call for negotiation as the formula that regulates the assessment of a program's efficiency and…

  13. Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Clinical Study of 55 Brazilian Patients and the Diagnostic Use of MLPA.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Rachel Sayuri; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Furusawa, Erika Arai; Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Costa, Larissa Sampaio de Athayde; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Genetics Unit of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, Brazil. A kit specific for WBS was used to detect the 7q11.23 microdeletion. Results. Two patients with negative FISH results had positive MLPA results for WBS. The characteristics of the patients with the deletion were as follows: typical WBS facies (98.2%), neuropsychomotor delay (98.2%), hypersocial behavior (94.5%), hyperacusis (94.5%), and congenital heart disease (81.8%). Conclusions. MLPA was effective in detecting the microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region to confirm the diagnosis of WBS. MLPA was also able to confirm the diagnosis of WBS in two patients with typical clinical characteristics but negative FISH results. Thus, MLPA is a promising method in the diagnostic investigation of WBS. WBS is a multisystemic disorder and therefore requires multidisciplinary care and specific follow-up to prevent complications. PMID:26090456

  14. Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Clinical Study of 55 Brazilian Patients and the Diagnostic Use of MLPA

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Rachel Sayuri; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Furusawa, Erika Arai; Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Costa, Larissa Sampaio de Athayde; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Genetics Unit of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, Brazil. A kit specific for WBS was used to detect the 7q11.23 microdeletion. Results. Two patients with negative FISH results had positive MLPA results for WBS. The characteristics of the patients with the deletion were as follows: typical WBS facies (98.2%), neuropsychomotor delay (98.2%), hypersocial behavior (94.5%), hyperacusis (94.5%), and congenital heart disease (81.8%). Conclusions. MLPA was effective in detecting the microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region to confirm the diagnosis of WBS. MLPA was also able to confirm the diagnosis of WBS in two patients with typical clinical characteristics but negative FISH results. Thus, MLPA is a promising method in the diagnostic investigation of WBS. WBS is a multisystemic disorder and therefore requires multidisciplinary care and specific follow-up to prevent complications. PMID:26090456

  15. Empathy Development Through Case Study and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A; Bassett, Susan; Pasquariello, Libby

    2016-01-01

    Because empathy is integral to the nurse-patient relationship, nurse educators are challenged to explore teaching strategies that may aid in the development of empathy among students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent exposure to a single patient through case study and simulation had an impact on empathy levels in senior-level baccalaureate nursing students. Results provide interesting conclusions for faculty members and offer a basis for ongoing discussion. PMID:26448156

  16. Identification of a microdeletion at the 7q33-q35 disrupting the CNTNAP2 gene in a Brazilian stuttering case.

    PubMed

    Petrin, Aline L; Giacheti, Célia M; Maximino, Luciana P; Abramides, Dagma V M; Zanchetta, Sthella; Rossi, Natalia F; Richieri-Costa, Antônio; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2010-12-01

    Speech and language disorders are some of the most common referral reasons to child development centers accounting for approximately 40% of cases. Stuttering is a disorder in which involuntary repetition, prolongation, or cessation of the sound precludes the flow of speech. About 5% of individuals in the general population have a stuttering problem, and about 80% of the affected children recover naturally. The causal factors of stuttering remain uncertain in most cases; studies suggest that genetic factors are responsible for 70% of the variance in liability for stuttering, whereas the remaining 30% is due to environmental effects supporting a complex cause of the disorder. The use of high-resolution genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization has proven to be a powerful strategy to narrow down candidate regions for complex disorders. We report on a case with a complex set of speech and language difficulties including stuttering who presented with a 10 Mb deletion of chromosome region 7q33-35 causing the deletion of several genes and the disruption of CNTNAP2 by deleting the first three exons of the gene. CNTNAP2 is known to be involved in the cause of language and speech disorders and autism spectrum disorder and is in the same pathway as FOXP2, another important language gene, which makes it a candidate gene for causal studies speech and language disorders such as stuttering. PMID:21108403

  17. Seismic damage to pipeline; Case study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, M.J.; Ayala, G. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    A case study of damage to a welded steel pipeline in Mexico City, caused by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake, is presented. Seismic damage to pipelines in past earthquakes is briefly reviewed. The damage has typically been due to seismic wave propagation or permanent ground deformations, such as faulting, landslides, or lateral spreads. Physical characteristics of the case study pipeline, pertinent soil conditions, recorded ground motion, and observed seismic damage in Mexico City are then presented. The recorded ground motion in the lake zone of Mexico City suggests a significant contribution from Rayleigh waves. A previously developed analysis procedure is used to estimate stress induced by seismic wave propagation in the case study pipeline. The pipeline stress is a function of the amplitude and wavelength of the ground strain, maximum friction forces at the soil-pipe interface, and the stress-strain characteristics of the pipeline material. It is shown that the estimated stress is only slightly less than the local compressional buckling stress for the case history pipeline.

