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Sample records for brazilian soldiers returning

  1. Constrictive Bronchiolitis in Soldiers Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    King, Matthew S.; Eisenberg, Rosana; Newman, John H.; Tolle, James J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Nian, Hui; Ninan, Mathew; Lambright, Eric S.; Sheller, James R.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Miller, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background In this descriptive case series, 80 soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, with inhalational exposures during service in Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated for dyspnea on exertion that prevented them from meeting the U.S. Army's standards for physical fitness. Methods The soldiers underwent extensive evaluation of their medical and exposure history, physical examination, pulmonary-function testing, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT). A total of 49 soldiers underwent thoracoscopic lung biopsy after noninvasive evaluation did not provide an explanation for their symptoms. Data on cardiopulmonary-exercise and pulmonary-function testing were compared with data obtained from historical military control subjects. Results Among the soldiers who were referred for evaluation, a history of inhalational exposure to a 2003 sulfur-mine fire in Iraq was common but not universal. Of the 49 soldiers who underwent lung biopsy, all biopsy samples were abnormal, with 38 soldiers having changes that were diagnostic of constrictive bronchiolitis. In the remaining 11 soldiers, diagnoses other than constrictive bronchiolitis that could explain the presenting dyspnea were established. All soldiers with constrictive bronchiolitis had normal results on chest radiography, but about one quarter were found to have mosaic air trapping or centrilobular nodules on chest CT. The results of pulmonary-function and cardiopulmonary-exercise testing were generally within normal population limits but were inferior to those of the military control subjects. Conclusions In 49 previously healthy soldiers with unexplained exertional dyspnea and diminished exercise tolerance after deployment, an analysis of biopsy samples showed diffuse constrictive bronchiolitis, which was possibly associated with inhalational exposure, in 38 soldiers. PMID:21774710

  2. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment. PMID:23113444

  3. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  4. The Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Other Protozoan Parasites in Soldiers Returning from Peacekeeping Missions

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  5. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future. PMID:24079352

  6. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  7. Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from iraq: Randomization by platoon.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors compared different early interventions with 2,297 U.S. soldiers following a year-long deployment to Iraq. Platoons were randomly assigned to standard postdeployment stress education, Battlemind debriefing, and small and large group Battlemind training. Results from a 4-month follow-up with 1,060 participants showed those with high levels of combat exposure who received Battlemind debriefing reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression symptoms, and sleep problems than those in stress education. Small group Battlemind training participants with high combat exposure reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms and sleep problems than stress education participants. Compared to stress education participants, large group Battlemind training participants with high combat exposure reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms and lower levels of stigma and, regardless of combat exposure, reported fewer depression symptoms. Findings demonstrate that brief early interventions have the potential to be effective with at-risk occupational groups. PMID:19803572

  8. Low Enteric Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Soldiers Returning from Deployments- Experience from the Years 2007-2015.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Wiemer, Dorothea; Frey, Claudia; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Podbielski, Andreas; Köller, Thomas; Warnke, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This assessment describes the enteric colonization of German soldiers 8-12 weeks after returning from mostly but not exclusively subtropical or tropical deployment sites with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Between 2007 and 2015, 828 stool samples from returning soldiers were enriched in nonselective broth and incubated on selective agars for Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), VRE and MRSA. Identification and resistance testing of suspicious colonies was performed using MALDI-TOF-MS, VITEK-II and agar diffusion gradient testing (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Isolates with suspicion of ESBL were characterized by ESBL/ampC disc-(ABCD)-testing and molecular approaches (PCR, Sanger sequencing). Among the returnees, E. coli with resistance against third-generation cephalosporins (37 ESBL, 1 ESBL + ampC, 1 uncertain mechanism) were found in 39 instances (4.7%). Associated quinolone resistance was found in 46.2% of these isolates. Beta-lactamases of the blaCTX-M group 1 predominated among the ESBL mechanisms, followed by the blaCTX-M group 9, and blaSHV. VRE of vanA-type was isolated from one returnee (0.12%). MRSA was not isolated at all. There was no clear trend regarding the distribution of resistant isolates during the assessment period. Compared with colonization with resistant bacteria described in civilians returning from the tropics, the colonization in returned soldiers is surprisingly low and stable. This finding, together with high colonization rates found in previous screenings on deployment, suggests a loss of colonization during the 8- to 12-week period between returning from the deployments and assessment. PMID:27598775

  9. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  10. Perceived organizational support, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and stigma in soldiers returning from combat.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christie L; Britt, Thomas W; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D

    2014-05-01

    Research has shown that perceived organizational support (POS), or how much employees believe their organizations value their contributions and well-being, is an important predictor of employee mental health outcomes. To support employee mental health in high-risk occupations, organizations may want to identify variables that explain the relationship between POS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a longitudinal design and a military sample, the present study found a relationship between POS and stigma as well as PTSD symptoms. Stigma partially mediated the relationship between POS at Time 1 and PTSD symptoms at Time 2. The partial mediation indicates that a supportive environment may also create a climate of reduced stigma in which soldiers may be comfortable addressing PTSD symptoms. Both results suggest positive actions that organizations can take to support employee mental health. PMID:24364593

  11. Battlemind Debriefing and Battlemind Training as Early Interventions with Soldiers Returning from Iraq: Randomization by Platoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Amy B.; Bliese, Paul D.; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W.; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors…

  12. Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat.

    PubMed

    Bliese, Paul D; Wright, Kathleen M; Adler, Amy B; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics of both the PC-PTSD and the PCL. A validation study conducted with a sample of 352 service members showed that both the PC-PTSD and PCL had good diagnostic efficiency. The overall diagnostic efficiency assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) was virtually the same for both the PC-PTSD and PCL. The most efficient cutoff values for the PC-PTSD were either 2 or 3 "yes" responses with the latter favoring specificity. For the PCL, the most efficient cutoff values were between 30 and 34, mirroring recommended PCL cutoff values from some studies in primary care settings. The examination of item characteristics suggested a 4-item PCL with an AUC virtually identical to that of the full PCL. Item analyses also identified that the most discriminate item in both scales pertained to symptoms of avoidance. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:18377123

  13. Pre-deployment differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity of leukocytes in soldiers developing symptoms of PTSD, depression or fatigue persist after return from military deployment.

    PubMed

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Vermetten, Eric; Olff, Miranda; Geuze, Elbert; Heijnen, Cobi

    2015-01-01

    Deployed soldiers are at risk of developing stress-related conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and severe fatigue. We previously observed condition- and cell-specific differences in sensitivity of immune cells for regulation by glucocorticoids (GCs) pre-deployment between male soldiers with and without subsequent development of high levels of these stress-related symptoms. Here we investigated whether these pre-deployment dysregulations in GC-sensitivity of immune cells persisted after return from military deployment. In a prospective, longitudinal study including 721 male and female soldiers, the in vitro GC-sensitivity of monocytes and T-cells was assessed prior to deployment and one and six months post-deployment. Differences in the longitudinal course of sensitivity for regulation by dexamethasone (DEX) of LPS-stimulated TNF-α production and PHA-stimulated T-cell proliferation between soldiers with and without subsequent symptom development were investigated using linear mixed models. Within the whole group, DEX-sensitivity of monocytes was significantly decreased at six months post-deployment compared to the assessments pre-deployment and one month post-deployment. The DEX-sensitivity of T-cells did not significantly change over time. Participants developing high levels of PTSD symptoms showed high DEX-sensitivity of T-cells, while participants developing high levels of depressive symptoms showed low DEX-sensitivity of T-cells before deployment that persisted at the two time points after return. In addition, participants developing severe fatigue had low DEX-sensitivity of monocytes at all assessments. Our finding that the previously observed pre-deployment group differences in peripheral GC-sensitivity persisted until at least six months after return indicates that in vitro GC-sensitivity of T-cells and monocytes may represent a persistent biological vulnerability factor for development of stress

  14. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  15. Illness in a redeployed soldier.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dana R

    2007-05-01

    Overseas deployments place military personnel at risk for tropical diseases not typically observed on the U.S. mainland. This case describes the first reported case of brucellosis returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. A 31-year-old infantry soldier complained of a 6-week history of headaches, relapsing fever, and constitutional symptoms since returning from Iraq. This soldier was determined to have the only reported case of brucellosis, but was one of many soldiers at risk from eating unpasteurized cheese on the local economy. Although malaria and leishmaniasis continue to be the most common deployment-related illnesses, brucellosis must also be considered in the differential of any redeployed soldier with headache, fever, and body aches. Public health as well as command elements must reinforce their role in preventing exposure to this pathogen. PMID:17521107

  16. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  17. Six legged soldiers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jeffrey Lockwood has written a fascinating if at times depressing exploration of the role of insects in warfare. Dr. Lockwood reviews the martial use of insects, starting with stinging bees and wasps, which were in ancient and Medieval times widely used in war to induce panic among enemy soldiers. ...

  18. Soldiers in a Stingless Bee.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Benedikt; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Menezes, Cristiano; Nascimento, Fabio S; Engels, Wolf; Grüter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of workers into morphological subcastes (e.g., soldiers) represents an important evolutionary transition and is thought to improve division of labor in social insects. Soldiers occur in many ant and termite species, where they make up a small proportion of the workforce. A common assumption of worker caste evolution is that soldiers are behavioral specialists. Here, we report the first test of the "rare specialist" hypothesis in a eusocial bee. Colonies of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula are defended by a small group of morphologically differentiated soldiers. Contrary to the rare specialist hypothesis, we found that soldiers worked more (+34%-41%) and performed a greater variety of tasks (+23%-34%) than other workers, particularly early in life. Our results suggest a "rare elite" function of soldiers in T. angustula, that is, that they perform a disproportionately large amount of the work. Division of labor was based on a combination of temporal and physical castes, but soldiers transitioned faster from one task to the next. We discuss why the rare specialist assumption might not hold in species with a moderate degree of worker differentiation. PMID:27277408

  19. Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A; Rizzo, Albert A; Swanson, Robert; Duma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Repeated combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for this disorder, some personnel do not significantly respond to treatment, possibly due to poor activation of the trauma memory or a lack of emotional engagement during therapy. In addition, some service members do not seek mental healthcare due to treatment stigma. Researchers recently developed a virtual reality (VR) Iraq to attempt to improve activation of the traumatic memory during exposure therapy and to provide a treatment approach that may be more appealing to some service members, relative to traditional face-to-face talk therapy. Initial validation of the application requires an assessment of how well it represents the experiences of previously deployed service members. This study evaluated the realism of the VR Iraq application according to the subjective evaluation of 93 U.S. Army soldiers who returned from Iraq in the last year. Those screening negative for PTSD used and evaluated a VR tactical convoy and a VR dismounted patrol in a simulated Middle Eastern city. Results indicated that 86% of soldiers rated the overall realism of the VR convoy as ranging from adequate to excellent. Eighty-two percent of soldiers reported adequate-to-excellent overall realism of the city environment. Results provide evidence that the VR Iraq presents a realistic context in which VR exposure therapy can be conducted. However, clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for Iraq veterans with PTSD. PMID:19199854

  20. Reflections on suicide among soldiers.

    PubMed

    Jobes, David A

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the Nock et al. review article (this issue) and provides additional perspectives pertaining to current concerns about Soldier suicides. The review article is relevant to the current Army STARRS research project, which is one of the most significant scientific undertakings in the history of suicide research. The review is an outstanding and thorough consideration of psychosocial risk and protective factors that may be related to Soldier suicide. While Army STARRS is a landmark effort, the author does note the need for innovation and alternative approaches to addressing alarming increases in Soldier suicides. Indeed, the dramatic increase seen in Soldier suicides over the past several years poses one of the more vexing challenges that the field of suicidology has faced to date. To this end, the author explores some alternative considerations that were not particularly featured in the review article. Some of these considerations include perspectives on military culture in relation to conventional suicide prevention as well as exciting developments emerging from clinical trial treatment research using suicidal military samples. It is argued that the magnitude of the current problem requires both innovative approaches and a sound scientific foundation to meaningfully impact and reduce the unprecedentedly high rates of Soldier suicide. PMID:23631543

  1. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  2. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  3. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  4. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form in National Guard Soldiers Screening Positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Thuras, Paul; Reddy, Madhavi K.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF) was administered to 251 National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from deployment to Iraq. Soldiers were also administered questionnaires to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). On the basis of responses to the…

  5. Prevalence and Impact of Short Sleep Duration in Redeployed OIF Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Luxton, David D.; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Design: Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90–180 days after completing a 6–15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. Setting: US Army Infantry Post. Subjects: All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. Conclusions: SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions. Citation: Luxton DD; Greenburg D; Ryan J; Niven A; Wheeler G; Mysliwiec V. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1189-1195. PMID:21886356

  6. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  7. Postdeployment mental health screening: an application of the Soldier Adaptation Model.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Cory; Hoyt, Timothy V; Jones, Michael D; Etherage, Joseph R; Okiishi, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Global War on Terrorism and its corresponding frequent and long deployments have resulted in an increase in mental health concerns among active duty troops. To mitigate these impacts, the Department of Defense has implemented postdeployment screening initiatives designed to identify symptomatic soldiers and refer them for mental health care. Although the primary purpose of these screenings is to identify and provide assistance to individuals, macrolevel reporting of screening results for groups can assist Commanders, who are charged with ensuring the wellbeing of their soldiers, to make unit-level interventions. This study assesses the utility of a metatheory of occupational stress, the Soldier Adaptation Model, in organizing feedback information provided to Army Commanders on their units' postdeployment screening results. The results of a combat brigade of 2319 soldiers who completed post-deployment screening following return from Iraq were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the Soldier Adaptation Model's use for macrolevel reporting. Results indicate the Soldier Adaptation Model did not strengthen the macrolevel reporting; however, alcohol use and reckless driving were found to mediate the relationship between combat exposure and numerous mental health symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, depression, anxiety, etc.). Research and practice implications are discussed. PMID:22594125

  8. Soldier-Scholars. Higher Education in the AEF, 1917-1919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornebise, Alfred E.

    At the end of World War I, a system of education was created for the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) who remained in Europe. This book documents the history of the ventures, organized by the Young Mens Christian Association and the army, that provided educational opportunities for two million men awaiting return to home.…

  9. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  10. Observations and insights about strengthening our soldiers SOS.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Barbara G; Castro, Carl

    2011-06-01

    The Special Issue (June 2011) of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings titled Strengthening Our Soldiers (SOS) and Their Families: Contemporary Psychological Advances Applied to Wartime Problems revealed the following important concerns: 1) Who is at risk for psychological sequelae during and following service in the U.S. military? 2) How to deliver the best treatment for our soldiers and veterans with PTSD, Traumatic Brain Injury and Pain? 3) How to train the trainers? and 4) What are the current priorities for service delivery, research and funding? Assessment strategies and tools are provided to assist in identification of suicidal ideation and behaviors, alcohol abuse in spouses, posttraumatic stress disorders, depression, brain injuries and post-concussion syndrome, as well as positive growth experiences. Empirically validated Cognitive Processing and Prolonged Exposure treatments are described as are the empirical results already in evidence in our military populations. The innovative use of Virtual Reality and Telehealth applications is demonstrated in both army and naval settings for preparing and reducing trauma in affected soldiers. The Functional and Occupational Rehabilitation Treatment (FORT) Program and its role in returning function to injured soldiers with musculoskeletal pain and motion restrictions, while also leading to reductions of anxiety, depression and use of medical services, is described. A critique about providing service-research for children's reactions to their parent's deployments and family functioning during separation and reintegration is provided. The need for theoretical-empirical approaches to understanding pain-behavior, anxiety dysregulation as it impacts the brain function and structure is provided by experts in pain, neuropsychology, brain circuitry and anxiety management of multiple traumas. This final paper in SOS provides commentary on SOS and describes possible future implications of current

  11. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  12. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience. PMID:26654504

  13. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts.

    PubMed

    Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J

    2006-01-01

    As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships. PMID:19153896

  14. [Posttraumtic stress disorder after deployment of German soldiers : does the risk increase with deployment duration?].

    PubMed

    Trautmann, S; Schönfeld, S; Höfler, M; Heinrich, A; Hauffa, R; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U

    2013-07-01

    International studies suggest a growing risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with an increasing duration of deployment. There are no data available for the German armed forces that would allow an assessment of the average mission duration of about 4 months. Analyses are based on a stratified random sample of 1,483 ISAF soldiers. Standardized diagnostic interviews were conducted about 12 months after soldiers returned from mission. Deployment duration was categorized into 1-2 months, 3-5 months, and 5-8 months. Additionally, dimensional analyses of deployment duration were performed. Deployment duration was associated with the number of stressful and traumatic events. Notwithstanding, we found no linear relationship between mission duration and PTSD risk, neither in the total sample nor in the defined subgroups. However, we found a bimodal distribution suggesting an increased PTSD risk in the first 2 months and - less pronounced and limited to the Kunduz location - for deployment durations of at least 6 months. There was no general increase in PTSD risk with increasing deployment durations for German soldiers in this naturalistic study. The higher risk for soldiers with short deployments might be explained by selection of vulnerable subjects and different deployment characteristics. Further, there is some evidence of an increased PTSD risk for soldiers deployed for longer periods to high-risk locations (e.g., Kunduz). PMID:23712322

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  16. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars.This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016

  17. Effects of soldier-derived terpenes on soldier caste differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Schmelz, Eric A; Rocca, James R; Scharf, Michael E

    2009-02-01

    Primer pheromones play key roles in regulating division of labor, which is a fundamental and defining aspect of insect sociality. Primer pheromones are chemical messengers that transmit hormone-like messages among colony members; in recipients, these messages can either induce or suppress phenotypic caste differentiation. Here, we investigated soldier caste-derived chemicals as possible primer pheromones in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, a species for which no primer pheromones have yet been identified. We determined that soldier head extracts (SHE), when provided to totipotent workers along with the insect morphogenetic juvenile hormone (JH), significantly enhanced soldier caste differentiation. When applied alone, however, SHE had no impacts on caste differentiation, survivorship, or any other aspect of worker biology. These findings support a function of soldier chemicals as primer pheromones that enhance the action of the endogenous JH. In accord with previous studies, gamma-cadinene and the corresponding aldehyde, gamma-cadinenal, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses as the two most abundant components of R. flavipes SHE. Validative bioassays with commercially available cadinene confirmed activity. Several other terpenes, previously identified in R. flavipes soldiers, also were found to be active. These findings reveal a novel primer pheromone-like function for soldier-derived terpenes in termites and further suggest convergent evolution of terpene functions in enhancing JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. PMID:19198947

  18. Venomous protease of aphid soldier for colony defense.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Mayako; Shibao, Harunobu; Nikoh, Naruo; Morioka, Mizue; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Ohgiya, Satoru; Fukatsu, Takema

    2004-08-01

    In social aphids, morphological, behavioral, and physiological differences between soldiers and normal insects are attributed to differences in gene expression between them, because they are clonal offspring parthenogenetically produced by the same mothers. By using cDNA subtraction, we identified a soldier-specific cysteine protease of the family cathepsin B in a social aphid, Tuberaphis styraci, with a second-instar soldier caste. The cathepsin B gene was specifically expressed in soldiers and first-instar nymphs destined to be soldiers. The cathepsin B protein was preferentially produced in soldiers and showed a protease activity typical of cathepsin B. The cathepsin B mRNA and protein were localized in the midgut of soldiers. For colony defense, soldiers attack enemies with their stylet, which causes paralysis and death of the victims. Notably, after soldiers attacked moth larvae, the cathepsin B protein was detected from the paralyzed larvae. Injection of purified recombinant cathepsin B protein certainly killed the recipient moth larvae. From these results, we concluded that the cathepsin B protein is a major component of the aphid venom produced by soldiers of T. styraci. Soldier-specific expression of the cathepsin B gene was found in other social aphids of the genus Tuberaphis. The soldier-specific cathepsin B gene showed an accelerated molecular evolution probably caused by the action of positive selection, which had been also known from venomous proteins of other animals. PMID:15277678

  19. Soldier/robot team acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The future battlefield will require an unprecedented level of automation in which soldier-operated, autonomous, and semi-autonomous ground, air, and sea platforms along with mounted and dismounted soldiers will function as a tightly coupled team. Sophisticated robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Objective Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a robot-based acoustic detection system that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, acoustic sensor arrays worn on a soldier's helmet or equipment can enhance his situational awareness and RSTA capabilities. The Land Warrior or Objective Force Warrior body-worn computer can detect tactically significant impulsive signatures from bullets, mortars, artillery, and missiles or spectral signatures from tanks, helicopters, UAVs, and mobile robots. Time-difference-of-arrival techniques can determine a sound's direction of arrival, while head attitude sensors can instantly determine the helmet orientation at time of capture. With precision GPS location of the soldier, along with the locations of other soldiers, robots, or unattended ground sensors that heard the same event, triangulation techniques can produce an accurate location of the target. Data from C-4 explosions and 0.50-Caliber shots shows that both helmet and robot systems can localize on the same event. This provides an awesome capability - mobile robots and soldiers working together on an ever-changing battlespace to detect the enemy and improve the survivability, mobility, and lethality of our future warriors.

  20. [Reception and involvement of soldiers' families].

    PubMed

    Vautier, Virginie; Delahaye, Aline; Gorin, Cécile; Charlot, Annette; Clervoy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Faced with a mental health crisis, the intervention of nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists is rarely limited to an individual approach. Our team has chosen to structure and systematise the involvement of the families of hospitalised soldiers.A family psychotherapy consultation has also been reinforced in orderto favourthe inclusion of the families of soldiers in crisis. These two tools are complementary and have enabled us to enrich the multidisciplinary work within the unit, as well as the relationship with the patients and families confronted with a crisis. PMID:25975165

  1. Religiosity as a Moderator of Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Predicting Traumatic Stress Among Combat Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kaplan, Oren; Noy, Smadar; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 54 Israeli soldiers (51 % non-religious, 49 % religious) surveyed upon their return from combat, this study investigates the moderating role of religiosity as a factor that may strengthen cognitive processing tied to the belief in oneself to persevere (i.e., self-efficacy) after trauma and/or as a factor tied to enhanced external social support that religious individuals in particular may benefit from by their involvement in a religious community. Findings revealed (1) social support was tied to greater resilience within the general sample; (2) religious soldiers were less susceptible to traumatic stress than non-religious soldiers; and (3) religiosity moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and traumatic stress but not the relationship between social support and traumatic stress. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:26815579

  2. Child Soldiers: Rights Denied, Hope Restored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…

  3. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  4. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  5. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  6. Soldiers: A Suitable Case for Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Examines the soldier's world in order to illuminate their potential psychotherapeutic need. Briefly explores the history of therapeutic treatment from the Russo-Japanese War to modern conflicts as well as covering operations other than war, such as peacekeeping in Northern Ireland. Specific conditions are considered, and some general points are…

  7. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  8. Latino Soldiering: The Red, White, and Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Latinos--particularly Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans--are known as exemplary soldiers. The record shows they have always answered the call to duty proudly and willingly no matter the cause or the burden. That is why they have won so many Congressional Medals of Honor. There are currently about 85,000 Hispanics on active military duty.…

  9. Dealing with the disturbed soldier in primary care.

    PubMed

    Carter, P A; Willman, A S; Kuber, A

    2003-06-01

    Medical Officers are often called to review violent or disturbed soldiers in barracks or in their homes. Management of the acutely disturbed soldier differs from the acutely disturbed civilian in that, whilst drug therapy will be largely similar, application of the Mental Health Acts (1) varies depending on the soldier's situation and, in some cases, the Acts do not apply at all. In addition, the rules on the arrest and detention of soldiers have changed considerably since the introduction of Human Rights legislation (2). PMID:12929517

  10. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  11. Integrated soldier power and data system (ISPDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, Roman; Forrester, Thomas; Lee, Kang; Stephens, Robert; Lai, Anthony; Zahzah, Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the body-worn Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS), a configurable node for plug-in wired or wireless server/client or peer-to-peer computing with accommodations for power, sensor I/O interfaces, and energy harvesting. The enabling technology increases the efficacy of uniformed personnel and first responders and provides an option for reducing force structure associated with the need for hardware network infrastructure to enable a mobile digital communications architecture for dismounted troops. The ISPDS system addresses the DoD's need for an "intelligent" power control system in an effort to increase mission duration and maximize the first responders and warfighter's effectiveness without concern for the available energy resources (i.e., batteries). ISPDS maximizes durability and survivability, assesses influences that affect performance, and provides the network backbone and mobile node hardware. POC is producing two vest-integrated variants, one each for the U.S. Army PEO Ground Soldier and the Air Soldier, with each including state-of-the-art low-profile and robust wearable connectors, cabling, and harnesses, and an integrated low-profile power manager and conformal battery for data and power distribution. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the ISPDS firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable ISPDS to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. The IPC module is power dense and efficient, and adaptively provides lossless transfer of available harvested photovoltaic energy to the battery. The integrated systems were tested for suitable electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental performance as outlined in military standards such as MIL-STD- 810G and MIL STD-461F.