  18. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  19. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    PubMed

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  20. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  1. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  2. Generating grounded theory: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P D

    1985-01-01

    An inductive research method known as grounded theory is described as a means of building conceptual bridges between real-life situations and formal theory. The procedures are detailed and illustrated via two case studies. The first is a study of the social-psychological problem of cutting losses among heart patients through three stages of recovery. The process of extending the theory generated with the heart patients to other invisible physical impairments and across both visible and invisible chronic conditions is outlined. The second case study offers an example of a structurally-oriented theory, developed from participant observations of the processes of managing patients, staff, and neighbors for an "antipsychiatric" treatment facility for juvenile schizophrenics. PMID:20841268

  3. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  4. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  5. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors. PMID:18028537

  6. Ombudsmen in health care: case study of a municipal health ombudsman

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rita de Cássia Costa; Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Zucchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the role of a Municipal Health Ombudsman and its contribution to the public health management from the perspective of the public health system users and the municipal health counselors. METHODS Qualitative research approach using the case study, descriptive and transversal methods. The unit of analysis was a Municipal Health Ombudsman, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, between May and August 2010. The study was observational in nature and data were collected through interviews with two groups of stakeholders: users and municipal health counselors. We interviewed 44 Brazilian Unified Health System users who had made direct use of the Municipal Health Ombudsman and all 20 municipal health counselors. The data obtained were analyzed based on three issues: (1) nature of the data obtained; (2) discussion of subsidies to qualify the ombudsman’s functioning as a management tool; (3) proposals for actions to improve democratic management in the area of public health. RESULTS The complaints to the ombudsman denoted difficulties in access to health care services running the risk of their being perceived as shortcuts to gaining accessibility, disregarding the principle of social justice. The role of the ombudsman has the citizens’ approval. Users reported the following main functions of the ombudsman: to support the resolution of health problems, to listen and to clarify issues regarding Brazilian Unified Health System operations and procedures. Information was emphasized by health counselors as an instrument of power and access to the rights of Brazilian Unified Health System users. They highlighted that the ombudsman has the role of ensuring justice to foster an effective health policy, besides playing an important mediating role between the board of the municipal health system, its managers and citizens. Furthermore, the ombudsman was shown to have an execution role that transcends its regular functions. CONCLUSIONS The study found

  7. Case studies of soil in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-08-01

    The material and symbolic appropriations of soil in artworks are numerous and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in film, architecture, and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and film are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil as a contribution to raising soil awareness.

  8. Neuropathology of supercentenarians - four autopsy case studies.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masaki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasumichi; Mihara, Ban; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Supercentenarians (aged 110 years old or more) are extremely rare in the world population (the number of living supercentenarians is estimated as 47 in the world), and details about their neuropathological information are limited. Based on previous studies, centenarians (aged 100-109 years old) exhibit several types of neuropathological changes, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease pathology, primary age-related tauopathy, TDP-43 pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis. In the present study, we provide results from neuropathological analyses of four supercentenarian autopsy cases using conventional and immunohistochemical analysis for neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, we focused on the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease, as well as the status of hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43 pathology, aging-related tau astrogliopathy, and cerebrovascular diseases. Three cases were characterized as an "intermediate" level of Alzheimer's disease changes (NIA-AA guideline) and one was characterized as primary age-related tauopathy. TDP-43 deposits were present in the hippocampus in two cases. Neither Lewy body pathology nor hippocampal sclerosis was observed. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy was consistently observed, particularly in the basal forebrain. Small vessel diseases were also present, but they were relatively mild for cerebral amyloid-beta angiopathy and arteriolosclerosis. Although our study involved a small number of cases, the results provide a better understanding about human longevity. Neuropathological alterations associated with aging were mild to moderate in the supercentenarian brain, suggesting that these individuals might have some neuroprotective factors against aging. Future prospective studies and extensive molecular analyses are needed to determine the mechanisms of human longevity. PMID:27590044

  9. Clidar Mountain Boundary Layer Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nimmi C. P.; Barnes, John E.

    2016-06-01

    A CCD Camera Lidar system called the CLidar system images a vertically pointing laser from the side with a spatially separated CCD camera and wide angle optics. The system has been used to investigate case studies of aerosols in mountain boundary layers in in the times following sunset. The aerosols detected by the system demonstrate the wide variation of near ground aerosol structure and capabilities of the CLidar system.