  12. 15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, SHOWING EAST DITCH AND A SECTION OF LOW WALL. No date, probably ca. 1935. Photographer unknown. Original silver gelatin print measures 13.1 cm by 7.3 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. 13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW EAST, COTTAGE 'L', (UPPER LEFT COTTAGE 'F', COTTAGE 'G'; UPPER RIGHT COTTAGE UNKNOWN) - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Cottage L, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  14. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  15. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  16. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. PMID:26346388

  17. Posttraumatic headaches in civilians, soldiers, and athletes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2014-05-01

    Posttraumatic headaches are one of the most common and controversial secondary headache types. After mild head injury, more than 50% of people develop a postconcussion syndrome which has been controversial for more than 150 years. Headache is estimated as present in 30% to 90% of patients after mild head injury. Most headaches are of the tension type, although migraines can increase in frequency or occur acutely or chronically de novo. A review is provided of headaches in civilians, soldiers after blast trauma, athletes, and post-craniotomy including pathogenesis. The treatments are the same as for the primary phenotypes. PMID:24703532

  18. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  19. [Injured soldiers and their quality of life].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Tan, Edward C T H; Lely, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article entitled 'Dutch military casualties of the war in Afghanistan - Quality of life and level of participation after rehabilitation' by de Kruijff and colleagues, published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, NTvG). The article addresses a very relevant issue: the impact of war injuries on a wounded soldier's recovery, quality of life and level of participation after rehabilitation. The choice was made to compare soldiers wounded during their mission in Uruzgan with the Dutch general trauma population by means of the 'Injury Severity Score' (ISS) and the 'Abbreviated Injury Scale' (AIS) score. As mechanisms of trauma in the military setting (e.g. war injuries such as blast and penetrating trauma; blunt trauma in civilians), their resulting injuries and their psychological context differ strongly from those encountered in the Dutch general population, the question arises whether such a comparison is the optimal choice. We encourage the authors to follow up on this study and in doing so, to correct for type of injury and to integrate findings from the military-psychology field of expertise into the outcome. PMID:22929755

  20. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  2. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  3. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  4. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  5. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  6. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed. PMID:24397926

  7. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  8. Friendly Forces: Returning Veterans Need Staunch Allies on College Campuses. Lumina Foundation Focus™. Spring 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2013-01-01

    The transition to college presents significant challenges to many returning veterans. These students are, in many ways, the most nontraditional of all nontraditional students. These soldier/scholars are set apart from their campus peers--by age, by life experience, by envelopment in the military culture, and all too often by a close-up view of…

  9. Paediatrics and the doctor-soldier.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2012-08-01

    Sick and injured children, like combatants wounded by shot and shell in war, are disproportionately represented in the tallies of both man-made and national disasters. Paediatricians have a particularly proud heritage of military service, a nexus dating in Australia from the early 19th century. This paper traces this link between service to children in peacetime and the care of servicemen, women and children in times of war and disaster. The extraordinary record of Australian 'paediatric' doctors who also served in the Gallipoli Campaign (1915) is documented as an illustration of this duality. Paediatricians who serve in the Defence Reserves and in civilian non-government organisations which respond to disasters and civil wars have special credentials in their advocacy for the protection of children enmeshed in conflict or disaster. Such applies particularly to the banning of the recruitment and use of child soldiers; support for children caught up in refugee and illegal immigrant confrontations; and continued advocacy for greater international compliance with the Ottawa Convention to ban the use of anti-personnel landmines. Volunteering for such service must occur in cold 'down time', ensuring that paediatricians are trained in disaster and conflict response, when such challenges inevitably confront the paediatricians of the future. PMID:22471873

  10. Caffeine use among active duty US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2012-06-01

    Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (P<0.01). Most soldiers consume caffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions. PMID:22709816

  11. Guidelines for return to duty (play) after heat illness: a military perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Francis G; Williams, Aaron D; Blivin, Steve; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia; Flinn, Scott D

    2007-08-01

    Since Biblical times, heat injuries have been a major focus of military medical personnel. Heat illness accounts for considerable morbidity during recruit training and remains a common cause of preventable nontraumatic exertional death in the United States military. This brief report describes current regulations used by Army, Air Force, and Navy medical personnel to return active duty warfighters who are affected by a heat illness back to full duty. In addition, a description of the profile system used in evaluating the different body systems, and how it relates to military return to duty, are detailed. Current guidelines require clinical resolution, as well as a profile that that protects a soldier through repeated heat cycles, prior to returning to full duty. The Israeli Defense Force, in contrast, incorporates a heat tolerance test to return to duty those soldiers afflicted by heat stroke, which is briefly described. Future directions for U.S. military medicine are discussed. PMID:17923729

  12. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  13. The Soldiers in Societies: Defense, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427

  14. Head-mounted display systems and the special operations soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Rodney B.

    1998-08-01

    In 1997, the Boeing Company, working with DARPA under the Smart Modules program and the US Army Soldier Systems Command, embarked on an advanced research and development program to develop a wearable computer system tailored for use with soldiers of the US Special Operations Command. The 'special operations combat management system' is a rugged advanced wearable tactical computer, designed to provide the special operations soldier with enhanced situation awareness and battlefield information capabilities. Many issues must be considered during the design of wearable computers for a combat soldier, including the system weight, placement on the body with respect to other equipment, user interfaces and display system characteristics. During the initial feasibility study for the system, the operational environment was examined and potential users were interviewed to establish the proper display solution for the system. Many display system requirements resulted, such as head or helmet mounting, Night Vision Goggle compatibility, minimal visible light emissions, environmental performance and even the need for handheld or other 'off the head' type display systems. This paper will address these issues and other end user requirements for display systems for applications in the harsh and demanding environment of the Special Operations soldier.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  16. Intragenomic Conflict over Soldier Allocation in Polyembryonic Parasitoid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Rautiala, Petri; Gardner, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the selection pressures that have driven the evolution of sterile insect castes has been the focus of decades of intense scientific debate. An amenable empirical test bed for theory on this topic is provided by the sterile-soldier caste of polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. The function of these soldiers has been a source of controversy, with two basic hypotheses emerging: the "brood-benefit" hypothesis that they provide an overall benefit for their siblings and the "sex-ratio-conflict" hypothesis that the soldiers mediate a conflict between brothers and sisters by killing their opposite-sex siblings. Here, we investigate the divergent sex-ratio optima of a female embryo's maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes, to determine the potential for, and direction of, intragenomic conflict over soldiering. We then derive contrasting empirically testable predictions concerning the patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to arise out of this intragenomic conflict, for the brood-benefit versus the sex-ratio-conflict hypothesis of soldier function. PMID:27028082

  17. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  18. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  19. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  20. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403

  1. The effects of functional limitations on soldier common tasks.

    PubMed

    Bacon, John R; Armstrong, Thomas J; Brininger, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the findings associated with the ability of an individual to perform the United States Army's Common Soldier Tasks of: "Maintaining an M16-Series Rifle" , "Protect Yourself from Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Injury or Contamination with Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) Gear", and "Protect Yourself from Chemical and Biological (CB) Contamination Using Your Assigned Protective Mask." The analysis was conducted using data compiled from videos of a Soldier performing the given tasks at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The findings reflect the opinions of researchers in identifying potential elements, which impose abnormal, irregular, and/or extraneous effort when performing the tasks as outlined in STP-21-1-SMCT - Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks: Skill Level I. PMID:22316761

  2. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  3. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers. PMID:21053376

  4. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  5. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  6. 38 CFR 1.515 - To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State soldiers' homes. 1.515 Section 1.515 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.515 To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes. When a request is received in a... State soldiers' home for information other than information relative to the character of the...

  7. 38 CFR 1.523 - To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State soldiers' homes. 1.523 Section 1.523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.523 To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes. When a request is received in a... State soldiers' home for information other than information relative to the character of the...

  8. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills. PMID:25975167

  9. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  10. Returning home: resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Joanne N

    2008-06-01

    This exploratory qualitative study considers the subjective resettlement experiences of children forced into armed conflict in Northern Uganda from the perspectives of 11 former child combatants and 11 adult community members. A thematic analysis was performed on the narrative data. The bioecological model was used to provide a conceptual framework for key themes. Major findings included the overarching impact of ongoing armed conflict on returnees' lives, the important role of the family in supporting children's resettlement, the harassment of former child soldiers by community members, and the community's inability to support systematically the returning children in tangible ways. This study recommends that humanitarian services at all levels strengthen the capacity of families to care for the material and psychoemotional needs of former child soldiers within their communities. PMID:18380858

  11. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  12. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  13. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  14. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  15. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  16. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  17. AFRICANAMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRICAN-AMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN TWO OF THE 1916 STABLES. PHOTOGRAPH IS LOOKING TO THE WEST AND WAS TAKEN IN 1928 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1928.00.00.13, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  18. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  19. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  20. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  1. Radio and the Black Soldier during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckiffe, Donald; Murray, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the representation of race in the electronic media. Traces particular social, political, and institutional pressure influencing the production of the figure of the black soldier in U.S. radio during World War II. Shows how it served to varying degrees the immediate interests of the black press, the federal government,…

  2. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  3. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. PMID:25026598

  4. The spined soldier bug: an important biocontrol agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be present...

  5. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  6. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…

  7. Telemedicine in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon; Jain, Ram; Berry-Caban, Cristobal

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective study of a telemedicine clinic for active duty US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes was conducted. Fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 33.9 years) were enrolled into the clinic. All soldiers with known or newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes received three weekly office visits for intensive diabetes education. After this, all communication occurred via a messaging system consisting of texting, web-based download, and/or email to a diabetes management team. For urgent matters, 24/7 direct paging or telephone access was provided. Routine adjustments in insulin dosing were accomplished via email. Soldiers were followed for a mean of 17.1 months. Baseline, three-month, and end of study glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values were 9.8, 7.3, and 6.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in end of study A1C levels between patients with known vs. newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, nor were there any differences between those patients who received insulin via pump therapy vs. multiple daily injections. Telemedicine was safe and effective in lowering A1C levels in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26033845

  8. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  9. Missing: Critical and Skeptical Perspectives on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist". The "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections"…

  10. Exposure to recurrent combat stress: combat stress reactions among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Jakob, B R

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the impact of repeated exposure to combat on combat stress reaction (CSR). Soldiers diagnosed with CSR during the Lebanon War (N = 382) were compared with a matched control group of soldiers who fought in the same units but did not manifest symptoms of CSR (N = 334). CSR in the Lebanon War was found to be related to the psychological outcome the soldier experienced in previous wars. The CSR rate in the Lebanon War was higher in soldiers who had experienced an episode of CSR in a previous war than in soldiers with no past combat experience. However, CSR rates were lower among soldiers who had not had an episode of CSR in a previous war than among soldiers with no prior combat experience. High intensity of combat in Lebanon was found to increase both the detrimental and favourable effects of prior combat experience. PMID:3602235

  11. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments

    PubMed Central

    Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554

  12. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  13. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic. He and his coauthors…

  14. Associations among Experiential Avoidance, Couple Adjustment, and Interpersonal Aggression in Returning Iraqi War Veterans and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Madhavi K.; Meis, Laura A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Compton, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in relationship adjustment, psychological aggression, and physical aggression among military couples. Method: The sample was composed of 49 male soldiers who recently returned from deployment to Iraq and their female partners. As part of a larger…

  15. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  16. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Home Guard Soldiers During Military Service and Civilian Life.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers are encouraged to be physically active, and thereby maintain or increase their fitness level to meet job-related physical demands. However, studies on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in soldiers are scarce, particular for reserve soldiers. Hence, the aim of this study was to present PA data on Norwegian Home Guard (HG) soldiers. A total of 411 HG soldiers produced acceptable PA measurements (SenseWear Armband Pro2) during civilian life, of which 299 soldiers also produced acceptable data during HG military training. Reference data on total energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps per day, and minutes of PA in three different metabolic equivalent categories are presented. The HG soldiers produced more minutes of moderate PA during HG military training compared to civilian life, but less vigorous and very vigorous PA. Furthermore, HG soldiers were more physically active during civilian week days compared to weekend days. The presented reference data can be used for comparisons against other groups of soldiers. Our data indicate that aerobic demands during HG military training were not very high. Promoting PA and exercise could still be important to ensure HG soldiers are physically prepared for more unforeseen job tasks. PMID:27391624

  17. Satisfaction of active duty soldiers with family dental care.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C

    1997-02-01

    In the fall of 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 6,442 married and single parent soldiers completed a self-administered survey on satisfaction with 22 attributes of family dental care. Simple descriptive statistics for each attribute were derived, as was a composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, annual dental utilization, and access barriers to identify those factors having an impact on a soldier's overall satisfaction with family dental care. Separate regression models were constructed for single parents, childless couples, and couples with children. Results show below-average satisfaction with nearly all attributes of family dental care, with access attributes having the lowest average satisfaction scores. Factors influencing satisfaction with family dental care varied by family type with one exception: dependent dental utilization within the past year contributed positively to satisfaction across all family types. PMID:9038028

  18. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam

    2012-05-01

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems. PMID:22645874

  19. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. PMID:18612993

  20. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  1. Soldier sentenced for exposing eight sex partners to HIV.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    An HIV-positive Army soldier at Fort Benning, GA was sentenced to 15 years in prison after admitting to having unprotected sex with at least 8 women. [Name removed] pleaded guilty at his court martial to charges of aggravated assault, sodomy, adultery, and disobeying orders. The women said [name removed] never told them that he was HIV-positive. Four of the women became pregnant. One miscarried, and one delivered an HIV-infected baby. PMID:11365240

  2. Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy; Hardy, Ian C W; Taylor, Peter D; West, Stuart A

    2007-04-01

    The existence of spiteful behaviors remains controversial. Spiteful behaviors are those that are harmful to both the actor and the recipient, and they represent one of the four fundamental types of social behavior (alongside selfishness, altruism, and mutual benefit). It has generally been assumed that the conditions required for spite to evolve are too restrictive, and so spite is unlikely to be important. This idea has been challenged in recent years, with the realization that localized competition can relax the conditions required for spite to evolve. Here we develop a theoretical model for a prime candidate for a spiteful behavior, the production of the sterile soldier caste in polyembryonic wasps. Our results show that (a) the biology of these soldiers is consistent with their main role being to mediate conflict over the sex ratio and not to defend against competitors and (b) greater conflict will occur in more outbred populations. We also show that the production of the sterile soldier caste can be classed as a spiteful behavior but that, to an extent, this is merely a semantic choice, and other interpretations such as altruism or indirect altruism are valid. However, the spite interpretation is useful in that it can lead to a more natural interpretation of relatedness and facilitate the classification of behaviors in a way that emphasizes biologically interesting differences that can be empirically tested. PMID:17427122

  3. Buddy-to-Buddy, a citizen soldier peer support program to counteract stigma, PTSD, depression, and suicide.

    PubMed

    Greden, John F; Valenstein, Marcia; Spinner, Jane; Blow, Adrian; Gorman, Lisa A; Dalack, Gregory W; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Citizen soldiers (National Guard and Reserves) represent approximately 40% of the two million armed forces deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq. Twenty-five to forty percent of them develop PTSD, clinical depression, sleep disturbances, or suicidal thoughts. Upon returning home, many encounter additional stresses and hurdles to obtaining care: specifically, many civilian communities lack military medical/psychiatric facilities; financial, job, home, and relationship stresses have evolved or have been exacerbated during deployment; uncertainty has increased related to future deployment; there is loss of contact with military peers; and there is reluctance to recognize and acknowledge mental health needs that interfere with treatment entry and adherence. Approximately half of those needing help are not receiving it. To address this constellation of issues, a private-public partnership was formed under the auspices of the Welcome Back Veterans Initiative. In Michigan, the Army National Guard teamed with the University of Michigan and Michigan State University to develop innovative peer-to-peer programs for soldiers (Buddy-to-Buddy) and augmented programs for military families. Goals are to improve treatment entry, adherence, clinical outcomes, and to reduce suicides. This manuscript describes training approaches, preliminary results, and explores future national dissemination. PMID:20955330

  4. POST‐SURGICAL REHABILITATION FOLLOWING FASCIOTOMIES FOR BILATERAL CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN A SPECIAL FORCES SOLDIER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The etiology of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS) is still unclear. The most commonly accepted theory suggests that it is a transient but debilitating process where there is an abnormally increased intracompartmental pressure during exercise/exertion due to non‐compliant expansion of the osteofascial tissues. This most commonly occurs in the lower leg. Surgical intervention is often performed for symptom relief. However, there has been limited scientifically‐based publication on post‐surgical rehabilitation, especially with regard to return to function in the military population. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the utilization of a recommended post‐operative protocol in a Special Forces Soldier. Case Description: The subject presented as a 25‐year‐old US Army Special Forces Soldier, who failed 8 weeks of conservative management for the diagnosis of CECS and subsequently underwent bilateral lower leg fasciotomies of the anterior and lateral compartments. Outcomes: Following recommended protocol guidelines he was progressed rapidly and within three months deployed without restriction or complications in a demanding combat zone. Discussion: This case report illustrates that following clearly defined, scientifically‐based rehabilitation guidelines helped in addressing all of the involved structures and musculoskeletal dysfunctions that presented following the surgical intervention for CECS in a unique subject. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175149

  5. Supplemental genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol intake in active duty army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sepowitz, John J; Fauser, Kristina R; Meyer, Stephanie A; Jackson, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports indicate that the majority of U.S. Army soldiers consume dietary supplements (DSs) > 1 time/wk. However, these studies did not evaluate phytonutrient supplementation. A growing literature suggests inclusion of phytonutrients in DSs may pose a risk for toxicity, which could impact the performance of soldier duties, as well as long-term health and wellness. This study was conducted to assess and understand soldiers' motivations to consume phytonutrient-containing DSs, specifically genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive mixed-methods design using a survey and semistructured interviews. There were 436 soldiers stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington who completed the survey, from which 36 soldiers completed an interview. Overall, 34% of soldiers reported taking a single or multicomponent phytonutrient DS > 1 time/wk, from which 41 soldiers took >1 supplement/wk. Soldiers' reasons for use included unsure (54%), weight loss (12%), and other, unspecified (24%). The majority of interviewees did not consume DSs based on inclusion of genistein, quercetin, or resveratrol. The majority of soldiers, in our study, appear unable to rationalize their phytonutrient DS choices. Findings from this study illuminate the need for future research to further explore DS practices within military populations and encourage informed use of DSs. PMID:25939109

  6. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. PMID:26992372

  7. Past horrors, present struggles: The role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone☆

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E.; Williams, David R.; Ellis, B. Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups–commonly referred to as child soldiers–often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  8. The impact of deployment length and experience on the well-being of male and female soldiers.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Huffman, Ann H; Bliese, Paul D; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the effects of stressor duration (deployment length) and stressor novelty (no prior deployment experience) on the psychological health of male and female military personnel returning from a peacekeeping deployment. The sample consisted of men (n = 2,114) and women (n = 1,225) surveyed for symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. The results confirmed the hypotheses. Longer deployments and 1st-time deployments were associated with an increase in distress scores. However, the relationship between deployment length and increased distress was found only for male soldiers. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of exposure to long-term occupational stressors and confirm, in part, previous research that has demonstrated a different stress response pattern for men and women. PMID:15826223

  9. 75 FR 75855 - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title...

  10. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-01

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918. PMID:15603896

  11. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  12. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of peritraumatic disgust and trait disgust vulnerability factors (disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity) predict PTSD-symptoms, independently of peritraumatic fear, neuroticism, and anxiety sensitivity. Participants (N = 174) enrolled in this study before deployment, and were retested around 6 months (N = 138; 79%) and, again, 15 months (N = 107; 62%) after returning home. The results showed that (1) greater peritraumatic disgust and fear independently predicted PTSD-symptom severity at 6 months, (2) greater disgust propensity predicted more peritraumatic disgust, but not PTSD-symptom severity, and (3) disgust sensitivity moderated the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD-symptom severity. Implications of these findings for broadening the affective vulnerabilities that may contribute to PTSD will be discussed. PMID:20800428

  13. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  14. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64–0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71–0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63–0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  15. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-03-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  16. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  17. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  18. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted. PMID:24799072

  19. Assessment for the U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: The Global Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook; Castro, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology and the U.S. military have a long history of collaboration. The U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program aims to measure the psychosocial strengths and assets of soldiers as well as their problems, to identify those in need of basic training in a given domain as well as those who would benefit from advanced training, and…

  20. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  1. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  2. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home. PMID:27386620

  3. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy--Implications of Science Education Research for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Categorizes researchers as tinkers, tailors, soldiers, and spies and discusses how each group contributes to the improvement of science education. Tinkers direct attention to content of children's minds; tailors focus on cognitive processes and development; spies consider classroom interactions; and soldiers believe best solutions come from those…

  4. 3 CFR - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers.... 2012-18 of September 28, 2012 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008... HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2012....

  5. LIGHT SENSITIVITY IN WORKERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE, COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS SHIRAKI (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photo-sensitivity of the Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was tested in workers, pre-soldiers, and soldiers of various ages. Preferred foraging locations under laboratory bioassay conditions were also determined in response to various light regimens. Workers, pre-soldi...

  6. Social ecology interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder: what can we learn from child soldiers?

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon

    2013-09-01

    Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions. PMID:23999478

  7. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  8. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs. PMID:24224078

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro-Machado, R; De Oliveira, P L

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997) or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications) to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications). Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development. PMID:11717704

  10. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle

    2010-11-01

    Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions. PMID:21097964

  11. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the future of psychology.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D

    2011-01-01

    Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. PMID:21219053

  12. Brazilian Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Himilcon

    Brazilian experience with micro scientific satellites began in 1995 with the SACI project that comprised 2 scientific satellites that carried onboard experiments from Brazil, Japan and US. The first one failed after launch (1998) and the second was lost during the second launch attempt of the Brazilian national launcher, VLS, in1999. Started by 1997, the French-Brazilian Microsatellite Project comprised a set of 9 experiments from French and Brazilian scientists. The project was terminated by the French side in 2002. Currently, there are two ongoing science projects, MIRAX (devoted to X-Ray astronomy) and EQUARS (to study the higher atmosphere). These projects include experiments from US, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, and Brazil, with launch scheduled to 2011 or 2012. This paper presents a brief summary of the history of the development of these satellites along with some highlights on the Brazilian Space Program.

  13. Examining the results of certain effects of high altitude on soldiers using modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    von Tersch, Robert; Birch, Harry

    2009-10-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom conducted in the high mountains of Afghanistan posed new challenges for U.S. and coalition forces. The high mountains with elevations up to 25,000 feet and little to no road access limited the use of combat vehicles and some advanced weaponry. Small unit actions became the norm and soldiers experienced the effect of high elevation, where limited oxygen and its debilitating effects negatively impacted unacclimated soldiers. While the effects of high altitude on unacclimated soldiers are well documented, the results of those effects in a combat setting are not as well known. For this study, the authors focused on 3 areas: movement speed, response time, and judgment; used a state-of-the-art constructive modeling and simulation (M&S) tool; simulated a combat engagement with less capable unacclimated and fully capable acclimated soldiers; and captured the results, which scaled increased casualties for unacclimated and decreased casualties for acclimated soldiers. PMID:19891222

  14. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  15. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  16. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  17. Soldier detection using unattended acoustic and seismic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.

    2012-06-01

    During recent military conflicts, as well as for security interventions, the urban zone has taken a preponderant place. Studies have been initiated in national and in international programs to stimulate the technical innovations for these specific scenarios. For example joint field experiments have been organized by the NATO group SET-142 to evaluate the capability for the detection and localization of snipers, mortars or artillery guns using acoustic devices. Another important operational need corresponds to the protection of military sites or buildings. In this context, unattended acoustic and seismic sensors are envisaged to contribute to the survey of specific points by the detection of approaching enemy soldiers. This paper describes some measurements done in an anechoic chamber and in free field to characterize typical sounds generated by the soldier activities (walking, crawling, weapon handling, radio communication, clothing noises...). Footstep, speech and some specific impulsive sounds are detectable at various distances from the source. Such detection algorithms may be easily merged with the existing weapon firing detection algorithms to provide a more generic "battlefield acoustic" early warning system. Results obtained in various conditions (grassy terrain, gravel path, road, forest) will be presented. A method to extrapolate the distances of detection has been developed, based on an acoustic propagation model and applied to the laboratory measurements.

  18. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0-1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  19. Socioeconomic Differences in the Health of Black Union Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union Army soldiers. Among the factors that contributed to a lower probability of contracting and dying from diseases were (1) lighter skin color, (2) a non-field occupation, (3) residence on a large plantation, and (4) residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity against diseases and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in non-field occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity as well as superior nutritional status. The results of this paper suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War. PMID:22933827

  20. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  1. The Impact of Unit Membership on Smoking Among Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Anderson, James A; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Sipos, Maurice L

    2016-01-01

    Cultural, organizational, and dyadic influences have been found to be associated with smoking in the military while group-level influences have been identified in the general population. However, there are few studies examining group-level influences in the military and none using group-level analyses. Such studies are essential for understanding how to optimally forestall or cease smoking. This study, using mixed effects modelling, examined whether unit membership influenced smoking behavior in soldiers from brigade combat teams. Unit membership was assessed in 2008 to 2009 at the company level (n = 2204) and in 2012 at the platoon level (n = 452). Smoking was assessed by the number of daily cigarettes smoked (range: 0-99) with smoking status (nonsmoker vs. smoker) and smoking level (none, smoker, and heavy [20 + cigarettes/day]) as the outcomes. For both samples, unit membership was not significantly associated with a soldier's propensity to smoke when comparing either all smokers to nonsmokers or heavy smokers to smokers. These results suggest typical military unit-level training programs are unlikely to be the most effective mode of intervention for smoking prevention or cessation. Smoking rates in the military may be influenced instead by small group or individual relationships or by overall military culture. PMID:26741472

  2. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  3. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  4. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  5. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences

  6. Could comprehensive soldier fitness have iatrogenic consequences? A commentary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) is a public health program intended to improve US Army service personnels' resilience to military stressors including combat and operational experiences. The program uses psychological and behavioral strategies that have been shown to enhance resilience in children and adolescents. CSF has many modules that target a variety of dimensions of wellness. One of the core themes to CSF is the promotion of optimism and positive reframing of challenging situations. To date, the CSF program has not been critically and independently evaluated. This commentary argues that an emphasis on positive emotions and optimism could be maladaptive for post-combat recovery. Clinical and public behavioral health practitioners and researchers can play an important role in evaluating CSF psychological strategies. PMID:23229522

  7. Synthetic cannabinoid and cathinone use among US soldiers.

    PubMed

    Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Kleinschmidt, Paul E; Rao, Dinesh S; Jenkins, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    New hallucinogenic drugs of abuse, known generically as "spice" and "bath salts," have become readily available in the United States. Spice is one of many names that refers to a variety of synthetic cannabinoids that act on the body in a way similar to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids, most often cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018, JWH-073, or HU-210, are used in an attempt to avoid the laws that make cannabis illegal, making synthetic cannabis a designer drug. Bath salts, on the other hand, is one of many names for a group of cathinone-containing hallucinogens that produces sympathomimetic effects in its users. Both have become popular among those seeking chemical euphorias with decreased chance of detection. Consequently, both have become a problem for maintaining mentally fit Soldiers, unit readiness, and morale in the US armed forces. PMID:23007932

  8. Robots Save Soldiers' Lives Overseas (MarcBot)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center mobile communications platform designs for future lunar missions led to improvements to fleets of tactical robots now being deployed by U.S. Army. The Multi-function Agile Remote Control Robot (MARCbot) helps soldiers search out and identify improvised explosive devices. NASA used the MARCbots to test its mobile communications platform, and in working with it, made the robot faster while adding capabilities -- upgrading to a digital camera, encrypting the controllers and video transmission, as well as increasing the range and adding communications abilities. They also simplified the design, providing more plug-and-play sensors and replacing some of the complex electronics with more trouble-free, low-cost components. Applied Geo Technology, a tribally-owned corporation in Choctaw, Mississippi, was given the task of manufacturing the modified robots. The company is now producing 40 units per month, 300 of which have already been deployed overseas.

  9. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  10. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  11. Evaluation of the performance of females as light infantry soldiers.

    PubMed

    Finestone, Aharon S; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161-163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173-176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2-19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3-13.8 kg), had lower [Formula: see text]O2max (36.8 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1), CI 35.8-37.78 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1)) than males (50.48 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1), CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1)), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2-26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3-8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9-47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0-35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22-34% for females and 37% CI 26-48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  12. Soldier load carriage: historical, physiological, biomechanical, and medical aspects.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Reynolds, Katy L; Harman, Everett

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews historical and biomedical aspects of soldier load carriage. Before the 18th century, foot soldiers seldom carried more than 15 kg while on the march, but loads have progressively risen since then. This load increase is presumably due to the weight of weapons and equipment that incorporate new technologies to increase protection, firepower, communications, and mobility. Research shows that locating the load center of mass as close as possible to the body center of mass results in the lowest energy cost and tends to keep the body in an upright position similar to unloaded walking. Loads carried on other parts of the body result in higher energy expenditures: each kilogram added to the foot increases energy expenditure 7% to 10%; each kilogram added to the thigh increases energy expenditure 4%. Hip belts on rucksacks should be used whenever possible as they reduce pressure on the shoulders and increase comfort. Low or mid-back load placement might be preferable on uneven terrain but high load placement may be best for even terrain. In some tactical situations, combat load carts can be used, and these can considerably reduce energy expenditure and improve performance. Physical training that includes aerobic exercise, resistance training targeted at specific muscle groups, and regular road marching can considerably improve road marching speed and efficiency. The energy cost of walking with backpack loads increases progressively with increases in weight carried, body mass, walking speed, or grade; type of terrain also influences energy cost. Predictive equations have been developed, but these may not be accurate for prolonged load carriage. Common injuries associated with prolonged load carriage include foot blisters, stress fractures, back strains, metatarsalgia, rucksack palsy, and knee pain. Load carriage can be facilitated by lightening loads, improving load distribution, optimizing load-carriage equipment, and taking preventive action to reduce

  13. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Finestone, Aharon S.; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173–176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg), had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1) than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  14. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Romand, Olivier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Michel, Rémy; Pognant, Corinne; Todesco, Alain; Migliani, René; Baudon, Dominique; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Results Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. Conclusion SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual travellers. PMID:19852811

  15. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  16. A Cup of Salt for an O. D.: "Dog Soldiers" as Anti-Apocalypse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Robert Stone's "Dog Soldiers," a novel written out of the author's experiences in Vietnam in 1973, and its refusal to present an ultimate apocalyptic vision of history. Contrasts it with other modern works pervaded by apocalyptic anxiety. (DMM)

  17. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  18. Sick Leave and Its Determinants in Professional Soldiers of the Slovenian Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Selič, Polona; Petek, Davorina; Serec, Maša; Rus, Maja; Makovec

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess whether demographic characteristics, self-rated health status, coping behaviors, satisfaction with important interpersonal relationships, financial situation, and current overall quality of life are determinants of sick leave duration in professional soldiers of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Methods In 2008, 448 military personnel on active duty in the Slovenian Armed Forces were invited to participate in the study and 390 returned the completed questionnaires (response rate 87%). The questionnaires used were the self-rated health scale, sick leave scale, life satisfaction scale, Folkman-Lazarus' Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a demographic data questionnaire. To partition the variance across a wide variety of indicators of participants’ experiences, ordinal modeling procedures were used. Results A multivariate ordinal regression model, explaining 24% of sick leave variance, showed that the following variables significantly predicted longer sick leave duration: female sex (estimate, 1.185; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.579-1.791), poorer self-rated health (estimate, 3.243; 95% CI, 1.755-4.731), lower satisfaction with relationships with coworkers (estimate, 1.333; 95% CI, 0.399-2.267), and lower education (estimate, 1.577; 95% CI, 0.717-2.436). The impact of age and coping mechanisms was not significant. Conclusion Longer sick leave duration was found in women and respondents less satisfied with their relationships with coworkers, and these are the groups to which special attention should be awarded when planning supervision, work procedures, and gender equality policy of the Armed Forces. A good way of increasing the quality of interpersonal relationships at work would be to teach such skills in teaching programs for commanding officers. PMID:21162167

  19. Mediums and messages: an argument against biotechnical enhancement of soldiers in the armies of liberal democracies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that one believes that individuals and states can morally defend values, beliefs, and institutions with force (in short, that just wars are morally possible), one logically wants just combatants to possess the physical, mental, and spiritual capacities that will enable them to win the war. On the other hand, being a just combatant in a just war does not morally entitle that combatant to do anything to win that war. The moral requirement for just combatants to fight justly is codified in international law of war and in state-specific legal documents such as the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice. While it is almost unequivocally clear to soldiers and civilians who soldiers cannot harm in the performance of their duties, and why these people are exempt from harm, it is less clear what the state itself (assuming throughout the discussion that the state is a just combatant in a just war) can morally do to its own soldiers to enhance their chances of victory: can the state do anything to soldiers to give them an advantage on the field of battle? For United States soldiers and their counterparts in most Western liberal democracies, the answer is obviously no. Deeply embedded social and cultural norms in Western democracies mandate that the state set and enforce rigid lines which drill sergeants and earnest commanders cannot cross, even in the name of combat readiness, grounding these norms in notion of basic rights appealed to in the U.S. Constitution. In this essay, I argue against some types of drug-induced internal biotechnical enhancement of soldiers on the grounds that, in the present state of technology, it is not reasonable to suppose that the military can perform such enhancement operations on soldiers without causing irrevocable psychological damage that would certainly and unjustifiably alienate the soldiers from the very society they serve. PMID:15856579

  20. Clonal mixing in the soldier-producing aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul C D; Whitfield, John A; Foster, William A; Amos, William

    2002-08-01

    Illuminating the genetic relationships within soldier-producing aphid colonies is an essential element of any attempt to explain the evolution of the altruistic soldier caste. Pemphigus spyrothecae is a soldier-producing aphid that induces galls on the leaf petioles of its host (trees of the genus Populus). At least a quarter of the aphids within the clonally produced gall population are morphologically and behaviourally distinct first-instar soldiers that defend the gall population from predation. Using field trapping and microsatellites, we investigated the degree of clonal mixing within natural gall populations. Field trapping in the UK showed that all the migrants of P. spyrothecae and of two other Pemphigus species were wingless first-instar soldiers. The average degree of mixing estimated from trapping P. spyrothecae migrants was 0.68% (range = 0-15%). Microsatellite genotyping of 277 aphids from 13 galls collected in Italy revealed an average mixing level of 10.4% (range = 0-59%). Six galls contained more than one clone (range = 2-5 clones). Non-kin aphids were not restricted to the soldier caste but were evenly distributed across instars. An additional gall, from which 527 occupants were genotyped, contained 12 non-kin aphids distributed among nine clones, showing that clonal diversity can be high even when mixing is very low. These observations suggest that although soldiers migrate regularly and can moult and reproduce within foreign galls, clonal mixing in this species is generally low and is unlikely to provide a barrier to the evolution of investment by the aphid clones in an altruistic soldier caste. PMID:12144671

  1. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  2. An examination of successful soldier postdeployment transition from combat to garrison life.

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Millikan, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that combat exposures and deployment-related stressors have negative implications on soldiers' postdeployment health and well-being. The current study aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of organizational and social support on the success of soldiers' postdeployment reintegration. In this study, 2,922 U.S. soldiers were surveyed from a brigade combat team at 90-120 days postdeployment, measuring soldiers' perceptions of postdeployment transition home, occupational and social support, stigma and barriers associated with accessing behavioral health care, and previous behavioral health care. Logistic regression analysis indicated that soldiers reporting a positive postdeployment transition home (n = 1,776; 61%) was significantly associated with leadership perceptions, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.02, 1.39], unit cohesion, AOR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.09, 1.53], personal support, AOR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.23, 1.52], perceived levels of stigma, AOR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.65, 0.82] barriers to accessing care, AOR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.76, 0.97], and previously accessing behavioral health care, AOR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.28, 0.43]. These findings suggest redeploying soldiers may benefit from programs aimed at improving self-efficacy and coping through fostering occupational and social support, with special concern taken to reduce stigma and barriers to care across the Army. PMID:24375732

  3. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations

    PubMed Central

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation – namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers’ emotions – affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. Methodology: A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. Conclusion: This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study. PMID:23798980

  4. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    PubMed

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  5. Trends in Mental Health Services Utilization and Stigma in US Soldiers From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Joshua E.; Thomas, Jeffrey L.; Bray, Robert M.; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L.; Brown, Janice M.; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y.; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. Methods. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12 835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22 627). Results. HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Conclusions. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention. PMID:25033143

  6. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  7. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  8. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  9. Development and evaluation of portable and wearable fuel cells for soldier use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampan, T.; Shah, D.; Cook, C.; Novoa, J.; Shah, S.

    2014-08-01

    A number of fuel cell systems have been recently developed to meet the U.S. Army's soldier power requirements. The operation and performance of these systems are discussed based on laboratory results and limited soldier evaluation. The systems reviewed are primarily intended for soldier use in an austere environment with minimum access to resupply and vehicular transportation. These applications require high power and energy density sources that are portable (300 W) and wearable (20 W) to minimize the soldier's load burden. Based on soldier field evaluations of portable fuel cell systems, improvements in power density and compatibility with logistical fuels are required to be successfully deployed. For soldier worn applications, a novel chemical hydride system has shown significant advances in power and energy density while maintaining a small form factor. The use of a high energy dense fuel cartridge (800 Wh kg-1) based on AlH3 (Alane) thermolysis, allows a power density of (28 W kg-1) which offers promising weight savings compared to the standard military batteries.

  10. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior Among Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Stein, Murray B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Ursano, Robert J.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. OBJECTIVES To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. RESULTS The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%–58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%–63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5–7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8–18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4–3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1–0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0–0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2–11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7–3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population

  12. Brazilian stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of Brazilian meteorites is presented, along with basic premises of meteoritics, including classification, naming, and analytic procedures. Meteorites are noted to be of interest as representative samples of ancient rocks, perhaps half as old as the universe, as sometimes originating from outside the solar system, containing early solar material, and containing evidence of cosmic ray interactions or collisions. The characteristics which make up the achondrite and chondrite group are reviewed, and a listing of the primary characteristics of known Brazilian meteorites is provided.

  13. Examination of the Effectiveness of Predictors for Musculoskeletal Injuries in Female Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Kodesh, Einat; Shargal, Eyal; Kislev-Cohen, Rotem; Funk, Shany; Dorfman, Lev; Samuelly, Gil; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sharvit, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    The amount of training days lost to injury during military training has highlighted the need to identify a screening tool to predict injury. One hundred and fifty-eight female soldiers from the Combat Fitness Instructor Course (CFIC) of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to participate in this study. All soldiers were free of orthopedic and neurologic conditions for at least one month before the study. All participants performed a battery of measurements during the first week of the course. Measures included anthropometric, functional movement screen (FMS), power performances (counter movement jump [CMJ], drop jump, single leg triple hop jump [SLTH], 10-m sprint) and a 2K run. Injury data was collected throughout the 3 month course. Median tests were used to compare between injured/non-injured soldiers. Chi-square and/or logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between various predictors and injury. Percent body fat [%BF] was higher (p = 0.04), distance for SLTH was less for both left and right legs (p = 0.029, p = 0.047 respectively) and 2K run was slower (p =0.044) in injured compared to non-injured soldiers. No differences between groups were noted in total FMS score, however more zero scores in one or more movement pattern were found in the injured group (51.35 % vs. 30.5% p=0.0293). Only %BF, 2K run and SLTH distance were significant predictors of injury (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, p =0.016 respectively). The results of this study indicated that the FMS total score is not a predictor of injury in female soldiers in a CFIC. We found that %BF, SLTH, 2K run time, 10 meter sprint time and zero scores differentiated between injured and non-injured soldiers. In addition, %BF, 2K run and SLTH were each found to be separate predictors of injury. Further research is needed to determine threshold scores that predict injury. Key points A total of 145 injuries were reported during the three month Combat Fitness Instructor Course in a female soldiers

  14. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ning; Zhang, Jianjiang; Song, Zhixin; Tang, Jinhua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters. PMID:26633442

  15. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ning; Zhang, Jianjiang; Song, Zhixin; Tang, Jinhua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters. PMID:26633442

  16. Desert Storm syndrome: sick soldiers and dead children?

    PubMed

    Doucet, I

    1994-01-01

    Ill-health has been reported by many soldiers and others deployed in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War of 1991. Iraqi children have also been reported as suffering from an undiagnosed wasting disease. Little conclusive information has come to light; this paper reviews what is known at present, largely from anecdotal reports. Symptoms reported differ from post-traumatic stress syndrome as reported after previous conflicts; some are suggestive of a direct effect on the immune system. Various possible causes are examined, including post-traumatic stress disorder, infection, prophylactic medication, exposure to chemical and biological warfare agents, exposures resulting from oil spills and fires, and exposure to depleted uranium ammunition. The latter was used extensively for the first time in the Gulf War, and is manufactured and test-fired in Britain. The passive role of the British government in following up such reports is noted, in contrast with the more active official responses in the United States. It is suggested that Desert Storm Syndrome is one example of multiple assault upon the body's immune system. PMID:7935166

  17. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubink, Emiel; Aldershoff, Frank; Lotens, Wouter; Woering, Arend

    2008-04-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external (climate, terrain, threat, equipment, etc.) state. Modeling the behavioral effects of all these factors in a centralized manner would lead to a complex rule-base that is difficult to maintain or expand. To better cope with this complexity we have developed the Capability-based Human-performance Architecture for Operational Simulation (CHAOS). CHAOS is a multi-agent system for human behavior modeling that is based on pandemonium theory. Every agent in CHAOS represents a specific part of behavior, such as 'reaction to threat' or 'performing a patrol task'. These agents are competing over a limited set of resources that represent human capabilities. By combining the element of competition with multiple limited resources, CHAOS allows us to model stress, strain and multi-tasking in an intuitive manner. The CHAOS architecture is currently used in firefighter and dismounted soldier simulations and has shown itself to be suitable for human behavior and performance modeling.

  18. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  19. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  20. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  1. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp

    PubMed Central

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers’ ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  2. Antifungal activity in thrips soldiers suggests a dual role for this caste.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Caravan, Holly; Chapman, Thomas; Nipperess, David; Dennison, Siobhan; Schwarz, Michael; Beattie, Andrew

    2012-08-23

    The social insect soldier is perhaps the most widely known caste, because it often exhibits spectacular weapons, such as highly enlarged jaws or reinforced appendages, which are used to defend the colony against enemies ranging in size from wasps to anteaters. We examined the function of the enlarged forelimbs of soldiers (both male and female) of the eusocial, gall-inhabiting insect Kladothrips intermedius, and discovered that they have little impact on their ability to repel the specialized invading thrips Koptothrips species. While the efficacy of the enlarged forelimb appears equivocal, we show that soldiers secrete strong antifungal compounds capable of controlling the specialized insect fungal pathogen, Cordyceps bassiana. Our data suggest that these thrips soldiers have evolved in response to selection by both macro- and micro-organisms. While it is unknown whether specialized fungal pathogens have been major selective agents in the evolution of the soldier caste in general, they were probably present when sociality first evolved and may have been the primordial enemies of social insects. PMID:22496077

  3. A soldier suffering from PTSD, treated by controlled stress exposition using virtual reality and behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Tworus, Radosław; Szymanska, Sylwia; Ilnicki, Stanisław

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a case of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a 30-year-old soldier of the Polish Military Contingent in Iraq who narrowly escaped death three times. The first time occurred when during a change of guard he was unintentionally shot by his colleague. The projectile penetrated the victim's helmet, slid along its internal shell curvature, and left the shell causing only a scratch on the scalp skin. Another traumatic event was experienced by the soldier a month after the first incident. As a guard of honor, he was "shot" in the same rear head area with a cap of a cream tube, inadvertently stepped on by a colleague. The third event occurred a couple of days later, during a rocket attack on the Diwaniyah base. After this incident the soldier was evacuated to the Clinic of Psychiatry and Combat Stress in Warsaw. Multiform PTSDs that developed in this soldier are described in this work. The course of his comprehensive therapy during his two stays, with a total duration of 8 months, in the clinic is discussed. Also, a detailed description of the therapy controlled exposition to combat stressors in virtual reality (VR), supplemented with behavioral training consisting of desensitization of an aversive reaction to contact with a weapon at a shooting range is presented. The comprehensive treatment activities resulted in full remission of the PTSD symptoms. The soldier continues his service in a logistic support unit. PMID:20528300

  4. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. PMID:26633668

  5. Return to Bangka Island.

    PubMed

    Spence, J

    2001-07-01

    This article is a return in a couple of ways to one of the most tragic events in the history of Australian military nursing. Firstly, it describes how the evacuation of nurses from Singapore in 1941 led to circumstances that resulted in the massacre or internment of many of those women. Then in 1993, a group of surviving World War II nurses and current serving Australian Army nurses returned to the site of their sorrow. PMID:15129536

  6. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  7. Counseling Adult Learners for New Careers: The Motivations and Barriers Associated with Postsecondary Educational Participation of Soldiers in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Clinton M.

    A qualitative case study approach with individual and focus group interviews identified senior enlisted Army soldiers' primary motivations and perceived barriers to postsecondary education participation. The 92 interviewees shared these common characteristics: they were enlisted soldiers, were older, attended college part time, worked full time,…

  8. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner... Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin products: Introductory Product price Regular price Infantry... Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar Special N/A 51.95 Set Star-Spangled Banner Proof Silver Dollar 49.95...

  9. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 8945 Proclamation 8945 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013 Proc. 8945 Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National MonumentBy the President...

  10. Interaction of Combat Exposure and Unit Cohesion in Predicting Suicide-Related Ideation among Post-Deployment Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mary M.; Gallaway, Michael Shayne; Millikan, Amy M.; Bell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among U.S. Army soldiers. Suicide-related ideation, which is associated with suicide attempts and suicide, can cause considerable distress. In a sample of 1,663 recently redeployed soldiers, we used factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the associations between combat exposure, unit…

  11. Expansion of presoldier cuticle contributes to head elongation during soldier differentiation in termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugime, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Watanabe, Dai; Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2015-12-01

    In termites, the soldier caste possesses morphological features suitable for colony defence, despite some exceptions. Soldiers are differentiated via two moultings through a presoldier stage with dramatic morphogenesis. While a number of morphological modifications are known to occur during the presoldier moult, growth and morphogenesis seem to continue even after the moult. The present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, carried out morphological and histological investigations on the developmental processes during the presoldier stage that is artificially induced by the application of a juvenile hormone analogue. Measurements of five body parameters indicated that head length significantly increased during the 14-day period after the presoldier moult, while it did not increase subsequently to the stationary moult (pseudergate moult as control). Histological observations also showed that the cuticular development played a role in the presoldier head elongation, suggesting that the soft and flexible presoldier cuticle contributed to the soldier morphogenesis in termites.