  10. Functional Disorders in Neurology: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new consensus term Persistent Posturo-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD), axial jerking/myoclonus as a functional movement disorder, functional speech symptoms, post-concussion disorder with functional cognitive symptoms and finally advances in treatment of dissociative seizures and functional motor disorders. PMID:27445247

  11. Gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitovitch, Elisa Maria Baggio; Barbosa, Marcia Cristina; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich; de Pinho, Suani Tavares Rubim; de Santana, Ademir Eugênio

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of the advances and difficulties in gender equity in the Brazilian physics community at the present time. Recognizing that in some cases the level of gender equity has remained unchanged for a decade, the Commission for Relations and Gender of the Brazilian Physical Society plans not only to continue current activities but also seek new ways to address the issue, which will be discussed at the 2nd Brazilian Conference for Women in Physics, to be organized for 2015.

  12. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  13. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  14. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  15. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT GAT GGG…

  16. Case study of isosurface extraction algorithm performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, P M; Hansen, C D; Shen, H; Schikore, D

    1999-12-14

    Isosurface extraction is an important and useful visualization method. Over the past ten years, the field has seen numerous isosurface techniques published leaving the user in a quandary about which one should be used. Some papers have published complexity analysis of the techniques yet empirical evidence comparing different methods is lacking. This case study presents a comparative study of several representative isosurface extraction algorithms. It reports and analyzes empirical measurements of execution times and memory behavior for each algorithm. The results show that asymptotically optimal techniques may not be the best choice when implemented on modern computer architectures.

  17. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  18. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  19. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  20. Using Case Study Analysis and Case Writing to Structure Clinical Experiences in a Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah M.; Bodur, Yasar

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the design and results of a two-semester study on the use of case study analysis and case writing in clinical experiences in an undergraduate teacher education program. Findings indicated that structured experiences with case studies and case writing increase preservice teachers' informed decision making on educational…

  1. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil. PMID:20464076

  2. Possibilities to reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region with non timber biomass valorization: The case of biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.; Lascio, M.A. Di |

    1996-12-31

    Brazil`s annual rate of deforestation reached 2.1 million ha or about 13.6% of the total annual rate of deforestation for the whole tropical area in the world during 1981--1990. Today, the extent of gross deforestation is 10.9% of the tropical closed forest area. Relative to Brazilian participation in the greenhouse effect, the changes in forest area and associated biomass burning in Amazon region are responsible for about 25.5% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the tropics. Harvest of the non-timber biomass products may be important as a potentially sustainable use of forest in some areas. An excellent option to promote these biomass products is to provide energy and industrial goods for the Amazon communities and other external markets. In this work, the biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils and their by-products are analyzed in relation to job creation, economics and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.

  3. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  4. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. Results After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population. PMID:25951458

  5. High organic loading rate on thermophilic hydrogen production and metagenomic study at an anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a high organic loading rate (OLR) on thermophilic hydrogen production at an up-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery. The APBR, filled with low-density polyethylene, was operated at an OLR of 84.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1). This value was determined in a previous study. The maximum values of hydrogen production and yield were 5,252.6 mL-H2 d(-1) and 3.7 mol-H2 mol(-1)(total carbohydrates), respectively. However, whereas the OLR remained constant, the specific organic load rate (sOLR) decreased throughout operation from 1.38 to 0.72 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1), this decrease negatively affected hydrogen production. A sOLR of 0.98 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1) was optimal for hydrogen production. The microbial community was studied using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Organisms belonging to the genera Caloramator, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Oxobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, and Thermohydrogenium were detected in samples taken from the reactor at operation days 30 and 60, suggesting that these organisms contribute to hydrogen production. PMID:25812810

  6. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.; Nunes, Maria A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants is freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here, we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35–74 years from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (n = 710) included stable angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, TCA use (n = 156) was associated with a twofold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n = 14,076). Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a threefold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41–6.21) and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.28–6.66). There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusion: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil. PMID:25657993

  7. Teaching Freedom of Speech through the Case Study Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    The use of case studies or case histories of Supreme Court cases concerning freedom of speech often provides the "real world" dimension that is too often lacking in the teaching of this area. The case study or case history is a coherent narrative of the historical events designed to illuminate the issues involved in a specific situation. Such…

  8. The Use of an Atmospheric Model for Study the Gas Dispersion at the Brazilian Space Launching Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, G.; Iriart, P. G.; Andrade Schuch, D.; Couto Milanez, V.