  12. Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gervase

    2011-01-01

    The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Its dark legacy was the propagation of military values into civilian society, thus paving the way for the political soldiers of the twentieth century. PMID:21584989

  13. Identification of Missing Norwegian World War II Soldiers, in Karelia Russia.

    PubMed

    Morild, Inge; Hamre, Stian S; Huel, Rene; Parsons, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    This article presents the multidisciplinary effort in trying to identify the skeletal remains of 100 Norwegian soldiers serving in the German army, killed in Karelia Russia in 1944, from the recovery of the remains through the final identification using DNA. Of the 150 bone samples sent for DNA testing, 93 DNA profiles were obtained relating to 57 unique individuals. The relatives could not be directly contacted as the soldiers were considered as traitors to Norway; therefore, only 45 reference samples, relating to 42 cases of the missing, were donated. DNA matches for 14 soldiers and 12 additional body part re-associations for these individuals were found. Another 24 bone samples were re-associated with 16 individuals, but no familial match was found. More than six decades after the end of WWII, DNA analysis can significantly contribute to the identification of the remains. PMID:25808977

  14. Hospitalizations for fall-related injuries among active-duty Army soldiers, 1980–1998

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Bell, Nicole S.; Yore, Michelle M.; Amoroso, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) were used to describe 28,352 fall-related hospitalizations among active-duty Army soldiers between 1980 and 1998. Soldiers who were younger than age 26, single, and had a high school education or less were at greatest risk. Falls from a height were more likely to be fatal than other types of falls, accounting for 88% of all fatalities. In cases where duty status was known, 64% of the falls took place while the soldier was on duty and half of these occurred during training. The most common type of fall during training was fall from a height (37%). Falls on stairs and ladders accounted for 49% of all off-duty falls. Future research should include identification of specific behavioral and occupational risk factors for falls, particularly those occurring during training activities, and falls occurring off duty. PMID:12441580

  15. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. PMID:26210140

  16. Expansion of presoldier cuticle contributes to head elongation during soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Sugime, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Watanabe, Dai; Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2015-12-01

    In termites, the soldier caste possesses morphological features suitable for colony defence, despite some exceptions. Soldiers are differentiated via two moultings through a presoldier stage with dramatic morphogenesis. While a number of morphological modifications are known to occur during the presoldier moult, growth and morphogenesis seem to continue even after the moult. The present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, carried out morphological and histological investigations on the developmental processes during the presoldier stage that is artificially induced by the application of a juvenile hormone analogue. Measurements of five body parameters indicated that head length significantly increased during the 14-day period after the presoldier moult, while it did not increase subsequently to the stationary moult (pseudergate moult as control). Histological observations also showed that the cuticular development played a role in the presoldier head elongation, suggesting that the soft and flexible presoldier cuticle contributed to the soldier morphogenesis in termites. PMID:26573631

  17. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T.; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Results Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−), power (−), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:24808938

  18. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  19. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  20. Characteristics of soldiers with self-harm in the israeli defense forces.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Leah; Fruchter, Eyal; Spiegel, Dror Ortasse; Shoval, Gal; Mann, J John; Zalsman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of soldier death in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in peace time. Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are risk factors for death by suicide in civilian studies and therefore their predictive value needs to be determined in the military. All army screening, psychometric and demographic data on consecutive cases of IDF soldier self-harm during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used retrospectively to classify self-harm as suicidal or NSSI. The Suicide Ideation Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale were scored retrospectively by trained clinical psychologists. A total of 107 soldiers reported self-harm during the study period, comprising 70 SA and 37 with NSSI. The most prevalent diagnosis was personality disorder (n = 48). Soldiers with any mood/anxiety disorders comprised the smallest group (n = 21) and included major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Soldiers with NSSI (n = 37) did not differ in any of the characteristics from those who attempted suicide (n = 70). Unlike the well-known female dominance in both SA and NSSI patients in other settings, males dominated this army sample in both groups. Soldiers with self-harm (both SA and NSSI) cannot be easily distinguished by any demographics or specific psychological attributes detectable at induction, and the scales used in suicide research cannot predict an attempt or NSSI. Unlike civilian samples, males dominated attempter and NSSI groups and the reason for this may be multifactorial. These retrospective findings, if replicated, indicate the need for different screening strategies at induction into the military. PMID:25310569

  1. Tergal glands in termite soldiers of the subfamily Syntermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira

    2012-02-01

    The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises 14 genera of termites that are exclusively neotropical. The present study reports morphological data about mandibulate nasute soldiers from termite species belonging to three different genera within this subfamily. We describe tergal glands that were present under all tergites of soldiers of the following species: Cornitermes cumulans, Procornitermes araujoi, Syntermes nanus, and Syntermes wheeleri. The tergal glands were composed of class 2 and class 3 cells. Class 2 cells never reached the cuticle and were located below a flat layer of epidermal cells. Class 3 cells, composed of secretory cells and canal cells, were sporadic, whereas class 2 secretory cells were abundant. Secretory cells of class 3 were narrow and their cytoplasms were filled with several clear, oval-shaped vesicles with limiting membranes. The ultrastructure of class 2 cells showed well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, elongated mitochondria, several electron-lucent vesicles, and electron-dense granules that contain paracrystalline structures in S. nanus. Scanning electron micrographs displayed pores, campaniform sensilla and hairs in the outer cuticle of the soldier tergites. We hypothesize that soldier tergal glands may be involved in the production of defensive compounds, which occur in similar glands of certain cockroaches, or of primer pheromones, that might act in the regulation of soldier differentiation in the termite colony. To date, tergal glands have only been described in termite imagoes, and their occurrence in these soldiers of basal Syntermitinae implies a specific role in this caste that is still speculative and needs to be clarified. PMID:22088389

  2. The complete mitogenome of the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus (Latreille, 1806) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Mictyridae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%. PMID:25423510

  3. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  4. Current Suicidal Ideation among Treatment-Engaged Active Duty Soldiers and Marines

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Atkins, David C.; Flaster, Aaron; Comtois, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined suicidal ideation among 399 active duty Soldiers and Marines engaged in mental health treatment. Using a generalized linear model controlling for demographic and military factors, depression, and positive traumatic brain injury screen, we confirmed our hypothesis that self-report measures of current PTSD symptoms uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. The association between PTSD severity and suicidal ideation was moderated by gender with women at higher risk as PTSD severity increased. Female Soldiers and Marines with high levels of PTSD should receive additional monitoring and intervention. Self-report measures may aid with risk assessment and identify symptom-related distress associated with suicide risk. PMID:27170848

  5. [Fever in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  6. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  7. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  8. Higher Education Endowments Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  9. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  10. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  11. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. PMID:25530416

  12. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Vision for Psychological Resilience in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The stress and strain on the U.S. Army's community due to nearly a decade of protracted war is well documented in the press and in scientific literature. In response, the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is a preventive program that seeks to enhance psychological resilience among all members of the Army community, which includes…

  13. Bringing Science to Bear: An Empirical Assessment of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Paul B.; McBride, Sharon; Bliese, Paul D.; Adler, Amy B.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the U.S. Army's effort to empirically validate and assess the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. The empirical assessment includes four major components. First, the CSF scientific staff is currently conducting a longitudinal study to determine if the Master Resilience Training program and the Comprehensive…

  14. From "Rebel" to "Returnee:" Daily Life and Reintegration for Young Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah; Aryemo, Filder

    2009-01-01

    In war's aftermath, many young soldiers attempt to reintegrate and reestablish their lives. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a priority intervention for youth in postconflict countries; yet there is little evidence to suggest what aids reintegration. This research uses qualitative methodology to describe the issues…

  15. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments. PMID:27402736

  16. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  17. The Dangers of the Single Story: Child-Soldiers in Literary Fiction and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the paradox between innocence and responsibility generated by the term child-soldiers, which is treated differently in literary and cinematographic works from the North and the South, this article uses postcolonial theory in order to deconstruct "the single story" that may be erasing these children's many stories. Accordingly, the…

  18. Smoking is a predictor of depression onset among National Guard soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D; Prescott, Marta; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the relationship between smoking and depression in a sample of American soldiers. Persistent, active smoking is associated with increased risk of incident depression at follow up. History of smoking in the absence of current smoking at baseline was not associated with depression at follow-up. PMID:23291043

  19. Panic escape polyethism in worker and soldier Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg; Gautam, Bal K; Chen, Jie; Bhatta, Dependra

    2016-04-01

    Termites were the first animal to form societies. Two hundred million years of evolution provide for a multitude of innate social behaviors that can be experimentally dissected. These fine-tuned patterns of behavior are especially interesting when observing group decision making in the panic mode. In this study, we examined behavioral patterns of termites under panic conditions to gain insight into how an escape flow self-organizes. One hundred worker and 10 soldier Coptotermes formosanus were released into agar plates. After a disturbance was created most workers followed each other and ran along the wall of dishes, thus forming a unidirectional escape flow, whereas soldiers showed a significantly higher frequency of moving to the center of the arena or on periphery of the escape flow as compared to workers. Agonistic behavior was usually observed as soldiers moved to center or periphery. This is the first report on the behavioral repertoire of termites when panicked, with details on the behavioral polymorphism of workers and soldiers during an escape. PMID:25630524

  20. Charles Pinckney: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Although the second youngest person of those who would sign the U.S. Constitution, Charles Pinckney stood out as one of the most active members of the Constitutional Convention, and over 30 of the U.S. Constitution's provisions can be traced to his pen. This booklet on Pinckney is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the…

  1. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was a wealthy South Carolinian whose profound sense of public duty obliged him to risk everything to assume a mantle of political and military leadership during the period of rebellion. This booklet on Pinckney is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews…

  2. William Few: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Exhibiting the characteristic of self-reliance vital for survival on the American frontier, William Few, a self-educated man and lawyer, had natural abilities that included leadership and organization, and these abilities led him into a long political career. This booklet on Few is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the…

  3. Richard Dobbs Spaight: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    The preservation of liberty was Richard Dobbs Spaight's political lodestar while he firmly supported an effective central government and fought for the Bill of Rights. This booklet on Spaight is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews covers his youth in Ireland, his military…

  4. Richard Bassett: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Richard Bassett's experiences as a politician and soldier during the Revolutionary War broadened his political horizons for the War had demonstrated to him the need for greater regional and national cooperation if the political and economic promises of independence for the United States were to be realized. This booklet on Bassett is one in a…

  5. George Washington: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Possessed of an extraordinary strength of character and a wealth of public virtues, George Washington exhibited integrity, self-discipline, and a devotion to duty that made him the natural leader in the task of nation building. This booklet on Washington is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The…

  6. Abraham Baldwin: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Although his father was an illiterate blacksmith, Abraham Baldwin demonstrated how academic achievement opened opportunities in colonial society, and he later became a fervent missionary of public education. This booklet on Baldwin is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews his education,…

  7. Hugh Williamson: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    As a scholar of international renown, Hugh Williamson came into contact with some of the leading intellectuals of the patriot cause and their political ideas transformed him into an adroit politician and leader. This booklet on Williamson is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews…

  8. Labral gland in soldiers of the neotropical termite Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae: Syntermitinae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2014-09-01

    Cornitermes cumulans is a termite species of the subfamily Syntermitinae with a nasute mandibulate soldier caste, members of which are morphologically equipped with structures and organs specialized for the defence of the colony. We investigated the labrum of soldiers of C. cumulans and described the labral gland, an exocrine structure present in this appendage. The labrum of C. cumulans soldiers presented two distinct regions, the hyaline tip and the proximal region connected to the head. The hyaline tip exhibited a thick cuticle composed of a loose endocuticle involving an epithelium of class 1 cells, which synthesize the glandular product into a subcuticular space that function as a reservoir prior to release the final secretion. The proximal region of the labrum had an epithelium composed of class 1 and class 3 cells, which released the secretion onto both ventral and dorsal surfaces. The ultrastructure showed abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen in the class 1 cells, whereas the class 3 cells had many electron-lucent vesicles that varied in size. We associated the labral gland with the production of toxic substances that may act inside enemy wounds made by the soldiers' mandibles. Other possible functions for the labral secretion are also discussed. PMID:24981212

  9. Vision-based semi-autonomous outdoor robot system to reduce soldier workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Al; Rodgers, Michael H.

    2001-09-01

    Sensors and computational capability have not reached the point to enable small robots to navigate autonomously in unconstrained outdoor environments at tactically useful speeds. This problem is greatly reduced, however, if a soldier can lead the robot through terrain that he knows it can traverse. An application of this concept is a small pack-mule robot that follows a foot soldier over outdoor terrain. The solder would be responsible to avoid situations beyond the robot's limitations when encountered. Having learned the route, the robot could autonomously retrace the path carrying supplies and munitions. This would greatly reduce the soldier's workload under normal conditions. This paper presents a description of a developmental robot sensor system using low-cost commercial 3D vision and inertial sensors to address this application. The robot moves at fast walking speed and requires only short-range perception to accomplish its task. 3D-feature information is recorded on a composite route map that the robot uses to negotiate its local environment and retrace the path taught by the soldier leader.

  10. The Impact of Soldier Quality on Performance in the Army. Technical Report 708.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, David K.

    To justify its labor force quality requirements, the Army sought to demonstrate an empirical link between Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores and soldier performance. The first data set contained written and hands-on tests on several weapons systems from the Army's training schools. The second data set used the Skill Qualifications Tests…

  11. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  12. In-patient, short-term group psychotherapy – a therapeutic option for Bundeswehr soldiers?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280

  13. The assessment of genetic variability among spined soldier bug (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) is a predatory hemipteran found in North America. It is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests. This polyphagous predator mainly preys upon the eggs and larvae of the lepidopteran and coleopteran species. To assess th...

  14. The spined soldier bug Podisus: an important commercial and natural predator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris is an important generalist predator of many species of insect pests in different horticultural crops. We studied the effects of temperature, prey preference, reproduction in laboratory and field studies, and population dynamics. We found the following ge...

  15. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  16. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  17. A Re-Entry Program for Peacekeeping Soldiers: Promoting Personal and Career Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Marvin J.; Black, Timothy G.; McLean, Holly B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a program developed to assist with military personnel's transition back into Canadian society by aiding with their personal and career readjustment. Group-based life review and therapeutic enactment counseling interventions are used to identify critical incidents and facilitate the resolution of stress-related reactions soldiers have…

  18. Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Salvi, Angela D; Adler, Amy B

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) suggests that under high levels of stress, employees are more prone to committing indiscipline. As few studies have examined this relationship over time, the authors conducted a six-wave longitudinal study examining the relationship of soldiers' indiscipline with work demands and control. The study included archival data collected quarterly over 2 years from 1,701 soldiers representing 10 units in garrison (Germany and Italy), in training rotations (Grafenwoehr, Germany), and on peacekeeping deployments (Kosovo, Kuwait). No main effects were found for work overload, and the findings for the moderating effects of control were contradictory. Within each time point, as work overload increased, soldiers who felt less control committed more indiscipline, supporting CRT. Over time, however, as work overload increased, soldiers who perceived less control 6 months earlier committed less indiscipline. Additionally, the authors found reverse causal effects for control such that prior perceptions of a lack of control were associated with indiscipline and prior incidents of indiscipline with less control. PMID:19586221

  19. Testing the stress-buffering effects of self engagement among soldiers on a military operation.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Bliese, Paul D

    2003-04-01

    The present research examined whether self engagement moderated the stressor-strain relationship in a sample of U.S. soldiers deployed on a peacekeeping mission to Bosnia. Given that individuals were nested within groups (Army companies), we examined the relationships of interest using multilevel random coefficient models. The results of these analyses revealed that self engagement interacted with three different stressors (lower amounts of sleep, work stress, family stress) in the prediction of psychological distress. In support of self engagement as a buffer against stress, when stressors were low (high amounts of sleep, low levels of work stress, and family stress), soldiers reported relatively low levels of psychological distress and physical symptoms, regardless of whether they were engaged in or disengaged from their job. However, when stressor levels were high, soldiers who were engaged in their job reported less elevation in reports of psychological distress than soldiers who were disengaged from their job. The results are discussed in terms of the potential mechanisms by which self engagement might protect individuals from stressful circumstances. PMID:12693517

  20. William Jackson: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    All 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention signed the U.S. Constitution in September 1787, but the 40th signature, that of William Jackson, the Secretary of the Convention, authenticated the results of the session in Philadelphia. This booklet on Jackson is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution, and…

  1. Video visor for the German army soldier-of-the-future programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, J.; Kiefner, M.; Lenz, H.-J.

    2007-04-01

    The German Soldier-of-the-Future ("Infanterist der Zukunft" - IdZ) programme provides three different optronic reconnaissance systems and weapon sights respectively for each infantry squad of ten soldiers. Besides the reconnaissance and targeting device (WBBG) of the squad leader and the weapon sight (WBZG) for the sniper, the so-called "Video Visier" (video visor) will be used as a new type of weapon sight for aiming and combating with the German assault rifles G36 and AG36, with the machine gun MG4 as well as with the bazooka PzF3. The video visor includes an uncooled thermal imager, a daylight camera, an eye-safe laser range finder and a digital magnetic compass with inclination sensor. Communication with the soldier-mounted central processing unit and real-time transmission of the video data (e.g. display mounted into the helmet of the soldier) is enabled by a wireless data link. In the presentation of the requirements, the philosophy and concept as well as the functionality of the video visor will be described in detail.

  2. Spousal aggression by U.S. Army female soldiers toward employed and unemployed civilian husbands.

    PubMed

    Newby, John H; Ursano, Robert J; McCarroll, James E; Martin, Laurie T; Norwood, Ann E; Fullerton, Carol S

    2003-07-01

    Aggression by a random sample of female soldiers (N = 1,185) toward their employed (n = 840) and unemployed (n = 345) civilian husbands was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale. When age, race, rank, years married, and the number of previous marriages were held constant, severe aggression toward unemployed male spouses was significantly greater than toward employed spouses. PMID:12921209

  3. The Civil War Soldier: Romantic and Realist. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Jay; And Others

    This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…

  4. Post-traumatic stress symptoms among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone: follow-up study†

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; McBain, Ryan; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Former child soldiers are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the trajectory of symptoms has yet to be examined. Aims The risk and protective factors associated with PTSD symptom change among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone were investigated. Method Data from 243 former child soldiers (mean age 16.6 years, 30% female) were analysed. Results Self-reported rates of possible PTSD using standard cut-off points declined from 32% to 16% 4 years later (P<0.05). Symptoms of PTSD at baseline were significantly associated with war experiences (P<0.01) and post-conflict family abuse (P<0.001). Reliable improvement in symptoms was reported by 30%. In growth models examining symptom change, worsening of symptoms was associated with death of a parent (P<0.05) and post-conflict stigma (P<0.001). Protective effects were observed for increases in family acceptance (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings indicated improvement in PTSD symptoms among former child soldiers despite limited access to care. Family and community support played a vital part in promoting psychological adjustment. PMID:23887999

  5. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries. PMID:26506172

  6. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  7. Using Artifacts to Understand the Life of a Soldier in World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Staci

    2009-01-01

    For years, when the author taught about World War II, she used primary and secondary source readings, she presented Power Points, and had her students watch newsreels and other video clips. Today, her students interact with actual artifacts from history so that they can draw conclusions and gain understanding about what the soldiers' lives were…

  8. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  9. Impact of Military Deployment and Distance Learning on Soldier-Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, August T.

    2013-01-01

    Soldiers face complex challenges, issues, and decisions when pursuing distance learning while deployed. These challenges are encountered frequently while completing undergraduate and graduate degree programs on active duty overseas. Many learning programs and benefits are available and utilized by military online learners in a war zone. Education…

  10. Male and Female Soldiers' Beliefs about the "Appropriateness" of Various Jobs for Women in the Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savell, Joel M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to (1) document the expanding role of women in the U.S. Army and (2) determine whether soldiers in 1974 believed that certain military jobs were appropriate for women and whether those beliefs were related to respondent sex, rank, and expectation of leaving the army before retirement. An examination of army records revealed…

  11. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  12. Remote monitoring of soldier safety through body posture identification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Quwaider, Muhannad

    2008-04-01

    The physical safety and well being of the soldiers in a battlefield is the highest priority of Incident Commanders. Currently, the ability to track and monitor soldiers rely on visual and verbal communication which can be somewhat limited in scenarios where the soldiers are deployed inside buildings and enclosed areas that are out of visual range of the commanders. Also, the need for being stealth can often prevent a battling soldier to send verbal clues to a commander about his or her physical well being. Sensor technologies can remotely provide various data about the soldiers including physiological monitoring and personal alert safety system functionality. This paper presents a networked sensing solution in which a body area wireless network of multi-modal sensors can monitor the body movement and other physiological parameters for statistical identification of a soldier's body posture, which can then be indicative of the physical conditions and safety alerts of the soldier in question. The specific concept is to leverage on-body proximity sensing and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based mechanism that can be applied for stochastic identification of human body postures using a wearable sensor network. The key idea is to collect relative proximity information between wireless sensors that are strategically placed over a subject's body to monitor the relative movements of the body segments, and then to process that using HMM in order to identify the subject's body postures. The key novelty of this approach is a departure from the traditional accelerometry based approaches in which the individual body segment movements, rather than their relative proximity, is used for activity monitoring and posture detection. Through experiments with body mounted sensors we demonstrate that while the accelerometry based approaches can be used for differentiating activity intensive postures such as walking and running, they are not very effective for identification and

  13. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty].

    PubMed

    Min, Hookie

    2015-04-01

    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  14. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  15. Human factors considerations of IR sensors for the Canadian Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frim, John; Bossi, Linda; Tack, Dave

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace." This capital acquisition project is supported by a number of R&D Technology Demonstration Projects within Defence R&D Canada. Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. The Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) project examined the performance impact of NVGs, LWIR imaging systems, and fused systems (both optical and digital fusion) on target detection, recognition and identification. NVGs were shown to provide good identification performance while LWIR systems excelled in detection tasks. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration (SIHS TD) project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues. Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2.5 kg, and if an offset from the eye is required then a horizontal offset (vice vertical or oblique) of the sensor appears most acceptable. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers.

  16. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry

    2007-04-01

    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  17. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  18. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  19. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black – the major categories of the Brazilian Census “race/color” system – have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen1, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  20. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel. PMID:27121223

  1. Thermoluminescence of brazilian topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Divanízia Do N.; de Lima, José F.; Valerio, Mário Ernesto G.

    Thermoluminiscence measurements were performed on samples of yellowish Brazilian Topaz from Acari, MG. Virgin samples revealed peaks 2 and 4 at about 150 and 300°C. respectively, while in samples with extra dose of y-rays, we observed another peak at 80°C. When topaz samples were thermally treated, peak 4 vanished and peak 3 at about 180°C, became visible. Isothermal decay of peak 2 performed on virgin samples showed that peak 3 is present on this samples too. The spectra of the first 3 peaks are very similar in the range of 350 to 500 nm indicating that the recombination processes related to these 3 peaks could be the same. The dose dependency of the TL intensity of the first 3 peaks was mesured from 0.5 to 400 Gy and it sems to start saturating above 400 Gy.

  2. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  3. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  4. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  5. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  6. A Look at Returning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one-quarter to one-third of teachers who leave the profession return, the majority after only a short absence. Though returning teachers can constitute a substantial share of newly hired teachers in schools each year, little is known about them, the factors associated with their decisions to return, or the schools to which…

  7. Puerto Rican Return Migrant Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    Among Puerto Ricans who have migrated to the United States, a significant number have returned to Puerto Rico, while others shuttle between Puerto Rico and the United States. These groups of people are identified as return migrants. Studies suggest that return migrant youth in Puerto Rico have had to make environmental and cultural adjustments…

  8. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  9. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  10. Mars sample return - Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Douglas P.

    1988-01-01

    The possible scientific goals of a Mars sample return mission are reviewed, including the value of samples and the selection of sampling sites. The fundamental questions about Mars which could be studied using samples are examined, including planetary formation, differentiation, volcanism and petrogenesis, weathering, and erosion. Scenarios are presented for sample acquisition and analysis. Possible sampling methods and tools are discussed, including drilling techniques, types of rovers, and processing instruments. In addition, the possibility of aerocapture out of elliptical or circular orbit is considered.

  11. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  12. Peers and peer-based interventions in supporting reintegration and mental health among National Guard soldiers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Blow, Adrian J; Miller, Erin; Forman, Jane; Dalack, Gregory W; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-12-01

    National Guard soldiers experience high levels of mental health symptoms following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, yet many do not seek treatment. We interviewed 30 National Guard soldiers with prior deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan to assess mental health treatment barriers and the role of peers in treatment engagement. Interview transcripts were analyzed by a multidisciplinary research team using techniques drawn from grounded theory. The following themes were identified: (1) personal acceptance of having a mental health problem rather than treatment access is the major barrier to treatment entry; (2) tightly connected, supportive peer networks can decrease stigma related to mental health problems and encourage treatment; however, soldiers in impoverished or conflicted peer networks are less likely to receive these benefits; and (3) soldiers are generally positive about the idea of peer-based programs to improve treatment engagement, although they note the importance of leadership support, peer assignment, and unit specialty in implementing these programs. We conclude that some, but not all, naturally occurring peer networks serve to overcome stigma and encourage mental health treatment seeking by soldiers. Formal peer-based programs may assist soldiers not sufficiently benefitting from natural peer networks, although there are barriers to implementation. PMID:23397691

  13. Endocrine control of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles during worker-to-soldier differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet, E; Labédan, M; Landré, X; Perdereau, E; Christidès, J P; Bagnères, A G

    2014-02-01

    The social organization of termites, unlike that of other social insects, is characterized by a highly plastic caste system. With the exception of the alates, all other individuals in a colony remain at an immature stage of development. Workers in particular remain developmentally flexible; they can switch castes to become soldiers or neotenics. Juvenile hormone (JH) is known to play a key role in turning workers into soldiers. In this study, we analyzed differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles among castes, paying particular attention to the transition of workers to soldiers, in the subterranean termite species Reticulitermes flavipes. CHCs have a fundamental function in social insects as they serve as cues in inter- and intraspecific recognition. We showed that (1) the CHC profiles of the different castes (workers, soldiers, nymphs and neotenics) are different and (2) when workers were experimentally exposed to a JH analog and thus induced to become soldiers, their CHC profiles were modified before and after the worker-presoldier molt and before and after the presoldier-soldier molt. PMID:24374106

  14. The Surveillance And Reconnaissance Ground Equipment (SARGE), real robots for real soldiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    The Joint Program Office for Unmanned Ground Vehicles and Sandia National Laboratories are developing the Surveillance And Reconnaissance Ground Equipment (SARGE) robot. The SARGE system is a second generation refinement of Sandia`s Dixie robot. A comparison of Dixie`s actual performance and the expected SARGE performance characteristics will be given. The SARGE design philosophy embraces proven technology, low power consumption, and modular sensor packages designed to meet specific mission needs. A major aspect of the SARGE program is obtaining user acceptance through ownership of the prototype hardware. A total of ten systems are being fabricated with at least eight being given to infantry battalions for their use in day to day operations. The SARGE robot is a prototype system that is not intended to meet all the needs of the infantry soldier but will provide a reliable platform which will enable the soldier to determine first hand the required capabilities for future unmanned ground vehicles on the battlefield.

  15. How leaders can influence the impact that stressors have on soldiers.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Davison, James; Bliese, Paul D; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2004-07-01

    The present review addresses the importance of leader behaviors in influencing the extent to which various stressors soldiers experience (e.g., high workload and lack of sleep) are related to different types of strains (e.g., psychological health, poor job satisfaction, and low morale). Research conducted by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in the area of leadership is reviewed. Researchers at the WRAIR have examined the role of leadership as a predictor of stress, as a buffer against the negative effects of stress, and as a variable that predicts or enables variables that have been found to decrease the adverse effects of stress (e.g., role clarity, self-efficacy, and job engagement). A key strength of the WRAIR program of research is the use of multilevel modeling to examine how perceptions of leadership at the unit level are related to unit and individual soldier well-being and motivation. PMID:15291187

  16. Serological markers for hepatitis types A and B among U.S. Arym soldiers, Germany.

    PubMed Central

    James, J J; Smith, L

    1979-01-01

    Viral hepatitis rates among U.S. Army soldiers in Europe have been found to be two to three times higher than corresponding rates for soldiers stationed in the U.S. Sera from 89 per cent of a representative Army unit with 865 members and a known hepatitis problem were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HA. The prevalence of HB markers was 20 per cent, and hepatitis A antibody was present in 25 per cent. A six-month follow-up, conducted on 260 individuals initially negative for all four tests, revealed that 11 of these were now HB seropositive, whereas none had seroconverted to anti-HA positive. The HB virus was the principal agent responsible for hepatitis in the unit surveyed. PMID:228562

  17. Historical channel-bed elevation change as a result of multiple disturbances, Soldier Creek, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Historical information on stream stage/discharge relations from eight U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations was used to analyze channel-bed elevation change along Soldier Creek, a stream affected by multiple disturbances in northeast Kansas. The analysis provided information on the spatial (location, type, magnitude) and temporal (timing, duration, trend, rate) dimensions of channel change. Channel changes determined for Soldier Creek included extensive changes resulting from channelization and changes of relatively limited extent following a flood. The results were used to document channel changes, partly reconstruct historical channel conditions, infer the causes of channel change, and estimate the occurrence of future channel changes. Copyright ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Holloway, Kevin M; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A; Gahm, Gregory A

    2011-02-01

    Exposure therapy is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but research evaluating its effectiveness with active duty service members is limited. This report examines the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for active duty soldiers (N = 24) seeking treatment following a deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Relative to their pretreatment self-reported symptoms on the PTSD Checklist, Military Version (M = 60.92; SD = 11.03), patients reported a significant reduction at posttreatment (M = 47.08; SD = 12.70; p < .001). Sixty-two percent of patients (n = 15) reported a reliable change of 11 points or more. This study supports the effectiveness of exposure therapy for active duty soldiers and extends previous research on VRE to this population. PMID:21294166

  19. Intestinal Parasites in First World War German Soldiers from “Kilianstollen”, Carspach, France

    PubMed Central

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named “Kilianstollen” in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach. PMID:25333988

  20. A morphologically specialized soldier caste improves colony defense in a neotropical eusocial bee

    PubMed Central

    Grüter, Christoph; Menezes, Cristiano; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Division of labor among workers is common in insect societies and is thought to be important in their ecological success. In most species, division of labor is based on age (temporal castes), but workers in some ants and termites show morphological specialization for particular tasks (physical castes). Large-headed soldier ants and termites are well-known examples of this specialization. However, until now there has been no equivalent example of physical worker subcastes in social bees or wasps. Here we provide evidence for a physical soldier subcaste in a bee. In the neotropical stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, nest defense is performed by two groups of guards, one hovering near the nest entrance and the other standing on the wax entrance tube. We show that both types of guards are 30% heavier than foragers and of different shape; foragers have relatively larger heads, whereas guards have larger legs. Low variation within each subcaste results in negligible size overlap between guards and foragers, further indicating that they are distinct physical castes. In addition, workers that remove garbage from the nest are of intermediate size, suggesting that they might represent another unrecognized caste. Guards or soldiers are reared in low but sufficient numbers (1–2% of emerging workers), considering that <1% usually perform this task. When challenged by the obligate robber bee Lestrimelitta limao, an important natural enemy, larger workers were able to fight for longer before being defeated by the much larger robber. This discovery opens up opportunities for the comparative study of physical castes in social insects, including the question of why soldiers appear to be so much rarer in bees than in ants or termites. PMID:22232688

  1. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether post-conflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method Male and female former child soldiers (N=260, ages 10–17 at baseline) were recruited from the roster of an NGO-run Interim Care Center in Kono District and interviewed in 2002, 2004 and 2008. The retention rate was 69%. Linear growth models were used to investigate trends related to war and post-conflict experiences. Results The long-term mental health of former child soldiers was associated with war experiences and post-conflict risk factors, which were partly mitigated by post-conflict protective factors. Increases in externalizing behavior were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma while increased community acceptance was associated with decreases in externalizing problems (B=−1.09). High baseline levels of internalizing problems were associated with surviving rape while increases were associated with younger involvement in armed groups and social and economic hardships. Improvements in internalizing problems were associated with higher levels of community acceptance and increases in community acceptance (B=−0.86). Decreases in adaptive/prosocial behaviors were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma, but partially mitigated by social support, being in school and increased community acceptance (B=1.93). Conclusions Psychosocial interventions for former child soldiers may be more effective if they account for post-conflict factors in addition to war exposures. Youth with accumulated risk factors, lack of protective factors, and persistent distress should be identified; sustainable services to promote community acceptance, reduce stigma, and expand social supports and educational access are recommended. PMID

  2. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. PMID:26011718

  3. Soldier-relevant body borne load impacts minimum foot clearance during obstacle negotiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T N; Loverro, K L; Schiffman, J M

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers often trip and fall on duty, resulting in injury. This study examined ten male soldiers' ability to negotiate an obstacle. Participants had lead and trail foot minimum foot clearance (MFC) parameters quantified while crossing a low (305 mm) and high (457 mm) obstacle with (19.4 kg) and without (6 kg) body borne load. To minimize tripping risk, participants increased lead foot MFC (p = 0.028) and reduced lead (p = 0.044) and trail (p = 0.035) foot variability when negotiating an obstacle with body borne load. While obstacle height had no effect on MFC (p = 0.273 and p = 0.126), placing the trail foot closer to the high obstacle when crossing with body borne load, resulted in greater lead (R = 0.640, b = 0.241, p = 0.046) and trail (R = 0.636, b = 0.287, p = 0.048) MFC. Soldiers, when carrying typical military loads, may be able to minimize their risk of tripping over an obstacle by creating a safety margin via greater foot clearance with reduced variability. PMID:26995036

  4. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    From the first half century of space exploration, we have obtained samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded profound knowledge that could not have been obtained without the returned samples. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is crucial science, it is rarely done due to cost and complexity. Cassini's discovery of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials, indicate that there is an exceptional opportunity and science rational to do a low-cost flyby sample return mission, similar to what was done by the Stardust. The earliest low cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012]. Enceladus Plume Discovery - While Voyager provided evidence for young surfaces on Enceladus, the existence of Enceladus plumes was discovered by Cassini. Enceladus and comets are the only known solar system bodies that have jets enabling sample collection without landing or surface contact. Cassini in situ Findings -Cassini's made many discoveries at Saturn, including the break up of large organics in the plumes of Enceladus. Four prime criteria for habitability are liquid water, a heat source, organics and nitrogen [McKay et al. 2008, Waite et al. 2009, Postberg et al. 2011]. Out of all the NASA designated habitability targets, Enceladus is the single body that presents evidence for all four criteria. Significant advancement in the exploration of the biological potential of Enceladus can be made on returned samples in terrestrial laboratories where the full power of state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation and procedures can be used. Without serious limits on power, mass or even cost, terrestrial laboratories provide the ultimate in analytical capability, adaptability, reproducibility and reliability. What Questions can Samples Address? - Samples collected from the Enceladus plume will enable a thorough and replicated

  5. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  6. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed. PMID:19960157

  7. Return to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  8. The effect of shower/bath frequency on the health and operational effectiveness of soldiers in a field setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.C.; Daniels, J.I.

    1990-11-01

    Dermal disease is significant cause of morbidity among soldiers in a combat setting. For example, among American combat troops in Vietnam, disability from skin disease was one of the single most important medical causes of man-days lost from combat. Currently, the US Army makes shower or bath facilities available to soldiers in the field on a weekly basis. US Army after-action reports and anecdotal descriptions from the field indicate that this may not be an optimal regimen for the maintenance of personal hygiene, especially with respect to diseases of the skin. Determination of the optimal frequency of showering of bathing for soldiers in a combat setting is complicated by the fact of showering or bathing for soldiers in a combat setting is complicated by the fact that soldiers in the US Army may be involved in field exercise or combat in many different areas of the world with a variety of climatic conditions. Although certain aspects of the role of environmental factors in the incidence and severity of dermal disease have been documented, the role of hygiene in the potential mitigation of these effects has not been evaluated. The present project entails a comprehensive review and analysis of available literature in order to determine the health impact of shower/bath frequency for soldiers in a combat setting. An integral component of this work is an evaluation of the impact of climate, and microclimate produced by clothing, on the type, frequency, and severity of skin disease. There is relatively large body of information concerning the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps in minimizing the incidence and severity of dermal disease. This data will be evaluated to determine whether use of these soaps, or an increase in the use of cleansing agents in general, will result in a decrease in the severity and incidence of diseases of the skin for soldiers in the field. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Possible causes of long-range dependence in the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    While the presence of long-range dependence in the asset returns seems to be a stylized fact, the issue of arguing the possible causes of this phenomena is totally obscure. Trying to shed light in this problem, we investigate the possible sources of the long-range dependence phenomena in the Brazilian Stock Market. For this purpose, we employ a sample which comprises stocks traded in the Brazilian financial market (BOVESPA Index). The Hurst exponent here is considered as our measure of long-range dependence and it is evaluated by six different methods. We have found evidence of statistically significant rank correlation between specific variables of the Brazilian firms which subscribe stocks and the long-range dependence phenomena present in these stocks.

  10. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  11. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  12. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  14. Malaria in Tunisian Military Personnel after Returning from External Operation

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faïda; Battikh, Riadh; Laabidi, Janet; Abid, Rim; Bousetta, Najeh; Jemli, Bouthaina; Ben abdelhafidh, Nadia; Bassem, Louzir; Gargouri, Saadia; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Malaria had been eliminated in Tunisia since 1979, but there are currently 40 to 50 imported cases annually. Soldiers are no exception as the incidence of imported malaria is increasing in Tunisian military personnel after returning from malaria-endemic area, often in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and biological presentations, treatment, and outcomes of 37 Tunisian military personnel hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine, the Military Hospital of Tunis, between January 1993 and January 2011, for imported malaria. The clinical and laboratory features were obtained from the medical records and a questionnaire was filled by the patients about the compliance of malaria prophylaxis. Results. Thirty-seven male patients, with a mean age of 41 years, were treated for malaria infection. Twenty-two were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The outcome was favourable for all patients, despite two severe access. The long-term use of chemoprophylaxis has been adopted by only 21 (51%) of expatriate military for daily stresses. Moreover, poor adherence was found in 32 patients. Conclusion. The risk of acquiring malaria infection in Tunisian military personnel can largely be prevented by the regular use of chemoprophylactic drugs combined with protective measures against mosquito bites. PMID:23766922

  15. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  16. Can we predict crashes? The case of the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Werneck, Filipe K.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we analyze Brazilian stock prices to detect the development of bubbles and crashes in individual stocks using a log-periodic equation. We implement a genetic algorithm to calibrate the parameters of the model and we test the methodology for the most liquid stocks traded on the Brazilian Stock Market (Bovespa). In order to evaluate whether this approach is useful we employ nonparametric statistics and test whether returns after the predicted crash are negative and lower than returns before the crash. Empirical results are consistent with the prediction hypothesis, e.g., the method applied can be used to forecast the end of asset bubbles or large corrections in stock prices.

  17. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites. PMID:26188329

  18. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  19. Chemical identification and ethological function of soldier-specific secretion in Japanese subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus (Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Kanaori, Kenji; Hojo, Masaru K; Kawada, Tatsuro; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Akino, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    We identified the soldier-specific compounds in the Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus, to clarify their ethological roles. Silica gel column chromatography separated one major soldier-specific compound in the hexane fraction accounting for 70-80% of the total amount of the fraction, while cuticular hydrocarbons constituted the rest. We identified the compound as β-selinene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Comparative GC analyses of the major exocrine glands detected the compound in the soldier's frontal gland. Both soldiers and workers made aggregation to the hexane fraction, as well as to the crushed heads and head extract of the soldiers. They did not aggregate to cuticular hydrocarbons, making it likely that β-selinene was the aggregation pheromone in this species. The opportunistic predator of this termite, Lasius japonicus, was also attracted to the compounds. The ant workers, therefore, would use the termite aggregation pheromone as a kairomone for hunting them. PMID:21897019

  20. The Effectiveness of Early Group Intervention for Military Reserves Soldiers: The Role of the Repressive Coping Style.

    PubMed

    Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Levi, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    This study had two aims: 1. To examine whether soldiers who participated in Early Group Intervention (EGI) would show less distress and better functioning and physical health than soldiers who did not participate in EGI, and 2. To examine the contribution of the intervention to participants with repressive coping style. The sample comprised 166 male reserve soldiers who fought in the Second Lebanon War. The intervention was conducted three months after the traumatic event, was based on military protocol, and took place over the course of one day. Data were collected at two points in time (four months apart). The findings indicated that after EGI, the intervention group experienced less post-traumatic distress than did the control group. In addition, four months after the intervention, the functioning and physical health of the intervention group was significantly better than that of the control group. Notably, the intensity of post-traumatic distress before the intervention was lower among repressors and low-anxious soldiers than among soldiers in the other two groups (high-anxious and defensive). No significant differences were found after the intervention with regard to the various styles of coping with post-traumatic distress. Future clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27357553

  1. Social Organization in Parasitic Flatworms--Four Additional Echinostomoid Trematodes Have a Soldier Caste and One Does Not.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Quintana, Anastasia C E; DeRogatis, Andrea M; Martyn, Kayla; Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2016-02-01

    Complex societies where individuals exhibit division of labor with physical polymorphism, behavioral specialization, and caste formation have evolved several times throughout the animal kingdom. Recently, such complex sociality has been recognized in digenean trematodes; evidence is limited to 6 marine species. Hence, the extent to which a soldier caste is present throughout the Trematoda is sparsely documented, and there are no studies detailing the structure of a species lacking such a social structure. Here we examine colony structure for an additional 5 echinostomoid species, 4 of which infect the marine snail Cerithidea californica and 1 (Echinostoma liei) that infects the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata . For all species, we present redia morphology (pharynx and body size) and the distribution of individuals of different castes throughout the snail body. When morphological evidence indicated the presence of a soldier caste, we assessed behavior by measuring attack rates of the different morphs toward heterospecific trematodes. Our findings indicate that each of the 4 species from C. californica have a permanent soldier caste while E. liei does not. The observed intra- and inter-specific variation of caste structure for those species with soldiers, and the documentation of colony structure for a species explicitly lacking permanent soldiers, emphasizes the diverse nature of trematode sociality and the promise of the group to permit comparative investigations of the evolution and ecology of sociality. PMID:26560890

  2. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses. PMID:23658412

  3. Non-Returning Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD. Dept. of Institutional Research and Assessment.

    In spring 1992, Charles County Community College (CCCC) conducted a telephone survey of non-returning fall 1991 students to determine their reasons for not returning to CCCC. In order to obtain comparison data, a questionnaire designed and administered by Prince George's Community College (PGCC) (Largo, Maryland) in 1988 was used with one minor…

  4. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  5. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  6. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  7. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  8. Group cognitive behavioral treatment in female soldiers diagnosed with binge/purge eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rinat; Yanykulovitch-Levy, Dana; Wertheim, Hadas; Gordon-Erez, Shirley; Shahimov, Meital; Weizman, Abraham; Stein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is the recommended intervention in bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified with binge/purge (EDNOS-B/P) symptoms. There are fewer data on its application in a group format. We sought to investigate the effect of group CBT in female soldiers with B/P symptomatology in an open trial design. For this purpose we assessed 64 female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Force diagnosed with BN and EDNOS-B/P who participated in a group CBT format of 16 weekly sessions and one follow-up session. In this study, 42 participants (65.6%) completed treatment and 22 participants (34.4%) did not. A total of 39 treatment completers (92.8% of treatment completers) and 19 non-completers (86.4% of treatment non-completers) were assessed around 12 months after treatment. Participants completed at baseline and following treatment questionnaires assessing eating-related symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At follow-up they were assessed for eating-related symptoms. Our findings show only minimal baseline differences between treatment completers and non-completers. Significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment was shown for B/P and restrictive symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At that time, more than a third of treatment completers were abstinent from binging and more than a half from vomiting. The improvement in B/P and restricting symptoms was maintained at 1 year follow-up for treatment completers. At that time around 60% were abstinent from binging and more than 70% from vomiting. Participants not completing treatment were also improved at follow-up but to a lesser extent. The findings of the present study suggest that group CBT may be effective for the treatment of female soldiers with BN and EDNOS-B/P. PMID:27128883

  9. Soldiers Preparing for New Careers: An Examination of the Motivations and Barriers Associated with Postsecondary Educational Participation of Nontraditional Students in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Clinton Mark

    A study identified and compared characteristics of enlisted soldiers who participated in postsecondary educational offerings to those who did not and identified barriers to participation for participants and nonparticipants. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 92 soldiers at one Army installation. Nonparticipants named these…

  10. Morality in Action - The Relationship between Moral Judgement and Moral Action of Israeli Reserve Soldiers Who Refused to Serve in Lebanon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Ruth

    During the Lebanon War (1982), many Israeli reserve soldiers disobeyed the command to join their units for service in Lebanon. Several of these soldiers were publicly labeled "sarvanim" meaning "refusers" in Hebrew, and were jailed in military prisons. Kohlberg's (1976) cognitive developmental approach to moralization, which views justice as a…

  11. A primer on the unique challenges of female soldiers' reproductive issues in a war-ready culture.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, April S; Duboyce, Rita L; Ritter, Joan B; Omori, Deborah J; Cooper, Barbara A; O'Malley, Patrick G

    2013-05-01

    In 1951, a U.S. Presidential Executive Order outlined regulations governing the involuntary separation of women from military service in the event of pregnancy, parenting, or giving live birth while on commissioned service. Subsequent public law and court decisions have changed the rules on female soldier pregnancy and parenting. Initially capped at 2%, maximum allowable percentage of the military, female soldiers now comprise over 14% of the U.S. active duty military, numbering over 200,000. The issues of sexuality, family planning, pregnancy, breast feeding, and family care are unique in this population and affect soldier readiness and deployment planning. Many of these challenges are amenable to physician intervention and guidance to ameliorate the barriers to service. Both clinicians and policy makers should be attentive to advancing a system that affords equal opportunity and optimizes health for all service members. PMID:23756009

  12. Extending and applying the demand-control model: the role of soldier's coping on a peacekeeping deployment.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jessica; Adler, Amy B; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Litz, Brett T; Hölzl, Rupert

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek, 1979) by examining coping as an additional factor. It was hypothesized that perceived job control only buffered the demand-strain relationship when individuals used active coping and exacerbated the relationship when individuals used passive coping. Soldiers (N=638) were surveyed before and during a 6-month peacekeeping deployment to Kosovo. Results partially confirmed the hypotheses. Even after controlling for general psychological health at predeployment, job control moderated the relationship between demands and psychological health during deployment when soldiers used active coping. No significant 3-way interactions were found for religious coping and passive coping. Implications for demand-control modeling and potential applications of the findings to soldier and leader training are discussed. PMID:16248692

  13. Characteristics of lipid fractions of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, N A; Brodskii, E S; Kovalenko, A A; Bastrakov, A I; Kozlova, A A; Pavlov, D S

    2016-05-01

    The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature. PMID:27417723

  14. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  15. Computer graphical analysis method proves beneficial in lost soldier field deviated well application

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of using computer-generated plots of directional drilling data as a tool in planning the directional and normal drilling operations in a testat at Lost Soldier Field, WY. Emphasis is placed on their application to deviation-controlled wells in areas experiencing crooked-hole drilling. Results show that their use in conjunction with dipmeter data and structural contour maps of shallow horizons penetrated is effective in projecting wellbore trajectory. With these data, surface locations can be engineered to minimize corrective mud motor runs and to allow for optimal bit conditions. 2 refs.

  16. APOLLO 11: The heroes Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The crew of APOLLO 11 return as heroes after their succesfull landing on the lunar surface. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 11:'The Eagle Has Landed'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 11: First manned lunar landing and return to Earth with Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin. Landed in the Sea of Tranquilityon July 20, 1969; deployed TV camera and EASEP experiments, performed lunar surface EVA, returned lunar soil samples. Mission Duration 195 hrs 18 min 35sec

  17. A Prospective Cluster-Randomized Trial of Telehealth Coaching to Promote Bone Health and Nutrition in Deployed Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from previous studies suggest that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This study enrolled 234 soldiers randomized to receive one-time nutrition and exercise education pre-deployment (n = 149), or telehealth coaching (n = 85), throughout the deployment cycle. Results suggest that online educational efforts may enhance sports activity, bone turnover, and vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status and remaining active while deployed appears to sustain healthy bone density in young soldiers. Early and aggressive educational outreach to young adults may prevent chronic musculoskeletal conditions and disabling osteoporosis later in life.

  18. Physiological strain during exercise-heat stress experienced by soldiers wearing candidate chemical protective fabric systems. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, C.B.; Santee, W.R.