    2015-09-01

    The present work aims to use an atmospheric mesoscale model (Weather Research and Forecasting model - WRF) coupled with its chemical module (CHEM) in order to study the simulation of the dispersion of exhausted gas released from a typical rockets (in this case the Satellite Vehicle Launcher characteristics was used) from the Alcântara Launch Center (ALC). For the initialization of the coupled model, the preprocessor PREP-Chem was assigned to the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO). However, as this repository has no pollutants at the ALC area, a new method of insertion of chemical data assigned to the exact geographical position where the VLS is launched was used with all emissions null unless at the Launcher pad. Also, the model was initialized with meteorological data extracted from the Global Forecasting System (GFS). The simulations were made for different 4 cases representatives of the diurnal (daytime and nighttime) and seasonal (dry and wet seasons) scales. Observational data (radiosondes and wind tower data) was used to validate the wind field. There are 3 grids nested with 9, 3 and 1 km spatial resolution and the model has 45 levels in the vertical (15 levels up to 2000 m). All the simulations showed approximately the same patterns as the wind flow are very persistent (this is a characteristic of the trade winds). Typically, the simulations showed that the CO concentration (the variable used to represent the gases exhausted by the solid motors) at the launch pad is 2 order of magnitude higher than at the gate (1 km far) and 4 order of magnitude higher than Alcantara village (20 km far). It can reach 30000 ppm at the launching pad after Ho + 1 mm. Also, it was computed that the launch pad must stay isolated by 1 5 mm before any other action for the complete dispersion and, consequently, for safety reasons. As the turbulent intensity is higher at 12 UTC (daytime conditions), the total time for the complete dispersion of the plume is

  9. Case Study Evaluations: A Case in Point. An Illustrative Report and Mathodological Analysis of Case Study Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Cliff; Welch, Wayne

    To provide a real life example of case study methodology for educational evaluation, a naturalistic study of a Catholic junior college in Minneapolis, Minnesota is presented. Conducted as part of the ongoing evaluation of a federally supported project, the study provides an external observer's descriptive portrayal of the school, plus the…

  10. [Vasculitic urticaria: study of 12 cases].

    PubMed

    Hassan, M L; Perez Cejudo, J A; Yachi del Pino, E; Schroh, R G

    1990-01-01

    Twelve cases of chronic urticaria with histopathologic features of lecocitoclastic allergic angitis are studied. The type of cutaneous lesion, personal and familiar atopic history and the presence of autoimmune disease are described. Light microscopy, direct immunofluorescence, anti DNA, antinuclear, antithyroid, Ro, La, Rnp and Sm antibodies, total complement levels, C3 and C4, rheumatoid factor, latex, ASTO, cryoglobulines and complete workup were investigated, taking into account natural progression and response to therapy. Two different groups are defined: 1) normocomplementemic (5 patients) and 2) hypocomplementemic (7 patients). They were all women except one. The cutaneous lesions were indistinguishable in the two groups. Only in the second group there was an associated disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren syndrome disease, lupus-Sjogren overlap, autoimmune thyroid disease). Urticaria had been present from the onset of the disease in 4 patients, and occurred later during its course in 8 others. Five patients had thyroid disease (Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves disease), two of them being mother and daughter. Another patient had a family history of Grave's disease and urticaria. Anti DNA antibodies were found in 7 cases, and anti Ro + La + in 3 cases. Response to treatment was variable with spontaneous cycles of worsening and remissions. One of the patients found a relationship with certain foods. Histopathologic results are related in both clinical normocomplementemic and hypocomplementemic groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups, but Ro+ and La+ patients exhibit more intense cariorexis and neutrophilic infiltrates. PMID:2263094