    1988-06-01

    The heat-stress problem of soldiers working in warm environments wearing chemical protective clothing is well documented. The thermal insulation and low moisture permeability of such clothing severely limit the effectiveness of the body's heat dissipating mechanisms. Several foreign and domestic experimental fabric systems are now available, and the thermal and vapor transfer characteristics of some of these systems have been tested in static configurations. This technical report describes the evaluation of three experimental fabric systems for their effect on thermal strain experienced by soldiers during exercise in the heat.

  19. Suicide among soldiers: a review of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Deming, Charlene A; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C; McCarroll, James E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  20. [Guiltless guilty--trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder in former Ugandan child soldiers].

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Schrage, Jana; Post, Manuela; Adam, Hubertus

    2011-01-01

    Despite international bans, more than 250,000 children and adolescents are exploited as soldiers worldwide, almost half of them in Africa. These children are exposed to a tremendous amount of violence and are often forced to commit atrocities themselves. In the present study, 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17, female: 48.5%) were interviewed regarding traumatic experiences, trauma-related guild, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Affective and cognitive aspects of guilt were assessed with the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory (TRGI) and PTSD with a diagnostic interview (MINI-KID). Children had been abducted at a mean age of 10.75 years and served for an average period of 19.81 months. They were exposed to numerous traumatic experiences during abduction, e. g., 86.4% were exposed to killings, 87.9% were threatened with death, 52.6% were forced to kill another person, and 25.8% were raped. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD were fulfilled by 33% of the children. Higher guilt cognitions were significantly related to posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children. PMID:21425638

  1. French soldiers and their correspondence: towards a history of writing practices in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Martyn

    2003-01-01

    The years 1914-18 engendered a "sudden and irrepressible boulimia" of letter-writing, a diluvian outpouring which defied all attempts at administrative control. The massive correspondence of French soldiers, analysed and quoted in the archives of the Commission de Contrôle Postal, has already been mined by war historians. They have normally used it to carry out a kind of historical opinion poll on the mood of the trenches. This article, however, focuses less on the content of soldiers' correspondence, and more on the nature and history of letter-writing itself. It examines letters as letters, their frequency, their destinations and all the unwritten codes to which they are subject. At a time of newly acquired mass literacy, the poilus experienced the urgent need to write. Their "laconic writing" raises important questions about historical sources, their transparency and their silences. It also offers a perspective on the much debated integration of the peasantry into national life and culture. PMID:20734533

  2. [Problems of early detection of HIV infection, medical and psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers].

    PubMed

    Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel. PMID:25916037

  3. Time structures, chronomes, of soldiers' stature mimicking Hale cycle in neonatal body length.

    PubMed

    Komlos, John; Cornélissen, Germaine; Woitek, Ulrich; Otsuka, K; Halberg, Franz

    2004-10-01

    The systematic patterns in human adult physical stature are explored in connection with Wolf's relative sunspot numbers. This topic should be of interest to economists, physicians as well as physicists. There is a need for more than a check of any similarity of curves in variables approximating the economy and human stature and for more than the application of mathematical models, as done herein. Ours is at best a halting step at one frequency, presented only to document the challenge of a transdisciplinary approach to multifrequency intermodulations of hosts of variables, yet to be untangled. The circumstance that at birth some decisions concerning adult stature are already made is challenging. The signature of the environment in terms of the about 21-year Hale bipolarity cycle of Wolf's relative sunspot numbers found in adult soldiers shows that the association at birth is not a transient one, even if other evidence beyond our scope herein points to the possibility that observations on presumably healthy soldiers can be extrapolated to abnormal growth. Nonetheless, the task for those concerned with short stature could become preventive if the sensitive stages when growth may be inhibited by the environment could be found, as well as means to shield from or counter the undesirable effects. PMID:15754852

  4. Compensation for occupational injuries and diseases in special populations: farmers and soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Jun; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Some types of workers such as farmers and soldiers are at a higher risk of work-related injury and illness than workers from other occupations. Despite this fact, they are not covered under the Industrial Safety Health (ISH) Act or the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) Act. The Safety Aid System for Farmers (SASF) is a voluntary insurance scheme, and it is the only public compensation plan for self-employed farmers. Fifty percent of SASF premiums are subsidized by the Korean government. Soldiers are compensated by the Veterans' Pension (VP) Act. The approval standard of and procedure for the VP Act are provided in the Decree of VP Act, and the Council for VP Benefits determines work-relatedness in the claimed cases. Meanwhile, SASF applies the insurance clause automatically without any expert advice or additional procedures. Furthermore, compared with IACI, these programs pay fewer benefits to workers. Thus, a stronger institutional strategy is needed to maintain a safe work environment, to protect workers' health in unavoidably hazardous environments, and to compensate for work-related injuries and diseases. PMID:25006320

  5. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls. PMID:24265919

  6. Physiological variables and performance markers of serving soldiers from two "elite" units of the British Army.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Gray, Susan C; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected physiological variables and performance markers of soldiers from two "elite" units of the British Army. Ten soldiers from each of the two units were recruited for this study (n = 20). All participants completed three tests while carrying a 20 kg backpack load: (1) a maximal treadmill test using the Bruce protocol; (2) a 2 mile backpack run test specific to Unit A on a consistently flat tarmac road; and (3) a 29 km time-trial over hilly terrain typical of a mountainous area used by Unit B for performance assessment. Heart rate, maximal blood lactate concentration and performance (run time) were assessed during all three tests, with peak oxygen uptake also being measured during the maximal treadmill test. Measurements of anthropometry, isokinetic strength and mental toughness (MT48) were also recorded. There were no significant differences in terms of performance markers between the units (P > 0.05). Performance on the maximal treadmill test correlated with performance on the 2 mile backpack run test (r = -0.57) and 29 km time-trial (r = -0.66). Performance on the 2 mile backpack run test in turn correlated with 29 km time-trial performance (r = -0.77), accounting for 59% of the variance. In conclusion, the maximal treadmill test and the 2 mile backpack run test are useful indicators of performance on the arduous hill march and could be employed in the screening and selection of potential recruits. PMID:16611570

  7. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  8. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  9. Small arms video sight for the "German Army Soldier-of-the-Future Program": lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledertheil, Bernd H.; Berlips, Carsten; Ohlmann, Marco

    2009-05-01

    The Small Arms Video Sight is part of the optronical sights developed for the German IdZ-ES program (German Army Soldier-of-the Future Program - Enhanced System) [1]. The aim of the development was to use this highly integrated sight on three different rifles (G36 = the assault rifle of the German soldier optional with a 40mm underslung grenade launcher, MG 4 = a light machine gun , PZF3 = a 60mm / 110mm bazooka). The Video Sight will be used for observation, target detection, recognition and identification, direct and indirect aiming and shooting with ballistic calculation and aiming mark correction, still and video picture capturing and wireless transmission, determination of a located target position by distance and angle to the own position and so on. To perform all these tasks the Video Sight is equipped with an uncooled IR and a CCD camera, a laser range finder, a digital compass, angle sensors, electronic display, all this sensors highly integrated and controlled by an operating system.

  10. Life goes on: the experiences of wives of multiply-deployed National Guard soldiers.

    PubMed

    Patzel, Brenda; McBride, Maryellen; Bunting, Judith; Anno, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Whether a service member is active duty or part of the National Guard, deployment of these service members is a major issue for most families. There is limited knowledge of the experience of multiple deployments on the family. The purpose of this study was to describe experiences of wives of National Guard soldiers that were deployed more than once. Nine wives were interviewed. An analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) "Life Goes On" (i.e., despite the repeated deployments, life continues at home); (2) the "Guard is a Different Animal" (i.e., life as a National Guard spouse is different from that of an active duty spouse); (3) "It's a Mind-Set" (i.e., how wives cope their husband's deployment); and (4) "Going Back Again" (i.e., wives' experiences of multiple deployments). Exploring how multiple deployments affects wives of National Guard soldiers is helpful in understanding their experiences and the adjustments that must be made in family life. Knowledge of the experiences of these wives may help in formulating more effective interventions with families who have experienced multiple deployments. PMID:23663024

  11. Psychiatric distress among spouses of National Guard soldiers prior to combat deployment.

    PubMed

    Erbes, Christopher R; Meis, Laura A; Polusny, Melissa A; Arbisi, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Background The mental health functioning of military spouses and intimate partners prior to the combat deployments of their loved ones is poorly studied. Aims Whereas service members and veterans often receive healthcare directly from the military or the Department of Veterans Affairs, family members may be more likely to present in family care settings. An understanding of mental health problems commonly occurring in this population is therefore important. Method National Guard soldiers and their spouses or cohabitating partners (n = 223 couples) were surveyed about mental health symptoms, social functioning and mental health service utilisation one to two months prior to a combat deployment to Afghanistan. Results Screening rates for partner post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol problems and social impairment were 2.4, 15.3, 3.7 and 10.7%, respectively, and were significantly higher for partners than soldiers with regards to depression and social impairment. The majority of partners screening positive for psychiatric distress did not report utilising mental health services or military support services (i.e. family readiness groups). Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23997822

  12. Suicide Among Soldiers: A Review of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Deming, Charlene A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C.; McCarroll, James E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  13. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to the.... Any returned mail qualifying as “special mail” is opened and inspected for contraband in the...

  14. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to the.... Any returned mail qualifying as “special mail” is opened and inspected for contraband in the...

  15. 78 FR 72789 - Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 233 / Wednesday, December 4, 2013 /#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of August 2, 2013 Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, as...

  16. Impact of Childhood Abuse History on Psychological Symptoms among Male and Female Soldiers in the U.S. Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1996-01-01

    The psychological effects of physical-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers. Results found the females were three times more likely to have been sexually or both physically and sexually abused and that physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the…

  17. Genetic variability of spined soldier bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) sampled from distinct field sites and laboratory colonies in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests that preys on eggs and larvae of lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetic variability among field collected samples from Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, and Florida, ...

  18. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2011-4 of October 25, 2010 Presidential Determination With...

  19. Vitamin A-Deficiency Eye Disease Among Soldiers in the U.S. Civil War: Spectrum of Clinical Disease.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    During the U.S. Civil War, nutritional night blindness was a common problem among soldiers forced to subsist of nutritionally inadequate diets, but medical officers typically attributed this complaint to malingering and did not suspect or appreciate a dietary basis. More than 8,000 cases of night blindness were recorded among Union troops, but many cases were not tabulated because of incomplete data for black soldiers and prisoners of war. From 1864 to 1865, during which comparable data were available for both whites and blacks, the average annual cumulative incidence of night blindness was 4.3 per 1,000 troops for whites, compared with 11.0 per 1,000 troops for blacks. Affected patients had dilated pupils that were poorly responsive to candle light. Approximately 30 cases of keratomalacia were also reported among severely malnourished and emaciated soldiers with chronic diarrhea, generally within 2 weeks before death. The reported clinical manifestations are characteristic of the full range of vitamin A deficiency eye disease from night blindness to corneal ulceration and perforation. Although medical officers typically accused affected soldiers of malingering, malingering cannot account for either the observed abnormalities of pupillary reflexes, or the corneal epithelial pathology and mortality recorded in severe cases. PMID:26126247

  20. The control of Malpighian tubule secretion in a predacious hemipteran insect, the spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spined soldier bugs, Podisus maculiventris, are heteropteran insects that feed voraciously on other insects, particular the soft bodied larval forms of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The response of P. maculiventris Malpighian tubules (MT) to serotonin and known diuretic and antidiuretic peptides has b...

  1. 77 FR 4084 - Prices for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... United States Mint Prices for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner... Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Program products. Prices for the silver products are in the... Dollar N/A $61.95. Defenders of Freedom Set. 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Proof $5 See Attached Grid...

  2. Genetic variation in field and laboratory populations of the spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is an economically important and high-valued biological control agent. There is substantial information on the biology, ecology, behavior and rearing of this stink bug. However, virtually nothing is known of its genetic variation, in natural...

  3. Black Civitas: An Examination of Carter Woodson's Contributions to Teaching about Race, Citizenship, and the Black Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.; Crowley, Ryan M.; King, LaGarrett J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors interrogate the historical meaning of the African American soldier in order to widen the discussion of race and citizenship in the field of social studies education. The article has two overarching purposes. First, the authors attend to the recent call in the field of social studies for a more rigorous analysis of…

  4. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world. PMID:24843926

  5. The Relationship of Family Satisfaction to Satisfaction with the Military Way of Life among Soldiers. Technical Report 864.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    This study investigated the relationship between soldiers' satisfaction with the environment for families in the Army and satisfaction with the military way of life. The report is based on a secondary analysis of the responses of a stratified random sample of 9,198 Army personnel, a sample that participated in the 1985 Department of Defense…

  6. Rates of ankle and foot injuries in active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert F; Wahi, Monika M; Hill, Owen T; Kay, Ashley B

    2011-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries (AFI) are a major cause of Active-Duty Army (ADA) soldiers' time lost from training and combat operations. We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database to compute the rates of AFI to identify high-risk ADA groups for the years 2000-2006. During this time, 16% of soldiers were clinically seen at least once for an AFI. Yearly, 60% to 70% of ADA soldiers with AFI had an ankle sprain/strain, and ankle sprain/strain had the highest 7-year rate of all AFIs (103 per 1,000). From 2000 to 2006, all AFI rates declined; however, enlisted male soldiers < or = 30 years of age without an advanced degree were at highest risk. A history of an AFI in the previous 2 years increased AFI rates by 93% to 160%. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for identifying specific ADA groups at high risk of AFI; these groups should be targeted for preventive interventions. PMID:21456354

  7. Barriers to Initiating and Continuing Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Naifeh, James A; Colpe, Lisa J; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Army soldiers with mental disorders report a variety of barriers to initiating and continuing treatment. Improved understanding of these barriers can help direct mental health services to soldiers in need. A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers participating in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers completed a self-administered questionnaire and consented to linking self-administered questionnaire data with administrative records. We examined reported treatment barriers (perceived need, structural reasons, attitudinal reasons) among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders who either did not seek treatment in the past year (n = 744) or discontinued treatment (n = 145). About 82.4% of soldiers who did not initiate treatment and 69.5% of those who discontinued treatment endorsed at least two barriers; 69.8% of never-treated soldiers reported no perceived need. Attitudinal reasons were cited more frequently than structural reasons among never-treated soldiers with perceived need (80.7% vs. 62.7%) and those who discontinued treatment (71.0% vs. 37.8%). Multivariate associations with sociodemographic, Army career, and mental health predictors varied across barrier categories. These findings suggest most soldiers with mental disorders do not believe they need treatment and those who do typically face multiple attitudinal and, to a lesser extent, structural barriers. PMID:27612348

  8. Predictors of returning to work.

    PubMed

    Ash, P; Goldstein, S I

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of predictors of returning to work in a sample of physically injured persons who are receiving workers' compensation benefits and vocational rehabilitation is presented. One hundred fourteen injured subjects (86 with back injury; 28, other injury) undergoing vocational rehabilitation and receiving workers' compensation benefits were assessed on demographic, emotional, cognitive, financial incentive, and miscellaneous variables. Predictors for returning to work were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Patients with moderate or severe depression, defined as a score greater than 16 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were significantly less likely to return to work following vocational rehabilitation efforts than patients with less severe depression (for back-injured patients, odds ratio (OR) = 31, 95% CI [8.8, 108]). BDI scores correctly classified 84 percent of the back-injury and 86% of the other-injury groups with respect to their return to work. The level of workers' compensation benefit was the only variable that added (marginally) to the predictive power of the BDI. In a physically injured population receiving workers' compensation benefits, who are judged to be not clearly permanently disabled, level of depressive symptoms is a strong predictor of returning to work. Caution is warranted in using the BDI as the sole determinant in a forensic situation for making a real-world prediction, as BDI responses are easy to fake. Treatment of concurrent depression is an important component of helping physically injured workers resume gainful employment. PMID:8605404

  9. Storybook Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The separation from family endured by Army personnel during operations can be tough. No parent wants to be away from their children for long periods--or miss out on crucial moments in their development. For the children themselves, the pain of separation is often compounded by a lack of understanding as to why Mummy or Daddy is no longer there.…

  10. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  11. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined β-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that β-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of β-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p = 0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p = 0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p = 0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p = 0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of β-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power

  12. How Effective Is Initial Military-Specific Training in the Development of Physical Performance of Soldiers?

    PubMed

    Groeller, Herbert; Burley, Simon; Orchard, Pete; Sampson, John A; Billing, Daniel C; Linnane, Denise

    2015-11-01

    The impact of basic military training (BMT) on recruit physical performance is well described. However, initial employment training (IET), the period immediately after BMT, is the final preparatory step before posting to an operational unit. There is limited evidence on the influence of this training in developing the physical attributes necessary for military duty. Therefore, this investigation determined the relative contribution of BMT and IET to develop physical capability in soldiers. Fifty-one soldiers (45 men and 6 women) were assessed at 4 time points: commencement of training (week 1), midway (week 8), at the conclusion (week 12) of BMT, and upon completion of the IET (week 18/27). Weeks 1, 12, and 18/27 are reported herein. At each time point, tasks relevant to military duties, such as 1 repetition maximum (1RM) box lift, 2 × 22 kg-jerry carry, 3.2 km of 22-kg load carriage, and preexisting assessments of military fitness, such as 20-m shuttle run, 2-minute push-ups, and sit-ups, were assessed. A subsample of recruits (n = 14) was assessed for 1RM bench press, vertical jump, 30-second high-intensity cycle ergometry, and peak treadmill oxygen consumption. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in 3.2 km of 22-kg load carriage (week 12, 1,109 ± 37 seconds; week 18/27, 1,161 ± 51 seconds), 2 × 22 kg-jerry carry (week 12, 753 ± 72 m; week 18/27, 683 ± 78 m), and 1RM bench press (week 12, 83.3 ± 16.0 kg; week 18/27, 73.2 ± 16.6 kg) was observed during IET. No change (p > 0.05) between week 12 and week 18/27 was detected in 1RM box lift, vertical jump, 30-second high-intensity cycle ergometry, sit-ups, and 20-minute shuttle run. In contrast, 2-minute push-up (week 12, 46.7 ± 2.7; week 18/27, 57.5 ± 3.1) performance increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Soldiers who participated in up to 15 weeks of additional IET did not make further physical performance gains in strength, power, and endurance or function before posting to their units. Thus, greater

  13. Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers – A validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and

  14. The effect of shower/bath frequency on the health and operational effectiveness of soldiers in a field setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.C.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-31

    Dermal disease can be a significant cause of morbidity among soldiers in a combat setting. For example, among American combat troops in Vietnam, disability from skin disease was one of the single most important medical causes of man-days lost from combat. Currently, the US Army makes shower or bath facilities available to soldiers in the field on a weekly basis. US Army after-action reports and anecdotal descriptions from the field indicate that this may not be an optimal regimen for the maintenance of personal hygiene, especially with respect to diseases of the skin. Determination of the optimal frequency of showering or bathing for soldiers in an combat setting is complicated by the fact that soldiers in the US Army may be involved in field exercises or combat in many different areas of the world with a variety of climatic conditions. Although certain aspects of the role of environmental factors in the incidence and severity of dermal disease have been documented, the role of hygiene in the potential mitigation of these effects has not been evaluated. The present project entails a comprehensive review and analysis of available literature in order to determine the health impact of shower/bath frequency for soldiers in a combat setting. An integral component of this work is an evaluation of the impact of climate, and microclimate produced by clothing, on the type, frequency, and severity of skin disease. A separate but related area of interest involves evaluating whether the use of antimicrobial soaps or similar products minimize the incidence of skin infections by decreasing populations of disease-causing microorganisms on the skin. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  16. Effect of heat and chemical protective clothing on the ability of a group of female soldiers to sustain performance of military cognitive tasks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, B.J.

    1987-12-01

    The author previously found that chemical protective clothing seriously degraded the performance of sedentary male soldiers doing sustained mental work in the heat. Here in an identical study, the authors examine the performance of female soldiers in protective clothing. To the author's knowledge, this is the only controlled study of its kind with women. Eighteen female soldiers trained for two weeks on cognitive tasks resembling those performed by fire direction center, forward observer, and communications personnel. Then, they performed the tasks for seven-hour periods on four successive days in hot (91 F., 61% RH) and normal (55 F., 35% RH) or (70 F., 35% RH) with and without chemical protective clothing.

  17. Uncertain Educational Returns in a Developing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Luckert, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the distribution of educational returns by gender for India. While previous studies focus on mean returns, the variance of educational returns has important implications for policy-making and micro-level decision making with respect to education. If the variance of educational returns is large, it can leave large sections of…

  18. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required to be made...

  2. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) operational environment on soldier health and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; DeRoshia, C.; Tauso, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness incidences and effects on soldier performance and mood states within the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Specific objectives were (1) to determine if there was a significant difference between three internal configurations of the C2V and/or between seats within these vehicles; (2) to determine if there was a significant difference between the park, move, or short-halt field conditions; and (3) to validate a method of converging indicators developed by NASA to assess environmental impact of long duration spaceflight on crewmembers, using a large sample of subjects under ground-based operational conditions.

  3. Raising the clinical standard of care for suicidal soldiers: an army process improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Archuleta, Debra; Jobes, David A; Pujol, Lynette; Jennings, Keith; Crumlish, Jennifer; Lento, Rene M; Brazaitis, Katherine; Moore, Bret A; Crow, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    From 2004 to 2008, the suicide rate among US Army Soldiers increased 80%, reaching a record high in 2008 and surpassing the civilian rate for the first time in recorded history. In recent years, the rate of Army suicides rose again; the year 2012 reflects the highest rate of military suicides on record. There is a need to assess current behavioral health practices to identify both effective and ineffective practices, and to adapt services to meet the needs of the Army behavioral health patient population. This paper discusses a process improvement initiative developed in an effort to improve clinical processes for suicide risk mitigation in an Army behavioral health clinic located in the catchment area of the US Army Southern Regional Medical Command. PMID:25830799

  4. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    PubMed

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  5. The multilevel effects of occupational stressors on soldiers' well-being, organizational attachment, and readiness.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Army typifies the stressful nature of many contemporary work settings, as soldiers face a climate of increasing work demands coupled with declining resources. The authors used social identity theory to propose hypotheses regarding contextual and cross-level effects of shared stressors on individual outcomes critical to the functioning of military units (well-being, attachment, readiness). Although the authors found weak support for direct effects of shared stressors on individual outcomes, they found several compelling moderating effects for shared stressors on person-level stressor-outcome relationships. For most effects, shared stressors intensified the effects of person-level stressors on morale, commitment, and depression. However, some shared stressors exerted counterintuitive effects on stressor-outcome relationships. Implications for research and military personnel management are discussed. PMID:16060730

  6. Paralysis as a Presenting Symptom of Hyperthyroidism in an Active Duty Soldier.

    PubMed

    Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems. PMID:26606408

  7. Military Beliefs and PTSD in Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Loew, Benjamin; Carter, Sarah; Allen, Elizabeth; Markman, Howard; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic distress after military combat is a major cost of war. One under-investigated factor potentially associated with PTSD symptoms is specific beliefs about one’s military service. This study examined post-deployment self-reports from 272 active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, to investigate potential associations between military-related PTSD symptom severity and three beliefs about the military: the importance and value ascribed to one’s own work in the Army, to current military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and to military service in general. Higher scores on these three beliefs were negatively correlated with military-related PTSD symptom severity. However, in a combined regression model that controlled for recent combat exposure, only the belief about current military operations had a significant, unique association with PTSD symptom severity. That is, more positive beliefs about the value of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan were associated with lower PTSD symptoms. PMID:25530729

  8. Intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6(th) instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the prepupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21(st) hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation. After pupariation, four morphological phases of intra-puparial development were observed and described. PMID:25368039

  9. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  10. Bacteria Mediate Oviposition by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L.; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L.; Benbow, M. Eric; Tarone, Aaron M.; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  11. An artificial light source influences mating and oviposition of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch for the quartz-iodine lamp and sunlight treatments occurred in approximately 4 days, and the hatch rate was similar between these two treatments. Larval and pupal development under these treatments required approximately 18 and 15 days at 28°C, respectively. Development of methods for mass rearing of H. illucens using artificial light will enable production of this fly throughout the year without investing in greenhouse space or requiring sunlight. PMID:21268697

  12. An Artificial Light Source Influences Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch for the quartz-iodine lamp and sunlight treatments occurred in approximately 4 days, and the hatch rate was similar between these two treatments. Larval and pupal development under these treatments required approximately 18 and 15 days at 28°° C, respectively. Development of methods for mass rearing of H. illucens using artificial light will enable production of this fly throughout the year without investing in greenhouse space or requiring sunlight. PMID:21268697

  13. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  14. Transference-focused psychotherapy with former child soldiers: meeting the murderous self.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Nel; Van Zon, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the application of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) to the treatment of former child soldiers suffering from dissociative identity disorder. It focuses on the problems with aggression faced in psychotherapy. TFP provides a psychodynamic, object relations model to understand the aggression arising in psychotherapy, focusing on the transference and countertransference in the here and now of the therapeutic relationship. Aggression is considered an essential and vital inner dynamic aimed at autonomy, distancing, and the prevention of injury and dependency. In extremely traumatized patients there may be aggressive and oppressive inner parts that want total control-identifying with childhood aggressors-thus avoiding vulnerability. According to TFP it is vital that this aggression is addressed as belonging to the patients themselves in order to reach some form of integration, balance, and health. This is illustrated in a case description. PMID:23406222

  15. Challenges in presenting high dimensional data to aid in triage in the DARPA virtual soldier project.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A D; Wright, Z C; Ade, A S; Bookstein, F; Ogden, J C; Meixner, W; Athey, B D; Morris, T

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the DARPA Virtual Soldier Project is to aid the field medic in the triage of a casualty. In Phase I, we are currently collecting 12 baseline experimental physiological variables and a cardiac gated Computed Tomography (CT) imagery for use in an prototyping a futuristic electronic medical record, the "Holomer". We are using physiological models and Kalman filtering to aid in diagnosis and predict outcomes in relation to cardiac injury. The physiological modeling introduces another few hundred variables. Reducing the complexity of the above into easy-to-read text to aid in the triage by the field medic is the challenge with multiple display solutions. A description of the possible techniques follows. PMID:15718701

  16. Alteration and mineralization in the eastern part of the Soldier Mountains, Camas County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Reed S.

    2001-01-01

    The eastern part of the Soldier Mountains in Camas County, south-central Idaho, is underlain principally by plutonic rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene age that locally have undergone propylitic, potassic, and muscovite-quartz alteration. Muscovite- quartz alteration is Cretaceous in age and is localized along joints and fractures, some of which are filled with quartz. Associated veins have yielded minor amounts of gold. Potassic alteration is probably both Cretaceous and Eocene in age but is weakly developed and limited in extent. Propylitic alteration is Eocene in age and is pronounced around biotite granite plutons. Despite a clear association between plutons of biotite granite and widespread propylitic alteration, mineralization associated with these rocks was minimal. Mineralized areas within more mafic Eocene plutons are characterized by veins and (or) stockworks(?) enriched in copper, molybdenum, and silver, but these areas are restricted in size and have not been productive.

  17. Intra-Puparial Development of the Black Soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens

    PubMed Central

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6th instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21st hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation. After pupariation, four morphological phases of intra-puparial development were observed and described. PMID:25368039

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression. PMID:25908529

  20. Supplement use by UK-based British Army soldiers in training.

    PubMed

    Casey, Anna; Hughes, Jason; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P

    2014-10-14

    The use of supplements is widespread at all levels of civilian sport and a prevalence of 60-90 % is reported among high-performance UK athletes, including juniors. The prevalence of supplement use among UK-based British Army personnel is not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of supplement use in UK-based British Army soldiers under training (SuTs) and associated staff. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was carried out in 3168 British Army SuTs and soldiers, equating to 3·1 % of regular Army strength, based at eleven Phase 1, 2 and 3 UK Army training sites. Overall, 38 % of the respondents reported current use of supplements, but prevalence varied according to the course attended by the respondents. The number of different supplements used was 4·7 (sd 2·9). Supplements most commonly used were protein bars, powders and drinks (66 %), isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drinks (49 %), creatine (38 %), recovery sports drinks (35 %), multivitamins (31 %) and vitamin C (25 %). A small proportion of respondents reported the use of amphetamines and similar compounds (1·6 %), cocaine (0·8 %), anabolic androgenic steroids (1·1 %), growth hormone (2·0 %), and other anabolic agents, e.g. testosterone (4·2 %). Logistic regression modelling indicated that, for current users, younger age, being female, smoking and undergoing Officer Cadet training were associated with greater supplement use. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of dietary and training supplement use in UK-based British military personnel. Self-administration of a wide range of supplements is reported by British military personnel in training, which is at least as great as that reported by those on deployment, and has implications for Defence policy and educational needs. PMID:25119518

  1. Soldiers and marksmen under fire: monitoring performance with neural correlates of small arms fire localization.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Jason; Gaston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from multiple modalities. The present study uses an oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle) vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle). We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19), i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for human performance monitoring in combat. PMID

  2. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  3. Soldiers and marksmen under fire: monitoring performance with neural correlates of small arms fire localization

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Jason; Gaston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from multiple modalities. The present study uses an oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle) vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle). We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19), i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for human performance monitoring in combat. PMID

  4. [Assessment and analysis of the acoustic environment of soldiers exposed to impulse noise].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Wiesław; Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Piotr; Miłoński, Jarosław

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the acoustic environment of soldiers attending a one year basic military service. The study material comprised 13 types of weapons used by this group of soldiers. During the target practice, the following parameters were measured separately for the right ear and the left ear: equivalent sound pressure level A (LA eq, Te); maximum sound pressure level A (LA F max) and peak sound pressure level C (LC peak). The measurements covered several single shots or a shot series. In addition, a spectroanalysis in 1/3-octave band frequency of 40-50,000 Hz, was conducted. There were following values of measurements in the direct vicinity of the ears: LA eq, Te fell within the range of 106.2-119.5 dB (mean, 112.2 dB) for the right ear and 104.2 dB-118.4 dB (mean, 113.2 dB) for the left ear; LA F max within the range of 124.5-132.3 dB (mean, 128.3 dB) for the right ear and 116.3-135.1 dB (mean, 128.1 dB) for the left ear; LC pcak within the range of 151.8-156.5 dB (mean, 154.8 dB/155 dB) for the right ear and 151.9-156.2 dB (mean, 155.4 dB) for the left ear. In the noise spectrum, components of audible frequencies predominated, 160-300 Hz (mainly for high caliber weapon); 1600-6300 Hz for the right ear and 2500-4000 Hz for the left peak (small caliber weapons); 6300-16,000 and ultrasonic 25,000-50,000 Hz. No significant differences were found in the measurements of the right ear and the left ear. PMID:12577807

  5. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities. PMID:21643725

  6. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  7. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  8. Return to the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consuela, Sister Mary

    In this speech, a plea is made to return content to the social studies. Content is seen as essential to cognitive and affective learning. Although the author feels that the introduction of behavioral objectives is a significant development of the various social studies projects, it is meaningless unless it is related to content. Clearly stated…

  9. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  10. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  11. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  12. The Returns to Apprenticeship Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses recent data from the UK Labour Force Survey to estimate the wage gains that individuals make on average if they complete an apprenticeship programme. The results suggest gains of around 5-7% for men, but no benefit for women. Further analysis extends the results by considering the returns by age group, by qualification obtained, by…

  13. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  14. Analysing Enterprise Returns on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Janelle; McDonald, Rod

    Recent Australian and overseas studies on evaluation of enterprises' return on training investment (ROTI) were reviewed to identify key issues in encouraging increased evaluation of training benefits by enterprises and successful approaches that may inform future "enterprise-friendly" studies of ROTI. It was concluded that more practical,…

  15. Comparison of mental health between former child soldiers and children never conscripted by armed groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Speckman, Rebecca A.; Maharjan, Sujen M.; Worthman, Carol M.; Komproe, Ivan H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite child soldiers being considered in need of special mental health interventions, there is a lack of studies investigating the mental health of child soldiers compared with civilian children in armed conflicts. Objective: To compare the mental health status of former child soldiers with children who have never been conscripts of armed groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: A matched-pair cohort study conducted from March through April 2007 in Nepal compared the mental health of 141 former child soldiers to 141 never conscripted children matched on age, sex, education, and ethnicity. Outcome Measures: Depression symptoms were assessed via the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), anxiety symptoms via the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-5), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) via the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), general psychological difficulties via the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), daily functioning via the Function Impairment (FI) tool, and exposure to traumatic events via Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KIDDIE-SADS) PTSD Traumatic Event Checklist. Results: Participants were a mean of 15.75 years at the time of this study and child soldiers ranged in age from 5 to 16 years at the time of conscription. All participants experienced at least 1 type of trauma. Number (%) of child soldiers meeting cutoff scores were 75 (53.2%) for depression, 65 (46.1%) for anxiety, 78 (55.3%) for PTSD, 55 (39.0%) for psychological difficulties, and 88 (62.4%) for function impairment. Child soldiers had greater odds of meeting cutoff for depression (OR=3.56, 95% CI 2.33—5.43), PTSD (for which we employed stratified analyses because of sex interaction: boys’ OR=3.85, 95% CI 1.77—8.39; girls’ OR=6.33, 95% CI 2.64—15.17), psychological difficulties (OR=2.91, 95% CI=1.53—5.51), and function impairment (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.41—2.96), but no difference for anxiety (OR=1

  16. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  17. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  18. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A

  19. Chemical defense secretions of the termite soldiers ofAcorhinotermes andRhinotermes (Isoptera, Rhinotermitinae) : Ketones, vinyl ketones, and β-ketoaldehydes derived from fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Collins, M S

    1982-01-01

    The defense secretions of advanced "nasutoid" rhinotermitine soldiers from the New World contain enolic β-ketoaldehydes as the major components. The secretions of minor soldiers ofRhinotermes hispidus (Emerson) andR. marginalis (Emerson) consist primarily of 3-keto-13-tetradecenal and 3-ketotetradecanal, but possess in addition C13, C14, C15, and C17 saturated and unsaturated ketones. Major soldiers lacked these compounds and in fact had virtually no frontal gland secretion. The defense secretion of the monomorphic soldiers ofAcorhinotermes subfusciceps (Emerson) contains mostly 3-keto-(Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-8-pentadecen-2-one. Biosynthetic origins and interrelationships are postulated for these compounds, and the concomitant evolution of chemical weaponry and the modified labral brush is discussed. PMID:24414591

  20. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  1. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ across treatments and ranged from 98.95 ± 1.82% to 100.00 ± 0.00%. Adult body length resulting from the larvae in each of the treatments was significantly greater than those from the control. Longevity of adults did not differ significantly between treatments. Time from hatching to the development of the first pupa did not differ significantly across treatments; however, development time from hatching to 90% reaching the prepupual stage was significantly different between treatments and ranged from 29.00 ± 1.00 d to 34.33 ± 3.51 d. Development time from hatching to 90% reaching the adult stages was significantly different between treatments. Our results demonstrate that inoculating poultry manure with bacteria from black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure. PMID:22182608

  2. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint return after filing separate return. 1... filing separate return. (a) In general. (1) Where an individual has filed a separate return for a taxable... separate return of either spouse are to be taken into account in determining the extent to which the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint return after filing separate return. 1.6013-2 Section 1.6013-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return after filing separate return. (a) In general....

  4. 26 CFR 20.6075-1 - Returns; time for filing estate tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Returns; time for filing estate tax return. 20.6075-1 Section 20.6075-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Administration § 20.6075-1 Returns; time for filing estate tax return. The estate tax return required by...

  5. 26 CFR 20.6075-1 - Returns; time for filing estate tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns; time for filing estate tax return. 20.6075-1 Section 20.6075-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Administration § 20.6075-1 Returns; time for filing estate tax return. The estate tax return required by...

  6. History at the intersection of disability and public health: the case of John Galsworthy and disabled soldiers of the First World War.

    PubMed

    Reznick, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    The author presented an earlier version of this historical article to the Disability Section of the American Public Health Association (November 2009). It is part of his ongoing research in the social and cultural history of medicine as the field intersects with the history of disability, veterans, and public health, as well as current issues that touch all of these areas. This article introduces readers to perspectives on disability held by the British novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), which he developed primarily through his philanthropic support for and his compositions about rehabilitation programs for British and American soldiers disabled in the First World War (1914-1918). Readers will learn that Galsworthy's perspectives are as much about his identity as an individual with disabilities as they are about men disabled in the "war to end all wars." The rediscovery of Galsworthy's experiences and words more than 90 years after the end of World War I reveals how history is present today at the intersection of disability and public health. Indeed, the story of Galsworthy ultimately seeking to forget his own experiences during the "Great War," as well as the very physical and psychological disability caused by that conflict, can inspire public health professionals and disability rights advocates today to remember-indeed, to advocate for-men and women who served in battle and have returned home to realize renewed health and social participation despite permanent physical and psychological wounds. Readers will note that language used throughout this article to describe disability is period-specific and therefore not keeping with current conventions. PMID:21168804

  7. Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers With Current Mental Disorders in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service Members (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Colpe, Lisa J; Naifeh, James A; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-10-01

    A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers completed a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) and consented to linking SAQ data with administrative records as part of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. The SAQ included information about prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) internalizing (anxiety, mood) and externalizing (disruptive behavior, substance) disorders. 21.3% of soldiers with any current disorder reported current treatment. Seven significant predictors of being in treatment were identified. Four of these 7 were indicators of psychopathology (bipolar disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, 8+ months duration of disorder). Two were sociodemographics (history of marriage, not being non-Hispanic Black). The final predictor was history of deployment. Treatment rates varied between 4.7 and 71.5% depending on how many positive predictors the soldier had. The vast majority of soldiers had a low number of these predictors. These results document that most nondeployed soldiers with mental disorders are not in treatment and that untreated soldiers are not concentrated in a particular segment of the population that might be targeted for special outreach efforts. Analysis of modifiable barriers to treatment is needed to help strengthen outreach efforts. PMID:26444466

  8. Asteroid Return Mission Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Gershman, Robert; Landau, Damon; Polk, James; Porter, Chris; Yeomans, Don; Allen, Carlton; Williams, Willie; Asphaug, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the technological feasibility of finding, characterizing, robotically capturing, and returning an entire Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) to the International Space Station (ISS) for scientific investigation, evaluation of its resource potential, determination of its internal structure and other aspects important for planetary defense activities, and to serve as a testbed for human operations in the vicinity of an asteroid. Reasonable projections suggest that several dozen candidates NEAs in the size range of interest (approximately 2-m diameter) will be known before the end of the decade from which a suitable target could be selected. The conceptual mission objective is to return an approximately 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a total flight time of approximately 5 years using a single Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle. Preliminary calculations indicate that this could be accomplished using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) system with high-power Hall thrusters and a maximum power into the propulsion system of approximately 40 kW. The SEP system would be used to provide all of the post-launch delta V. The asteroid would have an unrestricted Earth return Planetary Protection categorization, and would be curated at the ISS where numerous scientific and resource utilization experiments would be conducted. Asteroid material brought to the ground would be curated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This preliminary study identified several areas where additional work is required, but no show stoppers were identified for the approach that would return an entire 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a mission that could be launched by the end of this decade.

  9. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control. No increased reduction was observed for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova. PMID:23669577

  10. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains. PMID:8113702

  11. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  12. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  13. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  14. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  18. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  19. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Quality of Life of Affected Soldiers in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling approach was done to assess quality of life (QoL) in 100 soldiers and veterans affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose SCI affects almost every aspect of the life of an affected individual. This study was done to measure the impact of SCI on QoL of affected soldiers and veterans using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Overview of Literature The devastating effect of SCI on QoL is well known. However, this study is unique in that it includes soldiers and veterans, who constitute a large, but excluded, cohort in most demographic studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was done at two SCI rehabilitation centres of the Indian armed forces. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 100 patients, which included both sociodemographic data as well as all the questions included in WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Age and marital status did not have any influence on QoL. Level of injury (paraplegic or quadriplegic), level of education and presence of other medical co-morbidities had the most significant influence on QoL. Presence of other medical co-morbidities had a negative influence on QoL. Conclusions Identification of factors having a positive and negative influence on QoL help in formulating measures and policies that positively influence the QoL following SCI in soldiers. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and assessment of additional variables in addition to WHOQOL-BREF, like presence/absence of secondary complications, are required to bring about policy changes to provide SCI patients with additional support and increased access to equipment or lifestyle interventions. PMID:27114767

  20. The Challenge of Living On: Psychopathology and Its Mediating Influence on the Readjustment of Former Child Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination) to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001). PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001), loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001) and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001) were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental traumatization. PMID

  1. The challenge of living on: psychopathology and its mediating influence on the readjustment of former child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination) to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001). PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001), loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001) and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001) were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental traumatization. PMID

  2. The homolog of Ciboulot in the termite (Hodotermopsis sjostedti): a multimeric β-thymosin involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Caste differentiation in social insects is a type of polyphenism that enables division of labor among members of a colony. This elaborate social integration has attracted broad interest, although little is known about its regulatory mechanisms, especially in Isoptera (termites). In this study, we analyzed soldier differentiation in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, focusing on a possible effector gene for caste development. The gene for an actin-binding protein, HsjCib, which shows a high level of expression in developing mandibles during soldier differentiation, is characterized in detail. Results To examine the HsjCib gene, full-length cDNAs were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) and sequencing. Multiple isoforms were identified, and on the basis of the results of northern and Southern hybridization analyses, these isoforms were considered to be transcriptional variants from a single gene. On the basis of their sequence similarity to homologous genes of other organisms, functions in actin assembly were assumed to be different among isoforms. Expression analysis revealed high expression in the head during soldier differentiation, which was consistent with their allometric growth. Although isoform expression was observed in various tissues, different expression levels were observed among tissues, suggesting the possibility of tissue-specific morphogenetic regulation by HsjCib isoforms. Conclusion This study revealed the characteristics and dynamics of the HsjCib gene during soldier differentiation as a potential representative of downstream effector genes in caste-specific morphogenesis. From the expression patterns observed, this gene is considered to be involved in cephalic morphogenesis and neural reorganization, resulting in the establishment of caste-specific morphology and behavior. PMID:20529303

  3. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  4. Smart real-time cardiac diagnostic sensor systems for football players and soldiers under intense physical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) have been reported to be up to 7.6 times higher in rate of occurrence during intense exercise as compared to sedentary activities. The risk is high in individuals with both diagnosed as well as occult heart diseases. Recently, SCDs have been reported with a high rate of occurrence among young athletes and soldiers who routinely undergo vigorous training. Prescreening Electrocardiograms (ECG) and echocardiograms have been suggested as potential means of detecting any cardiac abnormalities prior to intense training to avoid the risk of SCDs, but the benefits of this approach are widely debated. Moreover, the increased risk of SCDs and AMIs during training or exercise suggests that ECGs are of much greater value when acquired real-time during the actual training. The availability of immediate diagnostic data will greatly reduce the time taken to administer the appropriate resuscitation. Important factors to consider in the implementation of this solution are: - cost of overall system, accuracy of signals acquired and unobtrusive design. In this paper, we evaluate a system using printed sensors made of inks with functional properties to acquire ECGs of athletes and soldiers during physical training and basic military training respectively. Using Zigbee, we show that athletes and soldiers can be monitored in real time, simultaneously.

  5. From the laboratory to the soldier: providing tactical behaviors for Army robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knichel, David G.; Bruemmer, David J.

    2008-04-01

    The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system

  6. Comet coma sample return via Giotto II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Albee, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A comet coma sample return is possible with a low-cost flyby mission. Collecting coma materials and returning them to earth can be accomplished in a free-return trajectory. Intact capture of coma dust, preserving the cometary dust mineralogy, is possible at low encounter speeds. Samples from a known cometary source can then be compared with the wealth of information on meteorites and interplanetary dust. Sample return via Giotto II is a unique, low-cost NASA/ESA cooperative opportunity. With ESA providing the Giotto spacecraft and payload and NASA the sample return capability, first-class science can be accomplished at a very low cost for both NASA and ESA. This paper focuses on the sample return aspects, including sample return objectives, sample collection techniques, experimental work to verify collection concepts, and some of the characteristics of the cometary targets for sample return.

  7. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brum, J. A.; Tavares, P. F.

    2007-01-19

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. During this period, approximately 28000 hours of beam time were delivered reaching more than 1000 users per year from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this paper, we briefly recall the history of the project and describe the present configuration of the machine and associated instrumentation, focusing on improvements and upgrades of the various light source subsystems and beamlines implemented in recent years. Finally, we report on the use of the facility by the national and international scientific communities, its impact on the scientific and technological scene in Brazil and present perspectives for future improvements of the machine.

  8. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  9. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  10. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  11. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  13. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  14. 50 CFR 12.51 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return procedure. 12.51 Section 12.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Return of Property § 12.51 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  15. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 203.23 Section 203.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.23 Returns. The return of a prescription drug purchased...

  16. Mars 2005 Sample Return Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Convened at the request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe of the NASA Office of Space Science, the purpose of this workshop was to reexamine the science issues that will determine how an optimum sample return mission would be carried out in 2005 given the new context that has emerged for Mars exploration since the last such workshop was held (in 1987). The results and summary of discussion that took place at the meeting are contained in this volume. The community was invited to participate in the preparation of the final written report by browsing through the agenda and reading the text and viewgraphs provided by workshop participants and submitting comments for that section.

  17. Data link and return link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuron, Bruce R.; Lyons, Joseph B., Jr.

    1991-05-01

    This invention relates to a data coder, code searching mechanism, data decoder, and range computer for a missile wherein the missile receiver is able to discriminate between the real signals and jamming signals. The system provides discrimination in aircraft receiver systems for the return synchronization signal. This is accomplished by utilizing a random code generator wherein the command data signals modulate the code train which in turn modulates the RF carrier. The missile contains a second code generator with a code searching mechanism which synchronizes the second code generator with the first generator. The comparison of the second code generator signal with the received signal produces the command signal as an output.

  18. Mars rover sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.; Rea, Donald G.; Pivirotto, Donna; Kwok, Johnny; Craig, Mark K.

    1988-01-01

    An important intermediate step in the path to human exploration of Mars is the accomplishment of a mission which lands an unmanned rover on the Martian surface, selects and collects various samples of the terrain and atmosphere, and returns them to earth for analysis. Such a mission is being developed under the management of NASA's JPL and the Johnson Space Center. The concepts for a wide range of rover capabilities are studied and an assessment of the driving technological developments required to implement these capabilities is made.

  19. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  20. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of ‘soldier’ was perceived to impact participants’ lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants’ pathways to offending are discussed. PMID:27570440

  1. [Psychogenic Disorders in German soldiers during World War I and II].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Hahne, H-H; Biesold, K-H; Lanczik, M

    2005-02-01

    In the First and Second World War German soldiers frequently suffered from psychogenic disorders. By comparison a change in the prevalences can be noted: in the First World War dissociative disorders dominated the clinical impression ("shell shock"), in the Second World War they could rarely be seen but were replaced by somatoform and psychosomatic diseases. The discussion about numerous reasons for this development has not been completed yet and is still not free from political attitudes. To achieve a more scientific point of view, the perspective of psychotraumatology might be helpful. According to psychotraumatic research, dissociative and somatoform disorders can emerge in a close relation to a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The choice of symptoms depends on personality traits of the victim, but also on specific factors that characterise the situation in which the trauma appears. The mixture of pathogenetic and protective influences includes e. g. the possibility of flight- or fight reactions, feelings of trauma-associated guilt and group cohesion in the military unit. These factors can be useful to help explain the change of symptoms between both wars. In addition the analysis of situational conditions in former wars can give hints to actual planning and prophylaxis strategies in modern military psychiatry, that has to adjust to very different military operation fields. PMID:15685493

  2. Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of smoke candles and soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André; Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    The emergence of new infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies in the context of military operations has paved the way to enhanced detection capabilities. Camouflage devices such as candles (or smoke bombs) and flares are developed to generate either large area or localized screens with very high absorption in the infrared. Similarly, soldier's camouflage devices such as clothing have evolved in design to dissolve their infrared characteristics with that of the background. In all cases, the analysis of the targets infrared images needs to be conducted in both multispectral and hyperspectral domains to assess their capability to efficiently provide visible and infrared camouflage. The Military University of Technology has conducted several intensive field campaigns where various types of smoke candles and camouflage uniforms were deployed in different conditions and were measured both in the multispectral and hyperspectral domains. Cooled broadband infrared cameras were used for the multispectral analysis whereas the high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor. This paper presents the test campaign concept and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  3. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) Operational Environment on Soldier Health and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles; Tauson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness and performance of soldiers in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Three different vehicle configurations were tested: oblique, (3 seats at a 20-degree angle from the direction of travel); perpendicular, (3 seats at a 90 degree angle); and 4-forward, (all seats faced forward). In all vehicles, the front seat faced forward. Sixteen men and eight women participated for 15 days: 2 days of classroom instruction; 12 days of field tests in the C2V, and 15 minutes of post-field test performance measures. Conditions for field tests were: an initial Park; four Moves (i.e., travel over a mixed terrain); and four Short-halts following movement. NASA task batteries, mood and symptom scales, and physiological data were collected during field tests. Motion sickness symptoms ranging from slight to severe were reported for all subjects. Conclusions were: (1) there was no difference between vehicle configurations; (2) there was a negative impact on crew performance and health when subjects attended to visual screens during vehicle movement; and (3) symptoms and performance degradation were not mitigated by intermittent short-halts.