  11. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. PMID:27017415

  12. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  13. Management of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Brazil – the Brazilian study on the practice of diabetes care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Study on the Practice of Diabetes Care main objective was to provide an epidemiological profile of individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Brazil, concerning therapy and adherence to international guidelines in the medical practice. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study collected and analyzed data from individuals with type 1 and 2 DM attending public or private clinics in Brazil. Each investigator included the first 10 patients with type 2 DM who visited his/her office, and the first 5 patients with type 1 DM. Results A total of 1,358 patients were analyzed; 375 (27.6%) had type 1 and 983 (72.4%) had type 2 DM. Most individuals were women, Caucasian, and private health care users. High prevalence rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity were observed, particularly in type 2 DM. Only 7.3% and 5.1% of the individuals with types 1 and 2 DM, respectively, had optimal control of blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids. The absence of hypertension and female sex were associated with better control of type 1 DM and other cardiovascular risk factors. In type 2 DM, older age was also associated with better control. Conclusions Female sex, older age, and absence of hypertension were associated with better metabolic control. An optimal control of plasma glucose and other cardiovascular risk factors are obtained only in a minority of individuals with diabetes. Local numbers, compared to those from other countries are worse. PMID:23972112

  14. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years Observation.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do Pss; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital - Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  15. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  16. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  17. [Psychoses and epilepsy. A case study].

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, W M A; Gunning, W B; Tuerlings, J H A M; Egger, J I M; Tuinier, S

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few decades much research has been done into the raised level of psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. On the basis of a case study of a patient suffering from post-ictal psychoses we explain the psychiatric differential diagnosis within the framework of epilepsy and we investigate the frequent psychiatric side-effects of anticonvulsants. It is concluded that the links between epilepsy and psychiatric symptoms are complex and that the neuropsychiatry of epilepsy is concerned with syndromes that are unique and do notfit into modern psychiatric classification systems. PMID:17086946

  18. Reinforcement learning: Solving two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Silva, Pedro; dos Santos, Cristina Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    Reinforcement Learning algorithms offer interesting features for the control of autonomous systems, such as the ability to learn from direct interaction with the environment, and the use of a simple reward signalas opposed to the input-outputs pairsused in classic supervised learning. The reward signal indicates the success of failure of the actions executed by the agent in the environment. In this work, are described RL algorithmsapplied to two case studies: the Crawler robot and the widely known inverted pendulum. We explore RL capabilities to autonomously learn a basic locomotion pattern in the Crawler, andapproach the balancing problem of biped locomotion using the inverted pendulum.

  19. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  20. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  1. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  2. The Effect of Using Case Studies in Business Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pariseau, Susan E.; Kezim, Boualem

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect on learning of using case studies in business statistics courses. The authors divided students into 3 groups: a control group, a group that completed 1 case study, and a group that completed 3 case studies. Results evidenced that, on average, students whom the authors required to complete a case analysis received…

  3. Building Explanations across Case Studies: A Framework for Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gretchen B.

    A framework is offered for fostering systematic, creative synthesis across various case studies. The challenge for those seeking to synthesize from case studies is to develop respect for the individual case context while permitting some blurring of unique features to occur in the synthesis. Case studies are meant to render an account of specific…

  4. Impact of maternal age on birth outcomes: a population-based study of primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of maternal age at first birth on low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores at one minute and at five minutes among live births delivered to primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo. Analyses were based on 73,820 birth records from the 1998 birth cohort. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal age and each outcome variable, controlling for the following risk factors: delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Maternal ages below 20 and above 30 years were significantly associated with the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth, but no association was found between maternal ages and Apgar score, with the exception that ages 15-19 reduced the odds of a low one-minute score. Even though this result seems to be inconsistent, low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores measure different dimensions of newborn well-being, and the association of each measure with maternal age is expected to diverge. PMID:16762088

  5. [Spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families: a descriptive study with data from the Family Budget Surveys 2002-2003 and 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; de Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia; Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia; de Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana

    2015-05-01

    Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure. PMID:26017945

  6. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  7. Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.

  8. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro-Machado, R; De Oliveira, P L

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997) or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications) to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications). Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development. PMID:11717704