  4. Telemental health for our soldiers: a brief review and a new pilot program.

    PubMed

    Nieves, J Edwin; Candelario, Joseph; Short, Delmar; Briscoe, Gregory

    2009-12-01

    This small but significant telemental health clinical pilot could easily serve as a "best practice" model for resource utilization between the nation's VHA/DOD institutions that wish to form partnerships and capitalize on resources. It demonstrates several potential areas of collaboration for TMH projects. For example, this study also points out requisite preparation needs, e.g., an information technology (IT) needs assessment, and gap analysis between neighboring VHA/DOD installations should be considered beforehand. This would address equipment compatibility and address protected health information privacy concerns. This preparation would also lead to savings by avoiding equipment redundancy and minimize infrastructure (space) investment. While in this instance the equipment proved compatible, that may not always be the case. Second, regional strategic mapping of staff and services between institutions could help in specialty service utilization. This would improve recourse allocation, trim numerous costs, and avoid service duplication. A third area of collaboration would be the creation of a DOD/VHA electronic credentialing packet. This would simplify the preparation phase for TMH delivery and expand the availability of scarce medical specialty consultants for both the VHA and DOD. This would serve to streamline medical care and expedite the deployment of "virtual" practitioners in the event of a national disaster or emergency. To date there have not been any technical difficulties at either site and PC-PTSD-positive soldiers continue to be evaluated at the SVMAC. Anecdotal reports from both clinicians and patients are that they are highly satisfied with TMH delivery services. PMID:20055062

  5. Development of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Adler, Peter H; Myers, Heidi M

    2009-06-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology. PMID:19508804

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  7. Emergent runaway into an avoidance area in a swarm of soldier crabs.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori; Nishiyama, Yuta; Moriyama, Toru; Niizato, Takayuki; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2014-01-01

    Emergent behavior that arises from a mass effect is one of the most striking aspects of collective animal groups. Investigating such behavior would be important in order to understand how individuals interact with their neighbors. Although there are many experiments that have used collective animals to investigate social learning or conflict between individuals and society such as that between a fish and a school, reports on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool. Moreover, we show that the observed behavior can be explained by the model of collective behavior based on inherent noise that is individuals' different velocities in a directed group. Our results suggest that inherent noise, which is widely seen in collective animals, can contribute to formation and/or maintenance of a swarm and that the dense swarm can enter the pool by means of enhanced inherent noise. PMID:24839970

  8. A novel diesel-fueled engine for microclimate cooling for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. K.; Lam, W. K.; Raymond, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    Military mission performance in a chemically contaminated environment necessitates the wearing of chemically impermeable protective garments. Soldiers encapsulated in these protective garments in a hot environment will succumb to heat stress. Consequently a microclimate cooling system is being developed. In the present design, a vapor compression cycle chills water which is then circulated over the body to absorb heat via a cooling garment. One of the major components of the vapor compression cycle system is the prime mover, i.e., the engine. For battlefield use, the engine shall utilize battlefield fuel, JP-8. Commercially available engines of the required size, approximately 0.5 hp at 4000 rpm, such as model aircraft engines and small outdoor power equipment (string trimmers) engines do not start and run on JP-8. This effort established the technical feasibility of starting and operating a small, lightweight engine on diesel fuel and JP-8. A commercially available 1.09 cubic inch displacement was used; however, the stock head was replaced with a custom designed head employing a fuel injector and pre-chamber. The engine started by hand cranking from ambient temperature (70 F) and ran without aids. The engine developed 0.42 brake hp at 3700 rpm. Brake specific fuel consumption was 0.76 lb/bbp-hr.

  9. Augmented reality technology for day/night situational awareness for the dismounted Soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, Eric; Roberts, David; Bennett, Matthew; Towles, Herman; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes Applied Research Associates' (ARA) recent advances in Soldier augmented reality (AR) technology. Our AR technology, called ARC4, delivers heads-up situational awareness to the dismounted warfighter, enabling non-line-of-sight team coordination in distributed operations. ARC4 combines compact head tracking sensors with advanced pose estimation algorithms, network management software, and an intuitive AR visualization interface to overlay tactical iconic information accurately on the user's real-world view. The technology supports heads-up navigation, blue-force tracking, target handoff, image sharing, and tagging of features in the environment. It integrates seamlessly with established network protocols (e.g., Cursor-on-Target) and Command and Control software tools (e.g., Nett Warrior, Android Tactical Assault Kit) and interfaces with a wide range of daytime see-through displays and night vision goggles to deliver real-time actionable intelligence, day or night. We describe our pose estimation framework, which fuses inertial data, magnetometer data, GPS, DTED, and digital imagery to provide measurements of the operator's precise orientation. These measurements leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry, known landmarks, and sun position, enabling ARC4 to achieve significant improvements in accuracy compared to conventional INS/GPS solutions of similar size, weight, and power. We detail current research and development efforts toward helmet-based and handheld AR systems for operational use cases and describe extensions to immersive training applications.

  10. Prediction of the exercise-heat tolerance of soldiers wearing protective overgarments

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, L.E.; Szlyk, P.C.; Sils, I.V.; De luca, J.P.; O'brien, C. Connecticut, University, Storrs )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to see whether subject characteristics and physiologic measurements predicted exercise-heat tolerance (EHT) and voluntary tolerance time. Unacclimatized males attempted six 50-min periods while wearing protective overgarments. Two post hoc groups of soldiers were defined: high EHT (H) and low EHT (L). Significant H vs. L differences were observed in pretrial body mass, percent fat, and mass-to-surface-area ratio, as well as 170 min heart rate, mean weighted skin temperature Tsk and heat storage. The first three of these factors indicated that preexercise anthropomorphic characteristics distinguish H from L. The heart rate and Tsk differences mean that L experienced greater cardiovascular strain because of a higher Tsk, which resulted in increased pooling of blood in cutaneous vessels, decreased cardiac filling pressure, and increased fatigue. Because heart rate variables were the strongest correlates of exercise-tolerance time a novel heart beat monitoring technique was proposed which uses a wrist-mounted cardiotachometer to predict tolerance time. 26 refs.

  11. The effect of the weight of equipment on muscle activity of the lower extremity in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

  12. MRI findings of young male soldiers with atraumatic anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Park, J; Kang, S-B; Chang, C B

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate abnormal magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of young active males with atraumatic anterior knee pain (AKP). Targeting young male soldiers, we prospectively gathered and analyzed 157 knee MRIs from patients with atraumatic AKP (AKP group) and 53 knee MRIs from patients without knee pain (control group). Abnormalities of the patellofemoral (PF) joint and extensor mechanism on MRI were more common in the AKP group than the control group (48% vs 13%, P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of medial plica (34% vs 13%, P = 0.004) and the prevalence of the thick medial plica (9% vs 0%, P = 0.023) were considerably higher in the AKP group. The cartilaginous sulcus angle in the AKP group without abnormalities on MRI was significantly higher than both the AKP group with abnormalities and the control group (145° vs 141° vs 142°, respectively, P = 0.001). Our results suggest that careful assessment of young, active males with atraumatic AKP is warranted regarding PF joint abnormalities, particularly the presence of medial plica and/or subtle abnormalities of the articular geometry. The results from the present study could be used for the management of patients with AKP. PMID:25996828

  13. Effects of impulse noise on transiently evoked otoacoustic emission in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Wieslaw; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Grzanka, Antoni; Zalewski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to impulse noise on TEOAE, as compared to PTA. The study comprised 92 soldiers, subjected to impulse noise during military service. The control group consisted of secondary school students, not exposed to noise. Extended high frequency PTA, and TEOAE were recorded before and after one year of military service. The total level of noise and spectrum analysis were performed for all kinds of weapons, separately. The highest levels of noise for weapons were related to frequencies from 1.6-16 kHz. After military service significant deterioration of hearing was observed on average by 6 dB exclusively at the frequencies of 10 and 12 kHz. TEOAE reduction was registered predominantly at frequencies of 2, 3 and 4 kHz, with the greatest decrease at 2 kHz (p <0.02). The control group did not show any significant audiometric changes as well as TEOAE during the time of experiment. PMID:15796096

  14. Return to Play After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ralph W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play. Deciding when to return an athlete to sport depends on particular injury sustained, sport, and individual factors. PMID:27543402

  15. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  18. 12 CFR 210.12 - Return of cash items and handling of returned checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounting entries) subject to this subpart and to the Reserve Banks' operating circulars. (2) Warranties for... the returned check, in paper or electronic form, for forward collection or return. (3) Warranties for all returned checks that are electronic items. A paying bank or returning bank that sends a...

  19. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Defries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Anderson, Liana O.; Arai, Egidio; Del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-01

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R2 = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation. agriculture | carbon | land use change | soybean

  20. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; DeFries, Ruth S; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Anderson, Liana O; Arai, Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-26

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation. PMID:16973742

  1. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders. PMID:21738448

  2. Soldier caste influences on candidate primer pheromone levels and juvenile hormone-dependent caste differentiation in workers of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Schmelz, Eric A; Scharf, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Caste systems and the division of labor they make possible are common underlying features of all social insects. Multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste composition in social insect colonies. Primer pheromones are one type of extrinsic caste-regulatory factor; they are chemical signaling molecules produced by certain colony members to impact developmental physiology of recipient nestmates. However, only limited evidence exists regarding primer pheromones and their actions in eusocial termites. In previous research we identified two soldier-produced terpenes, γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), as candidate primer pheromones of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. In the present study we tested hypotheses related to CAD and ALD action in recipient individuals. We examined the influences of terminally developed soldier termites on (1) CAD and ALD levels and (2) caste differentiation in developmentally totipotent workers. Our findings show CAD and ALD (respectively) are caste stimulatory and inhibitory components of chemical blends present in soldier heads, ALD levels increase significantly (10.9×) in workers only in the presence of soldiers, and soldiers can reduce developmental-hormone response thresholds of workers, presumably via ALD action. These findings provide novel evidence supporting that CAD and ALD are authentic caste-regulatory primer pheromones in Reticulitermes. PMID:21356212

  3. Ultrastructural studies of the mandibular glands of the minima, media and soldier ants of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel 1908) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2005-01-01

    The mandibular glands of Hymenoptera are structures associated with the mandibles and constitute part of the salivary glands system. Histological studies in workers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa revealed that this gland contains two portions: a secretory and a storage portion or reservoir. Both portions are connected by means of canaliculi. The object of the present work was the study of the ultratructure of the mandibular glands of minima, media and soldier ant of A. s. rubropilosa by TEM techniques. The glands, in the three castes studied, possess a reservoir, constituted by a simple pavementous epithelium surrounded by the cuticular intima and the secretory portion is constituted by cells of rounded shape. The secretory cells, mainly of minima and soldier, were rich in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The media worker and soldier presented a large number of mitochondria, of varying shape. Well-developed Golgi complexes were also present in the soldiers. The secretory cells in minima, media and soldier were provided with collecting intracellular canaliculi, which were linked to the reservoir through the extracellular portion. The cytoplasm of the canaliculi-forming cell was poor in organelles. In the individuals of the three castes of A. s. rubropilosa, the presence of lipid secretion granules suggested, beyond the other functions, also a possible pheromonal action. The different roles executed by the different insect castes are directly dependent on the glandular products and, consequently, on the secretory cellular characteristics. PMID:15935305

  4. Field testing of tele-operation versus shared and traded control for military assets: an evaluation involving real-time embedded simulation and soldier assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Jason S.; Alban, Jillyn; Cosenzo, Keryl; Johnson, Tony; Capstick, Erin

    2010-04-01

    Those applying autonomous technologies to military systems strive to enhance human-robot and robot-robot performance. Beyond performance, the military must be concerned with local area security. Characterized as "secure mobility", military systems must enable safe and effective terrain traversal concurrent with maintenance of situational awareness (SA). One approach to interleaving these objectives is supervisory control, with popular options being shared and traded control. Yet, with the scale and expense of military assets, common technical issues such as transition time and safeguarding become critical; especially as they interact with Soldier capabilities. Study is required to enable selection of control methods that optimize Soldier-system performance while safeguarding both individually. The current report describes a study utilizing experimental military vehicles and simulation systems enabling teleoperation and supervisory control. Automated triggering of SA demands was interspersed with a set of challenging driving maneuvers in a 'teleoperation-like' context to examine the influence of supervisory control on Soldier-system performance. Results indicated that direct application of supervisory control, while beneficial under particular demands, requires continued development to be perceived by Soldiers as useful. Future efforts should more tightly couple the information exchanged between the Soldier and system to overcome current challenges not addressed by standard control methods.

  5. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured. PMID:23802462

  6. Health Effects Associated With Geographical Area of Residence During the 1991 Gulf War: A Comparative Health Study of Iraqi Soldiers and Civilians

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Hamdan, Thamer A.; Grzybowski, Mary; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2011-01-01

    Context Although Iraqis sustained the gravest exposure conditions during the 1991 Gulf War (GW), little is known about the possible relationship between environmental exposures during the GW and long-term health in Iraqis. Objective To study the relationship between distance from Kuwait during the GW and somatic health among Iraqi Soldiers vs civilians. Methods A survey questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 742 GW veterans and 413 civilians in Iraq. The odds ratios were calculated for somatic disorders as a function of distance from Kuwait during the GW, as well as a self-reported environmental exposure index. Results Soldiers reported a significantly higher prevalence of somatic disorders as compared to civilians. Soldiers closest to Kuwait reported significantly more somatic disorders as compared to Soldiers deployed further away from Kuwait. Conclusion Iraqi GW veterans are at an increased risk of numerous somatic disorders. Soldiers are at an increased risk compared to civilians, suggesting that war-associated exposures are of etiologic relevance. PMID:21805460

  7. Orbiter Atlantis returns to KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Stairs are rolled to the forward opening of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft -- with its piggyback cargo, the orbiter Atlantis -- after it rolls to a stop at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Atlantis returns home after a 10-month stay in the Palmdale, CA, orbiter processing facility undergoing extensive inspections and modifications. They included several upgrades enabling it to support International Space Station missions, such as adding an external airlock for ISS docking missions and installing thinner, lighter thermal protection blankets for weight reduction which will allow it to haul heavier cargo. The flight from Palmdale included a fueling stop in Ft. Hood, TX, and overnight stay at Ft. Campbell, KY. Atlantis will undergo preparations in the Orbiter Processing Facility at KSC for its planned flight in June 1999.

  8. Sepsis, venous return, and teleology.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, R G

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of heart-circulation interaction is crucial to our ability to guide our patients through an episode of septic shock. Our knowledge has advanced greatly in the last one hundred years. There are, however, certain empirical phenomena that may lead us to question the wisdom of our prevailing treatment algorithm. Three extreme but iatrogenically possible haemodynamic states exist. Firstly, inappropriately low venous return; secondly, overzealous arteriolar constriction; and finally, misguided inotropy and chronotropy. Following an unsuccessful fluid challenge, it would be logical to first set the venous tone, then set the cardiac rate and contractility, and finally set the peripheral vascular resistance. It is hypothesized that a combination of dihydroergotamine, milrinone and esmolol should be superior to a combination of noradrenaline and dobutamine for surviving sepsis. PMID:25245463

  9. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  10. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  11. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  12. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    PubMed

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  13. The Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree": Emancipation or Genocide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reviewing the proposed Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree," a recent development in Brazilian Indian policy, this article asserts there is no evidence that this legislation was either proposed or petitioned by Indian people in their own self-interest. (RTS)

  14. American and Brazilian Children With Primary Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa; Guimarães, Milena Maria Moreira; Srivastava, Tarak; Alon, Uri Saggie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Considering the differences in location, socioeconomic background, and cultural background, the aim of this study was to try to identify possible factors associated with the increased incidence of urolithiasis by comparing American and Brazilian children with stones. Methods. Data of 222 American and 190 Brazilian children with urolithiasis were reviewed including age, gender, body mass index, imaging technique used (ultrasound and computed tomography), and 24-hour urine volume and chemistries. Results. There were no differences between age and gender at diagnosis. Brazilian children were leaner but in no population did obesity rate exceed that of the general population. Ultrasound was most commonly used to diagnose stones, even more so in Brazilians. Decreased urine flow was more common among Americans (P = .004), hypercalciuria among Brazilians (P = .001), and elevated Ca/citrate ratio among Americans (P = .009). There were no differences between the groups in the frequency of hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria, absorptive hyperoxaluria, and cystinuria. Conclusions. Despite some differences between the populations, the leading causes of urolithiasis among both were “oliguria,” hypercalciuria, and high Ca/citrate ratio. In neither country was obesity the reason for the increase in incidence of urolithiasis, nor was the use of computed tomography. The similarities between the 2 populations call for combining efforts in addressing the leading causes of pediatric urolithiasis.

  15. Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888-1982): doctor-soldier, physician and Antarctic expeditioner.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J H

    2011-09-01

    Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888-1982), a Scottish-born physician, contributed significantly to the health and heritage of Australia, his adopted land. Born on Speyside and educated in Aberdeen, he was a doctor-soldier in two World Wars and decorated with the Military Cross. Ingram was a Foundation Fellow (1938) of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and established one of the first specialist diabetic clinics in Australia, in Sydney in 1928. As an arachnologist, he published clinical descriptions of both surviving and fatal cases of envenomation by the Sydney funnel web spider, Atrax robustus. He founded the Kolling Institute of Medical Research at the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney where for two generations he was a leader in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. The international significance of his life's work relates to his service as the medical officer and biologist on the two British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expeditions (BANZARE) of 1929-1931, for which service he was awarded the Polar Medal and subsequent Clasp. Those expeditions secured, for the British Crown, what was to become the Australian Antarctic Territory, ceded to Australia by a British Order in Council of 24 August 1936. Sir Douglas Mawson, polar expeditioner and the leader of BANZARE, described Ingram as 'an ideal medical officer', one who in addition to his clinical skills and judgement, manifested courage and 'physical endurance and a full measure of camaraderie'. Ingram has no published obituary or biography. This précis records some details of his extraordinary life. PMID:21949929

  16. Alcohol and Other Risk Factors for Drowning among Male Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicole S.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Yore, Michelle M.; Senier, Laura; Williams, Jeffrey O.; Smith, Gordon S.; Theriault, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Background Risk factors for drowning are largely undocumented among military populations. Hypothesis Accident report narratives will provide important information about the role of alcohol use and other behaviors in drownings among active duty male U.S. Army soldiers. Methods Using a case series design, we describe drowning deaths reported to the U.S. Army Safety Center (1980–1997), documenting associated demographic factors, alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors. Results Drowning victims (n = 352) were disproportionately young, black, and single, with less time-in-service, and no college experience. Most drownings occurred off-duty (89%). Alcohol use was involved in at least 31% of the cases overall. Alcohol use was also associated with a 10-fold increase in reckless behavior (OR 9.6, 95% CI 4.5–20.7) and was most common among drownings in Europe (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.5–13.4). Most drownings occurred where no lifeguard was present (68%), but almost two-thirds occurred in the presence of others, with CPR initiated in less than one-third of these cases. Drownings involving minority victims were less likely to involve alcohol, but more likely to occur in unauthorized swimming areas. While most drownings did not involve violations of safety rules, over one-third of the cases involved some form of reckless behavior, particularly for those under age 21. Conclusions Intervention programs should be tailored to meet the needs of the demographic subgroups at highest risk since behavioral risk factors vary by race and age. CPR training and skills maintenance can improve survival rates. Narrative data are important for developing hypotheses and understanding risk factors for injuries. PMID:11763109

  17. Soldier experiments and assessments using SPEAR speech control system for UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Brian; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Ngia, Lester; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports on a Soldier Experiment performed by the Army Research Lab's Human Research Engineering Directorate (HRED) Field Element located at the Maneuver Center of Excellence, Ft. Benning, and a Limited Use Assessment conducted by the Marine Corps Forces Pacific Command Experimentation Center (MEC) at Camp Pendleton evaluating the effectiveness of using speech commands to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle. SPEAR, developed by Think-A-Move, Ltd., provides speech control of UGVs. SPEAR detects user speech in the ear canal with an earpiece containing an in-ear microphone. The system design provides up to 30 dB of passive noise reduction, enabling it to work well in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, using external microphones, fail; it also utilizes a proprietary speech recognition engine. SPEAR has been integrated with iRobot's PackBot 510 with FasTac Kit, and with Multi-Robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU), developed by SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific. These integrated systems allow speech to supplement the hand-controller for multi-modal control of different UGV functions simultaneously. HRED's experiment measured the impact of SPEAR on reducing the cognitive load placed on UGV Operators and the time to complete specific tasks. Army NCOs and Officer School Candidates participated in this experiment, which found that speech control was faster than manual control to complete tasks requiring menu navigation, as well as reducing the cognitive load on UGV Operators. The MEC assessment examined speech commands used for two different missions: Route Clearance and Cordon and Search; participants included Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technicians and Combat Engineers. The majority of the Marines thought it was easier to complete the mission scenarios with SPEAR than with only using manual controls, and that using SPEAR improved their situational awareness. Overall results of these Assessments are reported in the paper, along with possible

  18. The Person-Event Data Environment: leveraging big data for studies of psychological strengths in soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Vie, Loryana L.; Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Lester, Paul B.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures. PMID:24379795

  19. The Person-Event Data Environment: leveraging big data for studies of psychological strengths in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Vie, Loryana L; Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Seligman, Martin E P

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures. PMID:24379795

  20. Bigger Helpers in the Ant Cataglyphis bombycina: Increased Worker Polymorphism or Novel Soldier Caste?

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Mathieu; Maicher, Vincent; Peeters, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms by which development favors or constrains the evolution of new phenotypes are incompletely understood. Polyphenic species may benefit from developmental plasticity not only regarding ecological advantages, but also potential for evolutionary diversification. For instance, the repeated evolution of novel castes in ants may have been facilitated by the existence of alternative queen and worker castes and their respective developmental programs. Material and Methods Cataglyphis bombycina is exceptional in its genus because winged queens and size-polymorphic workers occur together with bigger individuals having saber-shaped mandibles. We measured seven body parts in more than 150 individuals to perform a morphometric analysis and assess the developmental origin of this novel phenotype. Results Adults with saber-shaped mandibles differ from both workers and queens regarding the size of most body parts. Their relative growth rates are identical to workers for some pairs of body parts, and identical to queens for other pairs of body parts; critical sizes differ in all cases. Conclusions Big individuals are a third caste, i.e. soldiers, not major workers. Novel traits such as elongated mandibles are combined with a mix of queen and worker growth rates. We also reveal the existence of a dimorphism in the queen caste (microgynes and macrogynes). We discuss how novel phenotypes can evolve more readily in the context of an existing polyphenism. Both morphological traits and growth rules from existing queen and worker castes can be recombined, hence mosaic phenotypes are more likely to be viable. In C. bombycina, such a mosaic phenotype appears to function both for defense (saber-shaped mandibles) and fat storage (big abdomen). Recycling of developmental programs may have contributed to the morphological diversity and ecological success of ants. PMID:24404196