  10. Nephrotoxicity during tenofovir treatment: a three-year follow-up study in a Brazilian reference clinic.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira da Silva; Bassetti, Bil Randerson; Fraga, Igor Hernandes Valvassoura; Oliveira Santos, Carolina Rocio; Ximenes, Paula Daher; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 275 patients in use of tenofovir were retrospectively followed-up for three years to evaluate risk factors involved in impaired renal function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were used to verify any differences in creatinine levels and estimated clearance at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, adjusting for the co-variables sex, skin color, age >50 years, arterial hypertension, diabetes and the use of the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) lopinavir/r or atazanavir/r. The software package STATISTICA 10(®) was used for statistical analysis. The patients' mean age was 43.2±10.7 years. Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and diabetes were found in 20.4% and 8.7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, 96.7% were on tenofovir associated with lamivudine (TDF+3TC), 39.3% on lopinavir/r, 29.8% on efavirenz, and 17.6% on atazanavir/r. There was a statistically significant difference in estimated creatinine clearance at 24 months, when the co-variables male (F=3.95; p=0.048), SAH (F=6.964; p=0.009), and age over 50 years (F=45.81; p<0.001) were taken into consideration. Analysis of the co-variable use of atazanavir/r showed a tendency toward an increased risk over time (F=2.437; p=0.063); however, no significant time interaction was seen. At 36-month, a statistically significant difference was found for age over 50 years, (F=32.02; p<0.05) and there was a significant time-by-sex interaction (F=3.117; p=0.0149). TDF was discontinued in 12 patients, one because of a femoral neck fracture (0.7%) and 11 due to nephrotoxicity (4%). Of these latter cases, 9/11 patients were also using protease inhibitors. These data strongly alert that tenofovir use should be individualized with careful attention to renal function especially in male patients, over 50 years, with SAH, and probably those on ATV/r. PMID:26612609

  11. Microcomputer versus mainframe simulations: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, Neal M.

    1988-01-01

    The research was conducted to two parts. Part one consisted of a study of the feasibility of running the Space Transportation Model simulation on an office IBM-AT. The second part was to design simulation runs so as to study the effects of certain performance factors on the execution of the simulation model. The results of this research are given in the two reports which follow: Microcomputer vs. Mainframe Simulation: A Case Study and Fractional Factorial Designs of Simulation Runs for the Space Transportation System Operations Model. In the first part, a DOS batch job was written in order to simplify the execution of the simulation model on an office microcomputer. A comparison study was then performed of running the model on NASA-Langley's mainframe computer vs. running on the IBM-AT microcomputer. This was done in order to find the advantages and disadvantages of running the model on each machine with the objective of determining if running of the office PC was practical. The study concluded that it was. The large number of performance parameters in the Space Transportation model precluded running a full factorial design needed to determine the most significant design factors. The second report gives several suggested fractional factorial designs which require far fewer simulation runs in order to determine which factors have significant influence on results.

  12. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  13. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs. PMID:7898955

  14. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  15. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  16. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness and Blood Pressure Control in Matao, Brazil: A Pilot Study in Partnership With the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Program

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Cesar; Borin, Lucileni Aparecida; Trovo, Mayra de Cassia; dos Reis, Geraldo Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Background Around 30% of Brazilian population is hypertensive. Brazilian’s Family Health Strategy (FHS) is a community-based approach to provide primary health care and control chronic disease as hypertension. The aims of this pilot study were to study hypertension prevalence and awareness and to analyze the feasibility of FHS program with community healthy agents (CHA) to collect data about hypertensive subjects in Matao, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects equal or older than 40 years old in a neighborhood belonging to FHS program. CHA were trained to collect data and to assess blood pressure (BP) with an automated device. Hypertension diagnosis was defined if systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or subject had previous use of hypertensive drug. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression analysis were applied with significance level of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Results In 625 subjects, hypertension prevalence was 68.8% and women (71.9%) were more hypertensive than men (63.2%) (P = 0.02). Prevalence of hypertension increased with age group, from 46.3% (40 - 49 years) to 82.5% (70 - 79 years) (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of pre-hypertension was 40.1%: stage 1, 25.7% and stage 2, 17.0%. Hypertension awareness was 81.8% and 79.8% reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs. BP was not controlled in 61.8% and 67.7% of them was using anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA reported no difficulties to collect data and BP assessment with the automated device. Conclusion We observed a high hypertension prevalence rate, awareness, and subjects with uncontrolled hypertension even with use of anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA from FHS program are a feasible option to BP control in future studies involving larger populations. PMID:27298661

  17. Obsessional Slowness in College Students: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Aleta

    2014-01-01

    Cases of obsessional slowness, a variant of obsessive compulsive disorder, have been documented in case literature regarding relatively low functioning populations. However, obsessional slowness can also present in higher functioning populations, including college and graduate students, as illustrated here by three case examples from a competitive…

  18. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; Shume, E. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Milla, M.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004). Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; -2.35° dip lat), we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian) sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  19. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Rose, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years; 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  20. Case study on industrial hazmat response teams.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shelly J

    2009-11-01

    In 1991, Amway formed an industrial hazardous materials (hazmat) team in order to respond quickly and efficiently to potential chemical spills. The company's goals were, and still are today, to protect employees, the environment and the local community, and to reduce the amount of resulting downtime. In 1991, the hazmat team was very well funded, enabling it to become a discrete department with its own management staff and nearly 100 hazmat volunteers. Due to changes in the business climate, Amway reorganised in 2000/01, and the hazmat team became part of a company that incorporated contract work into its scope. When this reorganisation occurred, the hazmat team was thoroughly re-evaluated. Its response function was maintained, but was systematically reinvented in the most lean way practicable while still meeting corporate goals. This case study represents Amway's hazmat team's journey through the evaluation process and subsequent reorganisation. PMID:20378491

  1. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  2. Telepractice for pediatric Dysphagia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Roth, Melissa; Sheppard, Justine Joan

    2014-01-01

    A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger's Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable), timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables) and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia. PMID:25945217

  3. Raman spectroscopy and polarization: Selected case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Picardi, Gennaro; Ndong, Gérald; Chaigneau, Marc

    2012-10-01

    We show, through several selected case studies, the potential benefits that can be obtained by controlling the polarization states of the exciting and scattered radiations in a Raman scattering experiment. When coupled with polarization control, Raman spectroscopy is thus capable of providing extra information on the structural properties of the materials under investigation. The experimental examples presented in this work are taken from the area of both conventional, i.e., far-field, as well as from near-field Raman spectroscopy. They cover topics such as the stress tensor measurement in strained semiconductor structures, the vibration mode assignment in pentacene thin films and the Raman scattering tensor determination from near-field measurements on azobenzene monolayers. The basic theory necessary for modelling the far- and near-field polarized Raman responses is also given and the model efficiency is illustrated on the experimental data.

  4. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  5. Becoming occupation-based: a case study.

    PubMed

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Howell, Dana; Harrison, Anne

    2014-10-01

    This descriptive case study illustrates the experiences of a 55-year-old male with a chronic disability resulting from a stroke, living in the community and a clinician's trial using occupation-based interventions predominately in a rehabilitation setting. The participant engaged in occupation-based interventions three times a week for 5 weeks guided by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during the intervention sessions and journal entries made by the therapist. Results suggested occupation-based interventions facilitated a transformation for both the client and the therapist by enhancing the participant's occupational performance and the ability to resume previous roles. The therapist's belief in the power and value of occupation-based practice was reinforced and validated, particularly in the rehabilitation of an individual with chronic stroke. PMID:24867352

  6. Telepractice for Pediatric Dysphagia: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Roth, Melissa; Sheppard, Justine Joan

    2014-01-01

    A closed-ended intensive pediatric swallowing telepractice program was developed and piloted in one pediatric patient with Opitz BBB/G and Asperger’s Syndromes, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aerophagia. The present study is a case report. Outcome variables included behavioral, swallowing and quality of life variables, and were assessed at baseline and at the end of the four-week program. Selective variables were also assessed at a follow-up family interview four weeks post program completion. Over the four-week intervention period, the patient demonstrated substantial improvements in: oral acceptance of eating-related objects and a variety of foods (behavioral variable), timing of voluntary saliva swallows and aerophagia levels (swallowing variables) and quality of life. Follow-up interview analysis showed that most skills were retained or improved one-month post intervention. This intensive telepractice program proved to be feasible and effective for this pediatric patient with dysphagia. PMID:25945217

  7. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices. PMID:24494769

  8. Case Studies for School Administrators: Managing Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P. Ah Nee

    This book examines case-based learning in educational leadership courses, discusses case-based learning as an educational tool, exemplifies methods of writing a case study, and contains 14 case-studies by teachers and administrators. "Stakeholders in a House of Cards," by Audrey Burgher, discusses integrating technology with innovation. "Reforming…

  9. Freedom of information: a case study.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Denise

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to find out how easy it was to access information on the hygiene standards of eating places open to the public. Using the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act 2000, four adjacent local authorities in South Wales were asked to provide the last food hygiene report of an eating place in their area. The disclosed reports were assessed to determine how useful they would be to an individual seeking more information on a food premise. It was relatively easy to obtain information from two authorities and difficult if not impossible with the others. One local authority refused to release information despite the intervention of the FOI Commissioner. The quality of the information released was variable. This ranged from a completed comprehensive inspection protocol to a hand-written, illegible, incomplete report that failed to adequately differentiate between requirements and recommendations. Without some training in food law and food hygiene it would be difficult to interpret the reports. There was no evidence from the information provided of inspection scoring. The case study raises concerns about the effectiveness of the Act for consumers who wish to obtain information about the hygiene standards of food premises. While the specialist information provided by hygiene inspection reports may be useful to businesses it is not helpful for the lay public. Consumers must be prepared to exercise patience and tenacity if they want this information. Concerns must be raised about the consistency of the inspection process and about the willingness of some local authorities to be transparent about the inspection and enforcement process. PMID:17004406

  10. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region. PMID:16981042

  11. Gathering Occupational Health Data from Informal Workers: The Brazilian Experience.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia; Galdino, Adriana; Peres Moura, Maria Cláudia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet

    2016-08-01

    This study describes how occupational health data have been gathered by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) to provide morbidity and mortality estimates for formal and informal workers. In 2007, data on work-related diseases and injuries was incorporated into the compulsory notification system (SINAN) and analyzed by the SUS occupational health service network, which covers all Brazilian states. However, this work has not been fully implemented, resulting in the large-scale undercounting and underreporting of cases, particularly in relation to informal workers. This is suggestive of barriers that prevent access to services and good quality health care. The inclusion of work-related diseases and injuries in SINANs appears to be a feasible strategy for the collection of useful data for the surveillance of the entire universe of workers, particularly in countries where informal workers prevail within the labor force. Attention needs to be paid to the disparities in access and quality that affect low-paid, informal workers. PMID:27235998

  12. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  13. Landslide Economics: Concepts and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Landslide economics is vital for fundamental understanding of landslide risk as dealing with two important topics: (i) impact assessment, either as damage statistics or cost modeling, and (ii) vulnerability assessment, i.e., the study of exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to landslide damage, ideally from both sociotechnical and financial perspective (e.g., Crovelli and Coe, 2009; Wills et al., 2014). Many aspects addressed in landslide economics have direct influence on landslide risk, including: (i) human activity is often a major causative factor of landslides, not only by predisposing or triggering them, but also as a result of inadequate (low-cost) landslide mitigation; (ii) the level of tolerable or acceptable risk, a measure driving a large part of landslide costs in industrialized countries, is highly variable, differing between individuals, public or private organizations, and societies, with its nature being to change over time; and (iii) decision makers are faced with finding the right balance in landslide mitigation, thus need to weight diverse geological and socioeconomic factors that control its effectiveness in both technical and financial terms (e.g., Klose et al., 2014a). A large part of the complexity in assessing landslide risk as measured by economic costs is due to unique problems in understanding of (i) what types of landslide damage affect human activity and infrastructure in which way, (ii) how society contributes and responds to various kinds of damage, and (iii) how landslide damage is valued in monetary terms. Landslide economics shows the potential to take account of these sociocultural factors to the benefit of risk analysis (e.g., Klose et al., 2014b). The present contribution introduces local and regional case studies in which different economic issues of landslide risk are highlighted using the example of public infrastructures in NW Germany. A special focus is on the following topics: (i) risk culture and created risk, (ii

  14. The Minnesota Case Study Collection: New Historical Inquiry Case Studies for Nature of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allchin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The new Minnesota Case Study Collection is profiled, along with other examples. They complement the work of the HIPST Project in illustrating the aims of: (1) historically informed inquiry learning that fosters explicit NOS reflection, and (2) engagement with faithfully rendered samples of Whole Science.

  15. Problem-Based Learning: Case Studies, Experience and Practice. Case Studies of Teaching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter, Ed.; Mennin, Stewart, Ed.; Webb, Graham, Ed.

    The case studies in this book consider many of the most important issues perceived and experienced by people who are using or developing problem-based learning (PBL). The book focuses on politics, administration, resources, the roles of teachers, and the effects of PBL on students. The chapters are: (1) "Come and See the Real Thing" (David…

  16. Case Study: Revising a Formal Case Study Presentation as an Independent Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of researching and revising a case study presentation on an individual who experienced anesthetic awareness during an abdominal surgery and eventually committed suicide. Topics addressed include the author's selection of an undergraduate student with a science and teaching background to work on the case…

  17. Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdik, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

  18. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects. PMID:26483918

  19. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: A Study on the Possible Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on the Establishment of a Misconception among Brazilian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Luz, Mauricio Roberto Motta Pinto

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, I investigated the origin of the misconception that glucose is the sole metabolic fuel previously described among Brazilian high school students. The results of a multiple-choice test composed of 24 questions about a broad range of biology subjects were analyzed. The test was part of a contest and was answered by a sample…

  20. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as “poor readers”

    PubMed Central

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C.; Puglisi, Marina L.; Tourinho, Carlos J.; Miranda, Mônica C.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled “Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility,” “Interference Suppression,” “Selective Attention,” and “Response Inhibition.” Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155